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AUD 610: Audit and Assurance Services

STATUTORY AND PROFESSIONAL


RESPONSIBILITIES
Prepared by :
Azmiah Abdul Razak

Auditors responsibilities are guided by legislations


and professional by-laws...
The main documents supporting
auditors in carrying their fiduciary
duties in Malaysia are:
Companies Act 1965; and
MIA By-Laws (on
professional ethics, conduct
and practice) of the
Malaysian Institute of
Accountants.

AUD 610: Audit and Assurance Services

Key provisions in Companies Act, 1965 guiding


auditors to perform their duties.
In the Companies Act, 1965, several provisions relating
to auditors duties and responsibilities are stated,
namely:
Qualification (Sec.8 and 9)
Appointment, removal and resignation (Sec.172)
Duties (Sec.174 (1) (3))
Power or rights of auditors (Sec.174 (4) (9))
Remuneration (Sec.172 (16))

AUD 610: Audit and Assurance Services

QUALIFICATION Sec.8 & 9, Companies Act 1965


Under Sec.8 & 9, companies are required to appoint auditor
that is qualified, having necessary independent, integrity and
objectivity.
Sec.8 states that companies have to appoint an approved
auditor.
What qualifies approved auditor?
Approved by the MoF to act as auditor.
Good character and competent to perform duties.
A professional accountancy qualification with adequate
practical training and a MIA member (CA).
Audit firm that is registered with CCM - can be in the form
of sole-prop or partnerships.
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QUALIFICATION Sec.8 & 9, Companies Act 1965


Subsequently, auditor must remain independent,
integrity and objectivity in performing their duties.
Hence, sec.9 (1) prohibits auditors to be appointed, if:
He is not an approved auditor.
Indebted to the company for more than RM2,500
He is an officer of the company (who works in the
company within the preceeding 12 months).
A shareholder or spouse being shareholder of a
corporation.
He maintains the register of members or the
register of holders of debentures of the company.
(Please check related sections in Companies Act)
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APPOINTMENT, REMOVAL & RESIGNATION


Sec.172, Companies Act 1965
Appointment:

Sec.172(1): Power of Directors to appoint auditor


before 1st general meeting, otherwise members
entitled to appoint in general meeting.
Sec.172(2): Company shall appoint auditor at each
AGM. Term of office starts from appointment at
present AGM until conclusion of next AGM. Company
must at every AGM appoint and re-appoint auditor.
Sec.172(3): Power to Directors to appoint to fill casual
vacancy (termination of business, winding up),
exception to resignation/ dismissal.
Sec.172 (10): Power to CCM to appoint auditor after
dismissal/ removal if company does not appoint new
auditor on application in writing of member of the
company.
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APPOINTMENT, REMOVAL & RESIGNATION


Sec.172, Companies Act 1965
Dismissal :

Sec.172(4): To be done at general meeting of which


special notice of ordinary resolution to remove auditor
is issued.
Sec.172(5): On receipt of special notice by company, it
must send a copy of special notice to present auditor,
CCM. Auditor may within 7 days of receiving special
notice make representation in writing to company
request representation be sent by company to all
members entitled to receive notice of general meeting.
Sec.172 (8 &10): Company shall inform in writing of
removal of auditor to the CCM. The power to CCM to
appoint auditor after the dismissal/removal of auditor
if the company does not appoint another auditor.
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APPOINTMENT, REMOVAL & RESIGNATION


Sec.172, Companies Act 1965
Resignation :
Sec.172 (14): Auditor may resign if he is
not the sole auditor of company, at general
meeting of company.
Sec.172 (15): Auditor shall give notice of
resignation to Directors. The Directors will
arrange for new appointment and
resignation only effective on appointment
of another auditor.
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APPOINTMENT, REMOVAL & RESIGNATION


Sec.172, Companies Act 1965
172A: Where an auditor has made written representations to
the company pursuant to subsection 172(5) or if an auditor
gives notice to the directors of the company of his desire to
resign as auditor of the company pursuant to subsection
172(15), he shall within seven days of the submission of the
written representations or the submission of his notice of
resignation, submit a copy of the written representations or
his written explanation of his resignation, to the Registrar
and, to the Stock Exchange where the company is a company
whose shares or debentures are listed on the official list of a
Stock Exchange as defined in the Securities Industry Act
1983.

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DUTIES & POWERS OF AUDITORS


Sec.174, Companies Act 1965
Duties :
Sec.174 (1): To report to the members on the accounts and
the companys accounting and other records relating to
accounts in general meeting.
Sec.174 (2): To express opinion in his report:
True and fair view of accounts of the company and
the consolidated accounts.
Books, records, register properly kept
Disclose names of subsidiaries he is not auditor
Duty to report defects, irregularities in accounts

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DUTIES & POWERS OF AUDITORS


Sec.174, Companies Act 1965

Duties :
To ensure all relevant information and
explanation obtained
Ensure proper accounting records are kept
Ensure returns received from branch adequate
Ensure consolidation procedures, methods used
by holding, subsidiary appropriate
Attend general meeting, to receive all notice
relating general meeting which concern auditor
Report particulars of deficiency, failure and
shortcoming.
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DUTIES & POWERS OF AUDITORS


Sec.174, Companies Act 1965
Power or Rights of Auditors :
Sec.174 (4) (9)
To access books and records at all reasonable times,
To gain necessary information and explanation when
performing his duties,
To attend general meeting, to receive all notice relating general
meeting which concern auditor,
To make written representation when company dismiss him as
auditor,
To address shareholders at AGM,
To attach Auditors Report to Annual Report, to be read in
general meeting.
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For the purpose of subsection (8A) :


(a) a company is presumed, unless the contrary is
established, to be controlled by a public company if the
public company is entitled to exercise or control the
exercise of not less than fifteen per centum of votes
attached to the voting shares of the company; and
(b) a serious offence involving fraud or dishonesty
means an offence that is punishable by imprisonment for a
term that is not less than two years or the value of the
assets derived or likely to be derived or any, loss suffered
by the company, member or debenture holder from the
commission of such an offence exceeds two hundred and
fifty thousand ringgit and includes offences under sections
364, 364A, 366 and 368..
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DUTIES & POWERS OF AUDITORS


Sec.174, Companies Act 1965
Section 174(8A) Amendment 2007 :
If an auditor in the course of performance of his duties
as an auditor of a public company or a company
controlled by a public company, is of the opinion that a
serious offence involving fraud or dishonesty is being
or has been committed against the company or this Act
by officers of the company, he shall forthwith report
the matter in writing to the Registrar.

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DUTIES & POWERS OF AUDITORS


Sec.174, Companies Act 1965
Section 172 (16) : Remunerations
The fees and expenses of an auditor of a company:
If auditor appointed in general meeting shall be fixed by
the company at general meeting, or if so authorise by
members, by the Directors.
If auditor appointed by Directors or by CCM shall be fixed
by the Directors or CCM respectively.

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MIA By-Laws
The Revised By-Laws (On Professional Ethics, Conduct and
Practice) of the Malaysian Institute of Accountants are issued
by the Council of the Malaysian Institute of Accountants come
into effect on 1 January 2011
All professional bodies impose a code of conduct on their members.
This code of ethics provides a set of principles and rules that offer
guidance to members.
Ethics set of moral principles, values or acceptable behaviour
In Malaysia, MIA issued the By-Laws on professional conduct and
ethics (called MIA By-Law [on Professional Conduct and Ethics])
Provide standard of conduct in daily professional life
Important for gaining public confidence in auditors services
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MIA By-Laws
Part I
By Laws on
Professional Ethics

(A)
General Application
[Sec.100 150]

Part II
By Laws on Professional
Conduct & Practice

(C)
Professional Accountants
in Business
[Sec.300 - 350]

(B)
Professional Accountants
on Public Practice
[Sec. 200 - 291]
AUD 610: Audit and Assurance Services

(A)
All Professional
Accountants
[Sec.400 420]

(B)
Members in Public
Practice
[Sec.500 550]
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PROFESSIONAL ETHICS
PART A GENERAL APPLICATION
100 Fundamental Principles & Conceptual Framework
100.1 Fundamental Principles
100.2 Conceptual Framework Approach
100.8 Threats and Safeguards
100.13 Ethical Conflict
110 Integrity
120 Objectivity
130 Professional Competence & Due Care
140 Confidentiality
150 Professional Behaviour
150.1 Professional Behaviour
150.2 Advertising, Marketing and Promotions
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MIA By-Law Part A - General Application


Fundamental Principles & Conceptual Framework
All Prof. Accountant (accountant) shall comply with fundamental
principles (integrity, objectivity, professional competence & due care,
confidentiality & prof. behavior) when performing their duties.
In certain circumstances, there will be exposure of specific threats in the
nature of engagement/work assignment which require different
mechanism of safeguards. By-Law Conceptual Framework requires
accountant to identify, evaluate & address threats to comply with
fundamental principles. This conceptual framework approach will assist
accountant to comply their ethical requirement in meeting their
responsibilities to act in public interest.
Threats can occur in broad range of circumstances & relationships.
Whether the threats can be compromise or not, it gives effect to
accountant fundamental principles. Safeguards are actions/other
measures that may eliminate/reduce threats to an acceptable level.
Ethical conflict resolution arise when a accountant may be required to
resolve a conflict in complying with the fundamental principles.
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MIA By-Law (Professional Ethics)


INTEGRITY
Sec.110
Straight
forward/Honest
in all prof. &
business
relationship

Fair dealings/
Truthfulness

Avoid
prepare/attest/associate
with fraud or
misleading information/
documentation

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MIA By-Law (Professional Ethics)

OBJECTIVITY
Sec.120
Avoid
conflict of
interest

No bias
Not to
compromise with
professional or
business
judgments due to
undue influence
of others.

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MIA By-Law (Professional Ethics)


Appropriate
training &
supervision to
subordinates

Maintain prof.
knowledge &
skills

PROFESSIONAL
COMPETENCE
& DUE CARE
Sec.130
Due care &
diligent at
all time

Attain &
maintain
competency
Act diligently
according to
applicable prof. &
technical standards
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MIA By-Law (Professional Ethics)


CONFIDENTIALITY
Sec.140

Not to disclose info


to 3rd parties
without proper &
specific authority

Disclosure allow IF:


- Permitted by law
- Authorise by clients
- Prof.duty/right to disclose

Not use info for


self, personal or
3rd parties

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Continues
confidentiality until
after end of business
relationship

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MIA By-Law (Professional Ethics)


Honest &
truthful offer/
services

Comply with
relevant
laws & rules

Professional
behaviour

Avoid any
action that
discredits the
profession

PROFESSIONAL
BEHAVIOUR
Sec.150

Relevant &
applicable
legislations

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Advertising,
marketing,
promotions

Prof.
dignified &
good taste

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PROFESSIONAL ETHICS
PART B PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTANTS ON PUBLIC PRACTICE
200 Threats & Safeguards
210 Professional Appointment
Client Acceptance
Engagement Acceptance
Change of Professional
Appointment
220 Conflicts of Interest
230 Second Opinions
240 Fees & Remuneration
Contingent Fees
Referrals
Commission
Tenders

250 Marketing Public Practice


Services
Advertising
Publicity
Solicitation
260 Gifts & Hospitality
270 Custody of Client Assets
280 Objectivity All Services
290 Independence (Audit &
Review Engagement)
Indep. in Mind
Indep. in Appearance

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PROFESSIONAL ETHICS
PART B PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTANTS ON PUBLIC PRACTICE

200 It describe how conceptual framework in Part A applies to


certain situations to accountant in public practice. They shall not
engage in any business, occupation or activity that will weaken
integrity, objectivity or good reputation of the profession.

Threats & Safeguards


Threats can occur in broad range of circumstances &
relationships. Whether the threats can be compromise or not,
it gives effect to accountant fundamental principles.
Threats fall into one or more categories : self-interest, selfreview, advocacy, familiarity and intimidation.
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PROFESSIONAL ETHICS
PART B PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTANTS ON PUBLIC PRACTICE
THREATS
Self-interest threat the threat that a financial or other interest will
inappropriately influence the accountant judgement or behaviour; (E.g:
Having a financial interest in a clients business)
Self-review threat the threat that an accountant will not appropriately
evaluate the results of a previous judgment made or service performed by
the accountant, or by another individual within the firm or employing
organization, on which the accountant will rely when forming a judgement
as part of providing a current service; (E.g: Auditing financial statements
prepared by the firm)
Advocacy threat the threat that an accountant will promote a clients or
employers position to the point that the accountant objectivity is
compromised; (E.g: Dealing/being a promoter of shares or other securities
in a client)
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PROFESSIONAL ETHICS
PART B PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTANTS ON PUBLIC PRACTICE

THREATS
Familiarity threat the threat that due to a long or close
relationship with a client or employer, a accountant will be
too sympathetic to their interests or too accepting of their
work; (E.g: An audit team member having family at the client)
Intimidation threat the threat that a accountant will be
deterred from acting objectively because of actual or
perceived pressures, including attempts to exercise undue
influence over the professional accountant; (E.g: Threats of
replacing application accounting principles due to
disagreement)

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PROFESSIONAL ETHICS
PART B PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTANTS ON PUBLIC PRACTICE

SAFEGUARDS
Safeguards are actions/other measures that may eliminate or
reduce threats to an acceptable level.
Two categories of safeguard with examples:
Safeguards created by the profession, legislation or
regulation
Safeguards within work environment
Firm-wide safeguards
Engagement specific safeguards
Safeguards within clients system & procedures : accountant
can also rely on safeguards which client has implemented
depending nature of work engagement.
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PROFESSIONAL ETHICS
PART B PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTANTS ON PUBLIC PRACTICE

Safeguards are actions/other measures that may eliminate


or reduce threats to an acceptable level.
Two categories of safeguard with examples:
Safeguards created by the profession, legislation or
regulation

Educational training and experience requirements for entry into the profession
Continuing professional development requirements
Corporate governance regulations
Professional standards
Professional or regulatory monitoring and disciplinary procedures
External review by a legally empowered third party of the reports, returns,
communication or information produced by a professional accountant
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PROFESSIONAL ETHICS
PART B PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTANTS ON PUBLIC PRACTICE
SAFEGUARDS

Safeguards within the work environment - firm wide


Leadership of the firm that stress important of
fundamental principles & public interest
Policies & procedures implement/monitor quality control
for audit engagement
Documented policies identify threats & safeguards
Using different partners/audit team in reporting lines
Timely communication within partners & prof. staff
appropriate education & training for audit
policies/procedures/compliance

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PROFESSIONAL ETHICS
PART B PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTANTS ON PUBLIC PRACTICE
SAFEGUARDS

Safeguards within the work environment engagement specific


Involving an additional professional accountant to review the work
done or otherwise advise as necessary
Consulting an independent third party, such as a committee of
independent directors, a professional regulatory body or another
professional accountant (MIA, AG, MOF, SC, BNM, etc)
Rotating senior personnel
Discussing ethical issues with those in charge of client governance
Disclosing to those charged with governance the nature of services
provided and extent of fees charged
Involving another firm to perform or re-perform part of the
engagement

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PROFESSIONAL ETHICS
PART B PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTANTS ON PUBLIC PRACTICE

SAFEGUARDS within clients system & procedures:


Accountant can also rely on safeguards which client has implemented
depending nature of work engagement, eg:
The client requires persons other than management to ratify or
approve the appointment of a firm to perform an engagement.
The client has competent employees with experience and
seniority to make managerial decisions.
The client has implemented internal procedures that ensure
objective choices in commissioning non-assurance engagements.
The client has a corporate governance structure that provides
appropriate oversight and communications regarding the firms
services.

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PROFESSIONAL ETHICS
PART B PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTANTS ON PUBLIC PRACTICE

210 PROFESSIONAL APPOINTMENT


Client Acceptance
Understand client business-avoid illegal issues
Check potential threats before accepting new client integrity
Evaluate significance threats & apply safeguards.
Impossible to eliminate/reduce threats decline
engagement
Review acceptance decision for recurring clients.

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PROFESSIONAL ETHICS
PART B PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTANTS ON PUBLIC PRACTICE

210 PROFESSIONAL APPOINTMENT


Engagement Acceptance
Accept services that accountant competent to
perform professional behaviour & due care
Evaluate threats & apply safeguards, if any.
Eliminate/reduce threats to an acceptable level.
Determine the reliability on work of expert if
require assistance from them based on the
expertise, reputation, professionalism, resources
& ethical standards.
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PROFESSIONAL ETHICS
PART B PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTANTS ON PUBLIC PRACTICE
210 PROFESSIONAL APPOINTMENT

Change of Professional Appointment


If require replacement communicate with existing accountant:
Acquire facts about client business.
Obtain reasons why they refuse to engage/continue/accept the
engagement
Evaluate significant threats & apply safeguards
If existing accountant is bound for confidentiality write in to potential
client for permission to discuss with existing accountant.
If permission is refused propose accountant shall decline the
appointment.
If permission is obtained - the existing accountant shall comply with
relevant regulations to communicate with propose accountant honest
If existing accountant refuse to communicate, propose accountant need to
obtain information for possible threats from third party inquiries such as
senior management or those charged of clients governance.

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PROFESSIONAL ETHICS
PART B PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTANTS ON PUBLIC PRACTICE

220 CONFLICTS OF INTEREST


Accountant should take reasonable steps to identify
circumstances which could lead to conflicts of interest
threats to objectivity & confidentiality.
Eg. Conflicts of interest:
Compete directly with clients business
JV or personal arrangement with clients competitor
Clients business in conflict/dispute in transactions
If conflict of interest poses more than one threat &
fundamental principles & cannot be eliminate to an
acceptable level, accountant shall not accept
engagement or resign.
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PROFESSIONAL ETHICS
PART B PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTANTS ON PUBLIC PRACTICE
230 SECOND OPINIONS

Situations where an accountant is asked to provide a second opinion (on the


application of accounting, auditing, reporting or other standards or principles) to
specific circumstances/transactions by/on behalf of a company/entity that is not
an existing client.
May create threats if second opinion is not based on the same level of facts that
were made available to the existing accountant /is based on inadequate evidence.
The existence and significance of any threat will depend on the circumstances of
the request and all the other available facts and assumptions relevant to the
expression of a professional judgment. Accountant shall evaluate significant
threats when asked to provide such opinion. Apply safeguards when necessary to
eliminate them or reduce them to an acceptable level.
Seek client permission to contact the existing accountant - describe limitations of
opinion to client and provide existing accountant with copy of opinion.
If the client does not permit communication with existing accountant - to consider
whether all circumstances takes into account.
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PROFESSIONAL ETHICS
PART B PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTANTS ON PUBLIC PRACTICE

240 FEES & REMUNERATION


Fees charged for assurance engagement should be a fair to
reflect amount of work performed base on:
Skill and knowledge required for the work involved.
Level of training and experience on the assignment
Time frame of work.
Work of responsibility and urgency the work.
No member shall mislead his client by charging unrealistically
low fee resulting compromised (jeopardize) professional
standards/quality

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PROFESSIONAL ETHICS
PART B PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTANTS ON PUBLIC PRACTICE

240 FEES & REMUNERATION


Contingent fees
Not allow for assurance services, but allow for certain
types of non-assurance services.
Referral fees or Commissions
Accepting and paying referral fees or commissions may
give rise to self interest threats to objectivity and
professional competence & due care.
Accountants not allowed to accept or pay referral fees or
commissions unless acceptable safeguards can be put in
place.
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PROFESSIONAL ETHICS
PART B PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTANTS ON PUBLIC PRACTICE
250 MARKETING PUBLIC PRACTICE SERVICE
Advertising, Publicity and Solicitation (APS)
Advertising is the communication to the public of facts about
a professional account with a view of procuring profession
business.
Publicity is the communication to the public of facts about a
professional accountant.
Advertising and Publicity use of various media such as
magazines, radio to communicate favourable information
about the good and service of the firm.
Solicitation can be defined as various means that accounting
firms use to engage new clients other than accepting new
clients that approach the firm. Examples include taking
potential client to lunch to explain firms services.
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PROFESSIONAL ETHICS
PART B PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTANTS ON PUBLIC PRACTICE

250 MARKETING PUBLIC PRACTICE SERVICE


Advertising or Marketing Services
Threats may exist when the accountant obtain new work through advertising/
marketing if the promotion is inconsistent with principle. He shall be honest and
truthful. If he is in doubt whether a proposed form of advertising/marketing is
appropriate, request guidance from the Institute.
Tenders
Threats may exist if the accountant enter in a public advertisement/tender
submission for offering professional services. Accountant shall not respond to
advertisements to tender for professional work unless he has established
safeguards to eliminate the threats or reduce them to an acceptable level.
If the appointment may need replacement of another accountant, state in the
submission/tender before acceptance the need to contact existing accountant so
that inquiries be made as to whether there are professional reasons why the
appointment should not be accepted. If the submission/tender is successful,
contact the existing accountant in accordance with provisions in Sec.210.
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PROFESSIONAL ETHICS
PART B PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTANTS ON PUBLIC PRACTICE
260 GIFTS & HOSPITALITY
If gifts are accepted - Create self interest threat to
objectivity
If gifts are made in public - Create intimidation threat
Gifts can be accepted if made in the normal course of
business without specific intent to influence accountants
decision making.
270 CUSTODY OF CLIENT ASSETS
Keep separately from personal or firms assets.
Use assets for purpose they are intended.
Be ready to account for the assets, income, dividends
generated.
Comply with all relevant laws and regulations.
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PROFESSIONAL ETHICS
PART B PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTANTS ON PUBLIC PRACTICE
290 INDEPENDENCE (Audit & Review Engagement)

Professional independence: Attitude of mind characterized by integrity and


objective approach to professional work. Accountant should be & be seen to be
free from any conflict of interest.
Independence in audit means taking unbiased viewpoint in audit report, audit
tests and evaluation of results. Audit Report will be using by users to make
investment decisions.
Two criteria for auditor to be & be seen as independence:
Independence in mind The state of mind that permits the expression of a
conclusion without being affected by influences that compromise professional
judgement, thereby, allowing an individual to act with integrity, and exercise
objectivity and professional scepticism.
Independence in appearance The avoidance of facts and circumstances that
are so significant that a reasonable and informed third party, having
knowledge of all relevant information, including safeguards applied, would
reasonably conclude a firms, or a member of the assurance teams, integrity,
objectivity or professional scepticism had been compromised.
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PROFESSIONAL ETHICS
PART B PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTANTS ON PUBLIC PRACTICE

290 INDEPENDENCE (Audit & Review Engagement)


Application of independence to specific situation:
Financial interests
Loans & guarantees
Business relationships
Family & personal relationships
Employment with an audit client
Temporary staffs assignment
Recent service with an audit client
Serving as a Director or officer of an audit client
Long association of senior personnel of an audit client
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AREAS OF CONTROVERSY (the principal complaints)


Multiple Services
The provision of multiple services may affect independence, especially small audit
firm. For the clients, they are comfort to deal with only one person in charge and
considered audit firm as one stop centre for them.
For small firm, the same staff will do the audit and accounting and therefore may
affect the independence. Working paper should be well documented and should be
reviewed by engagement partner.
For big firm may not have this problem as they would have different department
for accounting and auditing.

Low-balling
The practice of charging special rate for auditing job and then obtain other services
known as low balling. This situation quite common and the independence here is
questionable.

Opinion Shopping
Client get second opinion from the other auditors and sometimes put pressure on
current auditors. To solve, may be through communication between the two
auditors.
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PROFESSIONAL ETHICS
PART C PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTANTS IN BUSINESS

300 Introduction
310 Potential Conflicts
320 Preparation & Reporting of Information
330 Acting with Sufficient Expertise
340 Financial Interests
350 Inducements
(Please refer MIA By-Law for details)
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PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT & PRACTICE


PART A ALL PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTANTS

400 Induction Course Upon Admission


410 Continuing Professional Education
420 Description & Designatory Letters
430 Public Practice Programme
440 Attention to Correspondence & Enquiries
(Please refer MIA By-Law for details)

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PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT & PRACTICE


PART B MEMBERS IN PUBLIC PRACTICE

500 Method of Practice


510 Professional Indemnity Insurance
520 Death or Incapacity of a Sole Practitioner
530 Client Documents & exercise of Lien
540 Referrals
550 Quality Assurance & Practice Review
(Please refer MIA By-Law for details)

THE END
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