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WIRELESS MOBILE CHARGER


A B-Tech Project submitted in partial fulfillment
For the Degree of B. Tech in EE
Of
MAULANA ABUL KALAM AZAD UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY

By

Mr. Arnab Bhuyia (Roll No.: 10701612011)


Mr. Sandipan Das (Roll No.: 10701612044)
Mr. Shibeswar Marik (Roll No.: 10701612049)
Under the supervision of
Miss. Subhra Jana
Assistant Prof.
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT, KOLAGHAT
(Affiliated to MAKAUT formerly known as WBUT)
Kolaghat-721171, West Bengal, India

DEC 2015

Certificate of Recommendation

This is to certify that the project entitled Wireless Mobile Charger submitted by Mr.Sandipan Das(Roll No
10701612044), Mr.Arnab Bhuyia(Roll No 10701612011), Mr. Shibeswar Marik(Roll No 10701612049) for
the award of Bachelor of Technology in Electrical Engineering at College of Engineering and Management,
Kolaghat under Maulana Abul Kalam Azad University of Technology (formerly known as West Bengal
University of Technology) is absolutely based upon his/her own work under the supervision of Prof. Subhra
Jana and that neither his/her project nor any part of the project has been submitted for any Degree/Diploma or
any other academic award anywhere before.

Supervisor: _________________________________
Miss. Subhra Jana
(Asst. Professor)

Certificate of Approval*

The foregoing project entitled Wireless Mobile Charger is hereby approved as a creditable study of B.Tech in
EE and presented in a manner satisfactory to warrant its acceptance as a prerequisite to the degree for which it
has been submitted. It is understood that by this approval the undersigned do not necessarily endorse or approve
any statement made, opinion expressed or conclusion there in but approve this thesis only for the purpose for
which it is submitted.

Committee for
Evaluation of the Thesis

: _________________________________

: ________________________________

: _________________________________

* Only in case the project is approved.

Contents
Certificate of Recommendation....................................................................................................... 2
Certificate of Approval*................................................................................................................... 3
Table 4.1 Transmitter Components 18............5

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Abstract.......................................................................................................................................... 6
Acknowledgement........................................................................................................................... 7
Chapter-1........................................................................................................................................ 8
1.1 Introduction of the project..................................................................................................... 8
1.2 Objective................................................................................................................................ 9
1.3 Introduction to the report....................................................................................................... 9
Chapter 2...................................................................................................................................... 10
Inductance and Inductive Coupling............................................................................................ 10
2.1 Introduction...................................................................................................................... 10
2.2 Inductive Coupling............................................................................................................ 10
2.3 Inductive Charging............................................................................................................ 11
2.4 Uses of Inductive Charging and Inductive Coupling..........................................................11
2.5 Advantages and Drawbacks of Inductive Charging...........................................................11
Chapter 3...................................................................................................................................... 12
Transmitter & Receiver Circuits.................................................................................................. 12
3.1 Introduction...................................................................................................................... 12
3.2 Transmitter circuit............................................................................................................. 12
3.3 Receiver Circuit................................................................................................................. 12
Chapter 4...................................................................................................................................... 14
Design and Implementation of Our Project................................................................................14
4.1 Introduction...................................................................................................................... 14
4.2 Transmitter Module........................................................................................................... 14
4.3 The D.C. Power Source...................................................................................................... 14
4.4 The Oscillator Circuit......................................................................................................... 14
4.5 The Transmitter Coil.......................................................................................................... 15
4.6 Components Used in the Transmitter Module...................................................................16
4.7 Receiver Module............................................................................................................... 17
4.8 Receiver Coil..................................................................................................................... 17
4.9 Rectifier............................................................................................................................ 17
4.10 Voltage Regulator IC....................................................................................................... 18
4.11 Components Used in the Receiver Module......................................................................19
Chapter 5...................................................................................................................................... 20
Possible Applications of Our Project........................................................................................... 20
5.1 Introduction...................................................................................................................... 20
5.2 Charging Mid-range Power Devices..................................................................................20
5.3 Charging Electric Vehicles................................................................................................. 20

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5.4 Benefits of the Technology................................................................................................ 20
5.5 Safety Features................................................................................................................. 21
5.6 Commercial Possibility...................................................................................................... 21
Chapter 6...................................................................................................................................... 22
Discussions and Conclusions..................................................................................................... 22
6.1 Discussions....................................................................................................................... 22
6.2 Conclusion........................................................................................................................ 22
References.................................................................................................................................... 23

List of Figures
Figure 2-A Inductive Coupling with Four Component Fluxes........................................................................12
Figure 3-A Functional block diagram of Power Transmitter...........................................................................14
Figure 3-B Functional block diagram of a Power Receiver............................................................................15
Figure 4-A Block Diagram of the Transmitter Module.................................................................................. 16
Figure 4-B The Modified Royer Oscillator................................................................................................ 17
Figure 4-C Transmitter Module.............................................................................................................. 17
Figure 4-D Transmitter Circuit............................................................................................................... 18
Figure 4-E Block Diagram of the Receiver Module..................................................................................... 19
Figure 4-F Diode Bridge Rectifier........................................................................................................... 20
Figure 4-G Receiver Module................................................................................................................. 20
Figure 4-H Receiver Circuit.................................................................................................................. 21

List of Tables
Table 4.1 Transmitter Components 18
Table 4.2 Receiver Components . 21

Abstract
In this research, an innovative design of a wireless battery charger for portable electronic devices is proposed.
The wireless power transfer is implemented through the magnetic coupling between power transmitters which is
connected to the grid and a power receiver which is integrated inside the load device. An innovative receiver
architecture which heavily improves the power conversion efficiency is presented. A laboratory prototype of the

proposed wireless battery charger has been realized and tested to evaluate system performances. Over the entire
range of operating conditions the receiver efficiency lies within the 96.5% to99.9% range.

Acknowledgement

I would like to express my deep sense of gratitude towards Miss Subhra Jana Assistant Professor, Department
of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering and Management, Kolaghat for her active guidance,
invaluable help, constant support and constructive suggestions during the course of my work.

I wish to express my gratitude to S.PGhosh, Prof. & Head, Department of Electrical Engineering, College of
Engineering and Management, Kolaghat, for his valuable advice and help to do the project.
Special thanks are reserved for Prof. (Dr.) S.N Bhadra and Prof. (Dr.) N.N Jana for their generous help and
Cooperation. Above all, I would like to thanks all the Professors, staff of my Department with gratitude.
I shall remain ever grateful to my parents for their continuous encouragement and support. Finally I remain
indebted to my friends for their help & cooperation.

Date: 26.11.2015
Thanking you,

Mr. Arnab Bhuiya


Roll No.-10701612011
Mr. Sandipban Das
Roll No.-10701612044
Mr. Shibeswar Marik
Roll No. - 10701612049
B-Tech 7th Semester

Chapter-1
1.1 Introduction of the project
Cellular telephone technology became commercially available in the 1980s. Since then, it has been like a
snowball rolling downhill, ever increasing in the number of users and the speed at which the technology
advances. When the cellular phone was first implemented, it was enormous in size by todays standards. This
reason is two-fold; the battery had to be large, and the circuits themselves were large. The circuits of that time
used in electronic devices were made from off the shelf integrated circuits (IC), meaning that usually every part
of the circuit had its own package. These packages were also very large. These large circuit boards required
large amounts of power, which meant bigger batteries. This reliance on power was a major contributor to the
reason these phones were so big.

Through the years, technology has allowed the cellular phone to shrink not only the size of the ICs, but also the
batteries. New combinations of materials have made possible the ability to produce batteries that not only are
smaller and last longer, but also can be recharged easily. However, as technology has advanced and made our
phones smaller and easier to use, we still have one of the original problems: we must plug the phone into the
wall in order to recharge the battery. Most people accept this as something that will never change, so they might
as well accept it and carry around either extra batteries with them or a charger. Either way, its just something
extra to weigh a person down. There has been research done in the area of shrinking the charger in order to
make it easier to carry with the phone. One study in particular went on to find the lower limit of charger size.
But as small as the charger becomes, it still needs to be plugged in to a wall outlet. How can something be
called wireless when the object in question is required to be plugged in, even though periodically?
Now, think about this; what if it didnt have to be that way? Most people dont realize that there is an abundance
of energy all around us at all times. We are being bombarded with energy waves every second of the day. Radio
and television towers, satellites orbiting earth, and even the cellular phone antennas are constantly transmitting
energy. What if there was a way we could harvest the energy that is being transmitted and use it as a source of
power? If it could be possible to gather the energy and store it, we could potentially use it to power other
circuits. In the case of the cellular phone, this power could be used to recharge a battery that is constantly being
depleted. The potential exists for cellular phones, and even more complicated devices - i.e. pocket organizers,
person digital assistants (PDAs), and even notebook computers - to become completely wireless.
Of course, right now this is all theoretical. There are many complications to be dealt with. The first major
obstacle is that it is not a trivial problem to capture energy from the air. We will use a concept called energy
harvesting. Energy harvesting is the idea of gathering transmitted energy and either using it to power a circuit or
storing it for later use. The concept needs an efficient antenna along with a circuit capable of converting
alternating-current (AC) voltage to direct-current (DC) voltage. The efficiency of an antenna, as being discussed
here, is related to the shape and impedance of the antenna and the impedance of the circuit. If the two
impedances arent matched then there is reflection of the power back into the antenna meaning that the circuit
was unable to receive all the available power. Matching of the impedances means that the impedance of the
antenna is the complex conjugate of the impedance of the circuit. The energy harvesting circuit will be
discussed in Chapter 3.
Another thing to think about is what would happen when you get away from major metropolitan areas. Since
the energy we are trying to harness is being added to the atmosphere from devices that are present mostly in
cities and are not as abundant in rural areas, there might not be enough energy for this technology to work.
However, for the time being, we will focus on the problem of actually getting a circuit to work.
This thesis is considered to be one of the first steps towards what could become a standard circuit included in
every cellular phone, and quite possibly every electronic device made. A way to charge the battery of an electric
circuit without plugging it into the wall would change the way people use wireless systems. However, this
technology needs to be proven first. It was decided to begin the project with a cellular phone because of the
relative simplicity of the battery system. Also, after we prove that the technology will work in the manner
suggested; cellular phones would most likely be the first devices to have such circuitry implemented on a wide
scale. This advancement coupled with a better overall wireless service can be expected to lead to the
mainstream use of cell phones as peoples only phones. This thesis is an empirical study of whether or not this
idea is feasible. This first step is to get an external wireless circuit to work with an existing phone by
transmitting energy to the phone (battery) through the air.

1.2 Objective
The objective of this project is to design and construct a method to transmit wireless electrical power through
space and charge a designated low power device. The system will work by using resonant coils to transmit
power from an AC line to a resistive load. Investigation of various geometrical and physical form factors
evaluated in order to increase coupling between transmitter and receiver. A success in doing so would eliminate
the use of cables in the charging process thus making it simpler and easier to charge a low power device. It
would also ensure the safety of the device since it would eliminate the risk of short circuit. The objective also
includes the prospect of charging multiple low power devices simultaneously using a single source which would
use a single power outlet.

1.3 Introduction to the report

Chapter 1 Cover the introduction and the background of wireless power transfer and wireless charging.
In addition, it also covers the objective of this project.

Chapter 2 Discusses about inductance and inductive coupling theory and principles.

Chapter 3 Cover the general idea of transmitters and receivers.

Chapter 4 Present the practical model and circuit implementation of wireless charging system. In
addition, it discusses about the performance and analysis of the implemented wireless charging system.

Chapter 5 Discusses about the possible applications of this project and also provides some futuristic
ideas.

Chapter 6 Contains discussion, future suggestions and conclusion.

Chapter 2
Inductance and Inductive Coupling
2.1 Introduction
In electromagnetism and electronics, inductance is the ability of an inductor to store energy in a magnetic field.
Inductors generate an opposing voltage proportional to the rate of change in current in a circuit. This property is
also called self-inductance to discriminate it from mutual inductance, describing the voltage induced in one
electrical circuit by the rate of change of the electric current in another circuit. The quantitative definition of the
self-inductance L of an electrical circuit in SI units (Webers per ampere, known as Henries) is

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v= L di/dt .. (2.1)
Where, v denotes the voltage in volts and i the current in amperes.
The simplest solutions of this equation are a constant current with no voltage or a current changing linearly in
time with a constant voltage. Inductance is caused by the magnetic field generated by electric currents
according to Ampere's law. To add inductance to a circuit, electronic components called inductors are used,
typically consisting of coils of wire to concentrate the magnetic field and to collect the induced voltage. Mutual
inductance occurs when the change in current in one inductor induces a voltage in another nearby inductor. It is
important as the mechanism by which transformers work, but it can also cause unwanted coupling between
conductors in a circuit. The mutual inductance, M, is also a measure of the coupling between two inductors.

2.2 Inductive Coupling


Inductive or Magnetic coupling works on the principle of electromagnetism. When a wire is proximity to a
magnetic field, it generates a magnetic field in that wire. Transferring energy between wires through magnetic
fields is inductive coupling.
In electrical engineering, two conductors are referred to as mutual-inductively coupled or magnetically coupled
when they are configured such that change in current flow through one wire induces a voltage across the end of
the other wire through electromagnetic induction. The amount of inductive coupling between two conductors is
measured by their mutual inductance.

Figure 2- A Inductive Coupling with Four Component Fluxes


Magnetic coupling between two individual circuits are shown in Figure 2.2. For the purpose of analysis we
assume the total flux which is established by i1 (circuit-1 current) is divided into two components. One
component of it is that part which links with circuit-1but not with circuit-2, 11. The second component of it is
which links with both circuit-2 and circuit-1, 12. In this similar way the flux established by i2 (circuit-2
current) also has two components. One component of it is 22 which links with only circuit-2 but not with
circuit-1 and the other component is 21 which link with both circuit-2 and circuit-1.
1=11+ 12 (2.2)
And, 2=22+ 21 (2.3)

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In equation 2.1, 12 is a fractional part of 1, which links with the turns of circuit-2. So 12 is called the mutual
flux produced by circuit-1. In the same way, in equation 2.2,21is the fractional part of 2 which links with the
turns of circuit-1. So 21is called the mutual flux produced by circuit-2. 10 This is the phenomenon how the
inductive coupling takes place between two individual circuits. This effect can be magnified or amplified
through coiling the wire.
2.3 Inductive Charging
Inductive charging uses the electromagnetic field to transfer energy between two objects. A charging station
sends energy through inductive coupling to an electrical device, which stores the energy in the batteries.
Because there is a small gap between the two coils, inductive charging is one kind of short distance wireless
energy transfer. Induction chargers typically use an induction coil to create an alternating electromagnetic field
from within a charging base station, and a second induction coil in the portable device takes power from the
electromagnetic field and converts it back into electrical current to charge the battery. The two induction coils in
proximity combine to form an electrical transformer. Greater distances can be achieved when the inductive
charging system uses resonant inductive coupling.
2.4 Uses of Inductive Charging and Inductive Coupling
1. Inductive Coupling is also used in the Induction Cookers.
2. Inductive charging is used in transcutaneous energy transfer (TET) systems in artificial hearts and other
surgically implanted devices.

2.5 Advantages and Drawbacks of Inductive Charging


Inductive charging carries a far lower risk of electrical shock, when compared with conductive charging,
because there are no exposed conductors.
The main disadvantages of inductive charging are its lower efficiency and increased resistive heating in
comparison to direct contact

Chapter 3
Transmitter & Receiver Circuits
3.1 Introduction
Operation of devices that comply with Wireless Power Transfer relies on magnetic induction between planar
coils. Two kinds of devices are distinguished, namely devices that provide wireless power and devices that
consume wireless power referred to as Mobile Devices. Power transfer always takes place from a Base Station
to a Mobile Device. For this purpose, a Base Station contains a subsystem referred to as a Power Transmitter
that comprises a Primary Coil, and a Mobile Device contains a subsystem referred to as a Power Receiver
comprises a Secondary Coil. In fact, the Primary Coil and Secondary Coil form the two halves of a coreless
resonant transformer. Appropriate Shielding at the bottom face of the Primary Coil and the top face of the
Secondary Coil, as well as the close spacing of the two coils, ensures that power transfer occurs with an
acceptable efficiency. In addition, this Shielding minimizes the exposure of users to the magnetic field.

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3.2 Transmitter circuit


In electronics and telecommunications a transmitter or radio transmitter is an electronic device which, with the
aid of antenna, produces radio waves. The transmitter itself generates a radio frequency alternating current,
which is applied to the antenna. When excited by this alternating current, the antenna radiates radio waves. In
addition to their use in broadcasting, transmitters are necessary component parts of many electronic devices that
communicate by radio, such as phones, wireless, Bluetooth enabled devices, garage door openers, two-way
radios in aircraft, ships, and spacecraft, radar sets, and navigational beacons. The term transmitter is usually
limited to equipment that generates radio waves for communication purposes; or radiolocation, such as radar
and navigational transmitters.

Figure 3- B Functional block diagram of Power Transmitter


3.3 Receiver Circuit
The secondary receiver coils are similar designs to the primary sending coils. Running the secondary at the
same resonant frequency as the primary ensures that the secondary has low impedance at the transmitter's
frequency and that the energy is optimally absorbed. To remove energy from the secondary coil, different
methods can be used, the AC can be used directly or rectified and a regulator circuit can be used to generate DC
voltage.

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Figure 3- C Functional block diagram of a Power Receiver

Chapter 4
Design and Implementation of Our Project
4.1 Introduction

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The idea of wireless charging came from the idea of wireless energy transfer. The first thoughts were to charge a
pacemaker wirelessly. Deep study on that particular topic revealed that pacemakers already had a good enough
life time. So, the idea of charging it was not a feasible one. Further study about wireless power transfer came up
with the idea of a wireless charger for the low power devices such as mobile phones, camera etc. The main idea
was to charge these low power devices using inductive coupling. The overall process required a transmitter and
a receiver. The transmitter would convert a D.C. power to high frequency A.C. power. This alternating current
would create an alternating magnetic field to transmit energy. The receiver, on the contrary, would receive that
energy by means of an induced A.C. voltage. A diode rectifier would convert the A.C. voltage to D.C. and this
voltage would be supplied to load through a voltage controller.
4.2 Transmitter Module
The transmitter module of our project is made up of a D.C. power source, an oscillator circuit (commonly
known as an inverter) and a transmitter coil. The D.C. power source provides a constant D.C. voltage to the
input of the oscillator circuit. There, this D.C. power is converted to a high frequency A.C. power and is
supplied to the transmitter coil. The transmitter coil, energized by the high frequency A.C. current, produces an
alternating magnetic field. The following block diagram (Figure 6.1) gives a general idea of the transmitter
module:

Figure 4- D Block Diagram of the Transmitter Module


4.3 The D.C. Power Source
The D.C. Power Source consists of a simple step down transformer and a rectifier circuit. The transformer steps
down the voltage to a desired level and the rectifier circuit convert the A.C. voltage to D.C.
4.4 The Oscillator Circuit
The prototype oscillator Circuit designed for the project is a modified Royer oscillator (Figure 6.2). This
oscillator circuit is incredibly simple yet a very powerful design. Very high oscillating current can be achieved
with this circuit depending on the semiconductor used. Here high current is necessary to increase the strength of
the magnetic field. Although Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT) is recommended for this type of
oscillator, but IGBTs have limitations in high frequencies. Thus, a HEXFET Power MOSFET was used for its
properties. The HEXFET is ultra-low on resistance and has an operating temperature of 175C. It has an
advanced process technology and is very fast in switching.

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Figure 4-E The Modified Royer Oscillator


4.5 The Transmitter Coil
For this project the transmitter coil was constructed with 6mm copper tube with a diameter of 16.5cm (6.5
inches) and a length of 8.5cm. From the equation of inductance of a single layer air core coil we get,
L = 0.001 N2 (a/2)2 / (114a + 254l) H
L = 0.00122 (0.165/2)2 / ((1140.165) + (2540.085)) H
L = 0.674 H
The Transmitter Circuit as a Whole
The transmitter module as a whole is given below:

Figure 4-F Transmitter Module


The circuit diagram of the transmitter circuit is given below:

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Figure 4-G Transmitter Circuit


4.6 Components Used in the Transmitter Module
The list of components that were used in the transmitter circuit is given in the following table:
Components Name

Components Value or code

Voltage Source, VDC

30V

Capacitor, C

6.8nF

Resistor, R1

1k ohm

Resistor, R2 & R5

10k ohm

Resistor, R3 & R4

94 ohm

Diode, D1 & D2

D4148

MOSFET,Q1 & Q2

IRF540

Radio Frequency Choke,L1 & L2

8.6 H

Transmitter coil, L

0.674 H

Table 4.1 Transmitter Component

4.7 Receiver Module

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The receiver module of our project is made up of a receiver coil, a rectifier circuit and a voltage regulator IC.
An A.C. voltage is induced in the receiver coil. The rectifier circuit converts it to D.C. and the voltage regulator
IC helps to maintain a constant limited voltage at the load. The following block diagram (Figure 6.5) gives a
general idea of the receiver module:

Figure 4- H Block Diagram of the Receiver Module


4.8 Receiver Coil
For this project the receiver coil was constructed with 18 AWG (American Wire Gauge) copper wire with a
diameter of 8cm. From the equation of inductance of a single layer air core coil we get,
L = 0.001 N2 (a/2)2 / (114a + 254l) H
L = 0.00132 (0.08/2)2 / ((1140.08) + (2540.01)) H
L = 1.235 H
4.9 Rectifier
A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), which periodically reverses direction, to
direct current (DC), which flows in only one direction. The process is known as rectification.
A diode bridge is an arrangement of four (or more) diodes in a bridge circuit configuration that provides the
same polarity of output for either polarity of input. When used in its most common application, for conversion
of an alternating current (AC) input into direct current a (DC) output, it is known as a bridge rectifier. The
essential feature of a diode bridge is that the polarity of the output is the same regardless of the polarity at the
input.
Figure 4.F shows a diode bridge rectifier.
The 4 diodes labeled D1 to D4 are arranged in series pairs with only two diodes conducting current during each
half cycle (Figure: 4.F).

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Figure 4- I Diode Bridge Rectifier


4.10 Voltage Regulator IC
A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. A
voltage regulator may be a simple feed-forward design or may include negative feedback control loops. It may
use an electromechanical mechanism, or electronic components. Depending on the design, it may be used to
regulate one or more AC or DC voltages. In this project, LM 7805 voltage regulator IC was used since it
allowed no more than 5v to the output.
The Receiver Circuit as a Whole
The receiver module as a whole is given below:

Figure 4- J Receiver Module

The circuit diagram of the receiver circuit is given below:

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Figure 4- K Receiver Circuit


4.11 Components Used in the Receiver Module
The list of components that were used in the receiver circuit is given in the following table:
Components Name

Components Value or code

Diode, D1, D2, D3 & D4

D4007

Capacitor, C1

6.8 nF

Capacitor, C2

220 F

Resistor, R

1k ohm

Voltage Regulator IC

IC LM 7805

Receiver coil, L

1.235 H

Table 4.2 Receiver Components

Chapter 5
Possible Applications of Our Project
5.1 Introduction

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The main inspiration of our project came from the concept of getting rid of electrical wires, which means wires
from all electrical system. This is the next big challenge of this century. Thus it is not possible to get it done
overnight. Therefore we started from small scale; that is low power electronic devices. Our main concern is to
make sure that these low power electronic devices get charge efficiently and easily. So that in future we could
take this concept to a whole new level, large scale including national grid.
Here in this project we used the concept of inductive coupling to transfer energy. Since our project is merely a
prototype so its commercial viability is not yet possible. In this section we therefore came up with some
modifications and enhancement to our project which could make it as consumable product.

5.2 Charging Mid-range Power Devices


In this project so far it has been discussed about charging devices of low-rated power devices such as; cellphones, digital camera, electric shaver, gaming-console, wireless mouse, wireless keyboard and portable music
players etc. In order to charge mid-range devices such as laptops, portable-television, speakers, IPS-battery and
car battery etc. (mid-range usually means devices that work on voltage of 15V-30V) the original design has to
be modified to some extent. The modification includes; use of high rated rectifier, diodes, control circuits and
very efficient cooling system i.e. use of fan or liquid cooling system. Therefore the circuit can provide power
transfer for long period of time efficiently. In general the working principal for both the transmitter and receiver
units is same for the mid-range wireless charging system. Therefore if the system works for low-rated power
devices then it should work for the mid-range or even high-range power devices.
5.3 Charging Electric Vehicles
Nowadays environmental pollution is a matter of concern for all of us. Carbon emission from vehicles is
making our environment poisonous day by day. Government is trying different methods to make carbon
emission to minimal. The latest breakthrough is electric vehicle. The problem now is to provide a suitable
charging system for these vehicles, so that people do not feel hesitate to have electric vehicle. In this section we
are introducing wireless charging system for charging up vehicles.
5.4 Benefits of the Technology
The benefits of using this technology are:
1. Convenience and simplicity for electric vehicle owners.
2. Enables easy, automatic charging by simply parking a vehicle in a garage or parking spot.
3. System activates the moment a vehicle is aligned with the charging pad.
4. Minimal driver action needed and no plugs or charging cords needed.

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5.5 Safety Features


The system also provides some safety features:
1. Non-radiative power transfer uses a magnetic near field
2. Very little energy transferred to extraneous or off-resonant objects
3. Can fully charge an electric vehicle at a rate comparable to most residential plug-in chargers, which can be as
fast as 4 hours
4. Weather resistant.
5. Environmental factors such as snow or rain would have no effect on the wireless energy transfer.
5.6 Commercial Possibility
There is already huge demand for wireless power transmission system. Mostly the renowned electronic giants
like Sony, Samsung, Panasonic, Toshiba, Apple and Bose etc. have shown huge interest in this technology. The
fact is that we have already made huge advancement in electronic side, but introducing wireless technology in
this sector has made it possible to capture huge market. Wireless technology is what people wanted for long.
Besides, there is a huge demand in defense sector as well. In general, wireless power transmission is a
breakthrough to the electronic industry. This technology has helped the industry to explore into new dimension
which they have never imagined.

Chapter 6
Discussions and Conclusions
6.1 Discussions
In our project the main goal was to design and implement a system that transmits power to charge low power
devices without wire. In this purpose, a transmitter circuit was implemented. At the end of the transmitter circuit
an antenna was connected, which transmits the power. Another antenna was used to receive the power
wirelessly from the transmitter circuit. In this project hollow copper pipes were used as antenna, because it has
high Q-factor and high power handling performance. It requires a huge task to implement the whole project.

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During implementation a number of remarkable problems were faced and were solved as well. Though these
implementation sessions require patience, it gives a great pleasure after successful solution.
6.2 Conclusion
The goal of this project was to design and implement a wireless charger for low power devices via inductive
coupling. After analyzing the whole system step by step for optimization, a system was designed and
implemented. Experimental results showed that significant improvements in terms of power-transfer efficiency
have been achieved. Measured results are in good agreement with the theoretical models. It was described and
demonstrated that inductive coupling can be used to deliver power wirelessly from a source coil to a load coil
and charge a low power device. This mechanism is a potentially robust means for charging low power devices
wirelessly. As it was mentioned earlier, wireless charging could be the next big thing.

References
Russell M Kerchner and George F Corcoran, Alternating-Current Circuits, pp. 273-324, 1960.
G. Grandi, M.K. Kazimierczuk, A. Massarini, Optimal Design of Single-Layer Solenoid Air-Core Inductors
for High Frequency Applications, Circuit Systems, Vol. 1, pp. 358-361, 1997.
A. Kurs, A. Karalis, R. Moffatt, J. D. Joannopoulos, P. Fisher, M. Soijacic, Wireless Power Transfer via
Strongly Coupled Magnetic Resonances, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007 Science, Vol.
317. no. 5834, pp. 83 86, 2007

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Jacob Millman and Christos C. Halkias, Integrated Electronics: Analog and Digital Circuits and Systems , pp.
103-107, 2007
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