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Jordan University of science and technology

Department of Civil Engineering


SEMINAR
CE703

Organs Donation

Anas Adeeb Mohammed Elsharo.


20143023010

Date: May, 5 2016.


Submitted to: Prof. Yahia Abdel-Jawad

ABSTRACT:
Laminated composite materials are widely used in the range of application according to their
high strength, high durability and low weight compared to other materials used in structural
application. The composite laminas are the main material used in manufacturing the body of the
space rockets, airplanes and cars. Accordingly the aim of this project is to study the natural
frequencies and mode shapes for the laminated composite plates and the effect of increasing the
number of laminas in the natural frequency. The project then will be extended to study the
vibration of special orthotropic plates rested on elastic foundation and the case where the plate
is immersed in a medium.

INTRODUCTION:
Composite Materials consist of two or more materials which are together produce
desirable properties that cannot be achieved with any of its constituents alone. Fiber
reinforced composite materials, for example, contains high strength and high modulus
fibers in a matrix.
In the composites, fibers are the principal load-carrying capacity, and the matrix keeps
the fibers together and acts as a load transfer medium between fibers and protects the
fibers from being exposed to the environmental and external conditions. Fibers have
near crystal-sized diameter and have a very high length to diameter ratio.

Fiber-reinforced composite materials for structural applications are often of a thin layer
called lamina. A lamina is a macro unit of material whose material properties are
determined using proper laboratory tests.
Structural members such as bars, beams and plates are then formed by stacking
number of layers with each other to reach the desirable properties or strength required
by this structural element.

The fiber orientation in each lamina and the stacking sequence are chosen by the
design engineer in order for the laminated member to reach the required stiffness and
strength and to be of a lightweight based on the function of the structural member in
consideration.

The structural application of the composite materials and fiber reinforced materials
including the use of these materials in aeronautics and moving vehicles where high
strength material is needed but with a lightweight.
The figure below shows the use of carbon fiber reinforced polymers in the body of A-380
airplane the CFRB plates and sheets have a high strength with lightweight which helps
the airplane body to have the desired strength without any loss in the functionality of
efficiency.

The below table shows some materials used as composite material and their mechanical
properties:

According to the use of composite plates in vibrating mechanical and structural


members, then there is a need to study the vibration natural frequencies and mode
shapes for the composite plates. This study is intended to show how lamination angle
and how the number of layers will affect the natural frequencies and mode shape for
special orthotropic simply supported plates.

Vibration analysis has its beginnings with Galilei (15641642), who solved by geometrical
means the dependence of the natural frequency of a simple pendulum on the pendulum
length.
The mathematics of differential calculus prospered and paved the way for Le Rond
DAlembert (17171783), who derived in 1747 the partial differential equation which
today is referred to as the wave equation and who found the wave travel solution (Le
Rond DAlembert, 1747). He was ably assisted in this by Bernoulli (17001782) and Euler
(17071783), both German-speaking Swiss and friends, but did not give them due credit
The foundation for a more precise treatment of the vibration of continuous systems
was laid by Robert Hooke (16351703) when he established the basic law of elasticity, by
Newton (16421727) when he established that force was equal to mass times
acceleration, and by Leibnitz (16461716) when he established differential calculus.

-Definitions:
Before deriving the static and constitutive relations for composite plates we will make
some definitions related to composite plates and their types:
Laminate- A material consisting of layers (laminae) bonded together.
Transversely isotropic- materials are special orthotropic materials that have one axis

of symmetry (any other pair of axes that are perpendicular to the main one and
orthogonal among them are also axes of symmetry)

Orthotropic- A material that has different mechanical properties in three mutually


perpendicular planes.
Note that the properties of the material are direction specific in this case. All
unidirectional laminae are individually orthotropic. Most laminated composites fall into
this category.
Homogeneous- material or system has the same properties at every point; it is uniform

without irregularities.
Note that since the laminated composite plates consist of fibers connected into a matrix
they are never truly homogenous. Nevertheless while studying the elastic response of
plates in a macroscopic scale the plate could be considered homogeneous.

Angle ply Laminates- laminates containing plies that are oriented on angles other than 90

and 0 degree.
Balanced Laminates- For each positive angle ply laminate in the laminae there is negative

angle ply. This does not include 0 and 90 degree laminas.


Symmetric Laminas- The plies of the laminate are mirror image about the geometrical

midplane.
Principal Material Direction- Directions parallel and perpendicular to the direction of the fibers

in a lamina.(They are not the direction of the principal stress).

Mechanics of Composite Plates:


-Constitutive Relations:
In the analysis of laminates , the lamina is always assumed to be in a `are given as
following :

Where :
Qij are the components of the lamina stiffness matrix which depend on both modulus of
elasticity and poissions ratio for each lamina .
Q66 is multiply by 2 to compensate for the use of the tensor shear strain .

Transformation of lamina stiffness matrix :


If the laminated composite plate is an angle ply , the lamina stiffness matrix elements
are transformed by the following relations :

Strain and curvature relations :


Although the laminate is made up of multiple laminae , its assumed that the individual
laminae are perfectly bonded together so it behaves as a unity , Nonhomogeneous and
anisotropic Plate.

Strain-displacement relations for the in plane strains :

The strains at the middle surface :

The curvature at middle surface :

Resultant Forces and Moments :

Force per unit length :


unit length :

Moment per

After using the stress strain relations in the previous integrations , the equations of
resultant forces and moments can be written in the following form :

The previous equations can be rewritten also by introducing some constants that depend
on stiffnesses as following:

Where:

Aij is the laminate extensional stiffnesses and given by :

Bij is the laminate coupling stiffnesses and given by :

Dij is the laminate bending stiffnesses and given by :

The complete set of equations can be written in a matrix form as following :

It can be easily shown that the coefficient Bij is related to geometry and material
symmetry about the middle surface. In other words Bij is nonzero for asymmetry plates
about its mid surface.
The isotropic lamina properties lead to the condition:
A16 = A26 = D16 = D26 = 0 .

Analysis of Small Transverse Deflection :

Transverse shear stress resultants :


forces along the X-direction :

Summation of the forces along the y-direction :

Summation of the

Summation of the forces along the z-direction :

Summation of the moments about the x-direction :

Summation of the moments about the y-direction :

After substitution we get the moment equilibrium equation :

Special case :
Transverse deflection of the rectangular , specially orthotropic plate which is simply
supported in all edges and carrying a load of q (x,y) .
The general Biharmonic equation is :

The Biharmonic equation for this special case will be as following:

Moments in terms of displacement w :

Here , Navier solution is acceptable here because all the requirements are met .
The boundary conditions are :

The fourier series expansions for both external loading and displacement are :

The boundary conditions and the differential equation are satisfied and the constants
are :

As a result we can conclude that the same derivation techniques have been used to
derive the displacement expression in both the conventional medium thin plates and
laminated composite plate . However , the main difference appears in the flexural
stiffness of plate D . The laminated composite plate has different flexural stiffnesses
depending on the material properties for each layer . Therefore , the displacement
formula for the two types of plates will be the same but with different constants in their
fourier expansions . From which , moments , normal and shear forces , slopes and normal
and shear stresses can be found easily by applying the same methodologies of
conventional plate .

Transverse Vibration of Laminated Plate


In this section , the transverse free vibration of laminated composite plate is studied in
order to fined the natural frequencies and the mode shapes . This study is very important
because this type of plates is mainly used in locations that exposed to dynamic loadings
and its dynamic behaviors must be concerned .
The same method of derivation is taken into account to derive the displacement formula
for free vibrated plate . One term is added to the final biharmonic equation . This term is
the transverse inertial force that acts in the z-direction . The inertial force depends on
second derivative of displacement with respect to time . Therefore , natural frequencies
and mode shapes are derived directly from displacement equation .
The series of equation will lead to the general moment equilibrium equation :

In this we the free transverse vibration of a specially orthotropic ,rectangular and s.s
plate is considered .

The moment equilibrium equation in terms of displacement will be as following :

For this case the solution is assumed to be :

The boundary conditions are satisfied by solution in the form of :

The natural frequency equation :

The fundamental mode shape that gives the least natural frequency and the longest
time period , and the related natural frequency formulas :

The overall solution will take the following form :

At which A and B can be found by initial conditions for any location in the plate in x-y
plane .

Vibration of Plates Resting on Elastic Foundation:

The equation of motion for the isotropic


plate resting on elastic foundation will
be very similar to the plates supported
only on edges
The only difference is included in a term
that refers to the stiffness of the elastic
bed.

To derive the equation of motion the following y-direction forces must be added to the
previous figure:

1- Inertia forces which is equal to :


2- Spring force (elastic bed force) which is equal to K*W; where K is the stiffness of the
bed.

Summing the force in the y direction and based on the derivation of the plate vibration
we will end up with the following result:

To solve the equation of motion for the case of simply supported plates we will also
consider a solution of the type:

Where : Wmn is the mode shape of the vibration and X1 is the x-axis and X2 is the yaxis.
Substituting the proposed solution into the equation of motion we will end up with
relationship:

It is shown from the previous equation


the effect of the elastic bed on
increasing the frequency and lowering
the period of vibration.
The overall solution will take the following form :

Vibration of Plates Immersed in a medium: Damping of


Vibration Amplitude

For the vibration of plates immersed in a


viscous fluid the plate element shown
below will face a drag resistance from
the medium material that will damp the
vibration of the plate.
The resistance force will depend upon the velocity of the plate and directly multiplied by
a constant C called the drag coefficient. Accordingly the equation of motion will be of the
form:

The solution is assumed to be of the type:

Substituting the proposed solution in the equation of motion we will get:

Simplifying the above equation the above equation will be of the form:

The last equation is a quadratic equation in which it is solution depends upon the value
of the damping or drag coefficient C:

The equation will have two roots of the form:

Substituting the above solutions in the proposed solution for the plate deflection we will
end up with the exponential of real part plus an imaginary part. The exponential of the
imaginary part will be treated using Euler formula in order to transform it to a harmonic
form. The solution will be of the form:

Where Amn and Bmn are constants that can be found from the initial conditions for every
value of m and n.

Matlab Examples:
Because we didn't have any reference and all the derivations here have been carried out
by our own calculations , we decided to make some examples on matlab to validate the
results and formulas we get .
Therefore for the first case , we solve a two layer laminated composite plate in free
vibration . The material properties are :
E1 = 138 GPa. E2 = 9 GPa. G12= 6.9 GPa.
V12= 0.3.
Density=1.6x10-3 g/mm3
With thickness of 2mm.
The D Matrix will be as follow:
D=

92.5432 1.8106
1.8106 6.0354
0
0

0
0
4.6000

Natural Frequency will be as follow:


w11= 673.2179 rad/sec.
w12=w21=1020 rad/sec.
The first two mode shapes are :

For a plate on elastic the following example has been solved :


Assume that the previous plate resting on an elastic foundation where the stiffness is
k= 2 N/mm.
wmn=690.3 rad /sec.

The Solution For a plate with arbitrary properties and conditions will have the following
shape:

For this case the period and damped natural frequency are :
T = 0.629 sec .
Wd = 10.3 rad/sec .

Recommendations:
For the case where the plate has other boundary conditions other than
simply supported for the cases discussed later, A. W. Leissa in a NASA
publication listed many shape function for plates with different boundary
conditions including cantilever and free plates; the substitution of these
shape functions into the previously derived equations will give a solution for
those plates whether they are supported on an elastic foundation or
vibrating inside a medium. The following shows the shape functions
proposed by Leissa: