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This report includes the Mechanics of Composite Materials And Vibration Mechanics of Composite Materials And Vibration Mechanics of Composite Materials And Vibration Mechanics of Composite Materials And Vibration

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SEMINAR

CE703

Organs Donation

20143023010

Submitted to: Prof. Yahia Abdel-Jawad

ABSTRACT:

Laminated composite materials are widely used in the range of application according to their

high strength, high durability and low weight compared to other materials used in structural

application. The composite laminas are the main material used in manufacturing the body of the

space rockets, airplanes and cars. Accordingly the aim of this project is to study the natural

frequencies and mode shapes for the laminated composite plates and the effect of increasing the

number of laminas in the natural frequency. The project then will be extended to study the

vibration of special orthotropic plates rested on elastic foundation and the case where the plate

is immersed in a medium.

INTRODUCTION:

Composite Materials consist of two or more materials which are together produce

desirable properties that cannot be achieved with any of its constituents alone. Fiber

reinforced composite materials, for example, contains high strength and high modulus

fibers in a matrix.

In the composites, fibers are the principal load-carrying capacity, and the matrix keeps

the fibers together and acts as a load transfer medium between fibers and protects the

fibers from being exposed to the environmental and external conditions. Fibers have

near crystal-sized diameter and have a very high length to diameter ratio.

Fiber-reinforced composite materials for structural applications are often of a thin layer

called lamina. A lamina is a macro unit of material whose material properties are

determined using proper laboratory tests.

Structural members such as bars, beams and plates are then formed by stacking

number of layers with each other to reach the desirable properties or strength required

by this structural element.

The fiber orientation in each lamina and the stacking sequence are chosen by the

design engineer in order for the laminated member to reach the required stiffness and

strength and to be of a lightweight based on the function of the structural member in

consideration.

The structural application of the composite materials and fiber reinforced materials

including the use of these materials in aeronautics and moving vehicles where high

strength material is needed but with a lightweight.

The figure below shows the use of carbon fiber reinforced polymers in the body of A-380

airplane the CFRB plates and sheets have a high strength with lightweight which helps

the airplane body to have the desired strength without any loss in the functionality of

efficiency.

The below table shows some materials used as composite material and their mechanical

properties:

members, then there is a need to study the vibration natural frequencies and mode

shapes for the composite plates. This study is intended to show how lamination angle

and how the number of layers will affect the natural frequencies and mode shape for

special orthotropic simply supported plates.

Vibration analysis has its beginnings with Galilei (15641642), who solved by geometrical

means the dependence of the natural frequency of a simple pendulum on the pendulum

length.

The mathematics of differential calculus prospered and paved the way for Le Rond

DAlembert (17171783), who derived in 1747 the partial differential equation which

today is referred to as the wave equation and who found the wave travel solution (Le

Rond DAlembert, 1747). He was ably assisted in this by Bernoulli (17001782) and Euler

(17071783), both German-speaking Swiss and friends, but did not give them due credit

The foundation for a more precise treatment of the vibration of continuous systems

was laid by Robert Hooke (16351703) when he established the basic law of elasticity, by

Newton (16421727) when he established that force was equal to mass times

acceleration, and by Leibnitz (16461716) when he established differential calculus.

-Definitions:

Before deriving the static and constitutive relations for composite plates we will make

some definitions related to composite plates and their types:

Laminate- A material consisting of layers (laminae) bonded together.

Transversely isotropic- materials are special orthotropic materials that have one axis

of symmetry (any other pair of axes that are perpendicular to the main one and

orthogonal among them are also axes of symmetry)

perpendicular planes.

Note that the properties of the material are direction specific in this case. All

unidirectional laminae are individually orthotropic. Most laminated composites fall into

this category.

Homogeneous- material or system has the same properties at every point; it is uniform

without irregularities.

Note that since the laminated composite plates consist of fibers connected into a matrix

they are never truly homogenous. Nevertheless while studying the elastic response of

plates in a macroscopic scale the plate could be considered homogeneous.

Angle ply Laminates- laminates containing plies that are oriented on angles other than 90

and 0 degree.

Balanced Laminates- For each positive angle ply laminate in the laminae there is negative

Symmetric Laminas- The plies of the laminate are mirror image about the geometrical

midplane.

Principal Material Direction- Directions parallel and perpendicular to the direction of the fibers

-Constitutive Relations:

In the analysis of laminates , the lamina is always assumed to be in a `are given as

following :

Where :

Qij are the components of the lamina stiffness matrix which depend on both modulus of

elasticity and poissions ratio for each lamina .

Q66 is multiply by 2 to compensate for the use of the tensor shear strain .

If the laminated composite plate is an angle ply , the lamina stiffness matrix elements

are transformed by the following relations :

Although the laminate is made up of multiple laminae , its assumed that the individual

laminae are perfectly bonded together so it behaves as a unity , Nonhomogeneous and

anisotropic Plate.

unit length :

Moment per

After using the stress strain relations in the previous integrations , the equations of

resultant forces and moments can be written in the following form :

The previous equations can be rewritten also by introducing some constants that depend

on stiffnesses as following:

Where:

It can be easily shown that the coefficient Bij is related to geometry and material

symmetry about the middle surface. In other words Bij is nonzero for asymmetry plates

about its mid surface.

The isotropic lamina properties lead to the condition:

A16 = A26 = D16 = D26 = 0 .

forces along the X-direction :

Summation of the

Special case :

Transverse deflection of the rectangular , specially orthotropic plate which is simply

supported in all edges and carrying a load of q (x,y) .

The general Biharmonic equation is :

Here , Navier solution is acceptable here because all the requirements are met .

The boundary conditions are :

The fourier series expansions for both external loading and displacement are :

The boundary conditions and the differential equation are satisfied and the constants

are :

As a result we can conclude that the same derivation techniques have been used to

derive the displacement expression in both the conventional medium thin plates and

laminated composite plate . However , the main difference appears in the flexural

stiffness of plate D . The laminated composite plate has different flexural stiffnesses

depending on the material properties for each layer . Therefore , the displacement

formula for the two types of plates will be the same but with different constants in their

fourier expansions . From which , moments , normal and shear forces , slopes and normal

and shear stresses can be found easily by applying the same methodologies of

conventional plate .

In this section , the transverse free vibration of laminated composite plate is studied in

order to fined the natural frequencies and the mode shapes . This study is very important

because this type of plates is mainly used in locations that exposed to dynamic loadings

and its dynamic behaviors must be concerned .

The same method of derivation is taken into account to derive the displacement formula

for free vibrated plate . One term is added to the final biharmonic equation . This term is

the transverse inertial force that acts in the z-direction . The inertial force depends on

second derivative of displacement with respect to time . Therefore , natural frequencies

and mode shapes are derived directly from displacement equation .

The series of equation will lead to the general moment equilibrium equation :

In this we the free transverse vibration of a specially orthotropic ,rectangular and s.s

plate is considered .

The fundamental mode shape that gives the least natural frequency and the longest

time period , and the related natural frequency formulas :

At which A and B can be found by initial conditions for any location in the plate in x-y

plane .

plate resting on elastic foundation will

be very similar to the plates supported

only on edges

The only difference is included in a term

that refers to the stiffness of the elastic

bed.

To derive the equation of motion the following y-direction forces must be added to the

previous figure:

2- Spring force (elastic bed force) which is equal to K*W; where K is the stiffness of the

bed.

Summing the force in the y direction and based on the derivation of the plate vibration

we will end up with the following result:

To solve the equation of motion for the case of simply supported plates we will also

consider a solution of the type:

Where : Wmn is the mode shape of the vibration and X1 is the x-axis and X2 is the yaxis.

Substituting the proposed solution into the equation of motion we will end up with

relationship:

the effect of the elastic bed on

increasing the frequency and lowering

the period of vibration.

The overall solution will take the following form :

Vibration Amplitude

viscous fluid the plate element shown

below will face a drag resistance from

the medium material that will damp the

vibration of the plate.

The resistance force will depend upon the velocity of the plate and directly multiplied by

a constant C called the drag coefficient. Accordingly the equation of motion will be of the

form:

Simplifying the above equation the above equation will be of the form:

The last equation is a quadratic equation in which it is solution depends upon the value

of the damping or drag coefficient C:

Substituting the above solutions in the proposed solution for the plate deflection we will

end up with the exponential of real part plus an imaginary part. The exponential of the

imaginary part will be treated using Euler formula in order to transform it to a harmonic

form. The solution will be of the form:

Where Amn and Bmn are constants that can be found from the initial conditions for every

value of m and n.

Matlab Examples:

Because we didn't have any reference and all the derivations here have been carried out

by our own calculations , we decided to make some examples on matlab to validate the

results and formulas we get .

Therefore for the first case , we solve a two layer laminated composite plate in free

vibration . The material properties are :

E1 = 138 GPa. E2 = 9 GPa. G12= 6.9 GPa.

V12= 0.3.

Density=1.6x10-3 g/mm3

With thickness of 2mm.

The D Matrix will be as follow:

D=

92.5432 1.8106

1.8106 6.0354

0

0

0

0

4.6000

w11= 673.2179 rad/sec.

w12=w21=1020 rad/sec.

The first two mode shapes are :

Assume that the previous plate resting on an elastic foundation where the stiffness is

k= 2 N/mm.

wmn=690.3 rad /sec.

The Solution For a plate with arbitrary properties and conditions will have the following

shape:

For this case the period and damped natural frequency are :

T = 0.629 sec .

Wd = 10.3 rad/sec .

Recommendations:

For the case where the plate has other boundary conditions other than

simply supported for the cases discussed later, A. W. Leissa in a NASA

publication listed many shape function for plates with different boundary

conditions including cantilever and free plates; the substitution of these

shape functions into the previously derived equations will give a solution for

those plates whether they are supported on an elastic foundation or

vibrating inside a medium. The following shows the shape functions

proposed by Leissa:

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