You are on page 1of 54

29April,2014

MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering
FacultyCEG,DepartmentHydraulicEngineering
Faculty3mE,DepartmentMaritime&TransportTechnology

Overviewofpast&cominglectures
Uptonow,wehavelearnedabout:
Environmentalissues&theArctic
RegionsfordevelopmentintheArctic&Subarctic
Fixed&FloatingstructuresintheArctic
TheIceFeaturesandRegimesthatweencounter
Inthecominglectures,itisouraimtoobtainthenecessaryunderstandingofice
andicestructureinteractiontobeabletocalculateloadsduetoice:
Molecularproperties&crystallographyofice
Icegrowth&formation
Icemechanics&mechanicalpropertiesofice
Iceactions&actioneffects,ISO19906
Iceloadreductionmethods&icemanagement
Modeltesting&scalinglaws
29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

Contents
Todayslectureonicephysicsdiscussesthefollowingtopics:
1. Materialpropertiesoficevs.water
Whydoesicefloat?
Weightvs.buoyancy,freeboard
2. Molecularproperties&crystallography
Icetypes
Defectsinice
3. Iceformation&growth
Developmentandstagesoficecover
Heterogeneity&Anisotropy
Brine
29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

Whydoesicefloatonwater?
Thedensityoficeislowerthenthedensityofwater:
Densityofpurewater: 1000,0kg/m3 (at3,98C)
Densityofpureice:
1916,7kg/m3 (at0 C,theoretical)
Formostmaterialshowever,thesolidphaseis
denserthantheliquidphase.Forexample,
Aluminiumhasthefollowingdensities:
Inliquidform:
2375,0kg/m3
Insolidform:
2700,0kg/m3
Intheprocessoffreezing,theaverage distancebetweenadjacentwatermolecules
growsasthecrystallographicstructureoficeisformed.
Therearesomeotherexamplesofsubstanceswherethedensityinthesolidphaseis
lowerthanthatinitsliquidphase:Silicon,Germanium,Plutonium.
29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

Whydoesicefloatonwater?
Thedensityoficeislowerthenthedensityofwater:
Densityofpurewater: 1000,0kg/m3 (at3,98C)
Densityofpureice:
1916,7kg/m3 (at0 C,theoretical)
Thedensityofpureiceasafunctionoftemperature:

(T)[kg/m3] =916,7 0,13T[C]


Thus,asicebecomescolderitsdensityincreases.
ThisrelationholdsforatemperaturerangeT=40C0C
ThedensityofpureiceatT=180C isapproximately934kg/m3.
Ifwewouldusetheabovewerelationwewouldfindthat:(180)940kg/m3.

29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

Densitiesofdifferenttypesofice
Densitiesofpurewaterandice:
Densityofpurewater:
1000,0kg/m3 (at3,98C)
Densityofpureice:
1916,7kg/m3 (at0C,theoretical)
Theicethatweencounteronearth(outsidelabs)and
thusintheArcticandSubarcticisneverpure
SeaWaterw/salinity35ppt at+4.0C: =1025kg/m3
SeaIcew/salinity35ppt at2.0C:
=910kg/m3
Avg.densityofseawater: 1027kg/m3 (10201029)
Avg.densityofseaice:
1910kg/m3 (904916)
Avg.densityofglacialice: 1900kg/m3 (600900)

seaice <pureice duetosalinityandporosity


glacialice <pureice duetoairenclosedinthecompactedsnow
29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

Buoyancyofice
Thedifferencebetweenthedensitiesofseawater
andseaorglacialiceisrelativelysmall.
Therefore,accordingtoArchimedesprinciple,
mostoftheiceissubmergedasitfloatsonthe
seasurface.

Freeboard

Asaruleofthumb:
About10%ofthevolumeofapieceoficefloating
intheseaisemergedabovethewaterline,while
about90%issubmerged.
Theheightoftheiceabovethewateris
referredtoasthefreeboard.
Forsomeshapesoficebergsandforlevelicethe
freeboardcanbecalculatedusingArchimedes
principle.
29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

Submerged

Freeboard
Consideratabularicebergbrokenofffrom
anAntarcticiceshelf,whichcanbeassumed
constantoveritsareaduetoitstabularshape.
Letsassumethattheicebergconsistsonlyof
glacialice,theratiobetweenthesubmerged
heightoftheicebergandthefreeboardthen
followsfromArchimedesprincipleas:

hsub

ice
hice
water

hsub hice

Freeboard

ice
water

Thefreeboardthenbecomes:

hfreeboard hice hsub

Or,wecanfindthefreeboarddirectlyas:

hfreeboard hice

29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

water ice

hice sub
water
water
8

Freeboard:examplecalculation
Consideratabularicebergbrokenofffrom
anAntarcticiceshelf,whichcanbeassumed
constantoveritsareaduetoitstabularshape.
Letsassumetheicebergtobe60mthick
andusethedensitiesgivenpreviously,i.e.
ice =900kg/m3
water =1027kg/m3

Freeboard

127
7, 42 m
1027

Wethenfindthefreeboardas:

hfreeboard 60

Andthesubmergeddepthas:

hsubmerged 60

29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

900
52,58 m
1027
9

TheH2Omolecule
H2Ois1oxygenatomthatiscovalently
bondedto2hydrogenatoms.
95,84 pm = 0,96

Oxygen

104,45

Hydrogen

29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

=ngstrm orAngstrom
1Angstrom=11010 m=100pm=0.1nm
Theanglebetweenthehydrogen
atomsisNOT alwaysthesameand
dependsonthephasethemoleculeisin.
Here,anisolatedH2Omoleculeisgiven.

Hydrogen

Hydrogen:
atomicnumber:
atomicweight:

1
1,008g/mol

Oxygen:
atomicnumber:
atomicweight:

8
15,999g/mol
10

TheH2Omolecule
95,84 pm = 0,96

Oxygen

104,45

Hydrogen

29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

Hydrogen

Hydrogen(usually)consistsof:
1proton
0neutrons
1electron
Thishydrogenisotopeisknownasprotium
Hydrogen isotopedeuterium heavywater
Oxygenconsistsof:
8protons
8neutrons
8electrons
Inthewatermolecule,the10electrons pairup
intofive'orbitals:
1pairclosetotheoxygencore,
2pairsassociatedwiththeoxygenatom
as'outer'electrons,and
2pairsformingeachofthetwoidentical
OHcovalent bonds.
11

TheH2Omolecule
_

Oxygen
+

Hydrogen

Hydrogen

29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

12

TheH2Omolecule
Thesizeofamoleculedependsonits
electroniccharge.Consequently,when
hydrogenatomsaremissingoradded(ions),
thediameterchanges:
O2
=2,80
OH =2,74
H2O =2,75
H3O+ =2,76

Theseionsexist inallphases,sincetheH20
moleculesarecontinuouslyexchanging
hydrogenatomsbetweeneachother,
(i.e.protonationordeprotonation)
2H2O H3O+ +OH
AH2Omoleculestaysintactforonlya
millisecondinwater
29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

13

TheH2Omoleculeindifferentphases
DistanceH2Omolecules
HOHangle
CovalentOHlength

Vapor(gas)
300
104,47
0,957

Water(liquid)
2,98
105,9 0,4
0,991 0,07

Ice(solid)
2,76
106,6 1,5
0,966 0,24

TheshapeofanH2Omoleculeisneverconstant:

Inice,thedistancebetweenany2H2Omoleculesin1directionis2,76,butin
otherdirectionsthisdistanceislargerduetoitscrystalstructure.
Theexactpolycrystallinestructureoficedependsonthetypeconsidered
29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

14

IceTypes

Thereare16(known)crystallinephasesofice;
Acrystallinephase:thesituationwheretheoxygenatomsareinafixedposition
relativetoeachother,whilethehydrogenatomsmayormaynotbeproton
ordered butarealwaysobeyingthesocalledicerules.
Theicerulesare:
Therearealways2hydrogenatomsneareachoxygenatom,
(i.e.thewatermoleculestaysintact)
EachH2Omoleculehas4neighbours,
Thereisonly1hydrogenatombetweenany2oxygenatoms.

Nexttothecrystallinephasesofice,thereare3noncrystallinephases;
Thisissocalledamorphousice.Amorphousiceisformedifwateriscooled
extremelyquick(aroundatemperaturechangerateof106 K/S),sothattheH2O
moleculesdonothavetimetoformthecrystallattice.
AmorphousiceisthemostcommonformofH2Ointheuniverse;onearth
however,itonlyexistsinlaboratories.
29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

15

IceTypes
Hexagonalice(Ih)isthe
generaltypeoficeonearth.
Cubicice(Ic)isoccasionallyfound
intheearthsupperatmosphere.
Atnormalatmosphericpressure:
IceIh existsat80C0C
IceIc at273C80C
Iceeleven(XI)hasbeenfoundon
earthinancientAntarcticiceof
100010000yearsoldandis
basicallyaprotonorderedand
slightlydenserversionofhexagonal
ice(Ih).
1

29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

Icepolymorph

Density1(kg/m3)

Protons

Crystalstructure

Amorph(LDA,HDA,VHDA)

940,1170,1250

Disordered

Noncrystalline

Ih,Hexagonalice

917

Disordered

Hexagonal

Ic,CubicIce

917

Disordered

Cubic

II

1170

Ordered

Rhombohedral

III

1140

Disordered

Tetragonal

IV

1270

Disordered

Rhombohedral

1230

Disordered

Monoclinic

VI

1310

Disordered

Tetragonal

VII

1500

Disordered

Cubic

VIII

1460

Ordered

Tetragonal

IX

1160

Ordered

Tetragonal

2510

Symmetric

Cubic

XI

920

Ordered

Orthorhombic

XII

1290

Disordered

Tetragonal

XIII

1230

Ordered

Monoclinic

XIV

1290

Mostlyordered

Orthorhombic

XV

1300

Disordered

Pseudoorthorhombic

at atmospheric pressure
16

Thephasediagramofwater

29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

17

Hydrogenbonding

Ahydrogenbond(Hbond)isachemicalbondingthatoccurswhenahydrogen
atomfindsitselfbetween2highlyelectronegativeatoms,suchasN(Nitrogen),O
(oxygen)andF(Fluorine).
_

WhentheHbondforms,thehydrogennucleus
remainsbondedtotheclosestoxygenatom.
TheHbondis(mainly)anelectrostaticbond.

+
InaHbond,thehydrogenatomisknownas
Acceptor

anHbonddonorandtheelectronegativeatom
Donor
isknownastheHbondacceptor.

ThestrengthoftheHbondisabout5%ofa

covalentbondandvariesdependingonthe
Hydrogen Bonds
Donor
orientationofsurroundingH2Omolecules
Hydrogenbondingishighlydirectionaland
therebyrestrictsthenumberofadjacent
H2Omoleculesto(about)4;Inliquids,thereisroomforalargernumber.

29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

18

Tetrahedralshape
ThedifferentH2Omoleculesinhexagonal
icearehydrogenbonded to4adjacent
H2Omoleculesinatetrahedralshape.
TheOOdistanceis2,75at0K(273C),and
about2,76at0C(+273K).

Hydrogen Bonds

Theangle ofaperfecttetrahedron:

2 tan1 2 109, 47
TheOOOangle:
Inhexagonalice:
Incubicice:

=109,47 0,16
=109,47 (exactly)

2,76

106,6

109,47

NotethattheHOHangle isNOTexactly
equaltotheOOOangle,althoughthey
areoftendepictedasbeingequal.
29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

19

BernalFowlerrules
TheBernalFowlerrulesareanextensiontothegeneralicerulestospecifically
describethecrystalstructureof(pure)hexagonalice.
TheBernalFowlerrulesare:
1. TheH2Omoleculeispreserved;ergo,2hydrogenatomsresideneareach
oxygenatom(andthelengthofthecovalentOHbondis0,96),
2. EachH2Omoleculeishydrogenbondedto4adjacentH2Omoleculesina
tetrahedralshape,
3. Thereisalwaysonly1hydrogenatombetweenany2oxygenatoms,
4. IceIh isprotondisordered,i.e.thelocationofthehydrogenatomsisnot
fixed.Consequently,rules13maybesatisfiedinanyconfiguration.
Availableconfiguration
optionsthatobeythe
BernalFowlerrules

29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

20

Crystalstructureofhexagonalice

View of the
Basal plane

Basal
planes

Side view

c-axis

Side view

Basal planes

29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

principal
hexagonal,
c-axis
or
optical axis

21

CrystalstructureofCubicice
View of cubic ice
along the c-axis

Hexagonal view
of cubic ice

29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

22

CrystalstructureofHexagonalice

View of the
Basal plane

Basal
planes

Unit Cell

Side view

60

c-axis

Side view

Basal planes

29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

principal
hexagonal,
c-axis
or
optical axis

23

UnitcelloficeIh
Theunitcellisthefundamentalbuildingblockofthe
crystalstructureofice;Bystackingunitcellsfaceto
faceinperfectalignment,thecomplete3D
crystallographicstructureisconstructed.

a
a

Propertiesoftheunitcell:
Aparallelepiped(6parallelograms).
The8Oatomsontheverticesareeach
sharedbetween8unitcells.
The4Oatomsontheedgesareeach
sharedbetween4unitcells.
Thereare2Oatomswithintheunitcell.
Consequently,thereareexactly4Oatoms
inaunitcell.(81/8+41/4+2=4)
Thebasalplanesatthetopandbottomare
sharedbetweenstackingunitcells.Thus,
thereare2basalplanesinsidetheunitcell.
29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

c-axis

24

PropertiesoftheiceIhcrystal
a

EachOatomhas3Hbonds inthebasal
plane,andonly1Hbond perpendicularto
theBasalplane,i.e.alongthecaxis.

Consequently,fracturealongthebasal
planeinvolvestheruptureof2Hbonds in
theunitcell,whilefracturealonganyplane
normaltothebasalplanerequiresthe
breakingofatleast4Hbonds.

c-axis

Thus,hexagonalicefailsbyglidingand
cleavingalongthebasalplane,ratherthen
byfracturingalongthecaxis.
Thus,iceisanisotropic

29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

25

PropertiesoftheiceIhcrystal

ThecrystallinestructureoficeIh causesicetoformintothetypicalhexagonalshapethat
isalsorecognizedinsnowflakes.
Snowflakebranchingoccursbecausebranchessproutfromthecornersoftheinitial
hexagonalprismasH2Omoleculesmosteasilyattachthemselvesthere.
Thefinalshapeofasnowflakedependsonthetemperatureofthesurrounding.
Theicedepictedhereis
protonordered

Prism faces
29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

Basal face

c-axis
26

Protonordering

Protonorderediceisicewitharegulararrangementandplacementofthehydrogen
atoms;i.e.thereisasequenceintheplacementofhydrogenatoms.
Inprotondisorderedice,thehydrogenatomsareNOTarrangedregularly.
TheironlyorderingisgivenbythesatisfactionoftheBernalFowlerrules.
Sincethebreakupofprotonorderingdoesnottakelotsofenergy,protonordered
icecanonlyexistattemperatures<80 C(193K).
Hexagonaliceisprotondisordered.

29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

27

Defectsinice
IcethatobeystheBernalFowlerrulesistermedanidealcrystalstructure.Usualoccurrences
oficehowever,arenotidealcrystalstructures,asanidealcrystalstructurewouldbe
extremelydifficulttodeformwhenallHbondsareinplace.
TheseerrorsinthecrystalstructureoficeareviolationsoftheBernalFowlerrulesandare
knownasdefects:
Somedefectsmayoccurduetoprotonation(H3O+)ordeprotonation (OH).
Duetoshearingofbasalplanesalongeachotherinicethatisprotondisordered,D
orLdefectsintheidealcrystalstructureoficecanoccur.
(fromGerman:DoppelandLeer).

Ideal

29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

D-defect

L-defect

28

Defectsinice
Nexttodefectsduetomisplacedprotonsorhydrogen
atoms,theremayalsooccurdefectsthatinvolvecomplete
molecules.
Forexample,anH2Omoleculemaybe
missingcompletely.(vacancy)
Or,thereisamoleculeotherthanH2Ositting
inalocationwithinthestructurewherean
H2Omoleculeshouldbe.(impurity)
Additionally,insideeachboxofhexagonal
ice,thereisenoughemptyspacetocontain
aweakhydrogenbondedH2Omolecule;
Thisisasocalledinterstitial molecule.

Asicegrowsolder,itscrystalstructurebecomes
moreidealandthusstronger.
29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

29

Defectsinice:Overview
Defects

Type

Remarks

H3O+

H2Omoleculewithanadditionalproton

OH

H2Omoleculewithaprotonmissing

Ddefect

OObondwithtwoprotonsonornearit

Ldefect

OObondwithnoprotononit

Vacancy

H2Omoleculemissingfromicestructure

Interstitial

H2Omoleculenotatastructureposition

Impuritymolecule

MoleculeotherthanH2Oataicestructureposition

Electronexcitation

Placewhereanelectronisexcitedfromitsgroundstate

Linedefects

Dislocation

Boundarylineofaregionwherepartofthecrystalhasbeen
displacedrelativetoanother

Planedefects

Stackingfault

Aplaneonwhichthestackingsequenceisnotwhatitshould
beinthestructure

Pointdefects

29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

30

Iceformationandicegrowth

Nowthatweknowallaboutthecrystallinestructureofice,
letsusethisknowledgetounderstandhowiceformsandgrows
29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

31

Iceformation
Thefreezingpointofseawaterislowerthan
thefreezingpointofpurewater(0C),dueto
thepresenceofcompoundsotherthenwater;
thisisknownasfreezingpointdepression.
Inthiscase,theabundantcompoundin
seawaterotherthenH2Oissodium
chloride(NaCl),togetherwithothersalts.
Seawaterwithasalinityof35(ppt)
hasafreezingpointof1,93C.

Salt

NaCl

68,10

MgCl2

14,44

Na2SO4

11,37

CaCl2

3,19

KCl

1,19

NaHCO3

0,55

other

0,44

Astheairaboveanoceanstartscoolingdowntheseasurfacebelowitsfreezing
point,theupperlayeroftheseabecomes(slightly)supercooled andthefirst
moleculesintheseawaterstartforminghexagonalcrystalsofice.
Asupercooled liquidisaliquidatatemperaturebelowitsfreezingpoint
withoutitbecomingasolid(yet).
29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

32

Iceformation
Whenseawaterfreezes,thesaltisexpelledcompletelyfromthefirstflatice
plateletsthatform.Theseplateletsthereforeexistofalmostpureice.
Duetotheirsize,NaCl orsaltionscannot be
incorporatedintothehexagonalcrystallattice
oftheiceandneither dotheyfitintotheice
crystalasinterstitialmolecules:
V(H2O) 1303,OOdistance2,76
V(NaCl) 1793,ClCldistance5,64
Therefore,thesaltcrystalsarerejectedfromthe
icewhiletheicecrystalsareforming.
Consequently,theformingoficeonthewatersurfaceisaccompanied
byanincreaseofsalinity inthesurroundingwater.
29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

33

Iceformationincalmwaters
Whentheoceaniscalm,onlyathintoplayerissupercooled:
Theinitiallyformedicecrystalswillgrow
intohexagonalneedleswhosecaxes
areparalleltotheneedleaxis.
Theorientationoftheseneedleformed
crystalsinwaterisgenerallycompletely
random.
c-axis
Theneedleswilltendtogrowalongthe
basalplaneintothewater,i.e.acrossthe
widthoftheneedle.

29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

basal plane

34

Iceformationincalmwaters
Atsmalltemperaturegradients,crystallizationproceedsslowly:
Theinitialneedleswillfloathorizontally,and
Thecaxiswilltakeahorizontalorientation
Atlargertemperaturegradients(usual),thereisamorerapid
solidification:
Theinitialneedleswillinterlock,and
Thecaxiswillbecomerandomlyorientated
Independentofthetemperaturegradient,thehexagonalneedles
willgrowintodiscoids orfinespiculae oficethatstayatthewater
surface;thisisknownasfrazilice.

29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

Horizontal thin sections of ice


photographed through crossed
polarising filters.
35

Iceformationinroughwater

Usuallyatsea,windandwaveswillagitatethesurface
layer,mixingtheinitialicecrystalsneartheairwater
interfacewiththewaterbeneath,causingsuper cooling
toextendtodeeperlevels.
Thus,insteadoftheinitialicecrystalsstayingnear
theairwaterinterface,theyaresuspendedinthe
supercooled watercolumn.Thissuspensionoficecrystals
mayoccuruptoseveralmeters.
Naturalnucleationoftheinitialcrystalsinthe
supercooled watercolumnwillthencausetheformation
offrazilparticlesintheformofsmalldiscoids orfine
spiculae.
Inthiscase,thefrazilice particlesstaysuspendedinthe
supercooled watercolumn.
Frazilicehasagrainsize<2mm,andabrasionand
rotationofthefrazilparticlesrelativetooneanother
resultsinarandomcaxisorientation.
29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

Size discoids 1 mm

36

PrimaryorNewice
Whilethefrazilparticlesgrow,theywillrandomly
adheretoeachotherandcoagulatetoformasoupy
mixofsaltwaterandiceclumps;thiscompliant
highlysalineiceisknownasgreaseice.
Contrarytofrazilice,greaseicefloatsattheocean
surface,itreflectslittlelightandhasamattandoilyappearance.
Incorrespondencewithfrazilice,itscaxisisrandomlyorientated.
Eveninliterature,frazilandgreaseicearemixedupand/orusedtorefertothesame
typeofice:
greaseiceisonlyfoundinsaltwaterenvironments,while
fraziliceformsinturbulentfreshwaterenvironmentsaswell.
FrazilandgreaseicearebothconsideredastypesofPrimary(P)orNewice.
Nexttofrazilorgreaseice,newicecanformfromsnowthatissaturatedasitmixeswith
water,thistypeoficeisknownasslush(ice).
Incontinuingagitatedseas,slush,frazilorgreaseicemayformintoshuga;
anaccumulationoficeintospongywhiteicelumpsafewcentimetresacross.
29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

37

NilasandPancakeice

Whiletheicecontinuestogrowthicker,itforms
acontinuousthinelasticcrustoficethateasily
bendsonwavesandswell.Thisisknownasnilas.
Nilasmayexistas:
Darknilas;<5cmthick
Lightnilas;510cmthick
Duetoturbulenceattheseasurface,theeffective
supercooling isreducedsothatinsteadofforminga
continuouslayerofice,greaseice,slushorshuga may
formintoagglomeratesassmalldiscshapedpiecesof
ice.ThisisknownasPancakeice.
AtypicalfeatureofPancakeicearetheraisedrims,due
tothevariouspiecesstrikingintoeachother.
Pancakeiceisuptoabout10cmthickandthedisc
shapedpiecehaveadiameterof30cmto3m.
Pancakeicemayalsoform asaresultfrom
thebreakingofNilas.
29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

38

Consolidationofpancakeice

Whilepancakeiceformsinroughorturbulentwaters,piecesofpancakeice
mayraftorevenformridges.
Astheiceconcentrationincreases,theroughnessoftheseastateisreduced
andasaresult,thepancakeicestartstocoagulateandconsolidate.

29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

39

Thetransitionzone

Theinitiallayeroficethatnowcoversthesea
surfaceispolycrystalline,i.e.composedofmany
crystallites ofvaryingsizeandorientation.
Asthecrystallitesinice(i.e.domainsoficewitha
singlecrystalstructure)grow,themoleculesinthe
liquidphasepreferablyattachthemselvestothe
existingcrystallitesattheedgeofthebasalplane,
rathertheninthedirectionofthecaxis.
Therefore,crystalliteswiththeircaxisvertical
willmostlybewedgedoutbythecrystallites
withthemorepreferableorientations.
Associatedwiththiscompetitionbetweenthe
crystallitesisarapidincreaseingrainsize.
Theverticaldomainbelowtheinitialskim,where
thecrystalorientationhasarapidchangeis
knownasthetransitionzone.(530cm)
29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

basal planes
c-axis

40

Secondaryorcongelationice

Asicegrowthcontinuousbelowthetransitionzone,thedominanticecrystalshave
theircaxescompletelyhorizontal.Consequently,theorientationofbasalplanesis
vertical,causingtheicetogrowdownverticallyintothewaterbeneaththeicefloe.
Thispartoftheiceisknownasthecolumnarzone.
Inthecolumnarzone,eachindividualcrystalissubdividedintoanumberofice
plateletsthatarejoinedtogethertoproduce
aquasihexagonalnetwork.
Attheicewaterinterface,theindividualice
plateletsextendintotheseawaterlikefingers,
typically<0.25mmthickand>10mmwide.
Itsverticaldomainisabout10to50mm
andknownasthegrowthzoneorthe
skeleton(SK)layer.
Thetransition,columnarandgrowthzone
togetherareknownassecondaryor
Source: Lset et al.
congelationice.
29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

41

Plateletspacing
Thecharacteristicspacingbetweenplatelet
boundariesd0 isafunctionofthegrowth
velocity :

d0

d 0 const
Duringformationoficecrystalsinthegrowth
zone(SKlayer),thesupersaturatedbrinethat
replacestheseawaterslowssolidification.
Astheicegrowthisslowingdown,d0 becomes
largeratthebottomoftheicesheetasitgrows,
thustheiceplateletsbecomethickerastheice
sheetgrowsuntilacertainequilibrium.
Althoughthegrainsizechangesinthecolumnar
zone,thechangeisnotstriking.Themajorpartof
firstyearicesheetsconsistofsuchcolumnarice.
29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

42

Brine
Astheindividualiceplateletsjointogethersomegas
andsocalledbrinebecomesentrapped:
Brineiswaterthatissupersaturatedwithsalt.
Saltisexpelledfromthefirstplateletsthatform,
increasingthesalinityofthesurroundingwater.
AstheiceplateletstakeinH2Omoleculesfromthe
seawaterongrowth,theseawatersalinityincreases
further.
Then,duetothegrowthprocessintheSKlayer,
thesaltinseaiceaccumulatesandisincluded
alongtheplateletboundariesintheformof
liquidorsolidinclusions.
Thenowisolatedbrineinclusionsarecalled
brinepockets.Thebrineinthebrinepocketsremains
liquidbecausemuchlowertemperatureswouldbe
requiredtofreezethehighlysalinebrine.
29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

43

Brinedrainage

drainage tube

Astheicesheetcontinuestogrowandbecomes
colder,thebrinebetweentheiceplatesdrains
outleavingbehindairpockets,thisisdueto:
Freezingofwaterinthebrine,
Expulsionanddrainageprocessesaidedbygravity.
Brineexpulsionanddrainagealwaysoccuralongaflowroute
thatresemblesthetrunkandbranchesofatree;respectively
calledthedrainagetubeanddrainagechannels.

drainage
channels

Asaresultofthis,thesalinityofseaicedecreases
asitbecomesolder.
And,asicebecomesolderitsdensityincreases.
Inseaice,thesalinityvarieswithdepth;thesalinity
islowerinthemiddle,whilethesalinityatthetop
andbottomishigher.
29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

44

Brinicles

29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

45

Summaryoftheicegrowthprocess
Calm water
(congelation path)

Frazil Ice

Rough water
(pancake path)

Grease ice

Shuga

Nilas

Pancake ice

Rafting

Rafting or Ridging

Congelation ice

Cementing and
consolidation

Smooth bottom

29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

First year
level ice

Rough bottom

46

Structureoffirstyearlevelice
Primaryice:
InitialSkim
Secondaryice:
TransitionZone
ColumnarZone
SkeletonLayer
Brine Drainage
Channels

Nexttoprimaryandsecondaryice,
thereisalsosuperimposedice;
Thisisicethatformsontopofthe
initialicelayer;Itusuallyforms
fromprecipitation,butmayalso
formduetoflooding.

Ref: Weeks, 1982

29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

47

Sympagic Ecosystem
Whilebrineandairpocketsform,organisms,suchasbacteria,diatoms,algaeand
plankton,livingintheseawatergetenclosedandengageinphotosynthesis.Throughout
thelifeofanicefloetheselifeformsremainwithinthebrinesystem.
Atthebottomoftheicesheet,animalslikesocalledflatwormsandcrustaceansenter
thebrinechannels.Thesesympagic wormspecies
arecommonlyknownasiceworms!
Asicegrowsolderandthebrinegetspushedout,
thesympagic ecosystem remainsnearthe
bottomoftheicesheet.

29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

48

Developmentandstagesoficecover
Stage

Descriptionandsubdivision
Recentlyformedice
Frazilice

NeworPrimaryice

Greaseice

Finespiculaeorplatesofice,suspendedinwater.
Alaterstageoffreezingthanfrazilicewhenthecrystalshavecoagulated.Greaseicereflectslittlelight
givingtheseaamattappearance.

Slush

Snowwhichissaturatedandmixedwithwateronlandoricesurfaces.

Shuga

Accumulatedspongywhiteicelumps,afewcentimetersacross.Theyareformedfromfraziliceorslush.

Athinelasticcrustofice(<0.1mthick),easilybendingonwavesandswell.
Nilas

Darknilas

<0.05mthick.

Lightnilas

>0.05mthick.

Icerind
Pancakeice

Abrittleshinycrustoficeformedonaquietsurfacebydirectfreezingorfromgreaseice,usuallyinwater
oflowsalinity.
(<0.05mthick)

Predominantlycircularpiecesoficefrom0.33mindiameter,anduptoabout0.1minthickness,withraisedrimsduetothepieces
strikingagainstoneanother.Itmaybeformedonaslightswellfromgreaseice,slushorshugaorasaresultofthebreakingoficerind,
nilas,or,underseverconditionsofswellorwaves,ofgreyice.
Iceinthetransitionstagebetweennilasandfirstyearice,0.1 0.3mthick

Youngice

Greyice
Greywhiteice

Youngiceof0.1 015mthick.Lesselasticthannilasandbreaksonswell.Usuallyraftsunderpressure.
Youngiceof0.15 0.30mthick.Underpressuremorelikelytoridgethantoraft.

Seaiceofnotmorethanonewintersgrowth,developingfromyoungice.
Firstyearice

Thinfirstyearice

0.3 0.7mthick.

Mediumthickfirstyearice

0.7 1.2mthick.

Thickfirstyearice

1.2 2.0mthick.

Seaicethathassurvivedatleastonesummersmelt.Mosttopographicfeaturesaresmootherthanonfirstyearice
Oldice

Secondyearice
Multiyearice

29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

Oldicesurvivingonlyonesummersmelt(<2.5mthick)
Oldiceupto3mormorethickwhichhassurvivedatleasttwosummersmeltandhasalowsalinity.
49

Oldice

Roger Andersen, Polar Science Centre

29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

50

Icethicknessgrowth
Thegrowthoficethicknessduringacertaintimeperiodisinfluencedbythemean
airtemperatureandtheheightofsnowontopoftheicesheet.Anempirical
equationforicethicknessgrowthwasfoundbyDoronin &Kheisin in1975as:

h m
Where:

m h0

405 Ta

Ta : mean daily air temperature


m : empirical coefficient depending on snow height
h0 : initial ice thickness
h : resulting ice thickness
The sum is taken over the number of days in the period

29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

51

Maximumicethickness
Themaximumthicknessofundisturbedlevelicegrownin1wintercanbefoundas:

h aCFDD b
Where: h

: ice thickness
: site specific constant

b
: heat conduction exponent, b 0,5 for linear heat conduction
CFDD : accumulated freezing degree days

Themaximumthermallygrownlevelseaicethicknessesareintherangeof2
meterfortheArcticregion.
Theheatfluxinwaterhasasignificantinfluenceonicethicknessgrowth;when
theheatfluxthroughtheseaisequaltothefluxthroughtheice,theice
thicknessgrowthstops

29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

52

Freezingdegreedays
Accumulatedfreezingdegreedays(CFDD)forawinterisameansof
characterizingthegeneralseverityoficeandweatherconditions.
ThenumberoffreezingdegreedaysisthenumberofCthatthemeanair
temperatureisbelowthefreezingpointofwater.

Where:

CFDD

Ta

mean daily air temperature in C

Tb :

the freezing point of water in C,

Tb

1, 76C for sea water of 32 ppt salinity,


1,93 C for sea water of 35 ppt salinity
The sum is taken over the number of days in winter
Onlythedayswithanaveragetemperaturebelowfreezingpointareused
29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

53

Localconditions

29April,2014
IcePhysics
OE4680ArcticEngineering
MScOffshore&DredgingEngineering

54