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00

Printed in Great Britain. # 2002 TEMPUS Publications.

Diagrams*

C. MEI

Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of MichiganÐDearborn, 4901 Evergreen Road,

Dearborn, MI 48128, USA. E-mail: cmei@umich.edu

Due to their simplicity and versatility, block diagrams are widely used by control engineers to

model all types of dynamic systems. The complexity of a block diagram is in general caused by the

existence of summing/pickoff points within a loop. A novel concept, the main/branch stream

concept and the corresponding shifting rule for the relocation of summing/pickoff points are

introduced in this paper. It is found that the new concept and the corresponding shifting rule greatly

help the simplification of block diagrams and make teaching the simplification of block diagrams

much easier.

OF THE PAPER in addition to author's notes:

1. The paper discusses materials/software for a K. Ogata, Modern Control Engineering, 3rd

edition, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, (1997).

course in Control Engineering.

B. C. Kuo, Automatic Control Systems, 7th

2. Students from the Mechanical Engineering and

edition, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, (1995).

Electrical Engineering departments are taught

in this course.

3. Level of the course (year) is Senior (4th year) as

a regular course presented as lectures and labs.

4. The course is normally a 4-credit-hour course

(that is, 4 lecture-hours weekly) 1. INTRODUCTION

5. Student homework or revision hours required

for the materials average 4 hours weekly. MOST PHYSICAL systems can be repre-

6. A novel concept, the main/branch stream con- sented by block diagramsÐa group of properly

interconnected blocks, with each interconnected

cept and the corresponding shifting rule for the

block representing and describing a portion of

relocation of summing/pickoff points are intro- the system [1±4]. In control engineering, the

duced in this paper. The introduction of the block diagram is a primary tool that together

shifting rule eliminates the necessity of the with transfer functions can be used to describe

existence of dozens of block diagram algebra- cause-and-effect relationships throughout a

related rules, hence it greatly helps the simpli- dynamic system. The manipulation of block

fication of block diagrams and makes teaching diagrams adheres to a mathematical system of

the simplification of block diagrams much rules often known as block diagram algebra.

easier. In general, the interrelationships of causes and

697

698 C. Mei

Fig. 4. Basic block diagram algebra with regard to a general feedback loop.

Fig. 5. Example rules related to the simplification of block diagrams using block diagram algebra.

On Teaching the Simplification of Block Diagrams 699

effects of a system are not straightforward and the B. The current practice in the simplification of

simplification of block diagrams is required. The block diagrams using block diagram algebra

signal flow graph (SFG) developed by Mason The block diagram is in general complicated by

[5±6], which is based on a representation of a the existence of the summing/pickoff point(s)

system by line segments, is used to simplify block within a loop. However the simplification of the

diagrams. When using the SFG method, the block diagram can always be achieved through the

cause-and-effect relationships are normally relocation of such summing/pickoff point(s)

obtained by applying `Mason's gain formula'. appropriately. In the current practice of simplify-

Applying the formula however involves a rela- ing block diagrams using block diagram algebra, in

tively complex process such as identifying the addition to the three basic rules described in part A

nodes, the various paths (forward/loop, touch- (Figs 2 to 4), various numbers of other rules are

ing/non-touching) and calculating the corres- introduced in various textbooks with regard to the

ponding path gains. Block diagrams can also be relocation of the summing/pickoff point(s). Each

simplified using the rules of `block diagram rule involves a pair of equivalent block diagram.

algebra'. This too is a relatively complex process For example, Fig. 5 lists some of the rules intro-

where up to 33 rules were introduced [7] that may duced in [1]. The equivalency is not hard to verify

need to be applied. by tracing the signals at the input through to

In this paper, a novel concept, the concept of the output and recognizing the output signal is

main/branch stream and the corresponding shifting identical in the corresponding cases.

rule are introduced to simplify the complexity of However, it is hard enough for the students to

the rules in the simplification of block diagrams memorize such rules, not to mention to let them

using the block diagram algebra. decide when to use which rule while facing a

A brief review of the block diagram basics is complex block diagram.

presented in part A of section II. The current

practice in the simplification of block diagrams C. The proposed alternative approach in the

and the proposed alternative approach in the simplification of block diagrams by using the novel

simplification of block diagrams using the novel main/branch stream concepts and the

main/branch stream concepts and the corres- corresponding shifting rule

ponding shifting rule are described in part B and The main/branch stream is defined as following:

C of section II respectively. Two illustrative At a summing point or pickoff point, there are

examples are given in section III, which is followed signals flowing in and out. The signal flow that

by the conclusion. goes in the unique direction, either into or out of

the summing/ pickoff point, is defined as the main

stream and the rest of the signal flows are defined

II. THE BLOCK DIAGRAMS

as branch streams.

A. Block diagram basics With the introduction of the main/branch

In general, the block diagram of a linear time stream concepts, summing/pickoff point(s) can be

invariant system consists of four components, easily relocated for the purpose of simplification

namely signal, block (with transfer function), by simply following the shifting rule described

summing point and pickoff point as shown below below:

in Fig. 1. To remove a block G away from a main stream,

The basic block diagram algebra involves a block G is to be added to each branch stream; to

algebra with regard to series/cascaded blocks, remove a block G away from a branch stream, a

parallel blocks and a general feedback loop, as block G is to be added to the main stream and a

shown in Fig. 2 to 4. Series blocks combine with block 1/G to be added to each of the rest branch

each other by multiplication and parallel blocks streams.

combine with each other by algebraic addition. Now let us go back to the equivalent block

The combined block is interchangeable in diagram pairs listed in Fig. 5. Firstly, we identify

sequence in both cases. The simplification of the main stream and the branch streams of each

the general feedback loop described in Fig. 4 block with regard to its summing/pickoff point. It

can be obtained by performing simple algebraic is not hard to see from the definition that the

operation around the loop, which can be found highlighted darker line represents the main

in most textbooks on control engineering [e.g. stream in each case. The equivalency between the

1±4]. pair of block diagrams is then easily obtained by

Note that the understanding of the properties of simply applying one single ruleÐthe shifting rule.

summing junction in series is crucial in the simpli- It should also be pointed out that pickoff points

fication of some block diagrams: summing points are not summing points. However, their use

in series can be interchanged, combined and separ- follows the same main/branch stream related shift-

ated algebraically. The equivalency of summing ing rule; this again, greatly simplifies the rules with

junction in series to mathematical summer is self- regard to the simplification of block diagrams.

explanatory. From the above analysis, it is not hard to see

that the new main/branch stream concepts and the

corresponding shifting rule eliminate the necessity

700 C. Mei

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f )

Fig. 6. (a) Block diagram of a dynamic system; (b)±(f) successive reductions of the block diagram.

On Teaching the Simplification of Block Diagrams 701

Table 1. Rules to be applied for simplifying the block diagram shown in Fig. 6(a)

The current approach The proposed alternative approach

Rules to be applied

From (a) to (b) Rule 1 Shifting Rule

From (b) to (c) Rule 4 Shifting Rule

From (c) to (f) The basic rules described in Part A

a

b1

c1

d1

e1

f1

g1

702 C. Mei

b2

c2

d2

e2

f2

g2

Fig. 7. (a) Block diagram of a dynamic system; (b1)±(g1) successive reductions of the block diagram by relocating summing point A;

(b2)±(g2) successive reductions by relocating pickoff point B.

Table 2. Rules to be applied for simplifying the block diagram shown in Fig. 7(a)

The current approach The proposed alternative approach

Rules to be applied

From (b1) to (c1) Rule 2 Shifting rule

From (b2) to (c2) Rule 4 Shifting rule

From (c) to (g) The basic rules described in Part A

On Teaching the Simplification of Block Diagrams 703

of the introduction of dozens of block diagram pickoff points B within the loops. The block

algebra related rules (such as the ones listed in diagram can be simplified by either relocating

Fig. 5) in the simplification of block diagrams. As summing A or pickoff B. The successive reductions

a result, it greatly simplifies the complexity of the are shown in Figs (b1) to (g1) and Figs (b2) to (g2)

rules of the block diagram algebra and makes the respectively.

simplification of block diagrams a much easier The rules that need to be applied for each

task. successive reduction in the current practice and

by using the proposed alternative approach are

summarized in Table 2.

III. THE SIMPLIFICATION OF BLOCK The examples demonstrate that with the intro-

DIAGRAMSÐILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES duction of the shifting rule, it is no longer

necessary to memorize dozens of rules related to

Two example block diagrams are to be simpli- block diagram algebra. This greatly helps the

fied. The same block diagram is simplified using simplification of block diagrams.

both the current approach and the proposed

alternative approach. Comparisons are made.

As a first example, let us have a look at the

simplification of the block diagram as shown in IV. CONCLUSIONS

Fig. 6. The block diagram is complicated due to

the existence of summing points (S2 and S3) and In this paper, the novel main/branch stream

pickoff points (P1 and P2) within the loops, as is concepts and the corresponding shifting rule for

normally the case. To simplify the block diagram, the relocation of summing/pickoff points are

it is necessary to relocate such summing and pick- introduced. The introduction of the shifting rule

off points so as to move them out of the loops. eliminates the necessity of the existence of dozens

In Fig. 6, (a) shows the block diagram of an of block diagram algebra-related rules. Block

example dynamic system and figures (b) to (f) diagrams can be simplified with the shifting rule

show the successive reductions of the block and the three basic rules with regard to the

diagram. The rules that need to be applied for simplification of series/cascaded blocks, parallel

each successive reduction in the current practice blocks and a general feedback loop without diffi-

and by using the proposed alternative approach culty, as demonstrated by the illustrative examples.

are summarized in Table 1. The introduction of the new concept and the

As a second example, we simplify the multiple- corresponding shifting rule greatly helps the

loop system as shown in Fig. 7 [Figs 3±9 in simplification of block diagrams and makes teach-

Reference 1]. The block diagram is complicated ing the simplification of block diagrams a much

due to the existence of summing point A and easier task.

REFERENCES

1. K. Ogata, Modern Control Engineering, 3rd Edition, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey,

(1997).

2. G. F. Franklin, J. D. Powell and A. Emami-Naeini, Feedback Control Dynamic Systems, 3rd

Edition, Addison-Wesley Publishing, (1994).

3. R. C. Dorf, Modern Control Systems, 5th Edition, Addison-Wesley Publishing, (1989).

4. B. C. Kuo, Automatic Control Systems, 7th Edition, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New

Jersey, (1995).

5. S. J. Mason, Feedback theoryÐsome properties of signal flow graphs, Proc. IRE, 41(9)

pp. 1144±1156 (1953).

6. S. J. Mason, Feedback theoryÐfurther properties of signal flow graphs, Proc. IRE, 44(7),

pp. 920±926 (1956).

7. N. M. Karayanakis, Advanced System Modeling and Simulation with Block Diagram Languages,

CRC Press, Inc. (1995).

Chunhui Mei received her Ph.D. from the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the

University of Auckland, New Zealand in 1999. She received both her M.E. and B.E. degrees

from the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Beijing University of Posts and

Telecommunications in 1987 and 1989 respectively. Chunhui is currently an Assistant

Professor at the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Michigan Ð

Dearborn. She teaches courses at both graduate and undergraduate level on Control

Engineering, Mechanical Measurements and Instrumentation, Mechatronics and

Vibrations. Her research interests are in dynamics, controls and vibrations.

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