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Biological Nutrient Removal

Draft Basis of Design Report

Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant

Sacramento Regional County Sanitation District

Version 1.0

September 2012

Biological Nutrient Removal


Draft Basis of Design Report

Contents
1.0 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Purpose ............................................................................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Background ......................................................................................................................................................... 1
1.3 Flows and Loads ................................................................................................................................................. 3
2.0 Project Elements ................................................................................................................................... 6
2.1.1 Overall Program Site Plan ........................................................................................................................... 6
2.1.2 Overall Site Plan of the BNR ...................................................................................................................... 9
2.1.3 Mass Balance .............................................................................................................................................. 9
2.2 Hydraulic Profile Design Requirements ........................................................................................................... 11
2.3 Primary Effluent Flow Distribution .................................................................................................................. 11
2.3.1 Basis of Design ......................................................................................................................................... 11
2.3.2 Design Criteria .......................................................................................................................................... 12
2.3.3 Flow Distribution ...................................................................................................................................... 12
2.3.4 Features ..................................................................................................................................................... 12
2.3.5 Civil Design .............................................................................................................................................. 13
2.3.6 Structural Design....................................................................................................................................... 13
2.4 Chemical Feed - Alkalinity ............................................................................................................................... 14
2.4.1 Basis of Design ......................................................................................................................................... 14
2.4.2 Design Criteria .......................................................................................................................................... 15
2.4.3 Features ..................................................................................................................................................... 15
2.5 BNR Basin Configuration ................................................................................................................................. 16
2.5.1 Basis of Design and Design Criteria ......................................................................................................... 16
2.5.2 Configuration ............................................................................................................................................ 18
2.5.3 Features for BNR Basins ........................................................................................................................... 19
2.6 BNR Orientation ............................................................................................................................................... 19
2.6.1 Features for Channels and Pipe Chase ...................................................................................................... 20
2.6.2 Civil Design .............................................................................................................................................. 20
2.6.3 Structural Design....................................................................................................................................... 20
2.6.4 Electrical Design ....................................................................................................................................... 20
2.7 Aeration Diffusers ............................................................................................................................................ 20
2.7.1 Basis of Design ......................................................................................................................................... 20
2.7.2 Design Criteria .......................................................................................................................................... 21
2.7.3 Results from Business Case Evaluation .................................................................................................... 22
2.7.4 Features ..................................................................................................................................................... 23
2.8 Anoxic Zone Mixers ......................................................................................................................................... 24
2.8.1 Basis of Design ......................................................................................................................................... 24
2.8.2 Design Criteria .......................................................................................................................................... 24
2.8.3 Results from Business Case Evaluation .................................................................................................... 24
2.8.4 Features ..................................................................................................................................................... 25
2.9 Mixed Liquor Return Pumps ............................................................................................................................ 25
2.9.1 Basis of Design ......................................................................................................................................... 25
2.9.2 Design Criteria .......................................................................................................................................... 26
2.9.3 Results from Business Case Evaluation .................................................................................................... 26
2.9.4 Features ..................................................................................................................................................... 27
2.10 Mixed Liquor Channel and Secondary Sedimentation Tank Splitter.............................................................. 27
2.10.1 Basis of Design ....................................................................................................................................... 27
2.10.2 Design Criteria ........................................................................................................................................ 27
2.10.3 Size and Configuration ............................................................................................................................ 27
2.10.4 Features ................................................................................................................................................... 28

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2.11 Blower Building.............................................................................................................................................. 28
2.11.1 Basis of Design ....................................................................................................................................... 28
2.11.2 Design Criteria ........................................................................................................................................ 28
2.11.3 Results from Business Case Evaluation .................................................................................................. 29
2.11.4 Features ................................................................................................................................................... 30
2.11.5 Civil Design ............................................................................................................................................ 31
2.11.6 Architectural Design ............................................................................................................................... 31
2.11.7 Structural Design..................................................................................................................................... 31
2.11.8 HVAC and Plumbing .............................................................................................................................. 32
2.11.9 Electrical Design ..................................................................................................................................... 32
2.11.10 Area Control Center .............................................................................................................................. 33
2.11.11 Architectural Design (ACC Building) ................................................................................................... 34
2.12 RAS Pipeline Extension.................................................................................................................................. 34
2.12.1 Basis of Design ....................................................................................................................................... 35
2.13 RAS Reaeration and Distribution ................................................................................................................... 35
2.13.1 Basis of Design ....................................................................................................................................... 35
2.13.2 Design Criteria ........................................................................................................................................ 35
2.13.3 . Features ................................................................................................................................................. 36
2.14 Classifying Selectors and WAS Pumping Station .......................................................................................... 36
2.14.1 Basis of Design ....................................................................................................................................... 36
2.14.2 Design Criteria ........................................................................................................................................ 37
2.14.3 BCE Results ............................................................................................................................................ 37
2.14.4 Features ................................................................................................................................................... 39
2.14.5 Electrical Design ..................................................................................................................................... 40
2.15 Side Stream Pump Station .............................................................................................................................. 40
2.15.1 Basis of Design ....................................................................................................................................... 40
2.15.2 Design Criteria ........................................................................................................................................ 40
2.15.3 Electrical ................................................................................................................................................. 43
2.16 Side Stream Treatment.................................................................................................................................... 43
2.17 Site Work ........................................................................................................................................................ 43
2.17.1 Civil Design ............................................................................................................................................ 43
2.18 Site Utilities .................................................................................................................................................... 45
2.18.1 Basis of Design ....................................................................................................................................... 45
2.18.2 Design Criteria ........................................................................................................................................ 46
2.19 Site Electrical .................................................................................................................................................. 46
2.19.1 Substation ................................................................................................................................................ 46
2.20 Contractor Support Facilities and Laydown Area ........................................................................................... 46
2.20.1 Basis of Design ....................................................................................................................................... 46

Appendix A 181 mgd ADWF Mass Balance ......................................................................................... A


Appendix B 206 mgd ADWF Mass Balance ......................................................................................... B

List of Tables
Table 1. BODR Reference Documents .......................................................................................................................... 2
Table 2. SRWTP Raw Influent Flows and Loads for Year 2020................................................................................... 3
Table 3. SRWTP Raw Influent Flows and Loads for 181 mgd ADWF......................................................................... 4
Table 4. SRWTP Raw Influent Flows and Loads for 206 mgd ADWF......................................................................... 4
Table 5. BioWin Default Parameters ........................................................................................................................... 11
Table 6. Hydraulic Design Flow Criteria..................................................................................................................... 12
Table 7. Hydraulic Conveyance Elements Phasing ..................................................................................................... 12
Table 8. Alkalinity Feed Design flows used in the Basis of Design for Chemical Feed ............................................. 14

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Table 9. Alkalinity Equivalent Doses of Alkalinity Chemicals ................................................................................... 14
Table 10. Summary Design Criteria for New BNR Tanks .......................................................................................... 16
Table 11. Hydraulic Conveyance Elements ................................................................................................................. 18
Table 12. Aeration Diffuser Oxygen demand at ADWF of 181 mgd .......................................................................... 21
Table 13. Aeration Diffuser Oxygen demand at start-up year 2020 ............................................................................ 21
Table 14. Aeration Diffuser BCE Life Cycle Cost Summary ...................................................................................... 22
Table 15. Aeration Basin BCE Advantages, Cons, and Risks of Preferred Alternative Diffusers .............................. 23
Table 16. Anoxic and Swing Zone Conceptual Dimensions ....................................................................................... 24
Table 17. Anoxic Zone Mixers Financial Impact Summary ........................................................................................ 24
Table 18. Anoxic Zone Mixers Advantages, Disadvantages and Risks of Different Type of Mixers ......................... 25
Table 19. Design Flows used in the Basis of Design of MLR Pumps ......................................................................... 26
Table 20. Life Cycle Cost Summary ........................................................................................................................... 26
Table 21. Pros, Cons, and Risks of MLR Pumps......................................................................................................... 26
Table 22. Life Cycle Cost Summary for Blower Options............................................................................................ 29
Table 23. Advantages, Disadvantages, and Risks of Blower Options ......................................................................... 30
Table 24. RAS Reaeration Basin Basis of Design ....................................................................................................... 35
Table 25. Basis of Design Flow ................................................................................................................................... 37
Table 26. Advantages and Disadvantages and Risks ................................................................................................... 38
Table 27. Summary of Life Cycle Costs...................................................................................................................... 39
Table 28 Flow from SSBs at 2 and 100 year Return Frequency .................................................................................. 41
Table 29. Side Stream Pump Station Capacity ............................................................................................................ 41
Table 30. Side Stream Pump Station Elevation Analysis ............................................................................................ 42
Table 31. Pros, Cons, and Risks of Submersible and Top Mounted pumps ................................................................ 42
Table 32. Side Stream Preliminary Pump Selection .................................................................................................... 42

List of Figures
Figure 1. Existing Facilities Process Schematic ............................................................................................................ 5
Figure 2. BNR Flow Schematic ..................................................................................................................................... 7
Figure 3. Overall Program Site Plan .............................................................................................................................. 8
Figure 4. Overall BNR Project Site Plan ..................................................................................................................... 10
Figure 5. Conceptual BNR Basin ................................................................................................................................ 18

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1.0 Introduction
1.1 Purpose
The purpose of this basis of design report (BODR) is to provide the Biological Nutrient
Removal (BNR) system Designer with the basic process design, conceptual layout, and
preliminary physical sizing of the BNR basins for the project. It also provides links to key
documents and information necessary for a more complete understanding of the project. In
addition, the BODR presents design information that is specific to the unit processes and
functions of the BNR.
There are several steps described in the RFP to finalize this BODR including:
1. BODR confirmation will be conducted in a series of meeting where the designer,
District, and PMO staff review the information contained in the BODR and BCEs and
arrive at an initial agreement for moving forward. Finalization of the BODR process
will be documented by the Designer as part of technical memorandum #1 and Predesign Report (PDR) documentation. District staff will be heavily involved in the
finalization of the BODR and agreement to moving forward with the PDR phase.
2. The production of the PDR includes the production of several technical memoranda
(TMs) for each unit process and disciplines associated with the BNR. During that
process focused meetings will include District Staff to continuously define the project
leading to the design submittal phases.
3. The design submittal phases will include review by PMO and District staff to confirm
that the design is following the BODR intent and updated developments regarding
Regional Water Quality Control Board permit requirements.
The design consultant for this project is to meet the current NPDES requirements for treatment
limitations as specified by the NPDES permit. However, it is acknowledged that treatment
requirements may change and flexibility in the design must be built in.
Each of the process elements is presented. For each, the basis of design, design criteria (as
distinct from the Districts Design Standards), the features, and discipline specific information
has been provided. In addition, business case evaluations (BCEs) have been developed to
evaluate the types of equipment for each process; the results of which are contained in this
document (complete BCEs are available on the Districts Web Site).

1.2 Background
The project management office (PMO) staff have developed and compiled several key
documents as follows. Note that the NPDES limits are in review and several of the documents
are in a draft condition. This BODR is based on the permit limits established by the December
2010 Central Valley Regional Water Control Board Hearing.

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Table 1. BODR Reference Documents
Document Name

Description

NPDES Permit No. CA0077682


(Appendix to Facility Plan)

Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board (Regional Board)


adopted Order No. R5-2010-0114. The permit is currently in review and
some limits (NH3-N and NO3-N) may change.

SRCSD Facility Plan 2nd Draft

Describes existing treatment system, and multiple optional technologies


for achieving NPDES limits. Document will be finalized when the
tertiary treatment technology has been selected, based on the pilot plant
operation and testing.
An additional update will be made following winter wastewater
characterization and pilot testing results.

Flows and Loads Technical Memorandum


Final (Appendix to Facility Plan)

Evaluated historical flows and loads and projected future flows and
loads based on population growth estimates and incorporating water
conservation. This document is final.

Peak Flow Equalization Technical


Memorandum Draft
(Document will be available by January
2013)

Evaluated options and developed solutions for storage of peak flows to


limit the equalized maximum day flow through the BNR and tertiary
systems to 330 mgd.

Process Model and Mass Balance


Technical Memorandum Draft
(Document will be finalized in April 2013)

BioWinTM based model and mass balance outputs identifying process


recycles and constraints. Document will be finalized once pilot data is
available for confirming influent wastewater characterization and key
model kinetic and stoichiometric parameters.

SRWTP Advanced Treatment Technology


Pilot (ATTP) Project On-going
(Operating under a separate contract with
Brown and Caldwell) (Report will be
finalized in April 2013)

The pilot plant has provided some information to the BioWinTM


modeling, but finalization of the model will not be made until after
winter wastewater characterization is complete and the BioWin
modeling effort is finalized.

Conceptual Drawings associated with


project elements

Conceptual site plans and facility plans and sections for each major
treatment process.

A process schematic of the existing treatment plant is shown on Figure 1. The plant includes
the following:

Liquid Stream:
Headworks (mechanical screens and influent pumping)
Emergency Storage Basins (ESBs)
Pre-aeration Grit Tanks (GTs)
Primary Sedimentation Tanks (PSTs)
Carbonaceous Oxygen (CO) tanks and Secondary Sedimentation Tanks (SSTs) that
remove biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids (TSS)
Water Reclamation Facility (WRF)

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Chlorine Gas for disinfection
Sulfur Dioxide gas for dechlorination prior to river discharge

Solids Stream:
Thickeners for waste activated sludge (gravity belt thickeners and dissolved air
flotation)
Anaerobic Digestion
Biosolids Reclamation Facility (BRF) (dewatering, drying and pelletizing facility)
Solids Storage Basins (SSBs) for further stabilization of digested sludge
Dedicated Land Disposal (DLDs) for disposal of sludge harvested solids from SSBs

Refer to the PMO Facilities Plan on the Districts web site (http://www.srcsd.com/businessopportunites.php) for a more detailed description of the process units and current operational
experience.1

1.3 Flows and Loads


Three design conditions were considered:

The year 2020 was evaluated as it is the year that the BNR will come on-line at
SRWTP.

181 mgd ADWF was evaluated as this is the design capacity for the adopted NPDES
permit.

206 mgd ADWF was evaluated as this is the projected flow 20 years after which
181 mgd ADWF is reached.

All the listed averaging periods (e.g., AAF, MMF, etc.) were considered for each design
condition. The raw influent flows and loads for each of the above listed design conditions are
listed in the following tables. The loads identified for the maximum day are result from high
sewer flows scouring solids that have settled during previously dry periods.
Table 2. SRWTP Raw Influent Flows and Loads for Year 2020
Item

Unit

ADWF

AAF

MMF

MWF

MDF

PHF

Flow

mgd *

148

157

211

266

313

398

TSS

lb/d

326,000

335,000

398,000

483,000

880,000

--

BOD

lb/d

343,000

345,000

387,000

445,000

686,000

--

NH4

lb N/d

31,000

32,000

36,000

41,000

48,000

--

TKN

lb N/d

52,000

54,000

68,000

77,000

77,000

--

* Includes water conservation

SRCSD Program Management Office (2012) Facility Plan: Sacramento Regional County Sanitation District
Advanced Wastewater Treatment Program. Program Management Office, SRWTP, Elk Grove, CA.

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Table 3. SRWTP Raw Influent Flows and Loads for 181 mgd ADWF
Item

Unit

ADWF

AAF

MMF

MWF

MDF

PHF

Flow

mgd *

181

195

272

351

418

541

TSS

lb/d

468,000

480,000

570,000

692,000

1,262,000

--

BOD

lb/d

493,000

496,000

557,000

640,000

987,000

--

NH4

lb N/d

45,000

46,000

51,000

59,000

69,000

--

TKN

lb N/d

74,000

76,000

95,000

110,000

110,000

--

* Includes water conservation

Table 4. SRWTP Raw Influent Flows and Loads for 206 mgd ADWF
Item

Unit

ADWF

AAF

MMF

MWF

MDF

PHF

Flow

mgd *

206

223

318

414

497

648

TSS

lb/d

574,000

589,000

699,000

850,000

1,548,000

--

BOD

lb/d

604,000

608,000

683,000

785,000

1,209,000

--

NH4

lb N/d

55,000

56,000

63,000

72,000

84,000

--

TKN

lb N/d

91,000

94,000

118,000

135,000

135,000

--

* Includes water conservation

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EmergencyStorageBasins
B

SO2

Plant Waste
PlantWaste

Caustic

Ferric

Cl2

Ferric

GritRemoval

Screen

Secondary
Clarifiers

COTanks

Primary
Clarifier

ChlorineContact

SacramentoRiver

Cl2

Infl ent
Influent

Grit

Septage

RAS

Scum

Scum

WAS
Disposal

Polymer
C
Coagulant/
l t/ P
Polymer
l

DAFT

Cl2

GBT
Filters

DCB
Reclaimed
Water

GBT/DAFTReturnedasPlant
GBT/DAFT
Returned as Plant
WastetoHeadworks ORtothe
PrimaryInfluent
Anaerobic
Di t
Digesters

SSBs

DLDs
WRH/WRL

SurgeBasinE

FOGReceiving

SludgeBlending
Tanks

BRF

Beneficial Use
BeneficialUse

ProcessSchematicofExistingTreatmentPlant

Biological Nutrient Removal


Draft Basis of Design Report

2.0 Project Elements


Drawings associated with each of the project elements are contained on the Districts Web Site.
Alternative evaluations and associated drawings are contained in the BCEs for each process and
are also available on the Districts Web Site.
A process schematic of the BNR treatment process is shown in Figure 2.

2.1.1 Overall Program Site Plan


An overall site plan for the program is shown in Figure 3. The drawing shows the BNR
facilities along all of the other facilities included in the program as follows:

Primary Effluent PS

RAS Pumping

CO Tank Conversion

Flow Equalization

Filter Influent PS (Including Clear Well and backwash Waste Handling)

Pre-Ozone Facility

Disinfection (UV, chlorine or Ozone)

South Service Road

Electrical Feed (Main Feed)

Landfill/DLD removal

Site Improvements (Including Utility Extensions, contractor workforce parking, storm


drainage improvements, New Roads)

Warehouse

Bufferlands Building

Harvest Crew Building

PMO Building

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ESB

Screen

Grit Removal

Primary
Clarifier

Not used

Ferric

Sacramento River

Secondary
Clarifiers

CO Tanks

Influent

RAS

Filtration &
Disinfection

Alkalinity Feed

Septage
RAS
Reaeration

To WAS
Thickening

SST
Splitter

WAS P/S

Side Stream
EQ & P/S

PE Pump Station

Anoxic
Zones

Aerobic
Zone

Swing
Zones

Drain P/S

BNR Tanks

BNR Process Schematic

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2.1.2 Overall Site Plan of the BNR
An overall site plan of the BNR is shown in Figure 4. The dashed line shows the limits of the
BNR project. The BNR project includes the following:

Primary Effluent Distribution Channel and connection with PEPS (PEPS is a separate
project)

Biological Nutrient Removal Basins 1 through 10

Reaeration Basins 1 and 2

Blower Building (blower room, filter room, and ACC room)

Extension of the Return Activated Sludge Pipes

Waste Activated Sludge Pump Station and Basin Drain Pump Station (in pipe gallery
under PE channel)

Side Stream Pump Station

Side Stream Treatment may be included based on BCE results

Chemical Feed for Alkalinity

Electrical Substation

Electrical Gallery from the substation and Electrical/Pipe Gallery connection with the
existing CO Tank Gallery

Location of contractor support facilities

Location of concrete batch plant

2.1.3 Mass Balance


A plant-wide dynamic mass balance was developed for the proposed AWTP using BioWinTM.
BioWin is a commercially available process biological treatment simulator. The dynamic
mass balance provides information for flows, total suspended solids (TSS), biochemical oxygen
demand (BOD), nitrogen and phosphorus species, and other constituents throughout the
treatment plant per unit process. The model also generates projections for biosolids production,
oxygen utilization, etc., that can be used to size auxiliary facilities (e.g., blowers, pumps, etc.).
Wastewater characterization data was developed using a BioWinTM spreadsheet tool.
Characteristics were based on flows and loads shown above and relationships between total and
soluble BOD5 and COD established in an initial sampling period prior to pilot operation. This
characterization data therefore has not been validated and likely will be significantly modified
by actual sampling data.

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Model default values were used for most of the kinetic and stoichiometric parameters as results
from the pilot operation are not available. Model parameters will also be updated as pilot
results are developed and wastewater is characterized over this winter flow season. The kinetic
parameters that have been adjusted from model default values are as follows:
Table 5. BioWin Default Parameters
TM

Default

Value

Ammonia Oxidizer DO half sat. (mg O2/L)

BioWin

Kinetic and Stoichiometric Parameters

0.25

1.0

Nitrite Oxidizer DO half sat. (mg O2/L)

0.5

1.0

A detailed mass balance breakdown for each scenario for the year 2020, 181 mgd ADWF, and
206 mgd ADWF are provided in Appendix A, Appendix B, and Appendix C, respectively. For
each appendix, a schematic diagram of the plant with a numbering scheme per location is
provided within the treatment train.
Details on the BioWinTM wastewater characterization and conditions can be found in the
Technical Memorandum (TM) titled AWTP Dynamic Mass Balance Results Technical
Memorandum.

2.2 Hydraulic Profile Design Requirements


The primary effluent pumping station (PEPS) will be designed and constructed under a separate
contract. The BNR and PEPS must coordinate the point of connection between the PEPS
discharge and the BNR influent distribution channel for distribution of primary effluent to each
BNR basin.
The hydraulic design for providing accurate flow split of primary effluent between BNR basins
and accurate flow split of mixed liquor to the existing and a future battery of Secondary
Sedimentation Tanks (SST) is the responsibility of the BNR Designer. Selection of the required
water surface elevation difference between the PEPS discharge channel and the existing SST
weir elevation is the responsibility of the BNR Designer. The maximum water surface elevation
at PEPS discharge channel point of connection will be provided to the PEPS designer for their
use in evaluating pump station hydraulic requirements. The BNR Designer shall produce a
detailed hydraulic profile from the SST weir elevation to the point of connection with the PEPS
discharge channel.

2.3 Primary Effluent Flow Distribution


2.3.1 Basis of Design
To reduce construction costs, the BNR process will be sized to treat an equalized flow that is
smaller than the influent peak wet weather flow (PWWF). The BNR process and PEPS
equalized maximum day flow (EMDF) will be 330 mgd plus any recycle flows. The following
table contains the list of flow design criteria.

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Table 6. Hydraulic Design Flow Criteria
Item
EMDF

Flow, mgd
330

ADWF

181
1

Minimum flow

78

Diversion to ESBs

70

EMDF at buildout

600

Diversion to ESBs at buildout

200

99.9% of all existing instantaneous influent flow values are greater than 78 mgd.
Value is based on influent flow data from January 1, 2010 through December 30, 2011.

The following table contains a list of conveyance elements, the anticipated design
requirements, and the basis of the requirement.
Table 7. Hydraulic Conveyance Elements Phasing
Element
Primary effluent distribution
channel (PEPS to BNR
basins)

Phasing Strategy
Size for buildout EMDF of 600 mgd.

Basis
Must be provided to coordinate with PEPS
geometry and location, and from stranding
or interfering with future buildout capacity

2.3.2 Design Criteria

Provide capacity for the 600 mgd EMDF primary effluent flow with a knockout wall at
the end of the primary effluent channel for future extension.

Limit head loss in the channels and provide equal primary effluent distribution to each
BNR basin and provisions for equal distribution to future basins.

Provide adequate channel mixing to prevent deposition of solids.

Cover the primary effluent channel and odor control the exhaust to comply with the
SRCSD odor requirements. The channel cover shall be capable of supporting an
American Association of State Highway Transportation Officials (AASHTO) H-20
loading in certain areas.

2.3.3 Flow Distribution


The concept currently developed for equal primary effluent flow distribution includes piped
flow from the distribution channel to the individual BNR basin through a magnetic flow meter
and control valve. The basin influent pipe, meter, and valve would be in a gallery below the
channel. RAS piping will also be in this gallery.

2.3.4 Features

Coordinate the point of connection of the PE distribution channel with the PEPS.

Limit head loss and solids settling along channel (include channel mixing).

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Provide adequate head loss and hydraulic elements to evenly split flow from the channel
to each BNR basin and provide flow measurement to report PE influent flow to each
basin.

Completely enclose the channel and provide channel mixing and odor control.

Construct gallery below the primary effluent channel for location of piping, flow
meters, and control valves. Provide ventilation, safe egress and access to the surface of
BNR basins at multiple points along the gallery, as required by code.

Protect concrete and equipment from corrosion.

Evaluate dividing the channel in two to allow portions of the channel to be removed
from service for cleaning, inspection and maintenance of the liner and aeration mixing
equipment. Evaluate potential phasing of channel construction for future expansion.

Design channel cover to support traffic and for use of the channel for access along the
BNR basin.

Provide features in the primary effluent channel to prevent leakage into the gallery
below.

Accommodate the WAS pumps and basin drain pumps in the gallery. Provide a trench
drain along both sides of the gallery and tie the drains into the basin drain pump station.

Accommodate the PE and RAS flow meters, valves, and pipes within the gallery as well
as HVAC and electrical.

Provide energy efficient lighting in the gallery.

2.3.5 Civil Design

Coordinate grades adjacent to the primary effluent channel to provide crane access to
the top of PE channel and BNR basin to allow access to mixed liquor recycle pumps,
mixing, and other equipment.

Evaluate fill between the BNR basins and ESB-C.

Route storm water away from structure to storm water system.

Protect existing City Interceptor and other utilities in place.

Protect new site access road in place.

2.3.6 Structural Design


The primary effluent distribution channel layout at this time includes an enclosed channel with
a gallery below attached to the BNR basins. The point of connection with the PEPS and
excavation requirements of both the BNR the PEPS, and the PE channel must be coordinated.
A preliminary location of the PEPS is shown in the drawings.

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All elements of the primary effluent distribution channel shall be comprised of Cast-inplace concrete.

Access structures in the concrete deck are necessary to allow inspection, sampling, and
odor control. Access structures need to accommodate vehicle traffic.

A liner shall be provided to protect concrete from corrosion in enclosed areas.

Provide protection for any equipment installed in the channels to isolate channel
segments.

2.4 Chemical Feed - Alkalinity


2.4.1 Basis of Design
Chemical dosage is based on chemical concentration and flow rate. The flow conditions under
consideration for chemical feed design are listed in the following table:
Table 8. Alkalinity Feed Design flows used in the Basis of Design for Chemical Feed
Year 2020

Design

Average Day Dry Weather Flow (ADWF)

Flow

150mgd

181mgd

Maximum Month Flow (MMF)

225mgd

270mgd

Maximum Week Flow (MWF)

330mgd

Design basis for alkalinity chemical addition is for consistency with current pilot operation.
The pilot operating decision is to maintain a secondary effluent pH of at least 6.5 s.u. This
operating parameter has ensured no nitrification inhibition due to lack of alkalinity. To meet the
secondary effluent pH setpoint, the pilot currently uses approximately 6.5 mg/l of 100%
Caustic Soda addition. Doses of other chemicals were based on equivalents and are shown in
the following table:
Table 9. Alkalinity Equivalent Doses of Alkalinity Chemicals
Chemical

Equivalent Dose (mg/l)

Caustic Soda

6.5

Soda Ash

8.6

Quick Lime

4.6

Hydrated Lime

6.0

Magnesium Hydroxide

4.7

Sodium Bicarbonate

13.7

Potassium Hydroxide

9.1

Chemical feed equipment must be designed to handle hydrated lime although the final selection
of a chemical to supply alkalinity will be a commercial decision or a District preference. A
hydrated lime chemical addition system can be used for all of the other liquid chemicals

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identified above. Liquid chemical storage must be based on hydrated lime providing a 15 day
capacity at the Maximum Month condition, in 10,000 gal storage tanks.
In addition provision must be retained to install future slaking or diluting equipment to process
the solid alkalinity chemicals.

2.4.2 Design Criteria

Storage volume should be reasonably sized for approximately 15 days of storage at


maximum month.

Storage tank material of construction must be compatible with all alkalinity chemicals
above.

Chemical will be distributed to at least two locations: RAS reaeration zone and primary
effluent. Chemical could all be injected at either location.

Chemical system must have the capacity to supply a maximum equivalent alkalinity
chemical dose of 13 mg/l of 100% Caustic Soda.

2.4.3 Features

Provide filtration system for slurry deliveries and liquid to the storage tank.

Each storage tank requires a mixing system to maintain chemical solution in suspension
and baffles to prevent vortexing. For some chemicals, agitation is not required, and in
other instances agitators need not be operated continuously, and provision should be
made for automatic intermittent operation.

Adequate velocity must be maintained through all piping to prevent plugging. Consider
providing a continuous recirculation loop to ensure solids remain in suspension. Provide
multiple flushing connections.

Select appropriate valves to prevent material buildup resulting in line plugging.

Select pumps style and material of construction that is compatible with all alkalinity
chemicals above.

Design provisions for safety and spill prevention for storage and delivery station.

Chemical delivery station must provide the ability for the driver to fill the storage tank
while being able to monitor the starting and ending liquid level. Alarms must be
provided to inform the driver at high level and stop feed at high, high level.

Chemical delivery station shall require communication and authorization by the PCCS
to initiate filling.

Provisions for cleaning and removing deposits and scale from storage tanks, pumps, and
pipes.

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Include space for dry storage and slaking equipment for future hydrating equipment
installation.

2.5 BNR Basin Configuration


2.5.1 Basis of Design and Design Criteria
The conceptual BNR design was based on the ATTP design on the basis that additional SSTs
will not be constructed. The ATTP design was scaled to the full 181 mgd ADWF capacity. Key
elements in the ADWF design were as follows:

Aerobic SRT of 7.5 days was selected. This value was based on BioWinTM default
kinetics for ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB). The default maximum specific growth
rate (Mumax) for AOB of 0.9/d at 16 degrees C with Arrhenius factor of 1.072, with an
aerobic decay of 0.17/d and 1.029 Arrhenius factor. A safety factor of approximately
400% was applied to estimate design aerobic SRT.

State point analysis of the existing secondary clarifiers was used to make a preliminary
estimate of the acceptable mixed liquor suspended solids concentration. The evaluation
used an equalized maximum day flow of 330 mgd, plus an additional five percent to
account for filter backwash flows. Two secondary clarifiers were recovered from
service during peak flow conditions. RAS flow was taken to be 9 mgd per clarifier or
60% of EMDF. The maximum sludge volume index (SVI) was 150 mL/g. The
acceptable solids loading rate was reduced by 15 percent as a safety factor to account
for non-ideal settling conditions. Using these preliminary design basis, the mixed liquor
suspended solids concentration should be limited to approximately 2,400 mg/L. Sludge
settleability information from the Advanced Treatment Technology Pilot will be used to
refine this estimate. Two-dimensional modeling of the secondary clarifiers, using a
model that accounts for flocculation, is also recommended to confirm this key
parameter.

The volume of the aeration basins could be further reduced after wastewater
characterization studies have assessed the actual Mumax at SRWTP.

Ten new BNR tanks will be constructed as shown in the Overall BNR Site drawing, north of
the CO Tanks and south of ESB-C. Each BNR tank will comprise of 3 passes to receive
primary effluent and RAS feed from the north and discharge to the south. The conceptual basis
of design and design criteria for the BNR basins are listed in the following table. Zone volumes
were allocated based on the ATTP BNR basin design.
Table 10. Summary Design Criteria for New BNR Tanks
Units

4 Stage N removal
with RAS Reaeration

MLSS at MM

mg/L

2400

Aerobic SRT (including RAS reaeration)

days

7.5

Total SRT (including RAS reaeration)

days

12

Type of Process

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Units

4 Stage N removal
with RAS Reaeration

hours

9.75

% of Q

60%

mL/g

150

Number of New BNR Basins

10

Configuration - Number of Passes

Type of Process
HRT at EMDF
RAS flow at EMDF
Maximum design SVI

Basin Side Water Depth

ft

25

Pass 1, 2 & 3 Length

ft

600

Pass 1 & 2 Width

ft

41.5

ft

20.75

MG

11.64

Pass 3 Width
New BNR Basin Volume - each
No of Zones
AER1 - Anoxic, Pass 1

10

MG

1.7

AER2 - Anoxic, Pass 1

MG

1.7

AER3 - Aerobic, Pass 1

MG

1.2

AER4 - Aerobic, Pass 2

MG

2.23

AER5 - Aerobic, Pass 2

MG

1.7

AER6 - Anoxic/Swing, Pass 2

MG

0.7

MLR Flow
Percent of MMF
MLR Flow per basin

%
mgd

200%
55

AER7 - ANOXIC/SWING, Pass 3

mg

0.69

AER8 - ANOXIC/SWING, Pass 3

mg

0.69

AER9 - ANOXIC/SWING, Pass 3

mg

0.46

AER10 - AEROBIC, Pass 3

mg

0.46

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2.5.2 Configuration
Primary Effluent Distribution
Channel
1075
6

7
7

7
7

7
7

7
7

7
7

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

Mixer

Swing
Aerobic

8
8

8
8

8
8

8
8

8
8

Anoxic

2
2

2
2

2
2

2
2

PE Inf
9
9

9
9

9
9

9
9

9
9

MLSS
Eff
RAS
Reaer

3
3

3
3

3
3

3
3

10
10

10
10

10
10

10
10

10
10

Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids Channel


RAS
Figure 5. Conceptual BNR Basin

Table 11. Hydraulic Conveyance Elements


Element
Mixed Liquor effluent
channel

Phasing Strategy
Size for buildout EMDF of 600 mgd

Basis
Must be provided to coordinate with
existing SSTs and from stranding or
interfering with future BNR buildout
capacity.

Provide capacity for the 600 mgd EMDF + RAS MLSS flow with a knockout wall at the
end of the MLSS effluent channel for future extension.

Limit head loss in the channels.

Provide for channel mixing.

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The pilot plant has experienced nitrate levels higher than 10 mg/L-N. This has been attributed
to low carbon concentrations. It may be necessary to argument carbon for a more reliable
process. Use of methanol is not encouraged. Consider other methods to introduce carbon.

2.5.3 Features for BNR Basins

Any basin must be capable of being removed from service by draining the basin through
the basin drain pumping station. Evaluate the time required to drain versus pump station
size.

Mixed liquor solids drained from the basin must be recycled to the remaining basins
through the primary effluent distribution channel.

The location of walls and basin zone configuration must accommodate future potential
biological phosphorus removal.

The basin wall locations shall be optimized for an efficient treatment process.

Consider optional provision of step feed of primary effluent into the third pass of the
BNR basins to assist in post anoxic denitrification and for management of wet weather
flows.

Zone baffle walls shall include gates at the bottom of the wall, or other means such that
3 ft of water can be maintained over the diffusers within individual zones with other
zone(s) completely drained.

Slope floors to allow complete drainage of the basins.

Provide access to the mixers and MLR pumps for removal and transport out of the
basin.

Provide corrosion protection at and above the water-air interface.

Develop a plan to limit cracking and spalling of the concrete walkways.

Provide sufficient walkways to allow for easy flushing of the basins and cleaning of the
diffuser equipment.

All air piping control valves to be easily reached from a walkway.

All air piping to be insulated to an elevation that is reachable from a walking surface.

Provide multiple drop-legs for isolating air flows to each aeration or swing zone. A
single drop-leg may not supply more than 1,750 scfm.

Include instrumentation to optimize performance and minimize energy consumption.

2.6 BNR Orientation


The location of the BNR basins is north of the existing carbonaceous oxygen tanks (CO tanks)
and south of the Emergency Storage Basin C (ESB-C). The orientation north-south allows

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expansion from east to west across the plant site. Future expansion of BNR basins would be to
the west of the current basins.

2.6.1 Features for Channels and Pipe Chase

Provide features in the primary effluent channel to prevent leakage into the pipe chase.

Accommodate the WAS pumps and basin drain pumps in the gallery. Provide a trench
drain along both sides of the gallery and tie the drains into a drainage sump. Install
sump pumps to convey drainage to the basin drain systems.

Accommodate the PE and RAS flow meters, valves, and pipes within the gallery as well
as HVAC and electrical.

2.6.2 Civil Design

Coordinate grades to allow crane access to the top of the basins to service and remove
the mixers, MLR pumps, and other equipment.

Route storm water away from structure to storm water system.

East-west utility corridor is available on the north and south ends of the BNR basin, a
north-south utility corridor is available on the east side of the BNR basin and must be
coordinated with the extension of the PE channel.

Protect all existing utilities along north side of BNR basin in place.

2.6.3 Structural Design

All elements of the structure shall be comprised of Cast-in-place concrete.

The structure must accommodate future expansion to the west.

Evaluate spread footings with a thinner floor slab section.

Evaluate and mitigate any groundwater impacts.

Conduct a complete geotechnical investigation and evaluate alternatives to resist


flotation and options to optimize the concrete quantities used.

2.6.4 Electrical Design


All of the pumps, mixers, and motors on the BNR basins are 480V. The intent is to provide an
electrical gallery from the substation behind the blower building to the gallery connecting the
CO Tanks with the BNR. This allows installation of cable tray from the substation through the
gallery that runs east-west along the north side of the basins.

2.7 Aeration Diffusers


2.7.1 Basis of Design
The NPDES permit for SRWTP limits ammonia-nitrogen to a 2.2 mg/L maximum day and
1.8 mg/L average month concentration. The aeration system must provide sufficient dissolved

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oxygen at the maximum day to meet the peak BOD and ammonia demand. Modeling at the
design ADWF rate of 181 MGD showed the maximum day oxygen demand to be 1,140,000
lb/day and require an air flow rate of approximately 300,000 scfm. This air flow rate was
prorated to other flow conditions and the startup conditions projected in year 2020. The
following tables list the oxygen demand and calculated air flow rates at the ADWF 181 MGD
design year and the oxygen demand and prorated air flow rates for year 2020, respectively.
Table 12. Aeration Diffuser Oxygen demand at ADWF of 181 mgd
Carbonaceous
demand
lb/day

Nitrification
demand
lb/day

Denitrification
credit
lb/d

Total AOR
lb/day

Design air flow


(Summer)
scfm

ADWF

390,610

345,035

172,518

563,128

173,971

Annual Average

397,210

376,568

188,284

585,494

180,881

Max Month

453,530

502,243

251,122

704,652

217,694

Max Week

517,440

563,938

281,969

799,409

246,968

Max Day

784,630

563,938

366,560

982,008

303,379

MinDay

230,065

245,912

122,956

353,021

109,061

Flow Condition

Table 13. Aeration Diffuser Oxygen demand at start-up year 2020


Carbonaceous
demand
lb/day

Nitrification
demand
lb/day

Denitrification
credit
lb/d

Total AOR
lb/day

Design air flow


(Summer)
scfm

ADWF

275,110

254,549

127,275

402,385

124,312

Annual Average

280,940

286,082

143,041

423,981

130,984

Max Month

322,630

391,192

195,596

518,226

160,100

Max Week

367,290

428,209

214,105

581,395

179,615

Max Day

552,860

428,209

278,336

702,733

217,101

MinDay

165,066

133,030

66,515

231,581

71,544

Flow Condition

2.7.2 Design Criteria


Air flow through the diffusers (number of diffusers) must be acceptable from the minimum air
flow in year 2020 to the maximum day air flow at the ADWF 181 MGD design year. If
possible, 20% diffuser blanks shall be included in each aeration zone header design.

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Air flow through the diffusers must be optimized for the highest efficiency at average
conditions but have to adequately supply oxygen at a the maximum day and the sustained
maximum week load .
The number of diffusers in the first zone may be adjusted to comply with the manufacturers
recommended maximum diffuser floor coverage and accessibility requirements for
maintenance and replacement.
If mechanical mixers are provided in the swing zones, the diffuser anchoring and support
system must include an analysis of the hydraulic forces on the diffuser system.
Diffuser material must not leach N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) into the wastewater. The
diffuser installation shall meet all seismic loads.

2.7.3 Results from Business Case Evaluation


The business case evaluation compared Ethylene Propylene Dimer (EPDM) disc and ceramic
disc diffusers with tube, strip, and panel diffusers. All four types are suitable for aerating the
aerobic zones of the BNR and the RAS reaeration basin. The following summarizes the capital,
annual, and present value (life cycle) costs for diffusers for two membrane disc diffusers
(Aquarius and Sanitaire), a ceramic disc diffuser (Sanitaire), a tube diffuser (EDI), a panel
diffuser (Ovivo), and a coarse bubble diffuser.
Table 14. Aeration Diffuser BCE Life Cycle Cost Summary
Base Cost

Annualized
Operation

Annualized
Maintenance and
Risk

60-year Life-Cycle Cost


at 5% Discount Rate

Ceramic Disc,
Sanitaire

$38,910,000

$9,020,000

$1,469,000

$300,620,000

Membrane Disc,
Aquarius

$20,880,000

$9,320,000

$1,734,000

$296,570,000

Membrane Disc,
Sanitaire

$31,500,000

$9,320,000

$1,734,000

$307,190,000

Tube, EDI

$25,070,000

$9,290,000

$1,698,000

$299,100,000

Strip (Med Eff),


Ovivo

$60,150,000

$9,023,000

$2,705,000

$352,680,000

Strip (High Eff),


Ovivo

$110,630,000

$8,103,000

$4,707,000

$430,170,000

Coarse Bubble

$17,010,000

$21,688,000

$15,000

$558,400,000

Alternative

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Table 15. Aeration Basin BCE Advantages, Cons, and Risks of Preferred Alternative Diffusers
Diffuser type

Advantages

Disadvantages

Risks

Low headloss through diffuser


Longer life time (20+ years)
Higher OTE% than membrane
discs

Less resistant to fouling and scalant build-up


Not suitable for on/off application
Require chemical cleaning
Susceptible to moisture in piping
More diffusers required than membrane

Membrane fouling
in the case of a
power outage

Membrane disc

Suitable for on/off application


Can retrofit ceramic disc
diffusers
Easy installation and
replacement

Shorter life time (~6 years)


Scrubbing required
More diffusers than strip type

Membrane tear
(1% chance)
Pipe failure

Large OT surface area


Simple membrane replacement

Top half surface is effective in transferring


oxygen
Dead area can be sites for slime growth and
foulant
Shorter life time (~8 years)
Scrubbing Required

Ceramic disc

Tube

Strip

Coarse

Low air flux rate


High OTE %
Fewer diffusers required
Longer life (~10 years)

Higher headloss through diffuser


Sensitive to heat (temperatures above 80F)
Extensive installation/ replacement process
High capital cost
More difficult maintenance

Low headloss through diffuser


Low capital cost
On/off application
Will not plug
Longest life (repair, but no
replacement in 60 yrs)

Low OTE
Higher energy costs

Membrane tear
(1% chance)
Pipe failure

Membrane tear
(1 % chance)
Susceptible to
sunlight damage

2.7.3.1 Recommendations
Based on life cycle cost and applicability to this project, membrane disc diffusers are the
recommended technology for air diffusion into the BNR and the RAS reaeration tanks. The
designer may consider alternative aeration options for the swing zones to enable these zones to
operate as both fully aerobic zones or as anoxic zones with aeration mixing. However the
designer must ensure that the increased oxygen demand resulting from a step feed flow to the
swing zones is supplied, and must update the BCE.

2.7.4 Features
The aeration section must be divided into three or more aerobic zones with flow meters and
control valves to adjust the air flow to each zone. The number of diffusers must match the
oxygen demand in each zone.

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Inlet piping must be designed to reduce the blower air temperature below the diffuser/pipe
designer requirements and to be as low as practical.
Swing zones may use coarse bubble aeration with full floor coverage during the aeration mode
and spiral or cross roll configuration for mixing.

2.8 Anoxic Zone Mixers


2.8.1 Basis of Design
The basis of design is set by the geometry of the basins and the number and size of the anoxic
zones.
Table 16. Anoxic and Swing Zone Conceptual Dimensions
Zone

Type

Length, ft

Width, ft

Side Water
Depth, ft

Volume, million
gal

AER1

Anoxic

200

45

25

1.68

AER2

Anoxic

200

45

25

1.68

AER6

Swing

100

37

25

0.69

2.8.2 Design Criteria


Manufacturer mixing requirements vary and therefore mixers should be sized on the basis of
Thrust. For each mechanically mixed tank, calculate the minimum thrust needed to maintain
suspended solids (MLSS or RAS) in suspension and supply single or multiple mixers to
provide the minimum thrust x 1.25 for a safety factor.
Mixer size must be confirmed with fluid dynamic modeling.

2.8.3 Results from Business Case Evaluation


This BCE provides a summary of cost, operations, and maintenance considerations for
submersible and top mounted mixers. The following tables summarize the capital, annual, and
present value (life cycle) costs for mixers for the submersible mixer from Flygt, top mounted
mixers from Lightnin and Invent, and jet mixer from Fluidyne and provide a comparison of
advantages, disadvantages, and risks, respectively.
Table 17. Anoxic Zone Mixers Financial Impact Summary

Base Cost

Annualized
Operations

Annualized
Maintenance
and Risk

60- year Life-Cycle


Cost at 5% Discount
Rate

Submersible, Flygt

$9,264,000

$384,000

$516,000

$31,720,000

Top Mounted, Lightnin

$18,710,000

$324,400

$242,400

$32,845,000

Top Mounted, Invent

$8,462,000

$414,000

$261,000

$25,300,000

Jet, Fluidyne

$8,100,000

$986,000

$296,000

$40,062,000

Alternative

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Table 18. Anoxic Zone Mixers Advantages, Disadvantages and Risks of Different Type of Mixers
Type
Submersible
Mixers

Advantages

Jet Mixers

Top Mounted
Mixers

Disadvantages

Easy removal of mixers


using guide rails.
Flexible to direct to water
surface for scum prevention
or to floor for bottom
scouring

No moving parts in the basin


Redundancy can be provided
by standby pump
Effective in deep and larger
tanks.

Have better capabilities to


keep solids in suspension
Easy access to motor
Less energy requirement to
mix unit volume
More intense and uniform
mixing

Risk

Submerged mixer motor.


Bearing and seal failure
High energy requirement to mix
unit volume
Mixer can become tangled in
power cord.

Need to drain the basin to repair


header and nozzles.
Pump station/house is required
for recirculation pumps
When redundancy is not
provided, failure of circulation
pumps results in no-mixing

Power failure
Difficult to identify a
plugged nozzle

Flow inlet and outlet location


influence mixer location and
orientation.
May require baffles on tank
walls to prevent swirling of low
viscosity fluid.
Need to dewater the basin to
service, repair or replace shaft
and impeller.

Difficult to identify
shaft failure
(bending)
Power failure

Power failure
Difficult to identify
whether mixer is
working
Lifting cable breaks
at water surface.

2.8.3.1 Recommendation:
Install top mounted mixers in anoxic zones. Invent mixers should be considered with other top
mount mixer suppliers like Lightnin, Flygt, or Philadephia.

2.8.4 Features

Access to top mounted mixers must be provided with safety in mind. Space must be
provided for routine maintenance and service.

Variable frequency drives must be provided for all mixers.

Metal support structures and elements must account for corrosion and meet all seismic
loads.

Complete removal of the equipment must be accounted for.

2.9 Mixed Liquor Return Pumps


2.9.1 Basis of Design
Modeling and pilot results show that a mixed liquor return rate of 2 x (max month flow) is
sufficient to reduce nitrate below 10 mg/L. The ADWF and max month flows for design and
the initial condition in year 2020 are listed in the following table.

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Table 19. Design Flows used in the Basis of Design of MLR Pumps
Flow

Year 2020

Design

Average Day Dry Weather Flow (ADWF)

150 mgd

181 mgd

Maximum Month Flow (MMF)

225 mgd

272 mgd

2.9.2 Design Criteria

Provide at least two duty pumps at 200% flow at max month for a total of 544 MGD or
about 55 MGD per basin or 27.5 MGD per pump.

A blank space must be provided to allow installation of a standby pump or duty pump
that brings the total flow recycled flow to 300%.

2.9.3 Results from Business Case Evaluation


This BCE provides a summary of cost, operations, and maintenance considerations for
submersible and top mounted mixed liquor recycle pumps. Top mounted pumps were
recommended for the MLR.
Table 20. Life Cycle Cost Summary

Base Cost

Annualized
Operations Cost

Annualized
Maintenance and
Risk Cost

60 year Life-Cycle
Cost at 5% Discount
Rate

Submersible,
Grundfos

$2,730,000

$434,300

$529,000

$26,800,000

Submersible, Flygt

$3,140,000

$401,320

$469,000

$24,850,000

Top Mounted,
Morris

$6,145,000

$298,200

$90,000

$21,360,000

Alternative

Table 21. Pros, Cons, and Risks of MLR Pumps


Type
Submersible Pumps

Top Mounted Pumps

Pros

Cons

Risk

Bearing and seal failure


Submerged motor
Winch access required
Maintenance labor
requirements

No need for above-ground


construction
Easy Installation
Low head requirement

Easy access to motor


Above-ground motor
Less maintenance labor
Longer pump life
More efficient pumping

Platform and walkway


required to access motor
Higher head/energy
requirement
High capital cost
Boom truck needed for
removal
May require boom truck
access on top of basins

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Shroud connection
failure
Seal failure
Ragged propeller
Ragged impeller
Impeller connection
fails, motor runs but
impeller does not

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2.9.4 Features

Mixed liquor return pumps, associated piping and channels must accommodate changes
in the basin configuration that provides swing zones for effluent polishing and future
phosphorus removal by simply relocating pumps. Include all potential conduits,
channels, pipes or other system to achieve the changes in a short period of time.

Design in flexibility to modify the location of the MLSS suction and discharge to
accommodate changes to process modes including potential biological phosphorus
removal.

Mixed liquor flow must be measured using a flow measurement device (e.g. magflow
meter or Palmer Bowlus meter). Do not rely on pump curves.

Structural support to be Cast-in-place concrete.

2.10 Mixed Liquor Channel and Secondary Sedimentation Tank Splitter


The mixed liquor channel and secondary sedimentation tank splitter will convey BNR effluent
equally to each of the SST batteries with provisions for a fourth battery of SSTs.

2.10.1 Basis of Design


Refer to Section 2.2.1 for the hydraulic design flow criteria.

2.10.2 Design Criteria

Provide capacity for the EMDF flow with a knockout wall at the fourth launder weir for
future extension.

Limit head loss in the channel and flow splitter.

Conduct a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model of the flow split structure to
obtain an equal split. Split to be less than 5 percent different.

Provide equal distribution to each secondary sedimentation tank batteries with


provisions for equal distribution to future batteries.

Provide for channel mixing.

Provide for individual channels from the SST splitter to the SST batteries.

2.10.3 Size and Configuration


The concept currently developed for the secondary sedimentation tank splitter includes a
horizontally adjustable launder weir for each existing SST battery. An additional launder weir
will be constructed for the future SST Battery IV. The launder weirs are horizontally adjustable
by way of a stop place placed or actuated gate at any point within the launder weirs. Each stop
plate or gate point corresponds with the capacity of a single clarifier. This effectively shortens
the length of the launder weir and also proportionally reduces the amount of flow into each SST
battery in direct proportion to the number of SSTs in service for that battery.

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2.10.4 Features

Limit head loss along channel and splitter.

Provide adequate head loss and hydraulic elements to evenly split flow from the channel
to each SST battery and provide flow measurement.

Protect concrete and equipment from corrosion.

Evaluate dividing the channel in two to allow portions of the channel to be removed
from service for cleaning and maintenance. Evaluate potential phasing of channel
construction for future expansion.

Design channel covers in certain sections to allow traffic to cross the mixed liquor
channel.

Accommodate the top of flow splitter to allow access to each launder weir for
placement and removal of stop gates or maintenance of actuated gates and for hosing of
weirs.

Evaluate an onsite permanent crane for stop plate insertion.

2.11 Blower Building


2.11.1 Basis of Design
Selection for the aeration blowers is based on:

The oxygen required to meet the biological oxygen demand (BOD) and ammonia
nitrification demand at the peak day loading.

The loading variation during the time of year, time of day, and point in the facility
utilization

The projected oxygen demand and compressed airflow requirements for the BNR is listed in
the aeration diffuser design requirements.
The aeration blowers must take into account the air at atmospheric conditions of humidity and
barometric pressure. The blower facility will require a large amount of electrical energy,
thereby requiring extensive new electrical infrastructure. The operation of the blowers will be
overseen by the Plant Control Center and will include an Area Control Center. There will be a
new 12 hour service installed to this area. It will be available for the PEPS and BNR facilities.

2.11.2 Design Criteria


Operating Requirements

Peak day: 300,000 scfm at 11 psi (may be adjusted based on diffuser selected)

Average: 172,000 scfm at 11 psi

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Continuous 24/7 operation

Number of blowers and turn-down must account for peak, average, minimum as well as
daily diurnal cycles

2.11.3 Results from Business Case Evaluation


This BCE provides a summary of cost, operations, and maintenance considerations for
comparing single stage and turbo blowers. Both blower types are suitable for efficiently
transferring air to the BNR basins; and each has its own advantages.
The following tables summarize the capital, annual, and present value (life cycle) costs for
single stage and turbo blower configurations and provide a comparison of pros and cons,
respectively.
Table 22. Life Cycle Cost Summary for Blower Options

Alternatives

Base Price
(Includes blowers,
controls, startup,
training, piping, and
building
[if applicable])

Annual
Operational Costs
(Annual energy
and internal
staffing costs to
operate and
maintain the
equipment)

Total Annual
Maintenance (Annual
cost for maintenance,
including major
overhauls)

60-Year Lifecycle Cost

Alternative 1A
(Single Stage 5+1)

$78,448,000

$12,008,000

$49,000

$379,184,000

Alternative 1B
(Single Stage 3+1)

$76,219,000

$13,655,000

$77,000

$418,737,000

Alternative 2A
(Turbo 53+2)*
$125,654,000

Alternative 2B
(Turbo 24+1, On
Basin In
Buildings)*

Alternative 2C
(Turbo 24+1, In
Single Building)*

$55,752,000

$88,107,000

$12,075,000

$13,354,000

$13,354,000

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20 Year
Over-haul

$421,000

20 Year
Over-haul

$437,348,000

30
YearOverhaul

$335,000

30 Year
Over-haul

$435,212,000

20 Year
Over-haul

$456,000

20 Year
Over-haul

$400,216,000

30
YearOverhaul

$354,000

30 Year
Over-haul

$397,686,000

20 Year
Over-haul

$456,000

20 Year
Over-haul

$432,571,000

30
YearOverhaul

$354,000

30 Year
Over-haul

$430,041,000

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Table 23. Advantages, Disadvantages, and Risks of Blower Options
Type
Gear Driven,
Constant Speed
Single Stage
Centrifugal

Advantages
Can maintain good
efficiency at turndown

Direct Drive,
Variable Speed
Single Stage
Centrifugal (Turbo)

Small footprint

Typically come with


integral control system for
surge protection

Quiet operation
Efficient technology for
lower air flow capacity
ranges
Can maintain good
efficiency at turndown
May come with integrated
control systems to
modulate flow and for
surge protection

Disadvantages
Surge can be damaging
Can be noisy (enclosures are commonly used for
noise control)

Risks
Fewer blowers mean
less standby
capacity if a blower
fails.

Typically higher capital cost compared to single


stage blower

New technology
More moving parts

Limited experience (new technology)


More units required for larger plants (will change
as manufacturers expand air flow range)
Bump air foil bearing design is not very resistant
to unbalanced forces and surge or choke can
instantly destroy the bearings

2.11.3.1 Recommendation
Single stage blowers in a single building is the most economical option for a full sixty year life
cycle analysis.

2.11.4 Features

Blower intake filters should be installed in a filter room for easy access and replacement

Blower suction piping from the filter room to the blower may be underground or
overhead. Designer to evaluate the impact to building height versus cost of buried pipe
and other pros and cons to determine the optimal location of the suction pipe.

HVAC equipment shall not be located on the roof, but on the mezzanine space above
the filter/operations areas.

Provide complete access to all valves and blowers for regular maintenance purposes.

Air filtration for blower inlet air shall have the capacity to be easily replaced.

Sound attenuation must be provided at the individual blowers and on building walls
(particularly on adjacent occupied areas).

Adequate blower lay-down areas must be provided so as to ease the removal and
maintenance of the equipment.

The blowers shall be monitored using a machine heath monitoring system as is


currently utilized elsewhere in the Plant. Bentley Nevada is the only provider approved
for this equipment.

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An ACC should be accounted for in this building with staff support facilities.

The blowers shall be provided with blow-off valves.

2.11.5 Civil Design

Coordinate grades to allow crane or truck access to a loading/unloading station for


blower and motor removal.

Route storm water away from blower building to storm water system.

2.11.6 Architectural Design

The layout of equipment, piping, and room area requirements serves as the source for
the selection and layout of the architectural systems. The layout envisioned at this time
includes the blower room, filter rooms, potential control room, and electrical rooms.
Separate rooms may be required for electrical equipment and personnel. A bridge crane
and lay-down space are required.

Floor: Cast-in-place concrete (hardened).

Walls: Cast-in-place concrete and include sound attenuation panels.

Ceiling: Metal joist with sound attenuation panels.

Blowers may exceed Cal OSHA requirements and may require noise suppression at the
equipment as well as within the building as required by Cal OSHA.

This building will initially be designed as an F1 Occupancy Type and Type V


construction. The room will receive an occupancy load of 100 square feet per person for
industrial type space.

The electrical room(s) will house the electrical panels and MCCs. Comply with 2010
California Electrical Code to ensure proper egress based on voltage and amperage of the
facility.

Requirements for the ACC room have not been determined. Consider space for up to
10 staff with two offices and a control room. Rest rooms or other spaces may be
identified during PDR development. Make additional provisions for sound attenuation
from adjacent blower room.

2.11.7 Structural Design

The building walls shall be constructed out of poured concrete.

The roof shall be metal deck with metal joists.

The blowers shall be individually supported by isolated, monolith, reinforced concrete


pads.

Structural design shall conform to the Structural Design Guidelines.

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2.11.8 HVAC and Plumbing
The HVAC goal for the blower building is to provide a comfortable, safe working environment
for the occupied areas and a safe environment for critical equipment to operate at peak
performance. All HVAC equipment shall conform to the Mechanical Design Guidelines.
Heating shall be provided by unit heaters in the process areas and coils in the air handlers in the
occupied areas. Below are the various room types and corresponding HVAC requirements.

Mechanical Cooling/Heating (Refrigerant Cooling)


Electrical Rooms- 80 DegF (Summer)
ACC Type Occupied Areas- 78 DegF (Summer) , 72 DegF (Winter)

Mechanical Cooling/Heating (Evaporative Cooling)


Process Areas- 90 DegF (Summer), 60 DegF (Winter)

All building plumbing shall conform to the requirements of the Mechanical Design
Guidelines.

2.11.9 Electrical Design


2.11.9.1 Basis of Design
The electrical system will be designed based on the current SRCSD Electrical Design
Standards. The electrical design is dependent upon the final selection of process equipment.
Three electrical alternatives exist for providing power to the BNR Facility. See Section 3.11 for
additional discussion of the electrical alternatives.
A 12KV power feed from the expanded plant main 12KV substation located on the east edge of
the plant. The Main 12KV Substation expansion shall NOT be a part of this design. The
electrical design shall include the determination of the best location to tie into the existing
12KV duct bank system and the amount of new duct bank required to do so. The electrical
design shall include all 12KV copper cabling, ducts and switchgear modifications required to
provide power to the BNR with sufficient capacity to service all know future needs in the area.
2.11.9.2 4160VAC Variable Speed Blowers
The electrical system shall be designed based on the current SRCSD Electrical Design
Standards. The BNR process for this alternative will require two electrical switchgear
buildings. The first electrical building shall be a 4160VAC switchgear building containing the
4160VAC switchgear and the blower 4160VAC Variable Speed Drives. This shall also include
the dual transformer yard. The 4160VAC switchgear building shall be located adjacent to the
blower mechanical building. The secondary electrical building shall contain a dual 480VAC
switchgear, MCCs and Variable Speed Drives as required to provide power to all of the
ancillary systems.
The secondary electrical building shall include a multiple dual transformer yard sized to
accommodate all of the ancillary loads and capacity for known future loads. The secondary

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building and transformer yard can be located adjacent to the 4160VAC Building or located
nearer to the process loads. The secondary electrical building can receive dual feed power from
the 4160 Substation or from the main 12KV substation. The designed electrical demand load
shall determine the best option for feeding the secondary electrical building.

2.11.10 Area Control Center


The recommended conceptual design for the ACC is as follows (see PCCS Master Plan)

The new area control centers (ACCs) will mimic much of the hardware and software
associated with an existing ACC

The PCCS network will be expanded with the same configuration as the existing ACCs
each new ACC includes primary and secondary fan-out switches for redundant
communications with the PCCS controllers and operator workstations, and a traffic
switch to connect to non-PCCS equipment such as printers and ACC uninterrupted
power supplies (UPSs).

Modbus/TCP protocol for communications between the PCCS controller and motor
starters and motor drives. No fieldbus protocols are supported by the Emerson Ovation
software version 1.9.2 currently in service at SRWTP.

The existing General Electric EMS will be expanded as needed in the new ACCs, and
where Modbus/TCP communications can provide power monitoring information, that
information will be communicated through the PCCS to the existing GE power
monitoring host system.

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The new ACCs will have primary and secondary redundant Ovation controllersjust
like the existing ACCs.

Vendor-supplied programmable logic controllers (PLCs) will be Allen-Bradley


ControlLogix PLCs, wherever possible. The PCCS will interface with the vendor PLCs
exactly like the remote site SCADA system currently communicates with the PCCS.

Each new ACC will include redundant operator workstations, each with two widescreen
monitors.

A dedicated team Emerson Process Management, a third-party integrator/consultant,


and District programming staff will program the PCCS control strategies and operator
graphics, alarms, trends, and reports to ensure continuity of control programs and
consistent look and feel of the operator process control screens. All elements of the flow
equalization structure shall be comprised of Cast-in-place concrete with sluice gates
controlling the release of ESB A.

2.11.11 Architectural Design (ACC Building)


The layout of equipment and staff rooms serves as the source for the selection and layout of the
architectural systems. The layout envisioned at this time includes alternatives for electrical
equipment, instrumentation equipment, staff spaces, area control spaces, and rooms to house
other equipment serving the area. A rest room may be considered within this space.

The ACC building may contain electrical equipment associated with the PEPS.

Floor: Cast-in-place concrete

Walls: Cast-in-place concrete

Ceiling: Cast-in-place concrete with sound attenuation panels

2.12 RAS Pipeline Extension


The return activated sludge (RAS) pumps are a separate contract for design and construction.
However, the RAS pipes must be extended from the point where they turn east into the CO
Tanks to the BNR reaeration basins.
New flow meters must be installed on each of the RAS pipes.
Provision must also be made to install an additional RAS pipe into the RAS reaeration splitter
structure for a future clarifier battery.
The BNR designer will prepare a detailed hydraulic profile which will establish the water level
in the reaeration basin. This designer will provide RAS pipe lengths and sizes and water surface
elevations to the RAS pumping designer.

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2.12.1 Basis of Design
The preliminary state point analysis established the low-average and maximum RAS flow of 30
percent of ADWF and 63 percent of EMDF (330 mgd), respectively. These flows represent the
low-average and highest anticipated RAS flows for the biological processes to function
properly.

2.13 RAS Reaeration and Distribution


2.13.1 Basis of Design
Return activated sludge from secondary clarifiers will be combined with returns from the SSBs
and centrate return from the BRF and aerated in two new parallel tanks supplied with
compressed air from a common aeration blower building. The combined RAS and return flows
will be equally split between the two basins, and a bypass channel will be installed to divert
combined flows to the air activated sludge tanks. The BNR pilot project evaluated the
performance of the RAS reaeration in conjunction with the performance of the BNR.

2.13.2 Design Criteria


RAS re-aeration tanks operate at a water level higher than the rest of the air activated sludge
basins, but at the same depth so that common blowers will be used to aerate these tanks. The
purpose of the RAS re-aeration zone is to oxidize nitrogen-laden solids processing return
streams separately from plant influent (PE) flow, and condition ammonia-oxidizing bacteria
prior to the BNR tanks. In addition the RAS reaeration tanks will each include a classifying
selector. The classifying selectors will be used for continuous surface wasting of RAS biomass
as WAS. This technique of wasting biomass has been successfully used to control the growth of
foaming filamentous microorganisms by selectively wasting from the surface of the tank. The
basic design criteria for the RAS re-aeration tanks are shown in Table 24.
Table 24. RAS Reaeration Basin Basis of Design
Parameter
Number of New RAS Reaeration Basins

Units
#

Configuration Number of Passes


Maximum RAS Flow

Value
2
1

% of EMD

60%

Design HRT based on Max RAS Flow

hrs

0.76

RAS re-aeration volume per tank


Total RAS re-aeration volume

MG

6.3

Basin Side Water Depth

ft

25

Basin 1 & 2 Length

ft

600

Basin 1 & 2 Width

ft

28

No of Zones per Basin

REAER1 - Aerobic
Design Maximum Aeration
Number of 9" Diffusers

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MG
scfm
#

2.65
22438
9315

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Parameter
REAER2 - Anoxic
Number of Mixers
Mixer horsepower (each)
Surface Wasting per Basin
Type
Number of Selectors per Basin
Wasting Flow Range per Selector

Units

Value

MG
#
Hp

0.5
1.0
20.0

#
gpm

Classifying
Selector
1
600-2,500

2.13.3 . Features

The tanks will be constructed adjacent to the new biological nutrient removal (BNR)
tanks.

Each RAS reaeration tank will have the capacity to take all of the return flow when one
tank is out of service for diffuser cleaning or other maintenance reason.

Evaluate distribution of RAS through a pipeline in the pipe gallery versus a channel
adjacent to the primary effluent distribution channel. If distribution in a channel is
preferred, evaluate extending the pipe gallery under the RAS channel

Evaluate strategies to efficiency distribute and measure RAS flow to each BNR basin.

Determine water elevation at the Reaeration basin and provide the information to the
RAS pump designer.

2.14 Classifying Selectors and WAS Pumping Station


This section describes the waste activated sludge (WAS) pumping from the classifying
selectors located at the effluent end of the RAS reaeration tanks, to the solids handling
facilities.

2.14.1 Basis of Design


WAS will be wasted by the classifying selectors located at the BNR facility. Each RAS
reaeration basin will have one classifying selector. Classifying selectors will be used to remove
the population of foam-causing organisms (e.g., Nocardia) in the BNR to prevent the
development of nuisance foams. Foam-causing organisms are concentrated into the upper layer
of mixed liquor via fine bubble diffusers. Classifying selectors work by wasting mixed liquor
from the top layer of the tank, thus rapidly lowering the population below nuisance level.
Foam-causing organisms will be continuously wasted from the top of the water basin to prevent
accumulation in the tanks.
Based on the AWTP Draft Facility Plan (August, 2012) and related BioWin modeling, the
average wasting rate for system will be 2,500 gpm. The WAS design flow rates are based on
the following criteria:

The minimum wasting rate will be 50 percent of the average wasting rate.

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The peak wasting rate with the largest pump out of service is 150 percent of the average
wasting rate.

The peak wasting rate with all pumps in service is 200 percent of the average wasting
rate.

The following table contains the basis of design for flow along with the number of WAS
discharge pipes that would be in service and flow per classifying selector to each suction pipe.
Table 25. Basis of Design Flow
Flow,
gpm

Condition
Peak with standby running

5,000

Number of
Discharge Lines In
Service

Flow per Discharge


Lines,
gpm

2,500

Flow per
Classifying
Selector
2,500

Peak (standby not running)

3,750

1,900

1,900

Average

2,500

2,500

1,250

Low flow

1,250

1,250

600

2.14.2 Design Criteria


This section describes key design criteria for WAS pumps and classifying selectors.

Pumping station design criteria should conform to the most recent version of the
SRCSD Engineering Standards, Chapter 6: Mechanical Design.

A classifying selector weir will be installed at the effluent end of the RAS reaeration
basins discharging to an integral tank or sump within the RAS reaeration basin volume.
The selector weir will include a modulating actuator to allow continuous adjustment of
the weir elevation. The sump downstream of the weir will operate at a lower water
surface elevation to ensure free surface discharge. As the WAS flow rate increases, the
weir gate will lower appropriately to maintain a setpoint surface elevation within the
classifying selector sump. Likewise, if the WAS flow rate decreases, the gate will rise to
reduce or stop flow over the gate to prevent a submerged weir condition.

2.14.3 BCE Results


The WAS BCE provides a summary of cost, operations, and maintenance considerations for
modified WAS pumping system. The findings and recommendations of the BCE are presented
below.
The following table summarizes the advantages, disadvantages, and risks to each preferred
pump station style and pump combination.
2.14.3.1 Recommendation:
A summary of the life cycle costs analysis is shown in the following table. The WAS BCE
contains the life cycle cost analysis and is based on a life cycle period of 60 years and starts in

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year 2020. Based on the analysis in WAS BCE the least expensive pumping station alternative
was Alternative 7: non-clog end suction centrifugal.
Table 26. Advantages and Disadvantages and Risks
Alt
4

Pump
Station
Screw
Centrifugal

Size
24' x 48'

Advantages

Progressive
Cavity

36' x 52'

Double Disc

36' x 106'

Non-Clog
End Suction
Centrifugal

24' x 30'

Disadvantages

Superior rag-passing
capability.
Highly efficient
Good for dry pit
Operates well at right
of BEP
Steeply sloped
operating curve is
conducive to good
VFD control.

Requires a flow meter


and special controls to
ensure pump stays within
AOR
Single vane impeller

Handles gas inclusion


Not damaged by
significant changes in
head and flow that
might force a
centrifugal pumps
outside of an AOR
Conducive to metered
flow control

Inefficient
High maintenance
Slow speed drive
required
May complicate
operating strategies that
require a constant
pressure be maintained

Has an integrated
check valve
Can meter flow
High pressure
Not damaged by
significant changes in
head requirements

Poor for rags, sticks, and


strings
Lumpy or thick sludges
impact reliability and
increase maintenance
Inefficient
May complicate
operating strategies that
require a constant
pressure be maintained

High efficiency
Reliable
Smallest area
requirement

Requires a flow meter


and special controls to
ensure pump stays within
AOR
NPSH considerations is
critical

Risks

Can be damaged if
operated outside of
the AOR.

Can be damaged if
operated outside of
the AOR.

Note: adapted from Pumping Station Design, Garr Jones, et al, 2008.

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Table 27. Summary of Life Cycle Costs

Alternative

Pumping Station

Capital
Cost

Annual
Operation

Annual
Maintenance,
Non-Recurring,
Risk Costs

60 Year
Life-Cycle Cost
at 5% Discount
Rate

Screw Centrifugal

$1,500,000

$52,000

$27,000

$4,300,000

Progressive Cavity Pump

$3,900,000

$74,000

$100,000

$9,400,000

Double Disc

Non-Clog End Suction


Centrifugal
Note: Values are rounded.

$3,300,000

$91,000

$126,000

$10,200,000

$1,200,000

$52,000

$29,000

$4,100,000

Because of the low capital cost, operation cost, maintenance cost, risk concerns, and total life
cycle cost, Alternative 7 (non-clog end suction centrifugal) is recommended. To mitigate the
risks of operating the non-clog end suction centrifugal outside of their AOR, special monitoring
and control strategies should be included in the final design to prevent damage to the pumps.

2.14.4 Features
The following table contains a list of pump station features.

Number of initial pumps: one per selector, minimum of two pumps connected together
with a common suction. Provide space for a third pump.

Both classifying selectors will be manifolded to both pumps.

Both pumps will be manifolded to two 14-inch WAS pipes.

Locate new WAS pump station inside the BNR gallery and adjacent to the RAS
reaeration tank at the classifying selector.

WAS pump station would connect to existing WAS pipes in the Central Gallery via two
14-inch pipes which will be routed through the piping gallery.

The original WAS line conveying scum will remain and be combined with a WAS line
from the new pump station. No more than two SST scum pumps are on at a time with
flows never higher than 300 gpm.

The14-inch pipe is proposed to match the existing three 14-inch WAS pipes in the
Central Gallery leading to the DAFTs and GBTs.

Provide motor operators on valves to both 14-inch discharge lines.

Provide cleanouts at regular intervals.

Provide VFDs on each WAS pump and all the conduits needed for a third pump.

Provide flow and total suspended solids measurement on both WAS lines.

The WAS PS feeds the dissolved air flotation tanks (DAFT) and the gravity belt
thickeners (GBT). The WAS pump speed will be adjusted to maintain a pressure set

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point in the WAS discharge lines. Flow rates for each DAFT and GBT are set by
operators at a desired rate and signals from flow meters at each DAFT and GBT are
used to adjust throttling valves to meet desired flow rates.

2.14.5 Electrical Design


The electrical system shall be designed based on the current SRCSD Electrical Design
Standards. The WAS pumps shall be powered from the BNR 480VAC electrical building. The
power shall be routed from the electrical room to the pumps through the utility gallery.

2.15 Side Stream Pump Station


2.15.1 Basis of Design
Side streams include the following flows:

Water reclamation facility backwash

Solids Storage basins supernatant

Solids Storage Basins flushing flow (for struvite control)

Solids Storage basins overflow (including rainfall)

Dedicated lined land disposal basins percolate

Biosolids recycling facility dewatering centrate and dryer condensate

These flows fluctuate over a daily, weekly and seasonal basis. The flows are also variable in
nitrogen content.
Side streams flow into two existing Parshall flumes before being discharged to the City
Interceptor at approximate elevation 94.5 feet. The new design will include pumping station
that will receive flow from the side stream flow structure, clarifies or screen the return flows
due to the grit like material contained in the water, store flows in an equalization tank and
then pump at an equalized flowrate to the re-aeration zone of the BNR. Excess flows will be
pumped to the SSBs, ESBs or allowed to flow to the City Interceptor. The new pump station
will be constructed at the site of the existing flume where the ground surface elevation is
approximately 116 feet.
The equalized flow will require a second pumping station to convey flow to the Reaeration
Basin.

2.15.2 Design Criteria


2.15.2.1 Capacity Analysis
The new equalization storage and pump station will be constructed at the site of the existing
flume where the ground surface elevation is approximately 116 feet. The maximum month side
stream flow excluding rainfall and secondary effluent used for flushing is 2.5 mgd. During a
rainfall event flushing will be halted. The flushing volume is approximately 1,500 gpm.

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The total surface area of the SSBs is 140 acres. The 100 year storm event in Sacramento region
produces 4.25 inches of rain in 24 hours. The 2-year storm event produces 1.9 inches in
24 hours. The sustained rainfall over 10 days in a 2-year return frequency is 4.73 inches. The
flushing flow exceeds the average 10-day consecutive rainfall.
Table 28 Flow from SSBs at 2 and 100 year Return Frequency
Flows
Duration

Unit

2 year

100 year

1 day rainfall

Mgd

7.2

16.2

Consecutive 10 day rainfall

mgd

1.8

Process Flows (excluding Flushing)

mgd

2.5

2.5

Flushing Water

mgd

2.2

2.2

Equalized Flow discharged to BNR

mgd

4.7

4.7

Diverted Flow to ESBs

mgd

5.0

14.0

Therefore the pump station must equalize 4.7 mgd, and the maximum capacity of the pumps for
discharging flows to the BNR and ESBs is 18.7 mgd.
2.15.2.2 Pumps
The pumping station will be designed with four pumps to handle the maximum flow conditions.
One pump will be provided to meet the average capacity of the pump station and the other
pumps will be provided as backup and emergency high flow pumps. In order to be classified as
firm capacity, the standby pump must be equal to or exceed the size of the largest pump. If one
of the duty pumps are out of service for repair or maintenance, the pump station will maintain
its design capacity. The capacity ranges are shown below.
Table 29. Side Stream Pump Station Capacity
Pump Station Capacity

Flow (mgd)

Average Capacity

5.0

Firm Capacity

20.0

To meet the flow conditions, four 5-mgd pumps will be provided. Under normal flow
conditions the 5 mgd pump will be the primary pump. As flow exceeds 5 mgd, multiple 5-mgd
pumps will be called to start
Based on the existing and proposed elevations, the maximum static head will be about 15 feet
as shown in the table below. The design criteria is based on a 3 foot freeboard in the pump
station to the high water level (HWL) and a 5-foot operational depth for equalization to reach a
low water level (LWL) of 108.0 feet. The controlling elevation for the pump station size is the
emergency storage basin which exceeds the elevation of the HWL of the re-aeration basin. The

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final numbers will need to account for space constraints and pump station siting, which may
result in the change in operational depth.
Table 30. Side Stream Pump Station Elevation Analysis
Criteria

Elevation (ft)

Top of Existing Flume

116.0

Side Stream Pump Station HWL

113.0

Side Stream Pump Station LWL

108.0

Re-aeration Basin HWL

123.0

Emergency Storage Basin HWL

122.0

Based on the low head conditions the pump selection is limited. Two alternatives are discussed
as shown in the table below: submersible pumps and top mounted mixed flow vertical pumps.
Table 31. Pros, Cons, and Risks of Submersible and Top Mounted pumps
Type

Pros

Submersible Pumps

Top Mounted Pumps

Cons

No need for above-ground


construction
Easy Installation
Light-weight enough to be
removed by winch

Bearing and seal failure


Submerged motor
Maintenance labor
requirements

Easy access to motor


Above-ground motor
Less maintenance labor
Longer pump life
More efficient pumping

Platform and walkway


required to access motor
High capital cost
Boom truck required for
removal

Risk

Water Intrusion
Seal failure

Table 32. Side Stream Preliminary Pump Selection

Quantity

Flow,
ea
(mgd)

Flow,
ea
(gpm)

Static
Head
(ft)

5.0

3,472

14.0

Dynamic
Head (ft)
5.5

Discharge
(in)
18

Size (hp)
30

2.15.2.3 Wet Well Equalization


The wet well will be cast-in-place concrete and shall be designed to equalize side stream flow
and also reduce the pump cycle time to 10 minutes so that the maximum starts per hour for a
given pump is 6. An equalization volume of 0.3 million gallons will equalize the weekday only
operation of the BRFs. An equalization volume of 1.0 million gallons will equalize variable
digested sludge discharge to the SSBs. Therefore a minimum equalization volume of
1.5 million gallons is required.

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2.15.2.4 Solids Removal
The equalization tank must be partitioned into two equal sized volumes. The equalization tanks
will settle residual material from the SSBs. The residual material must be collected and pumped
back into the SSBs for re-processing.

2.15.3 Electrical
The electrical system will be designed based on the current SRCSD Electrical Design
Standards. The Side Stream pump station shall receive 480VAC power from existing facilities
located near the planned location. The ESB-D Pump Station is located nearby and would be
suitable for providing the sub-feed.

2.16 Side Stream Treatment


Side stream treatment design criteria have not been established. Side stream treatment could
include flows as described in Section 2.14.
Design criteria have not been established and a BCE has not been developed to evaluate the life
cycle cost, pros, or cons of various alternatives and their impact on BNR or plant influent.
However, the PMO is evaluating sidestream treatment as a separate project. Results will be
available by the end of year 2012.

2.17 Site Work


2.17.1 Civil Design
2.17.1.1 Site Layout
General
The layout of unit processes, buildings, and equipment serves as the source for the
selection and layout of roads and erosion control.
Fence (look at RFP for list of topics).
Provide maintenance access to all facilities.
Provide parking areas for maintenance vehicles and support vehicles.

Access Roads, Parking, Contractor Access Areas


All asphalt paved areas shall be sloped a minimum of 2 percent and all concrete
paved areas shall be sloped to a minimum of 1 percent to produce sheet flow of
storm runoff. Walkways shall have a longitudinal slope less than 5 percent and a
cross slope less than 2 percent. Concrete curb and gutters shall have a minimum
longitudinal slope of 0.5 percent.
Rolled curb and gutter shall be Type A2 per the County of Sacramento, Standard
Drawing No. 4-30.

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Vertical curb and gutter shall be Type 2 per the County of Sacramento, Standard
Drawing No. 4-30.
Barrier curb shall be Type 5 per the County of Sacramento, Standard Drawing
No. 4-30.
The pavement design for each area or roadway should be based on the size and
frequency of the traffic (Traffic Index) and the soil site conditions per Caltrans
design standards. Base and pavement thickness shall be as recommended in the
Geotechnical Report for the project.
The recommended minimum Traffic Index should be used as indicated below.
Vehicle parking areas

6.0

Vehicle maintenance or chemical delivery

7.0

All other onsite roadways

7.0

A turnaround shall be provided on any dead end access road exceeding 150 feet in
length.

Grading
All site grading shall produce level or sloping planes without berms, hills, valleys or
mounds upon completion of construction unless otherwise authorized.
Grading shall produce surfaces with slopes as needed for storm water drainage.
Borrow and select fill, if required by the Projects design, shall come from off-site
sources.
Grading shall not interfere with direct visual surveillance or emergency vehicular
traffic.

Storm Drainage
The drainage system shall be designed for a 100 year storm event.
The hydraulic grade line (HGL) for the design storm will be calculated for the storm
drain system and shown on the design profile when it is above the top of pipe. The
hydraulic calculations will be prepared to ensure that the 100 year HGL is below the
drainage inlet grates and manholes.
Drainage in low areas or sags must provide for a secondary overland release for
flows that exceed the design flows for the storm drain system.
Where possible, the design should maximize the surface flow versus underground
piping.
The minimum inside diameter for storm drain pipes shall be no less than 12 inches.

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Storm drain pipes will be designed so that when flowing at 70% of the pipe
diameter, the minimum flow velocity is 2 feet per second.
Natural or grass lined channels shall have a maximum side slope of 2:1 and a
minimum bottom width of 3 feet.
Outlets from pipes to unlined channels shall include erosion control provisions.
Extend the storm drain lines to the building and roof drains where necessary.
Water, sewer, and other pipeline separation shall be in accordance with the State of
California Department of Health, Chapter 16 of Title 22.
Pipe trenches and bedding shall be per the Geotechnical Engineers
recommendations.
Provide calculations showing that the proposed storm drain system complies with
the design criteria.

2.18 Site Utilities


Site utilities for water, natural gas, sewer, and storm drainage have not been identified.

2.18.1 Basis of Design


Site

Review existing fire hydrant locations and identify additional hydrants based on code
requirements, Districts Design Guidelines, and protection of facilities.

Identify WRH/WRL needs.

Storm drain requirements need to be identified based on grading plan and connections
with existing storm drain system.

Identify other utility needs, such as compressed air, natural gas, potable water, etc.

BNR

Potable water for chemical feed eyewash

Non-potable water for chemical hydration or make up water

Non-potable water for basin and diffuser washdown

Washdown water may be needed in the pipe gallery, at the basin drain, and waste
activated sludge pump stations for housekeeping

Blower Building

The electrical, blower, and filter rooms are dry rooms

The ACC, depending on the final uses, may require potable water and sewer

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Draft Basis of Design Report
2.18.2 Design Criteria
Have not been developed.

2.19 Site Electrical


2.19.1 Substation
Two alternatives exist for providing power to the BNR facilities. Alternative 1 is to expand the
existing Main 12KV Substation with two new 40MVA transformers and service connections.
Alternative 2 is construction of a new 12KV Substation approximately the same size (40MVA)
on the North side of the plant. Power to the new 12KV substation would be fed from two
extensions of the SMUD 69KV overhead distribution lines from the SMUD switchyard at the
east edge of the plant. Alternative 1 is NOT part of the electrical design. Alternative 2 is part of
the electrical design.
In each alternative the configuration of the BNR facilities would be different. Alternative 1
would locate the BNR Electrical Building adjacent to the Blower Building on the south edge of
the basins. Alternative 2 would locate the Transformer Yard, 12KV substation and BNR
electrical building adjacent to the Blower Building and the PEPS on the East edge of the basins.

2.20 Contractor Support Facilities and Laydown Area


The size and coordination of the contractors area for support facilities and laydown area have
not been finalized. Site utilities for power, water, sewer, and storm drainage have been
identified for these areas.

2.20.1 Basis of Design

The size of the laydown area needs to be evaluated based on construction phasing and
materials delivery.

The laydown area is generally shown on the Overall BNR Site drawing and the Overall
Program Site drawing. The area west of the limits of the BNR construction must be
shared with the equalization basin construction that will be to the north of the BNR in
ESB-C.

Utilities extended to the trailer area will be sized to be shared with the equalization
basin contractor.

The trailer area will be sized to accommodate the contractor, resident engineer, field
engineer (designer), and PMO staff.

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Appendix A 181 mgd ADWF Mass Balance

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Draft Basis of Design Report
Emergency Storage Basins

PI Diversion
Cl2 and
Ferric

ESB Return

Ferric

PE
Diversion

10

SE
Diversion

Caustic &
Sulfur Dioxide

32

Cl2
9

Headworks

11

13

12

Primary
Sed. Pump

99
3

30

49

33

Sec.
Sed.

Act. Sludge

(for AWTP)

Discharge to
Sac River

Cl2 Contact Pipe


Disinfection

97

To RAS
Re-Aeration
(Expansion)

Filters
40

62
60

14

DAFT Return
to PI

Coagulant/
Polymer

50

69

To BRF

Polymer (GBTs)

63

66

70

Anaerobic
Digester

75

91

52

76

74

72

55

Reclaimed
Water

Coagulant/
Polymer
Cl2

80

78

DAFT/
GBTs

42

WRF
Filters

65

DAFT/ GBTs
Return

44

Year 2020 Filters

DLDs

SSBs
90

68

Plant Wastewater/
Wash Water

FOG
95

93

BRF
79

Beneficial
Use
82

88

Figure A - 1. Schematic of the Proposed Facility

A-1

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Draft Basis of Design Report
Table A - 1. Detailed Breakdown of the Mass Balance for ADWF at 181 mgd ADWF Design Flow
Line

Nam e

Flow
m gd

1
3
5
6
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
30
32
33
40
42
44
49
50
52
55
57
60
62
63
65
66
68
69
70
72
74
75
76
78
79
80
82
90
91
93
95
97
99

Influent (Raw)
Influent (Raw+Side Streams-ESB Return)
PI Diversion to ESBs
ESB Return
Primary Feed
Primary Effluent
PE Diversion to ESBs
Act. Sludge Feed (w/out RAS)
Act. Sludge Feed (with RAS)
Secondary Clar Feed
RAS
Secondary Clar Effl
SE Diversion to ESBs
Disinfection Feed
New Filter Complex Feed
New Disinfection Complex Feed
New Disinfection Complex Effl
Discharge to River
SE Diverted to WRF/SSBs/BRF
WRF Filter Feed
WRF Filter Effluent
Filter Backwash (WRF and New Filter Complex)
Primary Solids
WAS
TWAS
Thickener Return to PI
Thickener Return to Headworks
Plant Wastewater (Excludes Thickener Return)
Plant Wastewater (Includes Thickener Return)
Digester Feed (Pri Solids + TWAS)
Digested Solids
Digested Solids to SSBs
SE Diverted to SSBs/BRF
SE Flushing Water to SSBs
SSBs Feed
SSBs Return
DLDs Feed
DLDs Return Stream
Digested Solids to BRF (Dewatering/Pelletizing)
BRF Scrubber Water (Diverted from SE)
BRF Return Stream
SSB/DLD/BRF/WRF Return
SSB/DLD/BRF/WRF Return to RAS Re-Aeration
SSB/DLD/BRF/WRF Return to Headworks

181
184
0
0
184
183
0
196
256
256
60
193
0
0
193
182
182
182
0
0
0
11
1
3
1
0
1
2
3
2
2
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
12
12
0

BOD
gpm

125,700
127,700
0
0
128,000
127,300
0
135,900
177,900
177,900
41,990
134,100
69
0
134,100
126,600
126,600
126,600
0
0
0
7,500
640
1,777
527
312
937
1,042
1,979
1,168
1,168
782
0
0
782
704
78
5
385
0
360
8,569
8,569
0

m g/L

TSS
lb/d

316
477,000
314
481,800
0
0
0
0
314
482,500
228
348,000
0
0
216
353,000
633 1,353,000
491 1,049,000
1,983 1,000,000
4
6,113
4
3
0
0
4
6,110
2
2,852
2
2,852
2
2,852
0
0
0
0
0
0
36
3,258
17,500
134,500
1,983
42,320
6,306
39,940
199
747
199
2,241
200
2,502
200
4,743
12,440
174,500
5,456
76,500
5,456
51,250
0
0
0
0
5,456
51,250
145
1,226
10,010
9,408
0
0
5,456
25,240
0
0
126
545
49
5,029
49
5,029
0
0

m g/L

VSS
lb/d

301
454,400
303
465,200
0
0
0
0
305
468,000
165
252,700
0
0
167
271,700
2,173 4,643,000
2,140 4,573,000
8,669 4,372,000
10
16,740
10
9
0
0
10
16,730
2
3,040
2
3,040
2
3,040
0
0
0
0
0
0
152
13,690
28,000
215,300
8,669
185,000
27,450
173,900
740
2,775
740
8,324
200
2,502
456
10,830
27,750
389,100
16,520
231,600
16,520
155,200
0
0
0
0
16,520
155,200
450
3,805
99,150
93,140
0
0
16,520
76,440
0
0
353
1,529
185
19,020
185
19,020
0
0

m g/L

NH4
lb/d

256
386,200
257
394,600
0
0
0
0
258
396,700
140
214,200
0
0
139
227,500
1,666 3,559,000
1,631 3,485,000
6,607 3,332,000
8
12,760
8
7
0
0
8
12,750
2
2,317
2
2,317
2
2,317
0
0
0
0
0
0
116
10,430
23,730
182,500
6,607
141,000
20,920
132,500
564
2,115
564
6,344
160
2,002
351
8,345
22,460
315,000
11,230
157,500
11,230
105,500
0
0
0
0
11,230
105,500
220
1,859
48,560
45,620
0
0
11,230
51,970
0
0
240
1,039
130
13,330
130
13,330
0
0

m g/L

29
29
0
0
29
29
0
32
25
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
29
1
0
1
1
25
13
16
459
459
0
0
459
840
840
0
459
0
459
89
89
0

TKN
lb/d

m g/L

43,780
44,100
0
0
44,100
43,880
0
53,010
53,260
1,068
252
806
0
0
805
760
760
760
0
0
0
45
221
11
3
2
6
313
318
223
6,435
4,311
0
0
4,311
7,105
790
0
2,123
0
1,986
9,136
9,136
0

48
48
0
0
48
39
0
43
205
180
727
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
13
1,802
727
1,841
63
63
27
44
1,820
1,361
1,361
0
0
1,361
858
4,740
0
1,361
0
478
102
102
0

lb/d

72,460
73,500
0
0
73,730
59,880
0
70,400
437,100
384,500
366,700
2,209
1
0
2,208
1,015
1,015
1,015
0
0
0
1,193
13,850
15,520
11,660
235
703
338
1,041
25,520
19,080
12,780
0
0
12,780
7,255
4,453
0
6,297
0
2,069
10,520
10,520
0

TON
m g/L

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
3
8
8
8
8
0
8
8
8
8
0
0
0
8
0
8
8
8
8
0
4
4
0
0
0
0
0
115
115
0
0
0
0
17
17
0

lb/d

TP
m g/L

0
6
94
6
0
0
0
0
125
6
0
5
0
0
1,719
7
5,917
45
17,800
46
4,198
171
13,420
5
7
5
0
0
13,400
5
12,650
5
12,650
5
12,650
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
750
7
0
199
178
171
51
530
31
19
94
19
0
6
94
12
51
349
0
349
0
349
0
0
0
0
0
349
969
233
108 1,392
0
0
0
349
0
0
0
162
1,719
32
1,719
32
0
0

Alk
lb/d

9,057
9,342
0
0
9,412
7,883
0
11,220
97,190
97,210
85,970
7,579
4
0
7,544
6,877
6,877
6,877
0
0
0
666
1,529
3,638
3,358
70
210
75
285
4,886
4,886
3,274
0
0
3,274
1,966
1,308
0
1,612
0
702
3,335
3,335
0

Mass Balance Notes


The flow and loadings above are daily average values.
For solids streams, the actual flows may be different if the unit performance does not meet the concentration limits. Bracket flows based on mass loading with accomodation for lower/higher
concentrations. Instantaneous flow for solids streams is often intermittent and higher to match minimum pipe velocities and actual operating conditions. Adjust to match mass loading.
Filter backwash is calculated as a 24-hour average flow. Instantaneous flows will be higher, pending the operating strategy. Adjust instantaneous flows as needed.
A-2

m g/L

lb/d

221
220
0
0
220
220
0
244
210
102
102
102
102
0
102
102
102
102
0
0
0
102
220
102
103
102
102
230
170
167
3,387
3,387
0
0
3,387
4,340
4,340
4,340
3,387
0
3,387
591
591
0

333,600
337,600
0
0
338,000
336,800
0
397,600
449,200
218,800
51,600
165,000
85
0
164,800
155,500
155,500
155,500
0
0
0
9,217
1,693
2,184
653
384
1,152
2,877
4,029
2,346
47,490
31,820
0
0
31,820
36,690
4,077
265
15,670
0
14,660
60,830
60,830
0

Biological Nutrient Removal


Draft Basis of Design Report
Table A - 2. Detailed Breakdown of the Mass Balance for AA at 181 mgd ADWF Design Flow
Line

Nam e

Flow
m gd

1
3
5
6
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
30
32
33
40
42
44
49
50
52
55
57
60
62
63
65
66
68
69
70
72
74
75
76
78
79
80
82
90
91
93
95
97
99

Influent (Raw)
Influent (Raw+Side Streams-ESB Return)
PI Diversion to ESBs
ESB Return
Primary Feed
Primary Effluent
PE Diversion to ESBs
Act. Sludge Feed (w/out RAS)
Act. Sludge Feed (with RAS)
Secondary Clar Feed
RAS
Secondary Clar Effl
SE Diversion to ESBs
Disinfection Feed
New Filter Complex Feed
New Disinfection Complex Feed
New Disinfection Complex Effl
Discharge to River
SE Diverted to WRF/SSBs/BRF
WRF Filter Feed
WRF Filter Effluent
Filter Backwash (WRF and New Filter Complex)
Primary Solids
WAS
TWAS
Thickener Return to PI
Thickener Return to Headworks
Plant Wastewater (Excludes Thickener Return)
Plant Wastewater (Includes Thickener Return)
Digester Feed (Pri Solids + TWAS)
Digested Solids
Digested Solids to SSBs
SE Diverted to SSBs/BRF
SE Flushing Water to SSBs
SSBs Feed
SSBs Return
DLDs Feed
DLDs Return Stream
Digested Solids to BRF (Dewatering/Pelletizing)
BRF Scrubber Water (Diverted from SE)
BRF Return Stream
SSB/DLD/BRF/WRF Return
SSB/DLD/BRF/WRF Return to RAS Re-Aeration
SSB/DLD/BRF/WRF Return to Headworks

194
197
0
0
197
196
0
209
273
273
65
206
0
0
206
195
195
195
0
0
0
11
1
3
1
0
1
2
3
2
2
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
12
12
0

BOD
gpm

134,700
136,700
0
0
137,000
136,400
0
144,900
189,800
189,800
44,910
143,200
69
0
143,100
135,600
135,600
135,600
0
0
0
7,500
643
1,754
489
316
949
1,042
1,990
1,131
1,131
758
0
0
758
682
76
5
373
0
346
8,534
8,534
0

m g/L

TSS
lb/d

295
477,300
294
481,900
0
0
0
0
293
482,600
197
322,400
0
0
188
327,700
591 1,348,000
468 1,068,000
1,891 1,020,000
4
7,571
4
4
0
0
4
7,567
2
3,998
2
3,998
2
3,998
0
0
0
0
0
0
40
3,569
20,770
160,300
1,891
39,840
6,403
37,580
187
711
187
2,133
200
2,502
194
4,635
14,560
197,900
6,018
81,770
6,018
54,780
0
0
0
0
6,018
54,780
145
1,188
11,040
10,050
0
0
6,018
26,980
0
0
139
578
52
5,335
52
5,335
0
0

m g/L

VSS
lb/d

287
464,400
289
474,600
0
0
0
0
290
477,100
131
214,700
0
0
135
234,600
2,028 4,624,000
2,009 4,579,000
8,139 4,390,000
10
17,860
10
9
0
0
10
17,860
2
3,257
2
3,257
2
3,257
0
0
0
0
0
0
162
14,600
34,000
262,400
8,139
171,400
27,450
161,100
677
2,571
677
7,713
200
2,502
427
10,220
31,170
423,500
18,390
249,900
18,390
167,400
0
0
0
0
18,390
167,400
450
3,687
109,400
99,560
0
0
18,390
82,470
0
0
396
1,649
195
19,930
195
19,930
0
0

m g/L

NH4
lb/d

244
394,700
245
402,700
0
0
0
0
246
404,700
111
182,100
0
0
113
196,400
1,576 3,593,000
1,554 3,544,000
6,298 3,397,000
8
13,820
8
7
0
0
8
13,820
2
2,520
2
2,520
2
2,520
0
0
0
0
0
0
125
11,300
28,840
222,600
6,298
132,700
21,240
124,700
524
1,990
524
5,969
160
2,002
333
7,971
25,560
347,200
12,780
173,600
12,780
116,300
0
0
0
0
12,780
116,300
228
1,865
55,450
50,480
0
0
12,780
57,290
0
0
275
1,146
140
14,310
140
14,310
0
0

m g/L

27
27
0
0
27
27
0
31
24
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
27
1
0
1
1
25
13
15
530
530
0
0
530
972
972
0
530
0
530
100
100
0

TKN
lb/d

m g/L

43,680
44,000
0
0
44,010
43,800
0
54,010
54,280
1,140
270
860
0
0
859
814
814
814
0
0
0
45
206
11
2
2
6
313
318
209
7,198
4,823
0
0
4,823
7,960
884
0
2,375
0
2,204
10,210
10,210
0

46
46
0
0
46
35
0
40
195
172
693
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
14
2,281
693
1,870
58
58
27
42
2,104
1,574
1,574
0
0
1,574
990
5,503
0
1,574
0
552
114
114
0

lb/d

74,430
75,430
0
0
75,650
58,040
0
69,740
443,600
390,900
373,900
2,380
1
0
2,379
1,091
1,091
1,091
0
0
0
1,288
17,610
14,600
10,970
221
662
338
1,000
28,580
21,380
14,330
0
0
14,330
8,112
5,009
0
7,057
0
2,298
11,700
11,700
0

TON
m g/L

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
3
8
8
8
8
0
8
8
8
8
0
0
0
8
0
8
8
8
8
0
4
3
0
0
0
0
0
133
133
0
0
0
0
17
17
0

lb/d

TP
m g/L

0
6
89
6
0
0
0
0
119
6
0
5
0
0
1,791
7
6,014
44
17,860
44
4,223
163
13,470
5
7
5
0
0
13,460
5
12,750
5
12,750
5
12,750
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
705
8
0
251
165
163
44
538
30
18
89
18
0
6
89
12
44
375
0
375
0
375
0
0
0
0
0
375
1,085
250
121 1,502
0
0
0
375
0
0
0
175
1,791
34
1,791
34
0
0

Alk
lb/d

9,708
9,984
0
0
10,050
8,117
0
11,580
99,370
99,400
87,790
8,150
4
0
8,116
7,425
7,425
7,425
0
0
0
691
1,934
3,428
3,160
67
202
75
277
5,093
5,093
3,413
0
0
3,413
2,045
1,367
0
1,681
0
726
3,462
3,462
0

Mass Balance Notes


The flow and loadings above are daily average values.
For solids streams, the actual flows may be different if the unit performance does not meet the concentration limits. Bracket flows based on mass loading with accomodation for lower/higher
concentrations. Instantaneous flow for solids streams is often intermittent and higher to match minimum pipe velocities and actual operating conditions. Adjust to match mass loading.
Filter backwash is calculated as a 24-hour average flow. Instantaneous flows will be higher, pending the operating strategy. Adjust instantaneous flows as needed.

A-3

m g/L

lb/d

221
220
0
0
220
220
0
246
215
114
114
114
114
0
114
114
114
114
0
0
0
114
220
114
114
114
114
230
175
175
3,902
3,902
0
0
3,902
5,006
5,006
5,006
3,902
0
3,902
662
662
0

357,600
361,700
0
0
362,200
360,900
0
428,700
490,000
259,500
61,340
195,700
95
0
195,400
185,200
185,200
185,200
0
0
0
10,240
1,701
2,395
672
432
1,296
2,877
4,173
2,372
53,020
35,520
0
0
35,520
41,020
4,558
296
17,500
0
16,230
67,790
67,790
0

Biological Nutrient Removal


Draft Basis of Design Report
Table A - 3. Detailed Breakdown of the Mass Balance for MM at 181 mgd ADWF Design Flow
Line

Nam e

Flow
m gd

1
3
5
6
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
30
32
33
40
42
44
49
50
52
55
57
60
62
63
65
66
68
69
70
72
74
75
76
78
79
80
82
90
91
93
95
97
99

Influent (Raw)
Influent (Raw+Side Streams-ESB Return)
PI Diversion to ESBs
ESB Return
Primary Feed
Primary Effluent
PE Diversion to ESBs
Act. Sludge Feed (w/out RAS)
Act. Sludge Feed (with RAS)
Secondary Clar Feed
RAS
Secondary Clar Effl
SE Diversion to ESBs
Disinfection Feed
New Filter Complex Feed
New Disinfection Complex Feed
New Disinfection Complex Effl
Discharge to River
SE Diverted to WRF/SSBs/BRF
WRF Filter Feed
WRF Filter Effluent
Filter Backwash (WRF and New Filter Complex)
Primary Solids
WAS
TWAS
Thickener Return to PI
Thickener Return to Headworks
Plant Wastewater (Excludes Thickener Return)
Plant Wastewater (Includes Thickener Return)
Digester Feed (Pri Solids + TWAS)
Digested Solids
Digested Solids to SSBs
SE Diverted to SSBs/BRF
SE Flushing Water to SSBs
SSBs Feed
SSBs Return
DLDs Feed
DLDs Return Stream
Digested Solids to BRF (Dewatering/Pelletizing)
BRF Scrubber Water (Diverted from SE)
BRF Return Stream
SSB/DLD/BRF/WRF Return
SSB/DLD/BRF/WRF Return to RAS Re-Aeration
SSB/DLD/BRF/WRF Return to Headworks

270
273
0
0
273
272
0
285
374
374
89
282
0
0
282
271
271
271
0
0
0
11
1
2
1
0
1
2
3
2
2
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
13
13
0

BOD
gpm

187,500
189,400
0
0
189,700
188,900
0
197,600
259,600
259,600
61,920
195,900
69
0
195,900
188,400
188,400
188,400
0
0
0
7,500
781
1,722
578
286
859
1,042
1,900
1,358
1,358
910
0
0
910
819
91
6
448
0
417
8,742
8,742
0

m g/L

TSS
lb/d

238
535,900
238
540,800
0
0
0
0
238
541,600
162
368,100
0
0
158
375,000
659 2,056,000
558 1,738,000
2,260 1,680,000
5
10,980
5
4
0
0
5
10,970
3
6,177
3
6,177
3
6,177
0
0
0
0
0
0
53
4,796
18,500
173,600
2,260
46,750
6,359
44,100
234
804
234
2,411
200
2,502
215
4,913
13,340
217,700
5,834
95,190
5,834
63,770
0
0
0
0
5,834
63,770
145
1,426
10,700
11,690
0
0
5,834
31,410
0
0
135
675
66
6,897
66
6,897
0
0

m g/L

VSS
lb/d

245
551,700
248
563,300
0
0
0
0
249
566,300
117
266,200
0
0
123
292,400
2,430 7,574,000
2,409 7,509,000
9,792 7,282,000
10
24,450
10
9
0
0
10
24,440
2
4,524
2
4,524
2
4,524
0
0
0
0
0
0
221
19,910
32,000
300,200
9,792
202,600
27,450
190,400
884
3,038
884
9,114
200
2,502
509
11,620
30,070
490,500
17,780
290,100
17,780
194,400
0
0
0
0
17,780
194,400
450
4,427
106,000
115,800
0
0
17,780
95,730
0
0
382
1,915
250
26,260
250
26,260
0
0

m g/L

NH4
lb/d

m g/L

208
468,900
22
210
477,900
22
0
0
0
0
0
0
211
480,300
22
100
225,700
22
0
0
0
103
244,600
27
1,874 5,841,000
20
1,851 5,771,000
1
7,526 5,596,000
1
8
18,790
1
8
7
1
0
0
0
8
18,780
1
2
3,477
1
2
3,477
1
2
3,477
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
170
15,310
1
27,140
254,500
22
7,526
155,700
1
21,100
146,300
0
679
2,335
1
679
7,005
1
160
2,002
25
395
9,006
14
24,570
400,800
13
12,280
200,400
578
12,280
134,300
578
0
0
0
0
0
0
12,280
134,300
578
226
2,220 1,062
53,250
58,210 1,062
0
0
0
12,280
66,140
578
0
0
0
264
1,323
578
180
18,850
128
180
18,850
128
0
0
0

TKN
lb/d

m g/L

49,540
49,860
0
0
49,860
49,650
0
63,040
63,410
1,559
372
1,176
0
0
1,176
1,131
1,131
1,131
0
0
0
45
205
10
3
2
5
313
318
208
9,429
6,318
0
0
6,318
10,450
1,161
0
3,112
0
2,895
13,390
13,390
0

42
42
0
0
42
31
0
37
225
204
828
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
19
2,626
828
1,857
75
75
27
49
2,299
1,721
1,721
0
0
1,721
1,083
6,017
0
1,721
0
603
147
147
0

lb/d

94,580
95,690
0
0
95,950
71,320
0
86,720
702,600
636,400
615,900
3,243
1
0
3,242
1,514
1,514
1,514
0
0
0
1,729
24,630
17,130
12,880
259
776
338
1,113
37,510
28,080
18,810
0
0
18,810
10,650
6,577
0
9,266
0
3,018
15,400
15,400
0

TON
m g/L

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
2
7
7
7
7
0
7
7
7
7
0
0
0
7
0
7
7
7
7
0
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
145
145
0
0
0
0
20
20
0

lb/d

TP
m g/L

Alk
lb/d

m g/L

0
6 13,510
221
74
6 13,810
221
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
99
6 13,890
221
0
5 11,320
221
0
0
0
0
2,073
7 15,550
247
7,428
51 159,700
218
22,460
51 159,700
125
5,355
194 144,100
125
16,950
5 11,540
125
6
5
4
125
0
0
0
0
16,940
5 11,500
125
16,290
5 10,700
125
16,290
5 10,700
125
16,290
5 10,700
125
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
649
9
807
125
0
273
2,562
221
149
194
4,010
125
48
535
3,710
126
25
22
75
125
74
22
224
125
0
6
75
230
74
13
300
183
48
384
6,272
180
0
384
6,272 4,261
0
384
4,202 4,261
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
384
4,202 4,261
1,425
256
2,521 5,472
158 1,538
1,682 5,472
0
0
0 5,472
0
384
2,070 4,261
0
0
0
0
0
179
896 4,261
2,073
40
4,224
827
2,073
40
4,224
827
0
0
0
0

Mass Balance Notes


The flow and loadings above are daily average values.
For solids streams, the actual flows may be different if the unit performance does not meet the concentration limits. Bracket flows based on mass loading with accomodation for lower/higher
concentrations. Instantaneous flow for solids streams is often intermittent and higher to match minimum pipe velocities and actual operating conditions. Adjust to match mass loading.
Filter backwash is calculated as a 24-hour average flow. Instantaneous flows will be higher, pending the operating strategy. Adjust instantaneous flows as needed.
A-4

lb/d

497,600
501,800
0
0
502,200
500,500
0
587,400
680,300
389,900
92,970
294,300
104
0
294,100
282,800
282,800
282,800
0
0
0
11,260
2,069
2,586
871
430
1,289
2,877
4,167
2,940
69,520
46,580
0
0
46,580
53,830
5,981
389
22,940
0
21,340
86,830
86,830
0

Biological Nutrient Removal


Draft Basis of Design Report
Table A - 4. Detailed Breakdown of the Mass Balance for MW at 181 mgd ADWF Design Flow
Line

Nam e

Flow
m gd

1
3
5
6
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
30
32
33
40
42
44
49
50
52
55
57
60
62
63
65
66
68
69
70
72
74
75
76
78
79
80
82
90
91
93
95
97
99

Influent (Raw)
Influent (Raw+Side Streams-ESB Return)
PI Diversion to ESBs
ESB Return
Primary Feed
Primary Effluent
PE Diversion to ESBs
Act. Sludge Feed (w/out RAS)
Act. Sludge Feed (with RAS)
Secondary Clar Feed
RAS
Secondary Clar Effl
SE Diversion to ESBs
Disinfection Feed
New Filter Complex Feed
New Disinfection Complex Feed
New Disinfection Complex Effl
Discharge to River
SE Diverted to WRF/SSBs/BRF
WRF Filter Feed
WRF Filter Effluent
Filter Backwash (WRF and New Filter Complex)
Primary Solids
WAS
TWAS
Thickener Return to PI
Thickener Return to Headworks
Plant Wastewater (Excludes Thickener Return)
Plant Wastewater (Includes Thickener Return)
Digester Feed (Pri Solids + TWAS)
Digested Solids
Digested Solids to SSBs
SE Diverted to SSBs/BRF
SE Flushing Water to SSBs
SSBs Feed
SSBs Return
DLDs Feed
DLDs Return Stream
Digested Solids to BRF (Dewatering/Pelletizing)
BRF Scrubber Water (Diverted from SE)
BRF Return Stream
SSB/DLD/BRF/WRF Return
SSB/DLD/BRF/WRF Return to RAS Re-Aeration
SSB/DLD/BRF/WRF Return to Headworks

347
350
0
0
350
349
19
343
451
451
108
340
0
0
340
329
329
329
0
0
0
11
1
2
1
0
1
2
3
2
2
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
13
13
0

BOD
gpm

241,000
242,800
0
0
243,000
242,300
13,140
238,000
312,900
312,900
74,900
236,200
69
0
236,200
228,700
228,700
228,700
0
0
0
7,500
709
1,726
721
251
754
1,042
1,795
1,430
1,430
958
0
0
958
862
96
6
472
0
437
8,806
8,806
0

m g/L

TSS
lb/d

213
616,400
213
621,800
0
0
0
0
213
622,700
157
457,100
157
24,790
154
440,200
782 2,938,000
684 2,569,000
2,777 2,498,000
5
13,280
5
4
0
0
5
13,280
3
7,612
3
7,612
3
7,612
0
0
0
0
0
0
63
5,665
19,450
165,700
2,777
57,550
6,276
54,310
316
953
316
2,859
200
2,502
249
5,361
12,810
220,000
6,077
104,300
6,077
69,900
0
0
0
0
6,077
69,900
145
1,501
11,330
13,030
0
0
6,077
34,430
0
0
140
737
75
7,903
75
7,903
0
0

m g/L

VSS
lb/d

228
659,800
231
673,700
0
0
0
0
232
677,500
130
379,400
130
20,580
136
389,600
3,023 11,360,000
2,994 11,250,000
12,190 10,970,000
10
29,480
10
9
0
0
10
29,470
2
5,493
2
5,493
2
5,493
0
0
0
0
0
0
266
23,980
35,000
298,100
12,190
252,700
27,450
237,500
1,256
3,790
1,256
11,370
200
2,502
643
13,870
31,190
535,600
18,590
319,200
18,590
213,800
0
0
0
0
18,590
213,800
450
4,659
112,300
129,200
0
0
18,590
105,300
0
0
401
2,107
291
30,740
291
30,740
0
0

m g/L

NH4
lb/d

194
560,900
196
571,500
0
0
0
0
197
574,400
111
321,600
111
17,450
114
326,100
2,301 8,646,000
2,271 8,534,000
9,249 8,320,000
8
22,360
8
7
0
0
8
22,350
2
4,166
2
4,166
2
4,166
0
0
0
0
0
0
202
18,190
29,670
252,700
9,249
191,700
20,820
180,200
953
2,875
953
8,625
160
2,002
493
10,630
25,210
432,900
12,610
216,400
12,610
145,000
0
0
0
0
12,610
145,000
219
2,267
54,750
62,990
0
0
12,610
71,420
0
0
272
1,428
207
21,880
207
21,880
0
0

m g/L

20
20
0
0
20
20
20
23
18
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
20
1
0
1
1
25
15
10
485
485
0
0
485
892
892
0
485
0
485
112
112
0

TKN
lb/d

m g/L

lb/d

57,880
58,200
0
0
58,200
58,030
3,148
66,710
67,160
1,879
450
1,419
0
0
1,418
1,373
1,373
1,373
0
0
0
45
170
10
3
2
5
313
317
173
8,330
5,581
0
0
5,581
9,232
1,026
0
2,749
0
2,549
11,830
11,830
0

33
95,500
33
96,790
0
0
0
0
33
97,110
27
79,820
27
4,329
31
89,600
268 1,005,000
250
940,600
1,018
915,600
1
3,878
1
1
0
0
1
3,877
1
1,831
1
1,831
1
1,831
0
0
0
0
0
0
23
2,046
2,030
17,290
1,018
21,090
1,833
15,860
105
318
105
953
27
338
60
1,291
1,931
33,150
1,445
24,820
1,445
16,630
0
0
0
0
1,445
16,630
908
9,405
5,063
5,824
0
0
1,445
8,190
0
0
506
2,657
133
14,110
133
14,110
0
0

TON
m g/L

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
2
6
6
6
6
0
6
6
6
6
0
0
0
6
0
6
6
6
6
0
2
3
0
0
0
0
0
122
122
0
0
0
0
17
17
0

lb/d

TP
m g/L

Alk
lb/d

m g/L

0
5 13,020
186
53
5 13,350
186
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
70
5 13,430
186
0
4 12,620
186
0
4
685
186
1,782
5 15,630
206
7,004
61 227,600
182
21,830
61 227,600
107
5,222
236 212,000
107
16,480
4 10,750
107
5
4
3
107
0
0
0
0
16,470
4 10,720
107
15,940
4
9,940
107
15,940
4
9,940
107
15,940
4
9,940
107
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
523
9
779
107
0
95
809
186
120
236
4,883
107
49
526
4,551
107
18
27
83
107
53
27
249
107
0
6
75
230
53
15
324
178
49
312
5,360
146
0
312
5,360 3,574
0
312
3,591 3,574
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
312
3,591 3,574
1,259
208
2,152 4,591
140 1,251
1,439 4,591
0
0
0 4,591
0
312
1,769 3,574
0
0
0
0
0
145
764 3,574
1,782
35
3,695
721
1,782
35
3,695
721
0
0
0
0

Mass Balance Notes


The flow and loadings above are daily average values.
For solids streams, the actual flows may be different if the unit performance does not meet the concentration limits. Bracket flows based on mass loading with accomodation for lower/higher
concentrations. Instantaneous flow for solids streams is often intermittent and higher to match minimum pipe velocities and actual operating conditions. Adjust to match mass loading.
Filter backwash is calculated as a 24-hour average flow. Instantaneous flows will be higher, pending the operating strategy. Adjust instantaneous flows as needed.

A-5

lb/d

538,300
542,100
0
0
542,400
541,100
29,350
588,000
683,800
400,200
95,770
302,200
89
0
302,000
292,400
292,400
292,400
0
0
0
9,590
1,584
2,207
924
321
964
2,877
3,841
2,508
61,370
41,120
0
0
41,120
47,540
5,282
343
20,250
0
18,780
76,240
76,240
0

Biological Nutrient Removal


Draft Basis of Design Report
Table A - 5. Detailed Breakdown of the Mass Balance for MD at 181 mgd ADWF Design Flow
Line

Nam e

Flow
m gd

1
3
5
6
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
30
32
33
40
42
44
49
50
52
55
57
60
62
63
65
66
68
69
70
72
74
75
76
78
79
80
82
90
91
93
95
97
99

Influent (Raw)
Influent (Raw+Side Streams-ESB Return)
PI Diversion to ESBs
ESB Return
Primary Feed
Primary Effluent
PE Diversion to ESBs
Act. Sludge Feed (w/out RAS)
Act. Sludge Feed (with RAS)
Secondary Clar Feed
RAS
Secondary Clar Effl
SE Diversion to ESBs
Disinfection Feed
New Filter Complex Feed
New Disinfection Complex Feed
New Disinfection Complex Effl
Discharge to River
SE Diverted to WRF/SSBs/BRF
WRF Filter Feed
WRF Filter Effluent
Filter Backwash (WRF and New Filter Complex)
Primary Solids
WAS
TWAS
Thickener Return to PI
Thickener Return to Headworks
Plant Wastewater (Excludes Thickener Return)
Plant Wastewater (Includes Thickener Return)
Digester Feed (Pri Solids + TWAS)
Digested Solids
Digested Solids to SSBs
SE Diverted to SSBs/BRF
SE Flushing Water to SSBs
SSBs Feed
SSBs Return
DLDs Feed
DLDs Return Stream
Digested Solids to BRF (Dewatering/Pelletizing)
BRF Scrubber Water (Diverted from SE)
BRF Return Stream
SSB/DLD/BRF/WRF Return
SSB/DLD/BRF/WRF Return to RAS Re-Aeration
SSB/DLD/BRF/WRF Return to Headworks

413
415
0
0
416
414
83
344
452
452
108
342
0
0
341
331
331
331
0
0
0
11
2
3
1
0
1
2
2
4
4
2
0
0
2
2
0
0
1
0
1
14
14
0

BOD
gpm

286,800
288,400
0
0
288,600
287,100
57,970
238,900
314,100
314,100
75,160
237,200
69
0
237,100
229,600
229,600
229,600
0
0
0
7,500
1,469
1,778
1,017
190
571
1,042
1,613
2,486
2,486
1,665
0
0
1,665
1,499
167
11
820
0
760
9,769
9,769
0

m g/L

TSS
lb/d

276
950,700
276
957,000
0
0
0
0
277
958,300
196
675,000
196
136,300
191
548,400
1,050 3,960,000
930 3,508,000
3,779 3,411,000
6
16,120
6
5
0
0
6
16,110
4
10,370
4
10,370
4
10,370
0
0
0
0
0
0
64
5,742
16,050
283,300
3,779
80,710
6,239
76,170
559
1,278
559
3,835
200
2,502
327
6,337
12,040
359,500
6,172
184,300
6,172
123,400
0
0
0
0
6,172
123,400
145
2,610
11,430
22,870
0
0
6,172
60,800
0
0
143
1,300
82
9,653
82
9,653
0
0

m g/L

VSS
lb/d

359 1,237,000
362 1,255,000
0
0
0
0
364 1,260,000
186
642,800
186
129,800
191
548,900
4,140 15,620,000
4,097 15,460,000
16,690 15,070,000
10
29,590
10
9
0
0
10
29,580
2
5,514
2
5,514
2
5,514
0
0
0
0
0
0
267
24,070
35,000
617,600
16,690
356,500
27,450
335,100
2,338
5,348
2,338
16,040
200
2,502
957
18,540
31,910
952,700
18,910
564,400
18,910
378,200
0
0
0
0
18,910
378,200
450
8,101
113,300
226,700
0
0
18,910
186,300
0
0
408
3,725
306
35,890
306
35,890
0
0

m g/L

NH4
lb/d

305 1,051,000
308 1,065,000
0
0
0
0
309 1,069,000
158
545,300
158
110,100
160
459,900
3,134 11,820,000
3,089 11,650,000
12,590 11,360,000
8
22,310
8
7
0
0
8
22,310
2
4,158
2
4,158
2
4,158
0
0
0
0
0
0
202
18,150
29,690
523,900
12,590
268,800
20,700
252,700
1,763
4,032
1,763
12,100
160
2,002
728
14,100
26,010
776,600
13,010
388,300
13,010
260,100
0
0
0
0
13,010
260,100
224
4,034
56,510
113,000
0
0
13,010
128,100
0
0
281
2,563
211
24,740
211
24,740
0
0

m g/L

19
19
0
0
19
19
19
23
17
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
19
1
0
1
1
25
16
11
312
312
0
0
312
572
572
0
312
0
312
112
112
0

TKN
lb/d

m g/L

lb/d

65,440
65,760
0
0
65,760
65,430
13,210
65,400
65,850
1,886
451
1,424
0
0
1,424
1,379
1,379
1,379
0
0
0
45
335
11
5
1
3
313
316
340
9,324
6,247
0
0
6,247
10,290
1,143
0
3,077
0
2,849
13,180
13,180
0

27
93,000
27
94,670
0
0
0
0
27
95,120
23
80,400
23
16,230
28
79,660
353 1,330,000
340 1,284,000
1,385 1,250,000
1
3,878
1
1
0
0
1
3,877
1
1,836
1
1,836
1
1,836
0
0
0
0
0
0
23
2,041
834
14,720
1,385
29,580
1,822
22,240
194
445
194
1,334
27
338
86
1,672
1,238
36,960
926
27,630
926
18,510
0
0
0
0
926
18,510
582
10,480
3,236
6,473
0
0
926
9,119
0
0
326
2,970
132
15,490
132
15,490
0
0

TON
m g/L

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
4
4
4
4
0
4
4
4
4
0
0
0
4
0
4
4
4
4
0
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
78
78
0
0
0
0
15
15
0

lb/d

TP
m g/L

Alk
lb/d

m g/L

0
6 20,670
221
29
6 21,080
221
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
38
6 21,190
221
0
5 17,530
221
0
5
3,540
221
1,779
7 20,330
244
5,549
82 309,800
227
15,770
82 309,900
174
3,769
321 289,500
174
11,910
5 13,470
174
3
5
4
174
0
0
0
0
11,890
5 13,440
174
11,510
5 12,580
174
11,510
5 12,580
174
11,510
5 12,580
174
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
376
10
863
174
0
207
3,657
221
89
321
6,849
174
50
525
6,403
174
10
49
112
174
29
49
335
174
0
6
75
230
29
21
410
210
50
337 10,060
202
0
337 10,060 2,391
0
337
6,739 2,391
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
337
6,739 2,391
1,403
224
4,038 3,039
156 1,351
2,701 3,039
0
0
0 3,039
0
337
3,319 2,391
0
0
0
0
0
157
1,432 2,391
1,779
54
6,334
789
1,779
54
6,334
789
0
0
0
0

Mass Balance Notes


The flow and loadings above are daily average values.
For solids streams, the actual flows may be different if the unit performance does not meet the concentration limits. Bracket flows based on mass loading with accomodation for lower/higher
concentrations. Instantaneous flow for solids streams is often intermittent and higher to match minimum pipe velocities and actual operating conditions. Adjust to match mass loading.
Filter backwash is calculated as a 24-hour average flow. Instantaneous flows will be higher, pending the operating strategy. Adjust instantaneous flows as needed.

A-6

lb/d

761,200
765,300
0
0
765,700
761,900
153,800
700,700
857,700
656,300
157,000
495,600
145
0
495,300
479,600
479,600
479,600
0
0
0
15,670
3,899
3,715
2,124
398
1,193
2,877
4,071
6,023
71,380
47,830
0
0
47,830
54,700
6,078
395
23,560
0
21,810
92,580
92,580
0

Biological Nutrient Removal


Draft Basis of Design Report
Table A - 6. Detailed Breakdown of the Mass Balance for PH at 181 mgd ADWF Design Flow
Line

Nam e

Flow
m gd

1
3
5
6
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
30
32
33
40
42
44
49
50
52
55
57
60
62
63
65
66
68
69
70
72
74
75
76
78
79
80
82
90
91
93
95
97
99

Influent (Raw)
Influent (Raw+Side Streams-ESB Return)
PI Diversion to ESBs
ESB Return
Primary Feed
Primary Effluent
PE Diversion to ESBs
Act. Sludge Feed (w/out RAS)
Act. Sludge Feed (with RAS)
Secondary Clar Feed
RAS
Secondary Clar Effl
SE Diversion to ESBs
Disinfection Feed
New Filter Complex Feed
New Disinfection Complex Feed
New Disinfection Complex Effl
Discharge to River
SE Diverted to WRF/SSBs/BRF
WRF Filter Feed
WRF Filter Effluent
Filter Backwash (WRF and New Filter Complex)
Primary Solids
WAS
TWAS
Thickener Return to PI
Thickener Return to Headworks
Plant Wastewater (Excludes Thickener Return)
Plant Wastewater (Includes Thickener Return)
Digester Feed (Pri Solids + TWAS)
Digested Solids
Digested Solids to SSBs
SE Diverted to SSBs/BRF
SE Flushing Water to SSBs
SSBs Feed
SSBs Return
DLDs Feed
DLDs Return Stream
Digested Solids to BRF (Dewatering/Pelletizing)
BRF Scrubber Water (Diverted from SE)
BRF Return Stream
SSB/DLD/BRF/WRF Return
SSB/DLD/BRF/WRF Return to RAS Re-Aeration
SSB/DLD/BRF/WRF Return to Headworks

533
536
0
0
536
534
204
344
452
452
108
341
0
0
341
330
330
330
0
0
0
11
2
3
1
0
1
2
3
3
3
2
0
0
2
2
0
0
1
0
1
14
14
0

BOD
gpm

m g/L

TSS
lb/d

m g/L

VSS
lb/d

m g/L

NH4
lb/d

m g/L

TKN
lb/d

m g/L

lb/d

TON
m g/L

lb/d

TP
m g/L

Alk
lb/d

370,100
371,900
0
0
372,100
370,700
141,500
238,700
313,800
313,800
75,130
237,000
69
0
236,900
229,400
229,400
229,400
0
0
0
7,500
1,463
1,738
776
240
721
1,042
1,763
2,239
2,239
1,500
0
0
1,500
1,350
150
10
739
0
684
9,543
9,543
0

Mass Balance Notes


The flow and loadings above are daily average values.
For solids streams, the actual flows may be different if the unit performance does not meet the concentration limits. Bracket flows based on mass loading with accomodation for lower/higher
concentrations. Instantaneous flow for solids streams is often intermittent and higher to match minimum pipe velocities and actual operating conditions. Adjust to match mass loading.
Filter backwash is calculated as a 24-hour average flow. Instantaneous flows will be higher, pending the operating strategy. Adjust instantaneous flows as needed.

A-7

m g/L

lb/d

Biological Nutrient Removal


Draft Basis of Design Report

Appendix B 206 mgd ADWF Mass Balance

Biological Nutrient Removal


Draft Basis of Design Report
Emergency Storage Basins

PI Diversion
Cl2 and
Ferric

ESB Return

Ferric

PE
Diversion

10

SE
Diversion

Caustic &
Sulfur Dioxide

32

Cl2
9

Headworks

11

13

12

Primary
Sed. Pump

99
3

30

49

33

Sec.
Sed.

Act. Sludge

(for AWTP)

Discharge to
Sac River

Cl2 Contact Pipe


Disinfection

97

To RAS
Re-Aeration
(Expansion)

Filters
40

62
60

14

DAFT Return
to PI

Coagulant/
Polymer

50

69

To BRF

Polymer (GBTs)

70

63

66

Anaerobic
Digester

75

91

52

76

74

72

55

Reclaimed
Water

Coagulant/
Polymer
Cl2

80

78

DAFT/
GBTs

42

WRF
Filters

65

DAFT/ GBTs
Return

44

Year 2020 Filters

DLDs

SSBs
90

68

Plant Wastewater/
Wash Water

FOG
95

93

BRF
79

Beneficial
Use
82

88

Figure B - 1. Schematic of the Proposed Facility

B-1

Biological Nutrient Removal


Draft Basis of Design Report
Table B - 1. Detailed Breakdown of the Mass Balance for ADWF at 206 mgd ADWF Design Flow
Line

Name

Flow
m gd

1
3
5
6
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
30
32
33
40
42
44
49
50
52
55
57
60
62
63
65
66
68
69
70
72
74
75
76
78
79
80
82
90
91
93
95
97
99

Influent (Raw)
Influent (Raw+Side Streams-ESB Return)
PI Diversion to ESBs
ESB Return
Primary Feed
Primary Effluent
PE Diversion to ESBs
Act. Sludge Feed (w/out RAS)
Act. Sludge Feed (with RAS)
Secondary Clar Feed
RAS
Secondary Clar Effl
SE Diversion to ESBs
Disinfection Feed
New Filter Complex Feed
New Disinfection Complex Feed
New Disinfection Complex Effl
Discharge to River
SE Diverted to WRF/SSBs/BRF
WRF Filter Feed
WRF Filter Effluent
Filter Backwash (WRF and New Filter Complex)
Primary Solids
WAS
TWAS
Thickener Return to PI
Thickener Return to Headworks
Plant Wastewater (Excludes Thickener Return)
Plant Wastewater (Includes Thickener Return)
Digester Feed (Pri Solids + TWAS)
Digested Solids
Digested Solids to SSBs
SE Diverted to SSBs/BRF
SE Flushing Water to SSBs
SSBs Feed
SSBs Return
DLDs Feed
DLDs Return Stream
Digested Solids to BRF (Dewatering/Pelletizing)
BRF Scrubber Water (Diverted from SE)
BRF Return Stream
SSB/DLD/BRF/WRF Return
SSB/DLD/BRF/WRF Return to RAS Re-Aeration
SSB/DLD/BRF/WRF Return to Headworks

205
208
0
0
208
207
0
220
288
288
68
217
0
0
217
206
206
206
0
0
0
11
1
3
1
0
1
2
3
2
2
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
13
13
0

BOD
gpm

142,400
144,200
0
0
144,500
143,700
0
152,600
199,900
199,900
47,330
150,800
69
0
150,700
143,200
143,200
143,200
0
0
0
7,500
786
1,794
688
277
830
1,042
1,871
1,474
1,474
987
0
0
987
889
99
6
486
0
455
8,850
8,850
0

m g/L

TSS
lb/d

343
586,400
342
591,700
0
0
0
0
342
592,700
248
427,400
0
0
237
433,400
794 1,905,000
640 1,537,000
2,589 1,472,000
5
9,110
5
4
0
0
5
9,106
3
5,320
3
5,320
3
5,320
0
0
0
0
0
0
42
3,785
17,520
165,300
2,589
55,780
6,369
52,630
282
936
282
2,806
200
2,502
236
5,308
12,310
217,900
5,445
96,360
5,445
64,560
0
0
0
0
5,445
64,560
145
1,547
9,964
11,820
0
0
5,445
31,800
0
0
126
687
57
6,020
57
6,020
0
0

m g/L

VSS
lb/d

326
557,400
330
570,700
0
0
0
0
331
574,300
180
310,100
0
0
181
332,200
2,790 6,699,000
2,760 6,627,000
11,200 6,367,000
10
18,810
10
9
0
0
10
18,810
2
3,440
2
3,440
2
3,440
0
0
0
0
0
0
171
15,370
28,000
264,200
11,200
241,300
27,450
226,800
1,090
3,620
1,090
10,860
200
2,502
595
13,360
27,740
491,000
16,480
291,700
16,480
195,500
0
0
0
0
16,480
195,500
450
4,802
98,640
117,000
0
0
16,480
96,270
0
0
352
1,925
208
22,090
208
22,090
0
0

m g/L

NH4
lb/d

277
473,800
280
484,100
0
0
0
0
281
486,900
152
262,900
0
0
152
278,400
2,157 5,179,000
2,125 5,101,000
8,621 4,901,000
8
14,480
8
7
0
0
8
14,480
2
2,648
2
2,648
2
2,648
0
0
0
0
0
0
131
11,830
23,740
224,000
8,621
185,800
21,130
174,600
839
2,786
839
8,359
160
2,002
461
10,360
22,520
398,600
11,260
199,300
11,260
133,500
0
0
0
0
11,260
133,500
222
2,365
48,680
57,720
0
0
11,260
65,760
0
0
241
1,315
146
15,510
146
15,510
0
0

m g/L

31
31
0
0
31
31
0
35
27
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
31
1
0
1
1
25
14
17
467
467
0
0
467
855
855
0
467
0
467
110
110
0

TKN
lb/d

m g/L

53,000
53,320
0
0
53,320
53,030
0
64,740
65,030
1,200
284
905
0
0
905
860
860
860
0
0
0
45
290
11
3
2
5
313
318
293
8,260
5,534
0
0
5,534
9,119
1,013
0
2,726
0
2,550
11,710
11,710
0

52
52
0
0
52
42
0
47
261
234
949
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
15
1,842
949
1,860
93
93
27
56
1,850
1,384
1,384
0
0
1,384
873
4,818
0
1,384
0
486
125
125
0

TON
lb/d

88,900
90,170
0
0
90,470
73,090
0
86,410
625,800
562,300
539,400
2,498
1
0
2,497
1,151
1,151
1,151
0
0
0
1,346
17,380
20,440
15,370
308
924
338
1,262
32,750
24,490
16,410
0
0
16,410
9,312
5,713
0
8,081
0
2,657
13,310
13,310
0

m g/L

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
3
9
9
9
9
0
9
9
9
9
0
0
0
9
0
9
9
9
9
0
4
4
0
0
0
0
0
117
117
0
0
0
0
19
19
0

TP
lb/d

m g/L

Alk
lb/d

m g/L

0
6 10,260
221
89
6 10,590
220
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
119
6 10,670
220
0
5
8,920
220
0
0
0
0
2,048
7 12,980
248
7,126
58 138,500
213
21,460
58 138,600
97
5,078
221 125,600
97
16,190
5
8,216
97
7
5
4
97
0
0
0
0
16,170
5
8,178
97
15,360
4
7,492
97
15,360
4
7,492
97
15,360
4
7,492
97
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
805
8
686
97
0
186
1,751
220
193
221
4,759
97
71
535
4,422
98
30
25
84
97
89
25
253
97
0
6
75
230
89
15
328
171
71
349
6,173
163
0
349
6,173 3,436
0
349
4,136 3,436
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
349
4,136 3,436
1,244
233
2,484 4,405
138 1,393
1,652 4,405
0
0
0 4,405
0
349
2,037 3,436
0
0
0
0
0
162
887 3,436
2,048
38
4,057
704
2,048
38
4,057
704
0
0
0
0

Mass Balance Notes


The flow and loadings above are daily average values.
For solids streams, the actual flows may be different if the unit performance does not meet the concentration limits. Bracket flows based on mass loading with accomodation for lower/higher
concentrations. Instantaneous flow for solids streams is often intermittent and higher to match minimum pipe velocities and actual operating conditions. Adjust to match mass loading.
Filter backwash is calculated as a 24-hour average flow. Instantaneous flows will be higher, pending the operating strategy. Adjust instantaneous flows as needed.

B-2

lb/d

377,800
381,700
0
0
382,000
380,400
0
455,200
510,200
232,500
55,010
175,400
81
0
175,100
166,400
166,400
166,400
0
0
0
8,716
2,079
2,085
807
321
964
2,877
3,841
2,886
60,820
40,750
0
0
40,750
47,010
5,223
340
20,070
0
18,770
74,830
74,830
0

Biological Nutrient Removal


Draft Basis of Design Report
Table B - 2. Detailed Breakdown of the Mass Balance for AA at 206 mgd ADWF Design Flow
Line

Nam e

Flow
m gd

1
3
5
6
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
30
32
33
40
42
44
49
50
52
55
57
60
62
63
65
66
68
69
70
72
74
75
76
78
79
80
82
90
91
93
95
97
99

Influent (Raw)
Influent (Raw+Side Streams-ESB Return)
PI Diversion to ESBs
ESB Return
Primary Feed
Primary Effluent
PE Diversion to ESBs
Act. Sludge Feed (w/out RAS)
Act. Sludge Feed (with RAS)
Secondary Clar Feed
RAS
Secondary Clar Effl
SE Diversion to ESBs
Disinfection Feed
New Filter Complex Feed
New Disinfection Complex Feed
New Disinfection Complex Effl
Discharge to River
SE Diverted to WRF/SSBs/BRF
WRF Filter Feed
WRF Filter Effluent
Filter Backwash (WRF and New Filter Complex)
Primary Solids
WAS
TWAS
Thickener Return to PI
Thickener Return to Headworks
Plant Wastewater (Excludes Thickener Return)
Plant Wastewater (Includes Thickener Return)
Digester Feed (Pri Solids + TWAS)
Digested Solids
Digested Solids to SSBs
SE Diverted to SSBs/BRF
SE Flushing Water to SSBs
SSBs Feed
SSBs Return
DLDs Feed
DLDs Return Stream
Digested Solids to BRF (Dewatering/Pelletizing)
BRF Scrubber Water (Diverted from SE)
BRF Return Stream
SSB/DLD/BRF/WRF Return
SSB/DLD/BRF/WRF Return to RAS Re-Aeration
SSB/DLD/BRF/WRF Return to Headworks

222
225
0
0
225
224
0
237
310
310
74
234
0
0
234
223
223
223
0
0
0
11
1
3
1
0
1
2
3
2
2
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
13
13
0

BOD
gpm

154,200
156,100
0
0
156,400
155,600
0
164,400
215,500
215,500
51,160
162,600
69
0
162,500
155,000
155,000
155,000
0
0
0
7,500
791
1,765
605
290
869
1,042
1,911
1,396
1,396
936
0
0
936
842
94
6
461
0
428
8,776
8,776
0

m g/L

TSS
lb/d

319
590,600
318
595,700
0
0
0
0
318
596,500
213
398,600
0
0
205
404,900
710 1,836,000
576 1,490,000
2,330 1,431,000
5
9,509
5
4
0
0
5
9,505
3
5,438
3
5,438
3
5,438
0
0
0
0
0
0
45
4,067
20,830
197,900
2,330
49,370
6,406
46,570
243
844
243
2,532
200
2,502
219
5,034
14,580
244,500
6,016
100,900
6,016
67,590
0
0
0
0
6,016
67,590
145
1,466
11,030
12,400
0
0
6,016
33,290
0
0
139
713
59
6,246
59
6,246
0
0

m g/L

VSS
lb/d

309
572,100
312
584,200
0
0
0
0
313
587,300
142
264,300
0
0
146
287,400
2,489 6,443,000
2,468 6,388,000
10,020 6,156,000
10
20,290
10
9
0
0
10
20,280
2
3,723
2
3,723
2
3,723
0
0
0
0
0
0
184
16,560
34,000
323,000
10,020
212,300
27,450
199,600
915
3,185
915
9,554
200
2,502
525
12,060
31,160
522,600
18,390
308,300
18,390
206,600
0
0
0
0
18,390
206,600
450
4,551
109,300
122,800
0
0
18,390
101,800
0
0
396
2,035
220
23,140
220
23,140
0
0

m g/L

NH4
lb/d

263
486,300
264
495,700
0
0
0
0
265
498,200
120
224,200
0
0
122
240,700
1,935 5,007,000
1,911 4,946,000
7,758 4,766,000
8
15,710
8
7
0
0
8
15,700
2
2,883
2
2,883
2
2,883
0
0
0
0
0
0
142
12,820
28,840
274,000
7,758
164,400
21,250
154,500
709
2,466
709
7,397
160
2,002
410
9,399
25,550
428,500
12,780
214,200
12,780
143,500
0
0
0
0
12,780
143,500
228
2,303
55,440
62,290
0
0
12,780
70,700
0
0
275
1,414
157
16,540
157
16,540
0
0

m g/L

29
29
0
0
29
29
0
34
26
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
29
1
0
1
1
25
14
16
539
539
0
0
539
988
988
0
539
0
539
122
122
0

TKN
lb/d

m g/L

53,690
54,010
0
0
54,010
53,740
0
66,540
66,850
1,294
307
976
0
0
976
931
931
931
0
0
0
45
273
11
3
2
5
313
318
276
9,036
6,054
0
0
6,054
9,988
1,110
0
2,982
0
2,767
12,800
12,800
0

50
50
0
0
50
38
0
44
236
211
854
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
16
2,344
854
1,871
78
78
27
50
2,139
1,600
1,600
0
0
1,600
1,007
5,592
0
1,600
0
562
138
138
0

TON
lb/d

92,570
93,730
0
0
94,000
71,740
0
86,250
610,800
545,400
524,500
2,704
1
0
2,703
1,248
1,248
1,248
0
0
0
1,455
22,270
18,090
13,600
273
819
338
1,157
35,870
26,830
17,980
0
0
17,980
10,180
6,284
0
8,854
0
2,884
14,520
14,520
0

m g/L

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
3
9
9
9
9
0
9
9
9
9
0
0
0
9
0
9
8
9
9
0
4
4
0
0
0
0
0
135
135
0
0
0
0
20
20
0

TP
lb/d

m g/L

Alk
lb/d

m g/L

0
6 11,110
221
89
6 11,420
220
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
119
6 11,490
220
0
5
9,269
220
0
0
0
0
2,133
7 13,330
250
7,389
52 135,800
216
22,160
52 135,800
105
5,256
199 122,500
105
16,720
5
9,106
105
7
5
4
105
0
0
0
0
16,700
5
9,071
105
15,930
4
8,348
105
15,930
4
8,348
105
15,930
4
8,348
105
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
771
8
723
105
0
234
2,225
220
181
199
4,224
105
60
538
3,915
106
30
22
77
105
89
22
232
105
0
6
75
230
89
13
307
173
60
366
6,139
171
0
366
6,139 3,959
0
366
4,113 3,959
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
366
4,113 3,959
1,362
244
2,465 5,081
151 1,466
1,648 5,081
0
0
0 5,081
0
366
2,026 3,959
0
0
0
0
0
170
875 3,959
2,133
39
4,063
774
2,133
39
4,063
774
0
0
0
0

Mass Balance Notes


The flow and loadings above are daily average values.
For solids streams, the actual flows may be different if the unit performance does not meet the concentration limits. Bracket flows based on mass loading with accomodation for lower/higher
concentrations. Instantaneous flow for solids streams is often intermittent and higher to match minimum pipe velocities and actual operating conditions. Adjust to match mass loading.
Filter backwash is calculated as a 24-hour average flow. Instantaneous flows will be higher, pending the operating strategy. Adjust instantaneous flows as needed.

B-3

lb/d

409,200
413,100
0
0
413,500
411,800
0
493,400
557,700
271,400
64,380
204,800
87
0
204,500
195,100
195,100
195,100
0
0
0
9,438
2,094
2,221
768
365
1,094
2,877
3,971
2,862
66,390
44,480
0
0
44,480
51,380
5,709
371
21,910
0
20,330
81,520
81,520
0

Biological Nutrient Removal


Draft Basis of Design Report
Table B - 3. Detailed Breakdown of the Mass Balance for MM at 206 mgd ADWF Design Flow
Line

Nam e

Flow
m gd

1
3
5
6
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
30
32
33
40
42
44
49
50
52
55
57
60
62
63
65
66
68
69
70
72
74
75
76
78
79
80
82
90
91
93
95
97
99

Influent (Raw)
Influent (Raw+Side Streams-ESB Return)
PI Diversion to ESBs
ESB Return
Primary Feed
Primary Effluent
PE Diversion to ESBs
Act. Sludge Feed (w/out RAS)
Act. Sludge Feed (with RAS)
Secondary Clar Feed
RAS
Secondary Clar Effl
SE Diversion to ESBs
Disinfection Feed
New Filter Complex Feed
New Disinfection Complex Feed
New Disinfection Complex Effl
Discharge to River
SE Diverted to WRF/SSBs/BRF
WRF Filter Feed
WRF Filter Effluent
Filter Backwash (WRF and New Filter Complex)
Primary Solids
WAS
TWAS
Thickener Return to PI
Thickener Return to Headworks
Plant Wastewater (Excludes Thickener Return)
Plant Wastewater (Includes Thickener Return)
Digester Feed (Pri Solids + TWAS)
Digested Solids
Digested Solids to SSBs
SE Diverted to SSBs/BRF
SE Flushing Water to SSBs
SSBs Feed
SSBs Return
DLDs Feed
DLDs Return Stream
Digested Solids to BRF (Dewatering/Pelletizing)
BRF Scrubber Water (Diverted from SE)
BRF Return Stream
SSB/DLD/BRF/WRF Return
SSB/DLD/BRF/WRF Return to RAS Re-Aeration
SSB/DLD/BRF/WRF Return to Headworks

316
319
0
0
319
318
0
331
435
435
104
328
0
0
328
317
317
317
0
0
0
11
1
2
1
0
1
2
3
2
2
2
0
0
2
1
0
0
1
0
1
13
13
0

BOD
gpm

219,400
221,200
0
0
221,500
220,500
0
229,600
301,800
301,800
72,190
227,800
69
0
227,800
220,300
220,300
220,300
0
0
0
7,500
962
1,731
715
254
762
1,042
1,804
1,677
1,677
1,124
0
0
1,124
1,011
112
7
553
0
515
9,033
9,033
0

m g/L

TSS
lb/d

252
664,100
252
669,500
0
0
0
0
252
670,500
172
456,000
0
0
168
464,200
795 2,880,000
686 2,488,000
2,786 2,415,000
5
14,230
5
4
0
0
5
14,220
3
8,635
3
8,635
3
8,635
0
0
0
0
0
0
62
5,588
18,560
214,400
2,786
57,920
6,362
54,650
315
960
315
2,878
200
2,502
248
5,380
13,360
269,100
5,833
117,500
5,833
78,710
0
0
0
0
5,833
78,710
145
1,761
10,690
14,430
0
0
5,833
38,770
0
0
135
833
75
8,182
75
8,182
0
0

m g/L

258
261
0
0
262
124
0
130
2,985
2,964
12,070
10
10
0
10
2
2
2
0
0
0
257
32,000
12,070
27,450
1,233
1,233
200
637
30,060
17,780
17,780
0
0
17,780
450
105,900
0
17,780
0
382
285
285
0

VSS
lb/d

679,900
693,700
0
0
697,500
327,800
0
358,800
10,820,000
10,740,000
10,460,000
28,430
9
0
28,420
5,291
5,291
5,291
0
0
0
23,130
369,700
250,900
235,800
3,763
11,290
2,502
13,790
605,400
358,000
239,900
0
0
239,900
5,465
143,000
0
118,100
0
2,363
30,960
30,960
0

m g/L

NH4
lb/d

m g/L

219
578,000
23
222
588,600
23
0
0
0
0
0
0
222
591,500
23
105
278,000
23
0
0
0
109
300,200
28
2,302 8,344,000
21
2,279 8,259,000
1
9,278 8,044,000
1
8
21,860
1
8
7
1
0
0
0
8
21,850
1
2
4,068
1
2
4,068
1
2
4,068
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
198
17,790
1
27,140
313,500
23
9,278
192,900
1
21,110
181,300
0
949
2,893
1
949
8,680
1
160
2,002
25
493
10,680
15
24,570
494,800
13
12,280
247,400
577
12,280
165,800
577
0
0
0
0
0
0
12,280
165,800
577
226
2,741 1,060
53,240
71,850 1,060
0
0
0
12,280
81,640
577
0
0
0
264
1,633
577
204
22,160
152
204
22,160
152
0
0
0

TKN
lb/d

m g/L

60,620
60,930
0
0
60,930
60,670
0
77,160
77,600
1,812
434
1,368
0
0
1,368
1,323
1,323
1,323
0
0
0
45
265
10
3
2
5
313
317
268
11,630
7,790
0
0
7,790
12,880
1,431
0
3,837
0
3,570
16,490
16,490
0

44
44
0
0
44
33
0
39
274
251
1,021
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
22
2,622
1,021
1,858
105
105
27
60
2,296
1,719
1,719
0
0
1,719
1,081
6,007
0
1,719
0
602
174
174
0

TON
lb/d

116,000
117,300
0
0
117,600
87,290
0
106,100
991,300
910,200
885,200
3,773
1
0
3,772
1,770
1,770
1,770
0
0
0
2,002
30,290
21,230
15,960
320
959
338
1,297
46,240
34,610
23,190
0
0
23,190
13,130
8,107
0
11,420
0
3,721
18,860
18,860
0

m g/L

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
2
8
8
8
8
0
8
8
8
8
0
0
0
8
0
8
7
8
8
0
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
145
145
0
0
0
0
22
22
0

lb/d

TP
m g/L

Alk
lb/d

m g/L

lb/d

0
6 15,810
221 582,400
69
6 16,150
221 586,400
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
92
6 16,240
221 586,800
0
5 13,230
221 584,600
0
0
0
0
0
2,438
7 18,240
250 688,500
9,006
62 224,400
219 793,200
27,470
62 224,500
121 437,700
6,567
238 206,200
121 104,700
20,740
5 13,290
121 330,400
6
5
4
121
101
0
0
0
0
0
20,720
5 13,260
121 330,200
20,040
5 12,390
121 319,300
20,040
5 12,390
121 319,300
20,040
5 12,390
121 319,300
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
682
10
866
121 10,870
0
260
3,007
221
2,550
158
238
4,944
121
2,510
63
535
4,597
121
1,043
23
28
87
121
368
69
28
261
121
1,105
0
6
75
230
2,877
69
16
336
184
3,982
63
378
7,603
178
3,592
0
378
7,603 4,253 85,650
0
378
5,094 4,253 57,390
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
378
5,094 4,253 57,390
1,756
252
3,055 5,461 66,330
195 1,511
2,039 5,461
7,370
0
0
0 5,461
479
0
378
2,509 4,253 28,270
0
0
0
0
0
0
176
1,086 4,253 26,300
2,438
46
5,007
958 104,000
2,438
46
5,007
958 104,000
0
0
0
0
0

Mass Balance Notes


The flow and loadings above are daily average values.
For solids streams, the actual flows may be different if the unit performance does not meet the concentration limits. Bracket flows based on mass loading with accomodation for lower/higher
concentrations. Instantaneous flow for solids streams is often intermittent and higher to match minimum pipe velocities and actual operating conditions. Adjust to match mass loading.
Filter backwash is calculated as a 24-hour average flow. Instantaneous flows will be higher, pending the operating strategy. Adjust instantaneous flows as needed.

B-4

Biological Nutrient Removal


Draft Basis of Design Report
Table B - 4. Detailed Breakdown of the Mass Balance for MW at 206 mgd ADWF Design Flow
Line

Nam e

Flow
m gd

1
3
5
6
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
30
32
33
40
42
44
49
50
52
55
57
60
62
63
65
66
68
69
70
72
74
75
76
78
79
80
82
90
91
93
95
97
99

Influent (Raw)
Influent (Raw+Side Streams-ESB Return)
PI Diversion to ESBs
ESB Return
Primary Feed
Primary Effluent
PE Diversion to ESBs
Act. Sludge Feed (w/out RAS)
Act. Sludge Feed (with RAS)
Secondary Clar Feed
RAS
Secondary Clar Effl
SE Diversion to ESBs
Disinfection Feed
New Filter Complex Feed
New Disinfection Complex Feed
New Disinfection Complex Effl
Discharge to River
SE Diverted to WRF/SSBs/BRF
WRF Filter Feed
WRF Filter Effluent
Filter Backwash (WRF and New Filter Complex)
Primary Solids
WAS
TWAS
Thickener Return to PI
Thickener Return to Headworks
Plant Wastewater (Excludes Thickener Return)
Plant Wastewater (Includes Thickener Return)
Digester Feed (Pri Solids + TWAS)
Digested Solids
Digested Solids to SSBs
SE Diverted to SSBs/BRF
SE Flushing Water to SSBs
SSBs Feed
SSBs Return
DLDs Feed
DLDs Return Stream
Digested Solids to BRF (Dewatering/Pelletizing)
BRF Scrubber Water (Diverted from SE)
BRF Return Stream
SSB/DLD/BRF/WRF Return
SSB/DLD/BRF/WRF Return to RAS Re-Aeration
SSB/DLD/BRF/WRF Return to Headworks

410
413
0
0
413
412
82
343
451
451
108
340
0
0
340
330
330
330
0
0
0
11
1
2
1
0
1
2
3
2
2
2
0
0
2
1
0
0
1
0
1
13
13
0

BOD
gpm

284,700
286,500
0
0
286,700
285,900
56,710
238,100
313,100
313,100
74,950
236,400
69
0
236,300
228,800
228,800
228,800
0
0
0
7,500
868
1,733
753
245
735
1,042
1,777
1,620
1,620
1,086
0
0
1,086
977
109
7
535
0
496
8,980
8,980
0

m g/L

TSS
lb/d

223
762,500
223
768,000
0
0
0
0
223
769,000
164
564,400
164
112,000
161
460,700
815 3,063,000
712 2,676,000
2,891 2,602,000
5
13,600
5
4
0
0
5
13,600
3
7,915
3
7,915
3
7,915
0
0
0
0
0
0
63
5,682
19,630
204,600
2,891
60,170
6,281
56,790
336
990
336
2,970
200
2,502
256
5,472
13,430
261,300
6,112
118,900
6,112
79,680
0
0
0
0
6,112
79,680
145
1,701
11,350
14,790
0
0
6,112
39,250
0
0
141
840
76
8,223
76
8,223
0
0

m g/L

VSS
lb/d

237
810,400
240
824,800
0
0
0
0
241
828,700
135
464,100
135
92,060
141
403,700
3,144 11,820,000
3,115 11,710,000
12,690 11,420,000
10
29,500
10
9
0
0
10
29,490
2
5,497
2
5,497
2
5,497
0
0
0
0
0
0
266
23,990
35,000
364,600
12,690
264,000
27,450
248,200
1,346
3,960
1,346
11,880
200
2,502
674
14,380
31,490
612,800
18,710
364,000
18,710
243,900
0
0
0
0
18,710
243,900
450
5,280
112,500
146,600
0
0
18,710
120,100
0
0
404
2,402
294
31,680
294
31,680
0
0

m g/L

201
203
0
0
204
115
115
118
2,395
2,364
9,629
8
8
0
8
2
2
2
0
0
0
202
29,680
9,629
20,840
1,021
1,021
160
516
25,570
12,790
12,790
0
0
12,790
222
55,540
0
12,790
0
276
208
208
0

NH4
lb/d

688,800
699,900
0
0
702,900
393,600
78,080
338,000
9,005,000
8,890,000
8,667,000
22,390
7
0
22,390
4,172
4,172
4,172
0
0
0
18,210
309,300
200,400
188,400
3,006
9,018
2,002
11,020
497,600
248,800
166,700
0
0
166,700
2,603
72,410
0
82,110
0
1,642
22,460
22,460
0

m g/L

21
21
0
0
21
21
21
25
19
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
21
1
0
1
1
25
15
11
478
478
0
0
478
877
877
0
478
0
478
122
122
0

TKN

TON

lb/d

m g/L

lb/d

71,810
72,120
0
0
72,130
71,910
14,260
70,820
71,270
1,880
450
1,420
0
0
1,419
1,374
1,374
1,374
0
0
0
45
218
10
4
1
4
313
317
222
9,293
6,226
0
0
6,226
10,290
1,143
0
3,067
0
2,842
13,180
13,180
0

34
116,300
34
117,600
0
0
0
0
34
117,900
28
97,560
28
19,350
33
93,700
279 1,047,000
261
979,800
1,060
953,800
1
3,883
1
1
0
0
1
3,882
1
1,833
1
1,833
1
1,833
0
0
0
0
0
0
23
2,048
1,955
20,370
1,060
22,060
1,834
16,580
113
332
113
996
27
338
63
1,334
1,899
36,950
1,421
27,660
1,421
18,530
0
0
0
0
1,421
18,530
893
10,480
4,976
6,488
0
0
1,421
9,127
0
0
498
2,963
144
15,490
144
15,490
0
0

m g/L

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
2
6
6
6
6
0
6
6
6
6
0
0
0
6
0
6
6
6
6
0
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
120
120
0
0
0
0
18
18
0

TP
lb/d

m g/L

Alk
lb/d

m g/L

0
5 15,390
186
54
5 15,720
186
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
72
5 15,810
186
0
4 14,870
186
0
4
2,949
186
1,952
6 15,800
208
7,433
63 236,500
183
22,910
63 236,500
104
5,482
245 220,700
104
17,300
4 10,690
104
5
4
3
104
0
0
0
0
17,290
4 10,660
104
16,740
4
9,887
104
16,740
4
9,887
104
16,740
4
9,887
104
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
549
9
778
104
0
90
938
186
127
245
5,103
104
53
526
4,759
105
18
29
86
104
54
29
258
104
0
6
75
230
54
16
333
178
53
293
5,696
148
0
293
5,696 3,517
0
293
3,816 3,517
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
293
3,816 3,517
1,403
195
2,287 4,516
156 1,173
1,529 4,516
0
0
0 4,516
0
293
1,880 3,517
0
0
0
0
0
137
812 3,517
1,952
36
3,877
776
1,952
36
3,877
776
0
0
0
0

Mass Balance Notes


The flow and loadings above are daily average values.
For solids streams, the actual flows may be different if the unit performance does not meet the concentration limits. Bracket flows based on mass loading with accomodation for lower/higher
concentrations. Instantaneous flow for solids streams is often intermittent and higher to match minimum pipe velocities and actual operating conditions. Adjust to match mass loading.
Filter backwash is calculated as a 24-hour average flow. Instantaneous flows will be higher, pending the operating strategy. Adjust instantaneous flows as needed.

B-5

lb/d

636,000
639,800
0
0
640,100
638,400
126,600
595,500
689,300
392,200
93,860
296,200
87
0
296,000
286,600
286,600
286,600
0
0
0
9,393
1,937
2,170
946
307
921
2,877
3,798
2,884
68,440
45,860
0
0
45,860
52,990
5,888
383
22,590
0
20,930
83,700
83,700
0

Biological Nutrient Removal


Draft Basis of Design Report
Table B - 5. Detailed Breakdown of the Mass Balance for MD at 206 mgd ADWF Design Flow
Line

Nam e

Flow
m gd

1
3
5
6
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
30
32
33
40
42
44
49
50
52
55
57
60
62
63
65
66
68
69
70
72
74
75
76
78
79
80
82
90
91
93
95
97
99

Influent (Raw)
Influent (Raw+Side Streams-ESB Return)
PI Diversion to ESBs
ESB Return
Primary Feed
Primary Effluent
PE Diversion to ESBs
Act. Sludge Feed (w/out RAS)
Act. Sludge Feed (with RAS)
Secondary Clar Feed
RAS
Secondary Clar Effl
SE Diversion to ESBs
Disinfection Feed
New Filter Complex Feed
New Disinfection Complex Feed
New Disinfection Complex Effl
Discharge to River
SE Diverted to WRF/SSBs/BRF
WRF Filter Feed
WRF Filter Effluent
Filter Backwash (WRF and New Filter Complex)
Primary Solids
WAS
TWAS
Thickener Return to PI
Thickener Return to Headworks
Plant Wastewater (Excludes Thickener Return)
Plant Wastewater (Includes Thickener Return)
Digester Feed (Pri Solids + TWAS)
Digested Solids
Digested Solids to SSBs
SE Diverted to SSBs/BRF
SE Flushing Water to SSBs
SSBs Feed
SSBs Return
DLDs Feed
DLDs Return Stream
Digested Solids to BRF (Dewatering/Pelletizing)
BRF Scrubber Water (Diverted from SE)
BRF Return Stream
SSB/DLD/BRF/WRF Return
SSB/DLD/BRF/WRF Return to RAS Re-Aeration
SSB/DLD/BRF/WRF Return to Headworks

491
493
0
0
494
491
161
345
453
453
108
342
0
0
342
331
331
331
0
0
0
11
3
3
2
0
1
2
2
4
4
3
0
0
3
2
0
0
1
0
1
15
15
0

BOD
gpm

341,000
342,600
0
0
342,700
340,900
111,800
239,300
314,500
314,500
75,260
237,500
69
0
237,400
229,900
229,900
229,900
0
0
0
7,500
1,805
1,783
1,057
182
545
1,042
1,586
2,862
2,862
1,917
0
0
1,917
1,725
192
12
944
0
874
10,110
10,110
0

m g/L

287
287
0
0
287
203
203
198
1,089
965
3,920
6
6
0
6
4
4
4
0
0
0
64
16,180
3,920
6,241
607
607
200
340
12,510
6,207
6,207
0
0
6,207
145
11,450
0
6,207
0
143
85
85
0

TSS
lb/d

1,175,000
1,182,000
0
0
1,183,000
832,500
272,900
569,800
4,113,000
3,644,000
3,543,000
16,510
5
0
16,510
10,740
10,740
10,740
0
0
0
5,763
350,600
83,940
79,220
1,323
3,970
2,502
6,472
429,800
213,300
142,900
0
0
142,900
3,005
26,370
0
70,390
0
1,504
10,270
10,270
0

m g/L

VSS
lb/d

372 1,523,000
375 1,543,000
0
0
0
0
376 1,548,000
193
789,500
193
258,800
198
568,400
4,293 16,220,000
4,248 16,050,000
17,310 15,650,000
10
29,630
10
9
0
0
10
29,630
2
5,523
2
5,523
2
5,523
0
0
0
0
0
0
268
24,100
35,000
758,500
17,310
370,700
27,450
348,400
2,550
5,560
2,550
16,680
200
2,502
1,007
19,180
32,210 1,107,000
19,020
653,700
19,020
438,000
0
0
0
0
19,020
438,000
450
9,325
113,500
261,400
0
0
19,020
215,700
0
0
411
4,315
311
37,740
311
37,740
0
0

m g/L

NH4
lb/d

316 1,295,000
318 1,309,000
0
0
0
0
319 1,314,000
164
669,900
164
219,600
166
476,200
3,250 12,280,000
3,204 12,100,000
13,060 11,800,000
8
22,350
8
7
0
0
8
22,340
2
4,165
2
4,165
2
4,165
0
0
0
0
0
0
202
18,180
29,700
643,700
13,060
279,600
20,700
262,800
1,923
4,194
1,923
12,580
160
2,002
765
14,580
26,380
906,400
13,190
453,200
13,190
303,700
0
0
0
0
13,190
303,700
227
4,702
57,300
131,900
0
0
13,190
149,600
0
0
285
2,991
213
25,870
213
25,870
0
0

m g/L

20
20
0
0
20
20
20
24
19
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
20
1
0
1
1
25
17
13
298
298
0
0
298
545
545
0
298
0
298
119
119
0

TKN

TON

lb/d

m g/L

lb/d

81,900
82,210
0
0
82,220
81,780
26,810
69,430
69,880
1,889
452
1,426
0
0
1,426
1,381
1,381
1,381
0
0
0
45
433
11
5
1
3
313
316
438
10,240
6,862
0
0
6,862
11,290
1,254
0
3,380
0
3,128
14,460
14,460
0

28
114,700
28
116,400
0
0
0
0
28
116,800
24
99,440
24
32,600
29
83,640
366 1,382,000
353 1,333,000
1,436 1,298,000
1
3,885
1
1
0
0
1
3,883
1
1,839
1
1,839
1
1,839
0
0
0
0
0
0
23
2,045
803
17,400
1,436
30,760
1,822
23,130
212
462
212
1,387
27
338
91
1,725
1,179
40,530
881
30,290
881
20,290
0
0
0
0
881
20,290
555
11,490
3,079
7,090
0
0
881
9,995
0
0
311
3,260
138
16,800
138
16,800
0
0

m g/L

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
2
4
4
4
4
0
4
4
4
4
0
0
0
4
0
4
4
4
4
0
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
74
74
0
0
0
0
16
16
0

lb/d

TP
m g/L

Alk
lb/d

m g/L

lb/d

0
6 24,570
221 905,000
29
6 24,990
221 909,000
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
39
6 25,110
221 909,400
0
5 20,790
221 904,700
0
5
6,815
221 296,600
1,938
7 20,810
246 708,100
5,939
85 321,500
229 863,700
16,740
85 321,500
172 650,300
4,001
333 300,600
172 155,600
12,640
5 13,690
172 491,000
4
5
4
172
144
0
0
0
0
0
12,620
5 13,650
172 490,700
12,220
5 12,780
172 475,200
12,220
5 12,780
172 475,200
12,220
5 12,780
172 475,200
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
399
10
870
172 15,500
0
199
4,319
221
4,789
95
333
7,123
172
3,686
55
525
6,661
172
2,186
10
53
115
172
375
29
53
346
172
1,126
0
6
75
230
2,877
29
22
421
210
4,003
55
320 10,980
203
6,974
0
320 10,980 2,285 78,540
0
320
7,356 2,285 52,620
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
320
7,356 2,285 52,620
1,539
213
4,408 2,900 60,110
171 1,280
2,948 2,900
6,678
0
0
0 2,900
434
0
320
3,623 2,285 25,920
0
0
0
0
0
0
149
1,564 2,285 23,990
1,938
56
6,842
824 100,000
1,938
56
6,842
824 100,000
0
0
0
0
0

Mass Balance Notes


The flow and loadings above are daily average values.
For solids streams, the actual flows may be different if the unit performance does not meet the concentration limits. Bracket flows based on mass loading with accomodation for lower/higher
concentrations. Instantaneous flow for solids streams is often intermittent and higher to match minimum pipe velocities and actual operating conditions. Adjust to match mass loading.
Filter backwash is calculated as a 24-hour average flow. Instantaneous flows will be higher, pending the operating strategy. Adjust instantaneous flows as needed.

B-6

Business Case Evaluation


Diffused Aeration

Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant

Sacramento Regional County Sanitation District

PRELIMINARY
FOR REVIEW ONLY

September 2012

Diffused Aeration

Contents
1.0 Executive Summary .............................................................................................................................. 1
1.1 Diffuser Types .................................................................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Findings/Recommendations................................................................................................................................ 1
1.2.1 Findings....................................................................................................................................................... 2
1.2.2 Recommendations ....................................................................................................................................... 3
2.0 Goal Statement ...................................................................................................................................... 4
3.0 Design Criteria ...................................................................................................................................... 4
3.1 Design Criteria .................................................................................................................................................... 4
3.2 Basis of Design ................................................................................................................................................... 7
4.0 Analysis ................................................................................................................................................ 11
4.1 Aeration ............................................................................................................................................................ 11
4.2 Process Background.......................................................................................................................................... 12
4.2.1 Diffused aeration ....................................................................................................................................... 13
5.0 Aeration Alternatives.......................................................................................................................... 15
5.1 Pure Oxygen ..................................................................................................................................................... 15
5.2 Fine Bubble Diffusers ....................................................................................................................................... 15
5.2.1 Ceramic Discs ........................................................................................................................................... 16
5.2.2 Membrane Discs ....................................................................................................................................... 17
5.2.3 Dome ......................................................................................................................................................... 19
5.2.4 Tube .......................................................................................................................................................... 20
5.2.5 Strip ........................................................................................................................................................... 21
5.2.6 Panel .......................................................................................................................................................... 23
5.3 Coarse Bubble Diffusers ................................................................................................................................... 24
5.4 Jet Diffusers ...................................................................................................................................................... 25
6.0 Viable Alternatives.............................................................................................................................. 26
6.1 Ceramic Disc .................................................................................................................................................... 26
6.1.1 Basis for Estimating Operation and Maintenance Cost ............................................................................. 28
6.1.2 Maintenance Assessment .......................................................................................................................... 28
6.2 Membrane Disc ................................................................................................................................................. 29
6.2.1 Basis for Estimating Operation and Maintenance Cost ............................................................................. 30
6.2.2 Maintenance Assessment .......................................................................................................................... 30
6.3 Tube .................................................................................................................................................................. 31
6.3.1 Basis for Estimating Operation and Maintenance Cost ............................................................................. 31
6.3.2 Maintenance Assessment .......................................................................................................................... 32
6.4 Strip (Medium Efficiency - Aerostrip).............................................................................................................. 32
6.4.1 Basis for Estimating Operation and Maintenance Cost ............................................................................. 33
6.4.2 Maintenance Assessment .......................................................................................................................... 34
6.5 Strip (High Efficiency) ..................................................................................................................................... 35
6.5.1 Basis for Estimating Operation and Maintenance Cost ............................................................................. 35
6.5.2 Maintenance Assessment .......................................................................................................................... 35
6.6 Coarse Bubble................................................................................................................................................... 35
6.6.1 Basis for Estimating Operation and Maintenance Cost ............................................................................. 35
6.6.2 Maintenance Assessment .......................................................................................................................... 36
7.0 Advantages, Disadvantages, and Risks ............................................................................................. 36
8.0 Life Cycle Cost Analysis ..................................................................................................................... 37
9.0 Recommendation................................................................................................................................. 38

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Diffused Aeration

List of Figures
Figure 1. Efficiency parameters vs. specific air flux and MCRT for a subset of data (CDi : ceramic discs,
CDo: ceramic domes, CP: ceramic plates, MD: membrane diffuser, TU: tube diffusers, MP
membrane panels) ................................................................................................................................................ 6
Figure 2. Schematic of BNR Basin and RAS Reaeration Basins .................................................................................. 9
Figure 3. Mechanical Aeration: MONSOON Paddle Wheel Aerator (LEFT); Unitech Surface Aerator
(RIGHT) ............................................................................................................................................................. 12
Figure 4. Ceramic Disc Diffusers ................................................................................................................................ 17
Figure 5. Sanitaire Membrane Discs (LEFT); EDI Membrane Discs (RIGHT) .......................................................... 19
Figure 6. EDI Membrane Tube Diffusers .................................................................................................................... 20
Figure 7. OTT Membrane Tube Diffusers ................................................................................................................... 21
Figure 8 AEROSTRIP Strip Diffusers......................................................................................................................... 23
Figure 9 Parkson HiOx Flat Panel Diffusers ............................................................................................................... 24
Figure 10. EDI Permacap Diffuser (LEFT); Sanitaire Steel Wide Band Diffuser (RIGHT) ....................................... 25
Figure 11. Siemens Vari-Cant Jet Aeration ................................................................................................................. 26
Figure 12. Mixing Systems Inc., Eddy Mix Jet Aerator .............................................................................................. 26
Figure 13. Sanitaire Ceramic Disc Diffuser Arrangement ........................................................................................... 27
Figure 14. Disc Diffuser Example Layout in Aerobic Zones ...................................................................................... 27
Figure 15. Sanitaire Membrane Disc Diffuser Arrangement ....................................................................................... 29
Figure 16. Section Drawing of Tube Diffuser Connected to a Pipe ............................................................................ 31
Figure 17. Layout of Strip Diffusers in BNR Basin (not to scale) ............................................................................... 33
Figure 18. Detail of Strip Connection to Piping .......................................................................................................... 33

List of Tables
Table 1. Life Cycle Cost Summary ............................................................................................................................... 2
Table 2. Advantages, Cons, and Risks of Preferred Alternative Diffusers .................................................................... 3
Table 3. Air Flow and Diffuser Requirements to Meet Functional Requirements ........................................................ 7
Table 4. BNR Basin Zones and Geometry .................................................................................................................... 8
Table 5. RAS Reaeration Zones and Geometry ............................................................................................................. 9
Table 6. Oxygen Demand at Start-Up Year 2020 ........................................................................................................ 10
Table 7. Oxygen Demand at ADWF of 181 mgd ........................................................................................................ 10
Table 9. Application of Air Introducing Methodologies ............................................................................................. 13
Table 10. Elements of Diffuser Design and Selection ................................................................................................. 14
Table 11. Diffused Aeration Types and Uses .............................................................................................................. 14
Table 12. Advantages, Disadvantages, and Risks of Diffuser Types .......................................................................... 37
Table 13. Life Cycle Cost of Diffuser Alternatives ..................................................................................................... 38

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Diffused Aeration

1.0 Executive Summary


Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) is a new treatment process for the Sacramento Regional
County Sanitation District (SRCSD) advanced wastewater treatment project. It has four major
pieces of equipment:

Aeration blowers Supply a wide range of airflows at required discharge pressure to


meet dissolved oxygen demand in BNR process

Aeration diffusers Distribute air supplied from blowers into aeration basins depending
on dissolved oxygen requirements of each basin.

Anoxic and swing zones mixers Provide mixing to keep solids in suspension, keep
inflow streams and basin volume completely mixed, and prevent short circuiting of flow
from one zone to another.

Mixed liquor recirculation (MLR) pumps Recirculate a portion of the mixed liquor
from the final zone to the anoxic zone for denitrification and to produce high quality
effluent.

This Business Case Evaluation (BCE) discusses the aeration diffusers.

1.1 Diffuser Types


The purpose of this BCE is to determine the type of diffuser equipment best suited for the
aeration of the BNR aerobic zones. Alternatives for diffused aeration analyzed in this BCE
include:

Disc type (9-inch diameter):


Membrane
Ceramic

Tube type (high efficiency)

Strip type

Panel type

1.2 Findings/Recommendations
This BCE provides a summary of cost, operations, and maintenance considerations for disc
(ceramic and membrane), tube, and strip diffusers. At the time of preparing this BCE, the panel
type diffuser was not able to provide any cost or performance information. Therefore, it was not
considered in the analysis. All four types are suitable for aerating the aerobic zones of the BNR
and the RAS reaeration basin. Disc diffusers are smaller and require more units, but they are
reliable and have a history of success. Tube and strip diffusers both pose a greater risk of
failure due to membrane damage but offer increased oxygen transfer and reduced operating
Sacramento Regional County Sanitation District
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Diffused Aeration
cost. Tube diffusers have a high oxygen transfer area and are easy to replace. Strip diffusers
have the highest oxygen transfer efficiency, thus requiring less energy, and may be replaced
less often, but are more maintenance intensive during replacement. In addition, flexing/air
bumping requires more documentation on an ongoing basis.
Table 1 summarizes the capital, annual, and present value (life cycle) costs for diffusers for two
membrane disc diffusers (Aquarius and Sanitaire), a ceramic disc diffuser (Sanitaire), a tube
diffuser (EDI), a panel diffuser (Ovivo), and a coarse bubble diffuser.
Table 1. Life Cycle Cost Summary
Base Cost

Annualized
Operation

Annualized
Maintenance and
Risk

60-year Life-Cycle Cost


at 5% Discount Rate

Ceramic Disc,
Sanitaire

$38,910,000

$9,020,000

$1,469,000

$300,620,000

Membrane Disc,
Aquarius

$20,880,000

$9,320,000

$1,734,000

$296,570,000

Membrane Disc,
Sanitaire

$31,500,000

$9,320,000

$1,734,000

$307,190,000

Tube, EDI

$25,070,000

$9,290,000

$1,698,000

$299,100,000

Strip (Med Eff),


Ovivo

$60,150,000

$9,023,000

$2,705,000

$352,680,000

Strip (High Eff),


Ovivo

$110,630,000

$8,103,000

$4,707,000

$430,170,000

Coarse Bubble

$17,010,000

$21,688,000

$15,000

$558,400,000

Alternative

1.2.1 Findings
1. Membrane disc diffusers have a low base cost and have operational and
maintenance cost comparable to ceramic disc and tube diffusers.
2. Ceramic disc diffusers, though more expensive to purchase and maintain than
membrane disc diffusers from the same manufacturer, have a lower life-cycle cost
due to the $300,000/yr savings in energy.
3. Tube diffusers have one of the lowest life cycle costs due to their lower capital
costs and slightly lower operation and maintenance costs. However, they are not
as widely used as the 9-inch membrane disc diffusers.
4. Base cost for strip diffusers exceeds other diffuser types and they have the highest
life cycle cost. Maintenance and risk costs exceed other diffusers, but $500,000 to
$700,000 savings in energy each year allow strip diffusers to compete with the
others. The High Efficiency strip diffusers included the savings associated with
one less blower (because of the higher oxygen transfer, the blower building can be
designed for 4+1), however, the additional cost of doubling the amount of
aeration equipment resulted in a significant increase in base cost.

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Diffused Aeration
5. Coarse bubble diffusers have a low capital cost, but they have a high operating
cost, making them an outlier in the life cycle cost.
6. The scale and nature of this project must be considered when selecting diffuser
type. Not only must they be cost-effective for a large facility, but they must also
be practical to install and maintain in a warm and sunny climate.
Table 2. Advantages, Disadvantages, and Risks of Preferred Alternative Diffusers
Diffuser type
Ceramic disc

Advantages

Membrane disc

Tube

Disadvantages

Low headloss through


diffuser
Longer life time (20+
years)
Higher OTE% than
membrane discs

Less resistant to fouling and scalant


build-up
Not suitable for on/off application
Require chemical cleaning
Susceptible to moisture in piping
More diffusers required than membrane

Membrane fouling
in the case of a
power outage

Suitable for on/off


application
Can retrofit ceramic disc
diffusers
Easy installation and
replacement

Shorter life time (~6 years)


Scrubbing required
More diffusers than strip type

Membrane tear
(1% chance)
Pipe failure

Large OT surface area


Simple membrane
replacement

Top half surface is effective in


transferring oxygen
Dead area can be sites for slime growth
and foulant
Shorter life time (~8 years)
Scrubbing Required

Higher headloss through diffuser


Sensitive to heat (temperatures above
80F)
Extensive installation/ replacement
process
High capital cost
More difficult maintenance

Strip

Low air flux rate


High OTE %
Fewer diffusers required
Longer life (~10 years)

Coarse

Risks

Low headloss through

diffuser

Low capital cost


On/off application
Will not plug
Longest life (repair, but
no replacement in 60 yrs)

Membrane tear
(1% chance)
Pipe failure

Membrane tear
(1 % chance)
Susceptible to
sunlight damage

Low OTE
Higher energy costs

1.2.2 Recommendations
Based on life cycle cost and applicability to this project, membrane disc or tube diffusers are
the selected technology for diffusion of the BNR and the RAS reaeration tanks. Ceramic discs
have slowly been replaced by membranes in wastewater treatment due to fouling issues. Strip
diffusers are more expensive and the warm and sunny climate could cause failure of the
membrane if exposed for a couple of days. Due to their sensitivity to temperatures exceeding
80F, damage is highly possible. It will be difficult to perform installation and servicing while
ensuring that the diffusers are not exposed to such heat and sunlight for any extended period of
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Diffused Aeration
time. In addition, strip diffusers require high capital cost and complicated maintenance. Finally,
coarse bubble diffusers have such a low OTE that they are not competitive from an energy use
standpoint.
Discs and tubes (EDI type) are comparable economically and must be further considered based
on preferences in operations and maintenance. Discs are widely used in the industry and can be
interchanged between different manufacturers.
Based on life cycle cost and applicability to this project, membrane disc diffusers are the
recommended technology for air diffusion into the BNR and the RAS reaeration tanks.
The designer may consider alternative aeration options for the swing zones to enable these
zones to operate as both fully aerobic zones or as anoxic zones with aeration mixing. However
the designer must ensure that the increased oxygen demand resulting from a step feed flow to
the swing zones is supplied.

2.0 Goal Statement


Aeration air is required by the BNR basins to remove BOD and convert ammonia to nitrate
(nitrification). The appropriate technology much be chosen from a variety of options to
maximize the oxygen transfer efficiency (reduce energy costs) and minimize maintenance
requirements.

3.0 Design Criteria


In order to determine the number, spacing, and capacity of diffusers, a basis for design was
selected. This section describes the plant requirements that dictate the selection and design of
the recommended technology.

3.1 Design Criteria


The diffused aeration system is designed to distribute air to meet required dissolved oxygen
demand and to provide minimum mixing to keep solids in suspension. Table 3 shows the
necessary air flow to meet peak day, annual average, and minimum day flows with different
diffusers. The system should meet following requirements:

Provide adequate air to meet DO level specified

Flexibility to operate between minimum and maximum air requirements.

Air flow through the diffusers (number of diffusers) must be acceptable from the
minimum air flow in year 2020 to the maximum day air flow at the ADWF 181 MGD
design year. If possible, 20% diffuser blanks shall be included in each aeration zone
header design.

The number of diffusers in the first zone may be adjusted to comply with the
manufacturers recommended maximum diffuser floor coverage and accessibility
requirements for maintenance and replacement.

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Diffused Aeration

If mechanical mixers are provided in the swing zones, the diffuser anchoring and
support system must include an analysis of the hydraulic forces on the diffuser system.

Diffuser material must not leach N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) into the


wastewater.

Air flow through the diffusers must be optimized for the highest efficiency at average
conditions but have to adequately supply oxygen at a the maximum day and the
sustained maximum week load . A paper by Rosso and Stenstrom (2005) summarized
offgas tests conducted at a number of wastewater treatment plants. Figure 1 shows a
figure from this paper that relates alpha values and MCRT (or SRT) for different types
of diffusers. The results clearly show the increase in alpha as SRT increases (top right
hand), as well as the decrease in alpha as the flux per diffuser increases (top left).
Furthermore, the data indicate the large variation in alpha values that is seen in full scale
plants.

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Diffused Aeration

Figure 1. Efficiency parameters vs. specific air flux and MCRT for a subset of data (CDi : ceramic discs,
CDo: ceramic domes, CP: ceramic plates, MD: membrane diffuser, TU: tube diffusers, MP membrane
panels)

Diffusers in the aerobic zone must keep solids in suspension. Adequate air for mixing in
the aeration basin is required to prevent solids deposition and maintain biological
treatment performance. The airflow rates that satisfy the oxygen requirements will
usually provide sufficient mixing. The exception is during low organic loading
conditions such as at the end of a plug flow basin or during lowflow conditions, when
dissolved oxygen requirements for biological treatment are reduced, leading to
decreased biological aeration requirements. In these situations, care must be taken to
ensure than the system will provide sufficient aeration to maintain adequate mixing
while satisfying the minimum air flux rate for the diffuser. There are no universally

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established minimum mixing criteria, although a general guideline is to provide 0.12
scfm/ft2 or about 7 scfm/1,000 ft3, which can be expressed as follows (US EPA, 1989),
where Area = Floor area of aeration basin segment associated with aeration grid in
question.

Therefore a reasonable air flow per diffuser was selected to meet the maximum air flow
demand and average air flow rates per diffuser were calculated and used to estimate operating
costs as shown in Table 3.

Table 3. Air Flow and Diffuser Requirements to Meet Functional Requirements


Maximum Air Flow
Range/ Diffuser
(scfm)

Number of Diffusers
to Meet Peak Day
Demand (300,000
scfm)

Air Flow Rate/ Diffuser


(scfm) at Annual
Average Design Air
Flow (161,880 scfm)

Air Flow Rate/Diffuser


(scfm) at Min Day
Design Air Flow
(90,856 scfm)

Ceramic disc
(9-inch)

100,000

1.62

0.91

Membrane disc
(9-inch)

100,000

1.62

0.91

Tube

37,500

4.3

3.8

Strip (Medium
Efficiency)

15.1

19,868

8.1

1.12

Strip (High
Efficiency)

7.55

39,736

4.1

2.3

Type

3.2 Basis of Design


Ten BNR basins are planned and each has been divided into ten zones: two anoxic zones, three
oxic zones and five swing zones. The oxic and swing zones are equipped with aeration
diffusers. Mixers are provided in anoxic zones and in swing zones in addition to diffusers for
mixing. Baffle walls separate the zones. Estimated dimensions of zones are provided in Table
4.

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Table 4. BNR Basin Zones and Geometry
Summary Design Criteria for New BNR Tanks
4 Stage N removal
with RAS Reaeration

Type of Process
MLSS at MM

mg/L

2400

Aerobic SRT (including RAS reaeration)

days

7.5

Total SRT (including RAS reaeration)

days

12

HRT at EMDF

hours

9.75

% of Q

60%

mL/g

150

Number of New BNR Basins

10

Configuration - Number of Passes

Basin Side Water Depth

ft

25

Pass 1, 2 & 3 Length

ft

600

Pass 1 & 2 Width

ft

41.5

Pass 3 Width

ft

20.75

MG

11.64

10

AER1 - Anoxic, Pass 1

MG

1.7

AER2 - Anoxic, Pass 1

MG

1.7

AER3 - Aerobic, Pass 1

MG

1.2

AER4 - Aerobic, Pass 2

MG

2.23

AER5 - Aerobic, Pass 2

MG

1.7

AER6 - Anoxic/Swing, Pass 2


MLR Flow
Percent of MMF
MLR Flow per basin

MG

0.7

%
mgd

200%
55

AER7 - ANOXIC/SWING, Pass 3

mg

0.69

AER8 - ANOXIC/SWING, Pass 3

mg

0.69

AER9 - ANOXIC/SWING, Pass 3

mg

0.46

AER10 - AEROBIC, Pass 3

mg

0.46

RAS flow at EMDF


Maximum design SVI

New BNR Basin Volume - each


No of Zones

Return activated sludge from the secondary sedimentation tanks (SSTs) will be combined with
returns from the solids storage basins (SSBs) and centrate return from the biosolids recycling
facility and aerated in two new parallel re-aeration tanks supplied with compressed air from a
common aeration blower building. The tanks will be constructed adjacent to the new biological
nutrient removal (BNR) tanks. Figure 2 shows the layout of the BNR basins and re-aeration
zones. The purpose of the RAS re-aeration zone is to oxidize nitrogen-laden solids from the
return streams separately from primary effluent flow, and condition ammonia-oxidizing
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bacteria prior to the BNR tanks. Table 5 gives RAS reaeration basins zones and estimated
geometry.
Primary Effluent 1075
Distribution Channel
6

7
7

7
7

7
7

7
7

7
7

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

Mixer

Swing
Aerobic

8
8

8
8

8
8

8
8

8
8

Anoxic

2
2

2
2

2
2

2
2

PE Inf
9
9

9
9

9
9

9
9

9
9

MLSS
Eff
RAS
Reaer

3
3

3
3

3
3

3
3

10
10

10
10

10
10

10
10

10
10

Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids Channel

RAS
Figure 2. Schematic of BNR Basin and RAS Reaeration Basins
Table 5. RAS Reaeration Zones and Geometry
Zone

Type

Length, ft

Width, ft

Water depth,
ft

Diffusers,
(Y/N)

Mixer, (Y/N)

RAER1

Oxic

505

30.5

25

RAER2

Anoxic

95

30.5

25

The first anoxic zones are intended to denitrify nitrate produced in the first aerobic zones
(3,4,5). A mixed liquor recycle is pumped from zone 6 back to zone 1. The swing zones (6
through 9), when operated in the second anoxic mode, will denitrify any residual nitrate and
nitrite in the BNR MLSS, and the second oxic zone (7 10) will oxidize remaining ammonia
depending on load and also re-aerate the MLSS prior to settling to strip any nitrogen gas. This
also will ensure positive dissolved oxygen is carried into the SSTs to prevent denitrification and
rising sludge in the clarifiers.

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BOD and NH4 influence the oxygen demand in the BNR and the required air flow for aeration.
These parameters were determined for start-up and build-out conditions. Table 6 and Table 7
shows the BOD and NH4 loading to BNR, and total oxygen and air requirements for startup
and build-out conditions. The design maximum aeration for each aeration zone is the total
design air flow divided by firm number of basins in service (typically 9).
Table 6. Oxygen Demand at Start-Up Year 2020
Flow
Condition

Carbonaceous
demand
lb/day

Nitrification
demand
lb/day

Denitrification
credit
lb/d

Total AOR
lb/day

Design air flow


(Summer)
scfm

ADWF

275,110

254,549

127,275

402,385

124,312

Annual
Average

280,940

286,082

143,041

423,981

130,984

Max
Month

322,630

391,192

195,596

518,226

160,100

Max
Week

367,290

428,209

214,105

581,395

179,615

Max Day

552,860

428,209

278,336

702,733

217,101

MinDay

165,066

133,030

66,515

231,581

71,544

Flow
Condition

Carbonaceous
demand
lb/day

Nitrification
demand
lb/day

Denitrification
credit
lb/d

Total AOR
lb/day

Design air flow


(Summer)
scfm

ADWF

390,610

345,035

172,518

563,128

173,971

Annual
Average

397,210

376,568

188,284

585,494

180,881

Max
Month

453,530

502,243

251,122

704,652

217,694

Max
Week

517,440

563,938

281,969

799,409

246,968

Max Day

784,630

563,938

366,560

982,008

303,379

MinDay

230,065

245,912

122,956

353,021

109,061

Table 7. Oxygen Demand at ADWF of 181 mgd

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4.0 Analysis
4.1 Aeration
Diffused aeration distributes air in the aerobic zones of the BNR basins in order to provide
mixing and dissolved oxygen for Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and ammonia removal. At
the same time, it consumes nearly 40 - 60% of energy consumed in wastewater treatment
plants. The purpose of the aeration system is to distribute the air throughout the aerobic zones
and create a bubble that efficiently allows oxygen to dissolve in water to satisfy the Dissolved
Oxygen (DO) demand associated with BOD and ammonia removal. Too little air and the DO
level can drop below 1.0 mg/L where nitrification could be impacted. Too much air and the DO
level could rise and inhibit denitrification as flow from the aeration zone is recirculated into the
anoxic zone. To avoid under or over aeration, the air supply and diffuser system just operate
over the oxygen demand range from peak day to nightly minimum and over the diurnal cycles
of loading through each day.
Biological BOD and ammonia removal occur together with BOD removal dominating the first
aerobic zone and ammonia removal dominating the final aerobic zone. Bacteria in the Mixed
Liquor Suspended Solids (MLSS) use DO in the aerobic zone to remove the BOD and
ammonia. The efficiency of the aeration system is based on the oxygen transfer from the air
bubble to the treated water. Efficiency is inversely proportional to bubble size, making fine
bubble aeration more efficient than course bubble aeration.
Air can be introduced into wastewater using a variety of methods: diffused aeration,
mechanical aeration and oxygen injection. The right selection of oxygen transfer is important to
conserve energy and reduce the operation and maintenance cost of the activated sludge process.
This BCE will evaluate the diffusers available in the market and recommend the preferred
diffusers. The evaluation will cover:

Functional requirements of the diffusers

Diffusers available in the market

Features: Advantages, disadvantages, and risks

Operational and maintenance requirements including failure mode and consequences of


failure

Economics Analysis

The operation and maintenance requirements were based on the following: manufacturers
proposals, O&M equipment manuals and past experience.

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4.2 Process Background
Design of the activated sludge process requires determination of several items: aeration basin
volume, waste activated sludge quantity, sludge return rate, total oxygen demand, and clarifier
area and volume. Process performance depends on factors such as temperature, dissolved
oxygen, nutrients, toxic and inhibitory substances, pH and wastewater characteristics. Aeration
greatly influences the performance and efficiency of the activated sludge process to supply the
required dissolved oxygen level. Thus, the right selection of aeration equipment is important to
efficiently transfer oxygen from air to wastewater and to reduce Wastewater Treatment Plant
(WWTP) power consumption. Aeration equipment varies in air introduction method. Air can be
introduced into wastewater using subsurface/diffused aeration or surface/mechanical agitation.
These two methods are briefly described below.
Surface (mechanical) aeration uses mechanical agitators to vigorously agitate wastewater and to
introduce atmospheric air into wastewater. It includes horizontal paddle, vertical turbine, and
vertical-turbine draft tube. Mechanical diffusers cause turbulence and have low OTE compared
to the other options. This technique is widely used in lagoons and ponds with large surface area
and shallow water column, and it is less efficient compared to subsurface aeration. It was used
in aeration basins prior to the introduction of fine bubble diffusers. Two alternatives for surface
aeration are pictured in Figure 3.

Figure 3. Mechanical Aeration: MONSOON Paddle Wheel Aerator (LEFT);


Unitech Surface Aerator (RIGHT)

Subsurface aeration introduces air at the bottom of the basin and allows buoyancy to move the
air bubbles to the water surface. While travelling through the water column, oxygen in the
bubble is dissolved in wastewater. This technique has greater OTE and provides efficient
aeration for deep tank/basin application. Diffused aeration systems are widely used in
wastewater treatment plants for the activated sludge process and channel mixing to keep solids
in suspension. The diffused aeration system is comprised of blower/air conveying equipment;
air piping and controls; and diffusers. It can be broadly divided into coarse bubble, fine bubble,
and jet aeration.

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Though a wide variety of aeration technologies are available in the industry, efficiency and
performance requirements limit their application to certain processes. Table 8 provides typical
applications of subsurface and surface aeration in the wastewater industry. Due to the
limitations of OTE, DO demand, and basin geometry, surface aeration is not a viable option for
the BNR. A diffused aeration system is further discussed in the following section.
Table 8. Application of Air Introducing Methodologies
Air Introducing Methods

Types

Typical Application

Subsurface aeration

Diffused air, jet aeration, static tube


mixer, sparger turbine

Activated-sludge process, channel and grit


chamber aeration, aerobic digestion, equalization
tank mixing and deep tank aeration

Surface (mechanical)
agitation/aeration

Low-speed turbine aerator, high-speed


floating aerator, aspirating, rotor-brush
or rotating disk assembly and cascade

Conventional activated-sludge process, aerated


lagoons, aerobic digestion, oxidation ditch,
channel aeration and post aeration

4.2.1 Diffused aeration


In diffused aeration, air is introduced into wastewater through diffusers located at some
distance above the basin/tank floor. Diffused aeration is broadly categorized into three major
types: coarse bubble, fine bubble, and jet depending on the bubble size generated and air
injection method. Diffused aeration works well in deep basins/tanks, since OTE improves with
water depth up to about 25 feet. After that, OTE is reduced.
Early application of diffused aeration led the wastewater treatment industry to use fine bubble
diffusers, taking advantage of greater efficiency. Fouling problems discouraged its rapid
development, and the industry looked for a simpler and lower-maintenance system. Fixedorifice diffusers, which produce large air bubbles, dominated the industry during the 1970s,
when energy cost was low. Rapid escalation in power cost again shifted industrys interest
towards fine bubble diffusers by improving the OTE and development of different types of air
diffusion equipment occurred.
Design of a diffused aeration system depends on many variables. Table 9describes the various
elements that directly or indirectly influence diffuser design and selection. Table 10 provides a
summary of diffused aeration types, point of use and Oxygen Transfer Rate (OTR).

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Table 9. Elements of Diffuser Design and Selection
Element

Influence on diffuser design and selection

Wastewater Characteristics

Oxygen requirements

Process type

Oxygen requirements

D.O. level (dependent on process type)

Oxygen requirements

Oxygen requirements

Number of diffusers required

Standard Oxygen Transfer Efficiency (SOTE, %)

Diffuser efficiency (function of depth)

Standard Aeration Efficiency (SAE, mass of oxygen


transferred/HP-hr)

Diffuser Efficiency

Aeration Basin Geometry

Diffuser layout

Diffuser size

Number of diffusers required

Diffuser Shape

Diffuser Layout

Material of Construction

Suitability for application (ML characteristics); maintenance


requirements

Density

OTE and number of diffusers per floor area

Maximum and Minimum Air Flow Rates

Flexibility of diffusers for air demand variation; number of


diffusers

Air Supply Flexibility

Diffuser turn-down ratio

Air mixing requirements

Solids suspension; prevents diffuser clogging

Installation method

Failure modes

Table 10. Diffused Aeration Types and Uses


Diffused
aeration

Aeration tank
mixing
requirements1

Major
manufacturer

OTR, lbO2/hp-hr 1

Typical
alpha () 1

Headworks,
distribution
channels, all
types of
activated
sludge process,
nitrification,
mixing, and
aerobic
digestion

2.0

0.8

20 30 scfm/
1000 cu ft

Sanitaire,
Environmental
Dynamics Inc.,
Stamford Scientific
Inc.

Bubbles
generated with
ceramic, plastic
or membranes (it
can be disc,
dome, tubes or
panels)

All types of
activated
sludge process,
nitrification

6.5

0.45

7 10 scfm/
1000 cu ft

Sanitaire, EDI,
Ovivo, Aquarius,
Parkson

Compressed air
injected into ML
as it pumped
through the
nozzles under
pressure

Aeration,
mixing, aerobic
digestion,
oxidation ditch

2.8

0.75

Siemens, Fluidyne

Description

Point of use

Coarse
bubble

Bubbles
produced with
fixed orifices,
nozzles,
injectors or shear
plates

Fine bubble

Jet Aeration

Bolles, A. S. Modelling wastewater aeration systems to discover energy savings opportunities, Process Energy
Services, LLC.

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5.0 Aeration Alternatives


The following diffused aeration methods (or oxygen sources) are discussed in this alternative
section:
0. Pure Oxygen
1. Fine Bubble Diffusers
a. Ceramic Disc
b. Membrane Disc
c. Dome
d. Tube
e. Strip
f.

Panel

2. Coarse Bubble Diffusers


3. Jet Diffusers

5.1 Pure Oxygen


The District currently uses pure oxygen for BOD removal in the CO tanks. Pure oxygen
activated sludge is not the proper environment for nitrifying bacteria due to the lower pH of the
water; therefore, ammonia removal is difficult to achieve. In addition, the final effluent
contains a significant amount of ash (biological organism parts) that does not filter well. Air
activated sludge is a more efficient process to accomplish nitrification-denitrification and to
create a final effluent that can be filtered effectively. Due to the necessary shift in technology,
pure oxygen was not considered as a viable alternative.

5.2 Fine Bubble Diffusers


Air is introduced into wastewater from the fine pore diffusers (to produce air bubbles up to
2.5mm) located at the bottom of aeration tank or basin. Smaller bubbles result in more surface
area and greater OTE. Use of fine bubble aeration in wastewater treatment plants has increased
in past decades. This is due to the high oxygen transfer efficiency (OTE) and the corresponding
reduction in energy use. Aeration systems with fine bubble diffusers require less air flow rate
when compared to coarse bubble diffusers.
Fine-bubble diffuser systems have the highest OTE and demonstrated energy and cost savings
(if cleaned periodically to limit fouling and promote optimal performance). Fine bubble
diffusers are typically categorized in terms of physical shape (e.g., disc, tube or panel) and
material used for creating fine bubbles (e.g., porous ceramic, punched polymeric membranes,
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or polymeric sintered aggregates). Different fine bubble diffusers also vary in OTE and
maintenance requirements, and they are each described below.

5.2.1 Ceramic Discs


Ceramic discs are the oldest diffusers in the market. The US EPA Fine Pore Aeration Design
Manual2 defines ceramic diffusers as produced from irregular or spherically shaped mineral
particles that are sized, blended together with bonding materials, compressed into various
shapes, and fired at an elevated temperature to form a ceramic bond between the particles. The
result is a network of interconnecting passageways through which air flows. The material used
to make ceramic diffusers is primarily alumina, with some vitreous silicate. Ceramic diffusers
have been manufactured in dome, plate, tube and disc shapes; however, the most commonly
marketed version today is the disc. The discs are typically 9 inches in diameter, although they
are made in sizes ranging from 7 to 20 inches in diameter.
Ceramic disc diffusers typically are as efficient in oxygen transfer as membrane disc diffusers.
With regular cleaning, these diffusers will remain in service upwards of 20 years. Cleaning is
crucial with ceramic diffusers even though all diffusers are subject to biological fouling and
chemical scaling depending on process conditions, water quality (dissolved ions), diffuser type,
and time in operation. Fouling and scaling result in increased headloss and reduced OTE, both
of which contribute to increased plant energy costs.
Chemical scaling is relatively unusual in most municipal systems, although very hard water
will exacerbate this form of scale. Conversely, biological fouling is common. Biological
fouling occurs because the surface of rigid ceramic media is rough in texture, with multiple
macroscopic pores that provide an excellent support environment for biological growth in the
aeration tank. Biological fouling is especially problematic when on/off operation is employed
or when a system is operated at low airflows (less than 0.4 scfm/unit). It is problematic because
ceramic disc diffusers have fixed openings that remain open at all times. When air supply is
interrupted or the flow of air is low, water and/or solids flow back into the ceramic media itself.
Repeated cycles of on/off operation or extended off operation will cause the diffuser discs
to become fouled by suspended solids and biological growth. This complication makes ceramic
discs less desirable for the swing zone application, as this zone is not aerated at all times.
Ceramic diffusers can be cleaned using gaseous hydrochloric acid (HCl). Gas cleaning of
ceramic diffusers can be performed without draining or entering the tanks, which is an
advantage if tankage is covered. HCl can be stored centrally; however, to minimize risk of
accidents, many facilities are designed to use portable systems with small gas cylinders, and
one diffuser grid is cleaned at a time. Many facilities order HCl as needed and use up the
chemical supply during the cleaning process. The advantage of this approach is that permanent
chemical storage facilities are not required. They can also be cleaned using 50% solution HCl,
sprayed over the diffusers in an emptied tank. Though this requires taking the basin out of
service, it can be done simultaneously with inspection of the units.

Fine Pore Aeration Systems Design Manual. US EPA. September 1989. EPA/625/1-89/023. Page 3.

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Figure 4 shows disc diffusers from various manufacturers.

Figure 4. Ceramic Disc Diffusers

5.2.2 Membrane Discs


Membrane diffusers consist of a flexible material with perforated pores through which air is
released. When air is turned on, the membrane expands and the pores can expand in diameter
with increased airflow rate. Some manufacturers of perforated membrane diffusers claim these
devices are more resistant to fouling than porous plastic or ceramic diffusers is increased
resistance to fouling. The susceptibility to fouling is impacted by the membrane material used.
Membrane disc diffusers are manufactured from a variety of materials including Urethane,
Silicone and Ethylene Propylene Dimer (EPDM), which is the most common material. The
diffusers are available in various materials and thicknesses, from to 5 to 8 mm, and in a variety
of diameters. Manufacturers use EPDM material doped with natural rubber, carbon black, ash,
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organic additives, peroxides, and plasticizers in varying proportions. Carbon Black and other
organic additives protect against Ultraviolet rays. In open aeration basins, incorporating
additives when the diffusers are being first installed or during routine maintenance is ideal.
Newer products add a thin layer of fluoroelastomer, such as Teflon, to reduce fouling, extend
life, and improve OTE.
The membrane material used in disc diffusers is perforated in a pattern that is specific to each
manufacturer. Disc patterns include a circular punch covering the surface, or a punch in four
perpendicular sections. The slit size is also important as it influences OTE. For example, a
0.5 mm slit produces a high OTE, but at a high headloss, whereas a 2.0 mm slit produces a low
headloss, but a lower OTE. Slit sizes range from 0.5 mm to 2.0 mm, but most discs are punched
at 1.0 mm. One vendor claims to perforate the membrane disc from the inside out, which places
the smallest part of the perforation on the membrane surface where the bubble is released,
thereby increasing OTE.
Two main means of production are employed in membrane disc manufacture: compression
molding and injection molding. In compression molding, membrane from a roll of EPDM
material is cut into the shape of a disc element and then compressed into the diffuser mold. The
membrane is then punched. In injection molding, molten EPDM is poured into a mold, cooled,
and then punched. Compression-molded membranes in controlled manufacturing keep
plasticizer content to less than 15 percent extractable oil. Injection-molded membranes will
contain 30-35 percent oils and plasticizers. This difference is important as the EPA Fine Pore
Aeration manual claims that the disadvantage of thermoplastic and elastomeric media is that
they can experience physical property changes over time due to leaching of plasticizer. The
increased plasticizer content used in the production of injection-molded membranes is reported
to leach out of the membrane during immersion in wastewater, causing creep, increased
hardness, reduced OTE, and cracking over time.
Compression molding also improves uniformity of the membrane, which results in a product
with even specific gravity and a uniform resistance to tearing (this is important to prevent
premature mechanical failure of diffusers under pressure). Typical compression-molded
membrane uniformity is 95 percent, compared to 75 percent for injection-molded types.
Membrane disc diffusers typically are as efficient in oxygen transfer as ceramic disc diffusers,
but are not as durable. With regular cleaning, these diffusers will remain in service for around 5
to 10 years. Over time, fine pore membrane diffusers also experience reduced OTE and
pressure increase. Reduced OTE occurs when the punched orifices dilate over time, producing
larger bubbles, which are unfavorable to mass transfer. At the same time, headloss increases
with time in operation, because membranes increase in rigidity and hardness, and fouling and
scaling phenomena occur at the orifice opening. Diffuser headloss can be monitored by a
pressure monitoring system provided by vendors, if specified.
Periodic cleanings restore much of the lost performance. To clean membrane diffusers, tanks
are drained and cleaned, after which workers scrub each diffuser manually. Given the effort
involved, there is a tendency for membrane diffusers to be cleaned less often than gas-cleaned
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ceramic diffusers. However, with membrane diffusers, membrane media flexes as air is applied
and/or reduced, which often minimizes chemical or inorganic fouling, as well as the impact of
biological fouling. In addition, fouling is reduced because membrane slits open only when air is
applied. Operating a low air rate per diffuser is also acceptable because low air flux will only
open the slits necessary to operate the diffuser. This prevents backflow and associated clogging
or fouling of the membrane during low air flow or on/off operation. Many disc diffuser
manufacturers also incorporate an integral check valve to prevent backflow of MLSS into the
aeration pipe work. In addition, for clean and new 9-inch diameter disc diffusers, designers
typically recommend adding 1 psi (28 in. H2O) to the blower design to account for
aging/fouling, which includes friction losses in submerged piping and loss through the diffuser
itself.
There are several suppliers of membrane and ceramic disc diffusers: Sanitaire, Environmental
Dynamics, Inc., Wilfley Weber, Siemens/Envirex, and Stamford Scientific. Figure 5 shows
pictures of Sanitaire, EDI FlexAir and Stamford Scientific SSI membrane disc diffusers.
Designers have generally had the longest and best track record with Sanitaire; however, other
diffusers may be acceptable from the standpoint of OTE. They may be relatively new and have
only a limited operating history, so long-term operation and maintenance claims cannot be
supported.

Figure 5. Sanitaire Membrane Discs (LEFT); EDI Membrane Discs (RIGHT)

5.2.3 Dome
Dome diffusers are circular discs with a downward-turned edge, and are 7 inches in diameter.
The media used to make domes is aluminum oxide. It is 3/5 inch thick on edges and 3/5 inch
thick on the top. Dome diffusers are mounted on either PVC or mild steel type base plate and
eventually solvent welded to air distribution piping with a PVC saddle connection.
Dome diffusers are designed to operate at air flow rates between 0.5 to 2 scfm3. Headloss
through dome diffusers does not change with varying air flow rates. It is reported that OTE
increases with decreasing air flow rate through diffusers. Based on these performance
characteristics, dome diffusers are usually designed to operate between 0.4 to 0.5 scfm. The
low air flow rate can lead to some operational problems: difficulty in obtaining uniform
3

Summary Report Fine Pore (Fine Bubble) Aeration Systems, US EPA, EPA/625/8-85/010

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distribution of air across the entire surface of diffuser, foulant deposition, and the use different
control orifices to distribute air at low flow rate across the system. Operating air flow rates
above upper limits is possible, but it is not economical as OTE decreases with increasing air
flow rate.
There are few manufacturers available that supply dome diffusers. It is hard to get large
amounts of dome diffusers for a project of this size. Due to above mentioned operational issues
and limited supply, the dome diffuser is not considered as a viable alternative.

5.2.4 Tube
The tube diffuser is an alternative design to the disc or plate membrane fine bubble diffuser.
These are usually 3 to 5 feet in length and anywhere from 2 to 4 inches in diameter. Only the
upper half of a tube is considered to be active surface area, while the bottom half of the
diffuser does not contribute to aeration. Mainstream manufacturers of tube diffusers include
EDI, OTT, (Figure 6 and Figure 7, respectively), and Sanitaire. Several issues about the
membrane tube diffusers include the following:

SOTE - The SOTE (standard oxygen transfer efficiency) of membrane tube diffusers
has been confirmed on a number of past projects. OTT has made claims of high SOTE
for its tubular membranes. However, high SOTE sometimes results from lower air flow
per membrane area than is typically used for membrane tube designs. The tubular
geometry in and of itself does not appear to provide superior SOTE over the disc
geometry.

Membrane Integrity - Recent projects with EDI membrane tube diffusers have
experienced higher than acceptable diffuser failures. Phoenix 91st Avenue wastewater
treatment plant has also experienced problems with EDI diffusers. The reasons for the
failures are unknown.

UV Sensitivity According to EDI, tube diffusers must be protected from direct


sunlight and temperatures above 100F. Per the O&M manual, diffusers should be
covered with approximately 4 feet of water when exposure to sunlight and heat is
possible.

Figure 6. EDI Membrane Tube Diffusers

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Figure 7. OTT Membrane Tube Diffusers

A common criticism raised by tube diffuser vendors with regard to membrane disc diffusers is
that there may be adverse process impacts from excessive sludge accumulation below disc
diffuser grids. Typical disc diffuser grid designs place the diffusers approximately 12 inches
above the aeration basin floor, whereas some tubular grid designs place the diffusers closer to
the floor. In investigations of excessive sludge accumulation in aeration basins, the root cause
of sludge accumulation is typically shown to be diffuser air flow rates below the minimum
recommended mixing criteria.

5.2.5 Strip
Flat, high-efficiency strip diffusers as made by Ovivo (AEROSTRIP) are pictured in Figure 8.
Evaluations of strip diffusers for previous projects have confirmed the claims of high OTE,
albeit at low air flux rates. However, the strip diffusers have specific issues that must be
considered:

UV Sensitivity - The AEROSTRIP diffuser membranes are made of polyurethane and


are sensitive to heat and direct UV exposure, thereby limiting the time allowed to
provide maintenance during the summer months in the Sacramento Region. The
manufacturer recommends that installation and maintenance of the diffusers be done
beneath 1.0 m of water or the diffusers should be covered. The basin should be covered
during installation and maintenance to block UV radiation. In a project of this size, this
will be difficult to accomplish. The diffusers must also not be exposed to heat above
80F. As per the O&M Manual, maintenance must be planned for cooler weather and
shorter daylight hours to limit UV exposure to the panels. In the Sacramento region,
this requirement could be limiting. Per the O&M Manual, if installation is performed
during hot summer days, the membranes need to be sprayed with water periodically,
which adds an onerous activity for maintenance staff.

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Air Piping - The relatively small diameter air piping inside the tank tends to collect rags
and trash; therefore, effective upstream screening is required.

Daily Maintenance - The diffusers must be flexed daily at a high aeration rate to
dislodge any material and reduce fouling potential. This flexing is automated,
requiring each aeration drop-leg to be actuated with individual air flow measurement. In
addition, the manufacturer requires operators to monitor and record each of the many
individual aeration zone diffuser drop pipe header pressures on a daily basis to track
potential fouling. This is an onerous requirement, especially for a large WWTP.

Headloss losses are generally greater with strip diffusers than disc diffusers. This is
due to friction losses in submerged piping and greater head loss through the diffuser
itself.

AEROSTRIP diffusers were recently installed in the Carrousel oxidation ditches at the City of
Orlandos Iron Bridge WWTP. Prior to installation of AEROSTRIP diffusers, coarse bubble
diffusers were used. AEROSTRIP diffusers at the plant are now 2 to 12 months old, having
been installed over a 10-month period. Thus far, the AEROSTRIP diffusers at Iron Bridge
WWTP have performed well. There has been one failure, which was thought to have been
caused by a hose strung through the tank. Debris hang-up on the air supply hoses has not been
an issue. The plant uses influent screens with 3.0 to 4.0 mm openings, which appears to
adequately prevent this problem. Some of the other reference plants began to see failures and
experience increased back pressure and reduced air flow after two to three years of operation.
According to the manufacturer, the oldest installation of AEROSTRIP in Bremerton, WA has
had to replace less than 2 percent of their diffusers in the last 12 years of operation. This
success is the result of consistent maintenance and data collection.

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Figure 8 AEROSTRIP Strip Diffusers

5.2.6 Panel
Panel diffusers are similar to strip diffusers, because the membranes are also made of
polyurethane. Figure 9 shows the Parkson HiOx flat panel diffusers. Some concerns with the
panel diffusers are described below and many are consistent with concerns of strip diffusers.

Maintenance and Data Collection - It is necessary to flex the membrane panels, at a


minimum once per week, and perhaps more often. Parkson also requires regular and indepth records to be kept. Per the Operations and Maintenance Manual: Failure to keep
accurate records of all conditions during flexing will void all membrane warranties.
When the panels are flexed, the date, time, panel pressure before flexing, the amount of
time the system is left off, the panel pressure and airflow during and after flexing should
be recorded.

UV Sensitivity - The panels must be covered or protected if installation will take several
days, or they cannot be operated immediately. Per the Operations and Maintenance
Manual: those in place in the tank must be individually covered. This will prevent the
frames from heating up and damaging the membrane. Membrane damage begins to
occur at 125oF surface temperature. They can be protected by either putting at least 5-ft
of water over the panels, setting up sprinklers in the basin or by suspending a plastic
sheet over them that will not allow the sun to penetrate.

Headloss - Losses are generally greater with panel diffusers than disc diffusers. A
recommended pressure loss of about 34 to 41 inches H2O (8.6 to 10.3 kPa), must be

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provided to account for friction losses in submerged piping and loss through the diffuser
itself, but this does not include the static water head or fouling.
Panel diffusers were not evaluated for a lifecycle analysis because Parkson did not provide the
necessary information by the time of this write-up.4

Figure 9 Parkson HiOx Flat Panel Diffusers

5.3 Coarse Bubble Diffusers


Air is introduced into wastewater from nonporous diffusers located at the bottom of aeration
tank or basin and produces bubbles with diameters ranging from 6 to 10 mm (0.25-0.38 in.),
much larger than fine bubble diffusers. The bubbles are generated by forcing air through
orifices. Large air bubbles result in less surface area and reduced OTE.
Coarse bubble diffuser SOTE varies from 0.5 0.8 %/ft of submergence. Air flow rate can vary
up to 40 scfm for 24 inch long band diffusers and up to 10 scfm for coarse cap diffusers.
Common size of diffuser hole is 5 mm and 10 16 holes in cap style.
A common issue in coarse bubble diffusers is diffuser plugging. Blockages can impact diffuser
performance due to the scalant build-up in air release openings. The plugged diffuser may
require deep cleaning to dissolve scalant or replacement, which results in process downtime
and labor cost. Additional consideration is required to ensure that diffusers do not clog and the
diffuser caps are not blown off.
Coarse bubble diffusers are typically used in high solids applications, such as aerobic digesters,
primary effluent and mixed liquor channel aeration; and swing zones due to the on/off nature of
the operation.
Due to the low OTE, coarse bubble diffusers are not appropriate for aeration zones; however,
they may be considered for swing zone application. The impact of the low OTE is shown in the
life-cycle cost analysis.

Reference e-mail from Vipin Lillaney to Malar Perinpanayagam on June 27, 2012

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Figure 10. EDI Permacap Diffuser (LEFT); Sanitaire Steel Wide Band Diffuser (RIGHT)

5.4 Jet Diffusers


Jet diffusers mix air with liquid and injects into wastewater. Recirculated ML is discharged at
high pressure from jet nozzles where compressed air is mixed, sheared into tiny air bubbles and
entrained into ML. The mixture of ML and air creates a highly turbulent jet plume when
released and brings surrounding ML in contact with tiny air bubbles. Jet diffusers separate the
mixing and aeration functions. Mixing is provided by the jets operated with water; air is added
to the water and may be separately controlled from the mixing energy. This mixing is popular
in locations such as the swing zone that operates as a mixing or aeration zone. Jet diffusers are
better suited for small areas and are less appropriate for the tank sizes needed for the advanced
treatment facility. This technology was not considered a viable alternative.

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Figure 11. Siemens Vari-Cant Jet Aeration

Figure 12. Mixing Systems Inc., Eddy Mix Jet Aerator

6.0 Viable Alternatives


The preferred alternative diffusers appropriate for this project are:
1. Ceramic type diffusers
2. Membrane type diffusers
3. Tube type diffusers
4. Strip type diffusers (Medium Efficiency)
5. Strip type diffusers (High Efficiency)
6. Coarse Bubble type diffusers

6.1 Ceramic Disc


Ceramic disc diffusers are available in 7 and 9 inches. For this BCE, 9 inch diffusers are
selected due to wide application in the industry, interchangeability between manufacturers and
ability to be retrofitted with membrane diffusers. Figure 13 shows the arrangement of the parts
of a ceramic diffuser supplied by Sanitaire.

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RetainerRing
ORingforCeramicDiffuser
DiffuserElement Ceramic
DiffuserHolder
Orifice

AirDistributor

Figure 13. Sanitaire Ceramic Disc Diffuser Arrangement

With an approximate airflow of 3 scfm per diffuser, 100,000 disc diffusers will be required to
meet the 300,000 scfm peak day demand. Figure 14 displays the proposed BNR basin and an
example layout of diffusers in the aerobic zones. Sanitaire estimates 44,200 total ceramic disc
diffusers to meet the design criteria. Being the smallest in size, disc diffusers require the
greatest quantity of diffusers. The diffusers are attached to PVC headers, which are connected
to the drop leg.
200ft
AER1

200ft
39ft

AER2

31.5ft

AER6
100ft

AER5
250ft

Dropleg

200ft
AER3
AER4
250ft

Headers@4fteq.interval

Diffusers@eq.interval

Figure 14. Disc Diffuser Example Layout in Aerobic Zones


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6.1.1 Basis for Estimating Operation and Maintenance Cost


Operational and maintenance costs for each alternative were based on manufacturers
information and engineering experience. Operational data was obtained from Sanitaire. Routine
maintenance requirements were taken from the Sanitaire M&O manual as well as past
experience.
6.1.1.1 Operating Requirements and Efficiency
Diffusers are designed to operate continuously. They have approximately 44% OTE with 5
inches water headloss. Diffusers should not be operated below minimum air flow rate required
to keep solids in suspension. A no-air flow condition allows the mixed liquor to enter the
diffuser pipe network. Annual energy demand for ceramic diffusers was calculated based on the
Blower BCE estimate of $5,555,750, adjusted for headloss and OTE. The annual energy cost
for ceramic discs is approximately $5,373,300 in present-day dollars. In addition, daily
oversight requires approximately 30 minutes per basin to check that aeration bubbles are
forming as they should.
6.1.1.2 Routine Maintenance Requirements and Cost
Routine maintenance reduces fouling and prevents increased pressure demand in the system.
Ceramic disc diffusers require air bumping on a weekly basis, which consists of increasing air
flow for 20 to 30 minutes. Sanitaire suggests an air rate of 3 scfm to remove settled debris from
the diffusers.
Moisture purging also occurs weekly, which releases any moisture that has accumulated in the
pipes. Moisture enters the pipe system through condensate build-up inside the pipe from high
blower discharge temperatures and moist or humid air; minor leaks in the pipe system; or back
flow through ceramic diffusers when air flow is lowered. Moisture in the pipe increases air
velocity and headloss and leads to poor air distribution. To purge the moisture, a ball valve is
opened and trapped liquid is purged from the system into a sump with an educator line from
grid to water surface.
Additionally, each year, the tank must be drained, inspected, and cleaned. Though the Sanitaire
O&M Manual suggests chemical spraying for cleaning, vendors quoted the cost for chemical
injection. This requires approximately 20 minutes per grid and about 0.1 pounds of acid per
diffuser. To meet these requirements, the annual cost of chemical injection is approximately
$10,700.
Ceramic disc diffusers have an assumed replacement frequency of every 20 years. In the event
of replacement, the entire diffuser unit is replaced because it is all one piece.

6.1.2 Maintenance Assessment

Maintenance Concerns
Piping concerns include those related to the wear and failure of PVC pipes. PVC
exposed to heat and UV can be deformed and experience reduction in structural

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integrity. This can also cause fouling inside and outside of the membranes. In addition,
in warm climates, algae can build up.

Criticality
Diffusers receive a criticality rating of 4 in the Draft Facility Plan.

Consequences of Failure
Failure can result in higher pressure demand, increasing the energy demands of the BNR.
In addition, pipe failure results in maintenance action and removing the basin from service.
Before repaired, failure will result in inadequate aeration, which will decrease effectiveness
of the aerobic zones in the BNR and limit the conversion of ammonia to nitrate.

6.2 Membrane Disc


For this BCE, only 9-inch membrane disc diffusers were evaluated due to wide application in
the industry and interchangeability between manufacturers. Also, this allows for better
comparison between ceramic and membrane discs of the same size. Figure 15 shows the typical
arrangement of parts of a membrane disc diffuser.

Figure 15. Sanitaire Membrane Disc Diffuser Arrangement

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Membrane disc diffusers will be positioned similarly to ceramic disc diffusers. As with ceramic
diffusers, membrane disc diffusers have an approximate airflow of 3 scfm per diffuser,
requiring 100,000 diffusers to meet the peak day demand.

6.2.1 Basis for Estimating Operation and Maintenance Cost


Membrane disc operational data comes from Sanitaire and Aquarius. Routine maintenance
requirements for membrane discs were abstracted from the Sanitaire M&O manual as well as
past experience.
6.2.1.1 Operating Requirements and Efficiency
Diffusers are designed to operate continuously. Membrane diffusers have approximately 43%
OTE with 8.5 inches water of headloss. Unlike ceramic diffusers, membrane diffusers are
generally designed to seal on the subplate and prevent moisture from entering the system. This
reduces routine maintenance and allows flexibility in airflow operation. Annual energy cost
was determined in the Blower BCE as $5,555,750 in present-day dollars. In addition, daily
oversight requires approximately 30 minutes per basin to inspect and ensure that aeration
occurs in the proper manner.
6.2.1.2 Routine Maintenance Requirements and Cost
As with ceramic discs, membrane discs require air bumping once per week. This not only
cleans the membrane, but it lifts the membrane off of the surface if it has made contact and
become stuck.
Scrubbing is the suggested cleaning method for membrane discs. This requires removing the
basin from service, hosing each diffuser off with clean water, and scrubbing each membrane
with a soft bristle brush. This takes approximately 2500 hours each year, due to the high
number of disc diffusers in the BNR and re-aeration basin.
The membranes also require replacement approximately every 5 to 7 years due to wear and
warping of the membrane material. Replacement of membranes in disc diffusers is as simple as
emptying the basin and placing a new membrane where the old one was. This can be done
inside the basin without removing the whole unit. The replacement cost for disc membranes is
approximately $4/diffuser.

6.2.2 Maintenance Assessment

Maintenance Concerns
Piping concerns include those related to the wear and failure of PVC pipes. PVC exposed
to heat and UV can be deformed and experience reduction in structural integrity. This can
also cause fouling inside and outside of the membranes. In addition, in warm climates,
algae can build up. EPDM membranes are generally protected from the effects of UV. In
the case of high pressure or vibration, the membranes can also be torn or blown out of the
disc.

Criticality

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Diffusers receive a criticality rating of 4 in the Draft Facility Plan.

Consequences of Failure
Failure can result in higher pressure demand due to blockages or valve failure, increasing
the energy demands of the BNR. In addition, pipe failure results in maintenance action and
removing the basin from service. Before repair, failure will result in inadequate aeration,
which will decrease effectiveness of the aerobic zones in the BNR and limit the conversion
of ammonia to nitrate.

6.3 Tube
Tube diffusers are available with a 4.75-inch diameter and a total active membrane area of
380 square inches. They allow for high diffuser density and a large oxygen transfer surface
area. The maximum airflow per diffuser is approximately 8 scfm, requiring 37,500 diffusers to
meet the 300,000 scfm peak day demand. Figure 16 shows a typical arrangement of a tube
diffuser on a pipe.

Figure 16. Section Drawing of Tube Diffuser Connected to a Pipe

6.3.1 Basis for Estimating Operation and Maintenance Cost


Tube diffuser operating requirements were provided by EDI. OTT North America LLC provide
a competitive tube diffuser style and were contacted but vendor pricing information was not
received. Routine maintenance requirements were determined based on those for the other
membrane diffusers as well as the past experience.
6.3.1.1 Operating Requirements and Efficiency
Diffusers are designed to operate continuously. According to EDI, tube diffusers have an OTE
of 45% and 9 inches water of headloss at the design water depth. This lowers the energy cost
from that of disc membranes slightly, but their energy and operating costs are approximately
equal.

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6.3.1.2 Routine Maintenance Requirements and Cost
Moisture purging is suggested for tube diffusers once a month. This includes opening a valve to
release liquid and closing it again when the liquid has been released. In addition, a daily flexing
cycle is suggested for tube diffusers much like the one for strips.
Scrubbing is the suggested cleaning method for tube diffusers. Once every year, the basin will
be taken out of service, and the maintenance crew will hand scrub each diffuser. This cleaning
will take approximately 2.6 minutes per diffuser each year.
Membrane replacement is estimated to occur every 10 years. Membrane replacement is simple,
as the membrane is simply clamped onto the tube, as shown in Figure 16. The clamp is
removed and then the old membrane is slipped off and the new one slipped on. According to
EDI, each membrane replacement costs approximately $41 and takes about 20 minutes.

6.3.2 Maintenance Assessment

Maintenance Concerns:
Piping concerns include those related to the wear and failure of PVC pipes. PVC exposed
to heat and UV can be deformed and experience reduction in structural integrity. This can
also cause fouling inside and outside of the membranes. In addition, in warm climates,
algae can build up. The membranes are generally intolerant of temperatures exceeding
100 DegF. In the case of high pressure or vibration, the membranes can also be torn or
blown out of the socks.

Criticality
Diffusers receive a criticality rating of 4 in the Draft Facility Plan.

Consequences of Failure
Failure can result in higher pressure demand, increasing the energy demands of the BNR.
In addition, pipe failure results in maintenance action and removing the basin from service.
Before repaired, failure will result in inadequate aeration, which will decrease effectiveness
of the aerobic zones in the BNR and limit the conversion of ammonia to nitrate.

6.4 Strip (Medium Efficiency - Aerostrip)


Strip diffusers are typically arranged with four on each mounting profile, creating a grid-like
arrangement. Strip diffusers require the least number of units of the diffuser options. Mediumefficiency strips have an OTE of 47%. At this OTE, airflow per diffuser is approximately
15.1 scfm, requiring 19,868 diffusers to meet the airflow requirement of 300,000 scfm peak day
demand. Figure 17 shows the layout of the Aerostrip strip diffusers in the BNR basin. The
larger area of the strip diffusers allows for a lower quantity of equipment purchased. Figure 18
shows a sample detail of the installation of strip diffusers on the air distribution pipes.

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AER6

SwingZone

Outlet

AER4

AER5

AER3

AER2

AER1

Inlet

Figure 17. Layout of Strip Diffusers in BNR Basin (not to scale)

Figure 18. Detail of Strip Connection to Piping

6.4.1 Basis for Estimating Operation and Maintenance Cost


Strip operating requirements were provided by Ovivo. Maintenance requirements were
extracted from the Aerostrip O&M manual, other correspondence with the manufacturer, and
past experience.
6.4.1.1 Operating Requirements and Efficiency
Diffusers are designed to operate continuously. Medium efficiency strip diffusers have an OTE
of about 47%. However, they also have a headloss of 20.5 inches H2O due to the minute pores
in the membranes. The benefits of the higher OTE according to the supplier exceed the higher
headloss, providing a lower operating cost for strips. The annual energy cost, adjusted from that
of 9 membranes, is $5,280,300 in present-day dollars. Thirty minutes of daily oversight is

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required for strip diffusers in order to keep the manufacturer-required log of header pressures
and other values and make informed decisions about the data.
6.4.1.2 Routine Maintenance Requirements and Cost
Ovivo suggests a specific daily flexing cycle for Aerostrip strip diffusers. This includes
shutting off the air supply and opening a relief valve for about 1 minute. Then, the air supply is
turned on again, allowing the membrane to flex. The polyurethane membranes are thin
compared to EPDM , allowing flexing to be an effective daily cleaning method for Aerostrip
diffusers.
In the case that the daily flexing cycle is unable to remove all fouling, chemical injection is
suggested by the manufacturer. This consists of a portable injection pump, which injects acetic
acid directly into suction lines. Cycles include 15 minutes of acid wash injection followed by
6 hours of break time, lasting for about 3 days. According to Ovivo, 14 hours per month is
required for labor of moving and setting up the injection system and approximately $19,000 is
required for chemicals. The chemical cleaning takes place approximately every 2 years.
Each year, the basin should be taken out of service for inspection in order to determine if any
diffusers need replacement or repair. In addition, the diffusers will be power-washed every 3
years as an additional method of cleaning.
The oldest facility in the US has been in operation for 12 years with only 2 percent panel
replacement. A 15-year replacement cycle was used for purposes of comparison. This is lower
than the manufacturers guarantee to ensure conservative estimate, taking into account damage
from UV exposure and tears. Membranes cost $170 each and replacement is estimated to take 2
hours each.

6.4.2 Maintenance Assessment

Maintenance Concerns
Piping concerns include those related to the wear and failure of PVC pipes. PVC
exposed to heat and UV can be deformed and experience reduction in structural
integrity. This can also cause fouling inside and outside of the membranes. In addition,
in warm climates, algae can build up.

Criticality
Diffusers receive a criticality rating of 4 in the Draft Facility Plan.

Consequences of Failure
Failure can result in higher air demand, increasing the energy demands of the BNR. In
addition, pipe failure results in maintenance action and removing the basin from service.
Before repair, failure will result in inadequate aeration, which will decrease effectiveness of
the aerobic zones in the BNR and limit the conversion of ammonia to nitrate.

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6.5 Strip (High Efficiency)
High efficiency strip diffusers function identically to medium-efficiency strip diffusers, only at
a lower airflow per diffuser. Airflow per diffuser is approximately 7.55 scfm, half that of
medium-efficiency diffusers. At this airflow, the OTE is approximately 53%, and 39,735
diffusers are required to meet the total requirement of 300,000 scfm peak day demand. They are
laid out in the same way as the medium efficiency strips described above. Blower size is
reduced, as indicated in the detailed cost analysis as a $2,000,000 reduction in capital cost.
However, by doubling the number of diffusers from medium to high-efficiency, the capital cost
increase is still almost double.

6.5.1 Basis for Estimating Operation and Maintenance Cost


Strip operating requirements were provided by Ovivo. Maintenance requirements were
extracted from the Aerostrip M&O manual, other correspondence with the manufacturer, and
past experience.
6.5.1.1 Operating Requirements and Efficiency
Diffusers are designed to operate continuously. High efficiency strip diffusers have an OTE of
about 53%. However, they also have a headloss of 20.5 inches H2O due to the minute pores in
the membranes. The benefits of the higher OTE exceed the set back of a higher headloss,
providing a lower operating cost for strips. The annual energy cost, adjusted from that of 9
membranes, is $4,714,000 in present-day dollars. Thirty minutes of daily oversight is required
for strip diffusers in order to keep the manufacturer-required log of header pressures and other
values and make informed decisions about the data.
6.5.1.2 Routine Maintenance Requirements and Cost
Routine maintenance of high efficiency strips is identical to that of medium efficiency strips,
described above. However, since there are more units, replacement of membranes every
10 years has a higher cost than for medium-efficiency strips.

6.5.2 Maintenance Assessment


The maintenance assessment for high-efficiency strip diffusers is the same as for mediumefficiency strip diffusers.

6.6 Coarse Bubble


Coarse bubble diffusers can operate at a higher flow rate than fine bubble, requiring less
diffusers per square foot. No layout of coarse bubble diffusers was received, but data was taken
from past research to determine the capital cost of coarse-bubble diffusers for this application.

6.6.1 Basis for Estimating Operation and Maintenance Cost


Energy requirements were provided by Aquarius. Maintenance requirements were determined
from the Aquarius O&M Manual and experience..

Sacramento Regional County Sanitation District


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September 21, 2012

Diffused Aeration
6.6.1.1 Operating Requirements and Efficiency
Diffusers are designed to operate continuously. Coarse bubble diffusers have an OTE that is
lower than other diffusers, about 18% and a headloss of about 5 inches H2O. The low OTE
increases annual energy costs to approximately $13,180,000, which is more than double the
energy cost of any fine bubble options. Ten minutes of daily oversight was also included in
operations cost.
6.6.1.2 Routine Maintenance Requirements and Cost
Based on the O&M manual and experience, coarse bubble diffusers require little maintenance.
The manual suggested a yearly inspection of diffusers, which requires draining the basins and
checking for debris hang-up or broken diffusers.
Coarse bubble diffusers are constructed of stainless steel and would not require replacement
within the 60-year life cycle. These diffusers require less maintenance effort than the fine
bubble diffusers, but this does not seem to off-set the high operational cost.

6.6.2 Maintenance Assessment

Maintenance Concerns
Maintenance concerns with coarse bubble diffusers are little to none. They are durable and
generally avoid the fouling characteristic of fine bubble diffusers. Coarse bubble diffusers
can, however, experience plugging in high-solids concentration applications.

Criticality
Diffusers receive a criticality rating of 4 in the Draft Facility Plan.

Consequences of Failure
Failure can result in higher air demand, increasing the energy demands of the BNR. In
addition, pipe failure results in maintenance action and removing the basin from service.
Before repair, failure will result in inadequate aeration, which will decrease effectiveness of
the aerobic zones in the BNR and limit the conversion of ammonia to nitrate.

7.0 Advantages, Disadvantages, and Risks

Sacramento Regional County Sanitation District


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September 21, 2012

Diffused Aeration
Table 11 summarizes the advantages, disadvantages, and risks for each alternative determined
by this BCE. This table aides in the qualitative assessment of maintenance, operations, and
capital.

Sacramento Regional County Sanitation District


Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant
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September 21, 2012

Diffused Aeration
Table 11. Advantages, Disadvantages, and Risks of Diffuser Types
Diffuser type
Ceramic disc

Advantages

Membrane disc

Tube

Disadvantages

Low headloss through


diffuser
Longer life time (20
years)
Higher OTE% than
membrane discs

Less resistant to fouling and scalant


build-up
Not suitable for on/off application
Require chemical cleaning
Susceptible to moisture in piping
More diffusers required

Membrane fouling
in the case of a
power outage

Suitable for on/off


application
Can retrofit ceramic
disc diffusers
Easy installation and
replacement

Shorter life time (~8 years)


Scrubbing required

Membrane tear
Pipe failure

Large OT surface area


Simple membrane
replacement

Top half surface is effective in


transferring oxygen
Dead area can be sites for slime growth
and foulant
Shorter life time (~8 years)
Scrubbing Required

Membrane tear
(1% chance)

Membrane tear
(2 % chance)

Higher headloss through diffuser


Sensitive to heat (temperatures above
80F)
Extensive installation/ replacement
process
High Capital Cost

Low OTE
Plugging

Strip

Coarse

Risks

Low air flux rate


High OTE %
Less maintenance hours
Less diffusers required

Low headloss through


diffuser
Low capital cost
On/off application

8.0 Life Cycle Cost Analysis


Table 12 summarizes the financial impact of two membrane disc diffusers (Aquarius and
Sanitaire), a ceramic disc diffuser (Sanitaire), a tube diffuser (EDI), and medium and high strip
diffusers (Ovivo). The life cycle cost analysis factors in the base cost, annual maintenance,
operations, and risk costs, and non-recurring maintenance cost.
At first glance, the coarse bubble option is an outlier. Though they present a competitive base
cost, the annual operations cost give it a life cycle cost of almost double the other options.
Coarse bubble diffusers will not be considered for the aeration application, but may be
considered for swing zone application if necessary.
Base costs for the strip exceeds the rest of the options by at least $22 million and up to
$80 million for high efficiency strips. The diffusers with the lowest base cost include disc and
tube diffusers. All diffusers have comparable operational costs, except the high-efficiency strip
and coarse bubble diffusers. Due to the high OTE of strip diffusers, the annual energy use is
approximately $800,000 less than the other options.

Sacramento Regional County Sanitation District


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September 21, 2012

Diffused Aeration
For disc and tube diffusers, maintenance is approximately the same, but strip diffusers require a
much higher annualized cost. This is due to the daily flexing cycle, annual cleanings, as well as
cost of replacing. Membranes for strip diffusers cost 40 times as much as membranes for disc
diffusers. Several materials are available and may have slightly different replacement cycles.
For purposes of comparison both were based on a replacement frequency of 10 years. This is
reflected in the life cycle cost, as strip diffusers have the highest cost over the 60 year period
besides coarse bubble diffusers. Tube diffusers do not require the bumping cycle and are
replaced less frequently than disc diffusers, giving them slightly lower annualized maintenance
cost.
Energy costs were taken from the Blower BCE, which was based on 9-inch membrane disc
diffusers. This was adjusted for other diffusers using manufacturers values for oxygen transfer
efficiency and headloss through the diffuser. Maintenance requirements were based on
manufacturer O&M Manuals.
Based on life cycle cost and applicability to this project, membrane disc or tube diffusers are
the preferred recommendations for diffusion of the BNR and the RAS reaeration tanks. Discs
and tubes are comparable economically and must be further considered based on preferences in
operations and maintenance. Discs are widely used in the industry and can be interchanged
between different manufacturers. This provides reliability and flexibility that the district is
looking for.
Table 12. Life Cycle Cost of Diffuser Alternatives
Base Cost

Annualized
Operation

Annualized
Maintenance and Risk

60-year Life-Cycle Cost


at 5% Discount Rate

Ceramic Disc,
Sanitaire

$38,910,000

$9,020,000

$1,469,000

$300,620,000

Membrane Disc,
Aquarius

$20,880,000

$9,320,000

$1,734,000

$296,570,000

Membrane Disc,
Sanitaire

$31,500,000

$9,320,000

$1,734,000

$307,190,000

Tube, EDI

$25,070,000

$9,290,000

$1,698,000

$299,100,000

Strip (Med Eff),


Ovivo

$60,150,000

$9,023,000

$2,705,000

$352,680,000

Strip (High Eff),


Ovivo

$110,630,000

$8,103,000

$4,707,000

$430,170,000

Coarse Bubble

$17,010,000

$21,688,000

$15,000

$558,400,000

Alternative

9.0 Recommendation
Based on life cycle cost and applicability to this project, membrane disc diffusers are the
recommended technology for air diffusion into the BNR and the RAS reaeration tanks. The
designer may consider alternative aeration options for the swing zones to enable these zones to
operate as both fully aerobic zones or as anoxic zones with aeration mixing. However the
designer must ensure that the increased oxygen demand resulting from a step feed flow to the
swing zones is supplied.
Sacramento Regional County Sanitation District
Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant
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September 21, 2012

Non - Capital Engineering


Business Case Evaluation

Aeration Diffusers

NON-CAPITAL BUSINESS CASE EVALUATION SUMMARY


Date
Work Order Title
Work Order #
PMR #
Customer
BCE #

September 1, 2012

Functional/Business Objective

Background Information

Problem/Issue/Opportunity
Description

Description of Alternatives
Alternative 0 -

Alternative 0 was not considered, because the BNR does not yet exist and the
diffusers are necessary for its function

Alternative 1 -

Aquarius membrane disc diffusers

Alternative 2 -

Sanitaire membrane disc diffusers

Alternative 3 -

Sanitaire ceramic disc diffusers

Alternative 4 -

EDI MiniPanel sock diffusers

Alternative 5 -

Ovivo Aerostrip panel diffusers

Non-Capital BCE Air diffusers AIR CORRECTED 6 years

9/21/2012

NON-CAPITAL BUSINESS CASE EVALUATION SUMMARY


Date
Work Order Title
Work Order #
PMR #
Customer
BCE #

September 1, 2012

Financial Factors
Inflation Rate
Starting Year
Number of Years

3.5%
2020
60

Select an inflation rate to use in the evaluation, the starting year of the analysis,
and the number of years in the life-cycle period.

Summary Table
Alternative
Ceramic Disc,
Sanitaire
Membrane Disc,
Aquarius
Membrane Disc,
Sanitaire
Tube, EDI
Strip (Mod Eff),
Ovivo
Strip (High Eff),
Ovivo
Coarse Bubble

Base Cost

Annualized
Operation

Annualized
Maintenance
and Risk

60-year Life-Cycle
Cost at 5%
Discount Rate

$38,910,000

$9,020,000

$1,469,000

$300,620,000

$20,880,000

$9,320,000

$1,734,000

$296,570,000

$31,500,000

$9,320,000

$1,734,000

$307,190,000

$25,070,000

$9,290,000

$1,698,000

$299,100,000

$60,150,000

$9,023,000

$2,705,000

$352,680,000

$110,630,000

$8,103,000

$4,707,000

$430,170,000

$17,010,000

$21,688,000

$15,000

$558,400,000

Non-Capital BCE Air diffusers AIR CORRECTED 6 years

9/21/2012

Alternative 1 - Sanitaire Ceramic Disc Diffusers


Quantifiable Base and Annual Costs

Item and Description

Reference

Units

Quantity

Cost/Unit

Total Cost

Vendor Quote

Diffusers

100000

114

11,400,200

Estimate

Hours

16667

65

1,213,333

Vendor Quote

LS

898,125

898,125

Base Costs (unescalated)


9" Ceramic Disc Diffusers
Installation Labor
Gas Cleaning System

Sub Total Capital Costs $

13,511,658

Total Costs with net and soft cost markups $

38,913,576

Annual Operational Costs (chemical, energy, operational oversight, etc.)


Energy Cost

Estimated

Total

5,373,287

5,373,287

Operational Oversight

Estimated

Hours

2007.5

93

186,698

Total Annual Operation $

5,559,985

Annual Maintenance Costs (Note: Enter non-recurring costs on LCC worksheet.)


Air Bumping

Estimated

Weeks

52

2,378

123,681

Moisture Purging

Estimated

Weeks

52

2,403

124,930

Chemical Cleaning

Estimated

Total

9,911

9,911

Total Annual Maintenance $

258,521

Annual Risk Costs (Note: Enter non-recurring costs on LCC worksheet.)


Risk of Fouling and backflow

Estimated

Non-Capital BCE Air diffusers AIR CORRECTED 6 years

LS

Page 4 of 41

114,002

114,002

Total Annual Risk $

114,002

9/21/2012

Alternative 1 - Sanitaire Ceramic Disc Diffusers


Quantifiable Non-Recurring Costs
Starting Year
No. of Years

2020
60
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

Year
2020
Capital Costs (including soft costs and contractor costs)
Capital Costs (including contingency)
$
38,913,576

Year

2021

2022

2023

2024

2025

2026

2027

2028

2029

2030

2031

2032

2033

2034

2035

2036

2037

2038

2039

2040

2041

2042

2043

2044

Recurring Costs - Operation, Maintenance and Risk (from worksheet)


Annual Operation
$
5,559,985 $ 5,754,584 $ 5,955,994 $ 6,164,454 $ 6,380,210
Annual Maintenance
$
258,521 $
267,570 $
276,934 $
286,627 $
296,659
Annual Risk
$
114,002 $
117,992 $
122,122 $
126,396 $
130,820
Non-Recurring Costs
Enter description, then enter the cost(s) under the appropriate year(s).
Replacement
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
Projected Inflation Rate

$
$
$

6,603,517
307,042
135,399

$
$
$

6,834,641
317,789
140,138

$
$
$

7,073,853
328,911
145,042

$
$
$

7,321,438
340,423
150,119

$
$
$

7,577,688
352,338
155,373

$
$
$

7,842,907
364,670
160,811

$
$
$

8,117,409
377,433
166,439

$
$
$

8,401,518
390,643
172,265

$
$
$

8,695,571
404,316
178,294

$
$
$

8,999,916
418,467
184,534

$
$
$

9,314,914
433,113
190,993

$
$
$

9,640,936
448,272
197,678

$
$
$

9,978,368
463,962
204,597

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$ 10,327,611
$
480,201
$
211,757

$ 10,689,078
$
497,008
$
219,169

$ 11,063,195
$
514,403
$
226,840

$ 11,450,407
$
532,407
$
234,779

$ 11,851,171
$
551,041
$
242,997

$ 12,265,962
$
570,328
$
251,501

$ 12,695,271
$
590,289
$
260,304

$
$
$
$
$

$ 31,154,518
$
$
$
$
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

3.5%

Annual Expense (including inflation)

44,846,084

$ 6,140,146

6,355,051

6,577,477

6,807,689

7,045,958

7,292,567

7,547,807

7,811,980

8,085,399

8,368,388

8,661,282

8,964,427

9,278,182

9,602,918

9,939,020

10,286,886

10,646,927

$ 11,019,569

$ 42,559,772

$ 11,804,438

$ 12,217,593

$ 12,645,209

$ 13,087,791

$ 13,545,864

Life Cycle Cost


Projected Discount Rate
3%
5%
7%

$
$
$

44,846,084
44,846,084
44,846,084

$ 5,961,306
$ 5,847,758
$ 5,738,454

$
$
$

5,990,245
5,764,218
5,550,747

$
$
$

6,019,324
5,681,872
5,369,181

$
$
$

6,048,544
5,600,703
5,193,553

$
$
$

6,077,906
5,520,693
5,023,671

$
$
$

6,107,410
5,441,826
4,859,345

$
$
$

6,137,058
5,364,085
4,700,395

$
$
$

6,166,849
5,287,455
4,546,643

$
$
$

6,196,785
5,211,920
4,397,921

$
$
$

6,226,867
5,137,464
4,254,064

$
$
$

6,257,094
5,064,072
4,114,913

$
$
$

6,287,468
4,991,728
3,980,313

$
$
$

6,317,990
4,920,418
3,850,115

$
$
$

6,348,660
4,850,126
3,724,177

$
$
$

6,379,479
4,780,839
3,602,358

$
$
$

6,410,447
4,712,541
3,484,524

$
$
$

6,441,566
4,645,219
3,370,544

$ 6,472,835
$ 4,578,859
$ 3,260,293

$ 24,271,244
$ 16,842,347
$ 11,768,132

$ 6,535,831
$ 4,448,969
$ 3,050,491

$ 6,567,558
$ 4,385,412
$ 2,950,709

$ 6,599,440
$ 4,322,763
$ 2,854,190

$ 6,631,476
$ 4,261,009
$ 2,760,829

$ 6,663,668
$ 4,200,138
$ 2,670,521

Total Life Cycle Cost


3% Discount Rate
5% Discount Rate
7% Discount Rate

$
$
$

488,312,042
300,618,173
208,665,395

Annualized Operations
Annual Expense
Projected Discount Rate
LCC Cost at 5% Discount
Annualized Operations Cost

$
$
$

5,559,985
5,559,985
225,051,267
$9,021,995

$ 5,754,584
$ 5,480,556

$
$

5,955,994
5,402,262

$
$

6,164,454
5,325,087

$
$

6,380,210
5,249,015

$
$

6,603,517
5,174,029

$
$

6,834,641
5,100,114

$
$

7,073,853
5,027,255

$
$

7,321,438
4,955,437

$
$

7,577,688
4,884,645

$
$

7,842,907
4,814,865

$
$

8,117,409
4,746,081

$
$

8,401,518
4,678,280

$
$

8,695,571
4,611,447

$
$

8,999,916
4,545,569

$
$

9,314,914
4,480,633

$
$

9,640,936
4,416,624

$
$

9,978,368
4,353,529

$ 10,327,611
$ 4,291,336

$ 10,689,078
$ 4,230,031

$ 11,063,195
$ 4,169,602

$ 11,450,407
$ 4,110,036

$ 11,851,171
$ 4,051,321

$ 12,265,962
$ 3,993,445

$ 12,695,271
$ 3,936,396

Annualized Maintenance
Annual Expense
Projected Discount Rate
LCC Cost at 5% Discount
Annualized Maintenance Cost

$
$
$

372,523
372,523
36,653,335
$1,469,382

$
$

$
$

399,056
361,956

$
$

413,023
356,785

$
$

427,479
351,688

$
$

442,441
346,664

$
$

457,926
341,712

$
$

473,954
336,830

$
$

490,542
332,018

$
$

507,711
327,275

$
$

525,481
322,600

$
$

543,873
317,991

$
$

562,908
313,448

$
$

582,610
308,971

$
$

603,001
304,557

$
$

624,106
300,206

$
$

645,950
295,917

$
$

668,558
291,690

$
$

$ 31,870,695
$ 12,612,316

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

385,562
367,202

Non-Capital BCE Air diffusers AIR CORRECTED 6 years

691,958
287,523

741,243
279,367

767,186
275,376

794,038
271,442

821,829
267,564

850,593
263,742

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

2045

2046

2047

2048

2049

2050

2051

2052

2053

2054

2055

2056

2057

2058

2059

2060

2061

2062

2063

2064

2065

2066

2067

2068

2069

2070

2071

2072

2073

2074

$ 13,139,605
$
610,949
$
269,415

$ 13,599,492
$
632,332
$
278,844

$ 14,075,474
$
654,464
$
288,604

$ 14,568,115
$
677,370
$
298,705

$ 15,078,000
$
701,078
$
309,160

$ 15,605,730
$
725,616
$
319,980

$ 16,151,930
$
751,013
$
331,179

$ 16,717,248
$
777,298
$
342,771

$ 17,302,351
$
804,503
$
354,768

$ 17,907,934
$
832,661
$
367,185

$ 18,534,711
$
861,804
$
380,036

$ 19,183,426
$
891,967
$
393,337

$ 19,854,846
$
923,186
$
407,104

$ 20,549,766
$
955,498
$
421,353

$ 21,269,007
$
988,940
$
436,100

$ 22,013,423
$ 1,023,553
$
451,364

$ 22,783,892
$ 1,059,377
$
467,161

$ 23,581,329
$ 1,096,456
$
483,512

$ 24,406,675
$ 1,134,831
$
500,435

$ 25,260,909
$ 1,174,551
$
517,950

$ 26,145,041
$ 1,215,660
$
536,078

$ 27,060,117
$ 1,258,208
$
554,841

$ 28,007,221
$ 1,302,245
$
574,260

$ 28,987,474
$ 1,347,824
$
594,360

$ 30,002,036
$ 1,394,998
$
615,162

$ 31,052,107
$ 1,443,823
$
636,693

$ 32,138,931
$ 1,494,356
$
658,977

$ 33,263,793
$ 1,546,659
$
682,041

$ 34,428,026
$ 1,600,792
$
705,913

$ 35,633,007
$ 1,656,820
$
730,620

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$ 61,990,914
$
$
$
$
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$ 14,019,969

$ 14,510,668

$ 15,018,542

$ 15,544,191

$ 16,088,237

$ 16,651,326

$ 17,234,122

$ 17,837,316

$ 18,461,622

$ 19,107,779

$ 19,776,551

$ 20,468,731

$ 21,185,136

$ 21,926,616

$ 84,684,961

$ 23,488,339

$ 24,310,431

$ 25,161,296

$ 26,041,942

$ 26,953,409

$ 27,896,779

$ 28,873,166

$ 29,883,727

$ 30,929,657

$ 32,012,195

$ 33,132,622

$ 34,292,264

$ 35,492,493

$ 36,734,730

$ 38,020,446

$ 6,696,015
$ 4,140,136
$ 2,583,168

$ 6,728,520
$ 4,080,991
$ 2,498,672

$ 6,761,183
$ 4,022,691
$ 2,416,939

$ 6,794,004
$ 3,965,224
$ 2,337,881

$ 6,826,985
$ 3,908,578
$ 2,261,408

$ 6,860,126
$ 3,852,741
$ 2,187,437

$ 6,893,427
$ 3,797,702
$ 2,115,885

$ 6,926,890
$ 3,743,449
$ 2,046,674

$ 6,960,516
$ 3,689,971
$ 1,979,727

$ 6,994,305
$ 3,637,257
$ 1,914,969

$ 7,028,258
$ 3,585,297
$ 1,852,330

$ 7,062,376
$ 3,534,078
$ 1,791,740

$ 7,096,659
$ 3,483,591
$ 1,733,131

$ 7,131,109
$ 3,433,826
$ 1,676,440

$ 26,739,577
$ 12,630,590
$ 6,051,165

$ 7,200,511
$ 3,336,417
$ 1,568,560

$ 7,235,465
$ 3,288,754
$ 1,517,252

$ 7,270,589
$ 3,241,772
$ 1,467,622

$ 7,305,883
$ 3,195,461
$ 1,419,616

$ 7,341,348
$ 3,149,811
$ 1,373,180

$ 7,376,986
$ 3,104,814
$ 1,328,263

$ 7,412,796
$ 3,060,460
$ 1,284,815

$ 7,448,781
$ 3,016,739
$ 1,242,788

$ 7,484,940
$ 2,973,642
$ 1,202,136

$ 7,521,275
$ 2,931,162
$ 1,162,814

$ 7,557,786
$ 2,889,288
$ 1,124,778

$ 7,594,474
$ 2,848,013
$ 1,087,986

$ 7,631,340
$ 2,807,327
$ 1,052,398

$ 7,668,386
$ 2,767,222
$ 1,017,974

$ 7,705,611
$ 2,727,690
$
984,676

$ 13,139,605
$ 3,880,162

$ 13,599,492
$ 3,824,731

$ 14,075,474
$ 3,770,092

$ 14,568,115
$ 3,716,234

$ 15,078,000
$ 3,663,145

$ 15,605,730
$ 3,610,814

$ 16,151,930
$ 3,559,231

$ 16,717,248
$ 3,508,385

$ 17,302,351
$ 3,458,265

$ 17,907,934
$ 3,408,861

$ 18,534,711
$ 3,360,163

$ 19,183,426
$ 3,312,161

$ 19,854,846
$ 3,264,844

$ 20,549,766
$ 3,218,204

$ 21,269,007
$ 3,172,229

$ 22,013,423
$ 3,126,912

$ 22,783,892
$ 3,082,241

$ 23,581,329
$ 3,038,209

$ 24,406,675
$ 2,994,806

$ 25,260,909
$ 2,952,024

$ 26,145,041
$ 2,909,852

$ 27,060,117
$ 2,868,282

$ 28,007,221
$ 2,827,307

$ 28,987,474
$ 2,786,917

$ 30,002,036
$ 2,747,104

$ 31,052,107
$ 2,707,859

$ 32,138,931
$ 2,669,176

$ 33,263,793
$ 2,631,045

$ 34,428,026
$ 2,593,458

$ 35,633,007
$ 2,556,409

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$ 1,010,238
$
245,434

$ 1,045,596
$
241,927

$ 1,082,192
$
238,471

$ 1,120,069
$
235,065

$ 1,159,271
$
231,706

$ 1,199,846
$
228,396

$ 1,241,840
$
225,134

$ 1,285,305
$
221,917

$ 1,330,290
$
218,747

$ 1,376,850
$
215,622

$ 63,415,954
$ 9,458,361

$ 1,474,916
$
209,506

$ 1,526,539
$
206,513

$ 1,579,967
$
203,562

$ 1,635,266
$
200,654

$ 1,692,501
$
197,788

$ 1,751,738
$
194,962

$ 1,813,049
$
192,177

$ 1,876,506
$
189,432

$ 1,942,183
$
186,726

$ 2,010,160
$
184,058

$ 2,080,515
$
181,429

$ 2,153,333
$
178,837

$ 2,228,700
$
176,282

$ 2,306,705
$
173,764

$ 2,387,439
$
171,281

880,364
259,974

911,177
256,260

943,068
252,599

976,075
248,991

Non-Capital BCE Air diffusers AIR CORRECTED 6 years

56

57

58

59

60

2075

2076

2077

2078

2079

$ 36,880,162
$ 1,714,808
$
756,191

$ 38,170,968
$ 1,774,827
$
782,658

$ 39,506,952
$ 1,836,945
$
810,051

$ 40,889,695
$ 1,901,239
$
838,403

$ 42,320,834
$ 1,967,782
$
867,747

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$ 39,351,162

$ 40,728,452

$ 42,153,948

$ 43,629,336

$ 45,156,363

$ 7,743,017
$ 2,688,723
$
952,467

$ 7,780,604
$ 2,650,313
$
921,311

$ 7,818,374
$ 2,612,451
$
891,175

$ 7,856,327
$ 2,575,131
$
862,024

$ 7,894,465
$ 2,538,343
$
833,827

$ 36,880,162
$ 2,519,889

$ 38,170,968
$ 2,483,890

$ 39,506,952
$ 2,448,406

$ 40,889,695
$ 2,413,429

$ 42,320,834
$ 2,378,951

$ 2,471,000
$
168,835

$ 2,557,485
$
166,423

$ 2,646,997
$
164,045

$ 2,739,641
$
161,702

$ 2,835,529
$
159,392

Non-Capital BCE Air diffusers AIR CORRECTED 6 years

DISC DIFFUSERS
Sanitare 9" Ceramic
Capital cost
# of Basins

11

(10 BNR basins and 1 REAR basin)

Max
Airflow/diffuser

Element
Sanitaire Ceramic Disc Diffusers
Gas Cleaning System
Total

100,000

Total Material
Cost with
Markups
$68
$11,400,200

Vendor Quote,
$/diffuser

# of Diffusers

Labor
min/diffuser

Labor rate, $/hr

10

65

Total Labor Cost

Notes:
1. Cost Markups: 19.75% + 40% for materials; 12% for labor
2. Vendor Quote for Gas Cleaning system of $100,000 - $750,000 based on system complexity; in this case, the most conservative number was used
3. # of diffusers determined by dividing design airflow (300,000 scfm) by max. airflow/diffuser)
Annual Operations
Labor Cost, $/hr
Energy cost, $/kWh

$93
$0.09

Blower Energy
OTE Adjustment
Factor
44%
0.977

OTE

Headloss

Head Loss
Annual Energy
Adjustment Factor
Cost
7.0
0.990
$5,373,287

Daily Oversight
Minutes/tank/day

Annual Oversight
Cost
11
$186,698

No. Tanks
30

Note:
1. Energy cost based on blower operations estimate of $5,555,748 million for 9" membrane disc diffusers (OTE 43%; HL=8.5 in), adjusted for OTE and headloss differences
Maintenance/Replacement Cost
Labor cost, $/hr =
Maintenance Cost Multiplier**

93
3.1

Maintenance
Maintenance Procedure

Labor
Requirements

Labor Units

Air Bumping
Moisture Purging

45 min/basin
5 min/grid

Chemical Cleaning (injection)

20 min/grid

Material
Requirements
None
None
50% by volume
Baume Muriatic
Acid; cover surface
area of diffusers

Material Cost

Maintenance
Frequency
Cost
$2,378 Weekly
$2,403 Weekly

$301

$9,911 Annually

Gas Requirements
No. Diffusers

Gas Requirement
100,000

0.1

Gas Units
lb/diffuser

Total Gas (lb)


10000

No. Cylinders
Gas cost
(60 lb)
167

Cost Units
0.03 $/lb

Notes:
1. Vendor maintenance recommendations
2. 10 grids/basin = 100 grids total
2. Chemical injection requires injecting the acid into the lines that feed into the diffusers
3. Vendor quote for chemical requires 0.1 lb/diffuser and is delivered in 60 lb cylinders; Gas unit cost comes from Project Planning - Process Engineering Plan

$1,213,333

Total Installed
Cost
$12,613,533
$898,125
$13,511,658

Replacement
Labor Requirements

Labor Units
10 min/diffuser

Material
Requirements
All Discs

Material Cost
$11,400,200

Replacement
Frequency
Cost
$16,205,200 20 years

Risk of Failure Cost:


With consistent routine maintenance, there is approximately no risk of failure associated with ceramic disc diffusers
Risk
Backflow/fouling when air is turned off

% Chance
1.00%

Risk Cost, $/yr


$114,002

**Note regarding labor cost: 1 hour of maintenance mechanic requires 1.4 hours of controls person and 0.7 hours of electrician; therefore, maintenance hours are multiplied by 3.1 hours.

Alternative 2 - 9" Disc Membrane Diffusers (Aquarius)


Quantifiable Base and Annual Costs

Item and Description

Reference

Units

Quantity

Cost/Unit

Total Cost

Vendor quote

Diffusers

100000

60

6,035,400

Estimate

Hours

16667

73

1,213,333

Base Costs (unescalated)


9" Aquarius membrane diffusers
Installation Labor

Sub Total Capital Costs $

7,248,733

Total Costs with net and soft cost markups $

20,876,352

Annual Operational Costs (chemical, energy, operational oversight, etc.)


Energy Cost

Estimated

Total

5,555,748

5,555,748

Operational Oversight

Estimated

Hours

2007.50

93

186,698

Total Annual Operation $

5,742,446

Annual Maintenance Costs (Note: Enter non-recurring costs on LCC worksheet.)


Air Bumping

Estimate

Weeks

52

2,378

123,681

Scrubbing

Estimate

Total

725,555

725,555

Total Annual Maintenance $

849,236

Annual Risk Costs (Note: Enter non-recurring costs on LCC worksheet.)

Non-Capital BCE Air diffusers AIR CORRECTED 6 years

Page 10 of 41

Total Annual Risk $

9/21/2012

Alternative 2 - 9" Disc Membrane Diffusers (Aquarius)


Quantifiable Non-Recurring Costs
Starting Year
No. of Years

2020
60
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

Year
2020
Capital Costs (including soft costs and contractor costs)
Capital Costs (including contingency)
$
20,876,352

Year

2021

2022

2023

2024

2025

2026

2027

2028

2029

2030

2031

2032

2033

2034

2035

2036

2037

2038

2039

2040

2041

2042

2043

2044

$ 7,561,705
$ 1,118,281
$
-

$
$
$

7,826,364
1,157,421
-

$
$
$

8,100,287
1,197,931
-

$
$
$

8,383,797
1,239,858
-

$
$
$

8,677,230
1,283,253
-

$
$
$

8,980,933
1,328,167
-

$
$
$

9,295,266
1,374,653
-

$
$
$

9,620,600
1,422,766
-

$
$
$

9,957,321
1,472,563
-

$ 10,305,827
$ 1,524,103
$
-

$ 10,666,531
$ 1,577,446
$
-

$ 11,039,860
$ 1,632,657
$
-

$ 11,426,255
$ 1,689,800
$
-

$ 11,826,174
$ 1,748,943
$
-

$ 12,240,090
$ 1,810,156
$
-

$ 12,668,493
$ 1,873,511
$
-

$ 13,111,890
$ 1,939,084
$
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

2,133,016
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$ 3,223,133
$
$
$
$
-

$
$
$
$

Recurring Costs - Operation, Maintenance and Risk (from worksheet)


Annual Operation
$
5,742,446 $ 5,943,431 $ 6,151,452 $ 6,366,752 $
Annual Maintenance
$
849,236 $
878,959 $
909,723 $
941,563 $
Annual Risk
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
Non-Recurring Costs
Enter description, then enter the cost(s) under the appropriate year(s).
Membrane Replacement
$
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
Projected Inflation Rate

6,589,589
974,517
-

$
$
$

6,820,224
1,008,626
-

$
$
$

7,058,932
1,043,928
-

$
$
$

7,305,995
1,080,465
-

$
$
$
$
$

1,735,210
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

2,622,021
-

3.5%

Annual Expense (including inflation)

27,468,034

Life Cycle Cost


Projected Discount Rate
3%
5%
7%

$
$
$

27,468,034
27,468,034
27,468,034

Total Life Cycle Cost


3% Discount Rate
5% Discount Rate
7% Discount Rate

$
$
$

493,892,758
296,567,486
200,700,303

Annualized Operations
Annual Expense
Projected Discount Rate
LCC Cost at 5% Discount
Annualized Operations Cost

$
$
$

5,742,446
5,742,446
232,436,749
$9,318,069

Annualized Maintenance
Annual Expense
Projected Discount Rate
LCC Cost at 5% Discount
Annualized Maintenance Cost

$
$
$

849,236
849,236
43,254,390
$1,734,009

$6,822,390

$7,061,174

$7,308,315

$7,564,106

$9,564,060

$8,102,860

$8,386,460

$8,679,986

$8,983,785

$9,298,218

$11,756,671

$9,960,483

$10,309,100

$10,669,919

$11,043,366

$11,429,884

$14,451,951

$12,243,977

$12,672,516

$13,116,055

$13,575,116

$14,050,246

$17,765,137

$15,050,974

$
$
$

6,623,680
6,497,515
6,376,066

$
$
$

6,655,834
6,404,693
6,167,503

$
$
$

6,688,144
6,313,197
5,965,762

$
$
$

6,720,610
6,223,009
5,770,620

$
$
$

8,250,042
7,493,691
6,819,042

$
$
$

6,786,017
6,046,479
5,399,278

$
$
$

6,818,959
5,960,100
5,222,666

$ 6,852,061
$ 5,874,956
$ 5,051,831

$
$
$

6,885,323
5,791,028
4,886,584

$
$
$

6,918,747
5,708,299
4,726,742

$
$
$

8,493,269
6,873,882
5,585,510

$
$
$

6,986,083
5,546,370
4,422,574

$
$
$

7,019,996
5,467,136
4,277,910

$
$
$

7,054,073
5,389,034
4,137,978

$
$
$

7,088,316
5,312,048
4,002,624

$
$
$

7,122,726
5,236,161
3,871,697

$
$
$

8,743,668
6,305,338
4,575,117

$ 7,192,046
$ 5,087,625
$ 3,622,551

$ 7,226,959
$ 5,014,945
$ 3,504,056

$ 7,262,041
$ 4,943,303
$ 3,389,438

$ 7,297,294
$ 4,872,684
$ 3,278,568

$ 7,332,718
$ 4,803,075
$ 3,171,325

$ 9,001,449
$ 5,783,819
$ 3,747,500

$ 7,404,082
$ 4,666,824
$ 2,967,249

$
$

5,943,431
5,660,411

$
$

6,151,452
5,579,548

$
$

6,366,752
5,499,840

$
$

6,589,589
5,421,271

$
$

6,820,224
5,343,824

$
$

7,058,932
5,267,484

$
$

7,305,995
5,192,234

$ 7,561,705
$ 5,118,059

$
$

7,826,364
5,044,944

$
$

8,100,287
4,972,874

$
$

8,383,797
4,901,833

$
$

8,677,230
4,831,806

$
$

8,980,933
4,762,781

$
$

9,295,266
4,694,741

$
$

9,620,600
4,627,673

$
$

9,957,321
4,561,563

$ 10,305,827
$ 4,496,398

$ 10,666,531
$ 4,432,164

$ 11,039,860
$ 4,368,847

$ 11,426,255
$ 4,306,435

$ 11,826,174
$ 4,244,915

$ 12,240,090
$ 4,184,273

$ 12,668,493
$ 4,124,498

$ 13,111,890
$ 4,065,576

$878,959
837,104

$
$

909,723
825,145

$
$

941,563
813,357

$
$

974,517
801,738

$
$

2,743,835
2,149,867

$
$

1,043,928
778,995

$
$

1,080,465
767,866

$ 1,118,281
$
756,897

$
$

1,157,421
746,084

$
$

1,197,931
735,426

$
$

3,372,874
1,972,050

$
$

1,283,253
714,564

$
$

1,328,167
704,355

$
$

1,374,653
694,293

$
$

1,422,766
684,375

$
$

1,472,563
674,598

$
$

$ 1,577,446
$
655,461

$ 1,632,657
$
646,098

$ 1,689,800
$
636,868

$ 1,748,943
$
627,770

$ 1,810,156
$
618,802

$ 5,096,644
$ 1,659,321

$ 1,939,084
$
601,248

Non-Capital BCE Air diffusers AIR CORRECTED 6 years

4,146,124
1,808,940

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

2045

2046

2047

2048

2049

2050

2051

2052

2053

2054

2055

2056

2057

2058

2059

2060

2061

2062

2063

2064

2065

2066

2067

2068

2069

2070

2071

2072

2073

2074

$ 13,570,806
$ 2,006,952
$
-

$ 14,045,785
$ 2,077,195
$
-

$ 14,537,387
$ 2,149,897
$
-

$ 15,046,196
$ 2,225,144
$
-

$ 15,572,812
$ 2,303,024
$
-

$ 16,117,861
$ 2,383,629
$
-

$ 16,681,986
$ 2,467,056
$
-

$ 17,265,856
$ 2,553,403
$
-

$ 17,870,160
$ 2,642,773
$
-

$ 18,495,616
$ 2,735,270
$
-

$ 19,142,963
$ 2,831,004
$
-

$ 19,812,966
$ 2,930,089
$
-

$ 20,506,420
$ 3,032,642
$
-

$ 21,224,145
$ 3,138,785
$
-

$ 21,966,990
$ 3,248,642
$
-

$ 22,735,835
$ 3,362,345
$
-

$ 23,531,589
$ 3,480,027
$
-

$ 24,355,194
$ 3,601,828
$
-

$ 25,207,626
$ 3,727,892
$
-

$ 26,089,893
$ 3,858,368
$
-

$ 27,003,039
$ 3,993,411
$
-

$ 27,948,146
$ 4,133,180
$
-

$ 28,926,331
$ 4,277,841
$
-

$ 29,938,752
$ 4,427,566
$
-

$ 30,986,609
$ 4,582,531
$
-

$ 32,071,140
$ 4,742,919
$
-

$ 33,193,630
$ 4,908,921
$
-

$ 34,355,407
$ 5,080,734
$
-

$ 35,557,846
$ 5,258,559
$
-

$ 36,802,371
$ 5,442,609
$
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$ 3,962,054
$
$
$
$
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$ 4,870,376
$
$
$
$
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$ 5,986,935
$
$
$
$
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$ 7,359,472
$
$
$
$
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$ 9,046,670
$
$
$
$
-

$
$
$
$

$15,577,758

$16,122,980

$16,687,284

$17,271,339

$21,837,890

$18,501,490

$19,149,042

$19,819,259

$20,512,933

$21,230,886

$26,844,342

$22,743,056

$23,539,062

$24,362,930

$25,215,632

$26,098,179

$32,998,551

$27,957,022

$28,935,518

$29,948,261

$30,996,450

$32,081,326

$40,563,644

$34,366,318

$35,569,140

$36,814,059

$38,102,551

$39,436,141

$49,863,076

$42,244,980

$ 7,440,024
$ 4,600,155
$ 2,870,189

$ 7,476,141
$ 4,534,439
$ 2,776,304

$ 7,512,433
$ 4,469,661
$ 2,685,491

$ 7,548,901
$ 4,405,809
$ 2,597,648

$ 9,266,829
$ 5,305,435
$ 3,069,595

$ 7,622,369
$ 4,280,828
$ 2,430,487

$ 7,659,371
$ 4,219,673
$ 2,350,986

$ 7,696,552
$ 4,159,392
$ 2,274,084

$ 7,733,914
$ 4,099,972
$ 2,199,698

$ 7,771,457
$ 4,041,401
$ 2,127,745

$ 9,540,034
$ 4,866,618
$ 2,514,320

$ 7,847,092
$ 3,926,757
$ 1,990,824

$ 7,885,184
$ 3,870,661
$ 1,925,703

$ 7,923,462
$ 3,815,365
$ 1,862,713

$ 7,961,925
$ 3,760,860
$ 1,801,783

$ 8,000,575
$ 3,707,134
$ 1,742,846

$ 9,821,293
$ 4,464,097
$ 2,059,491

$ 8,078,439
$ 3,601,972
$ 1,630,693

$ 8,117,655
$ 3,550,515
$ 1,577,353

$ 8,157,061
$ 3,499,794
$ 1,525,757

$ 8,196,659
$ 3,449,797
$ 1,475,849

$ 8,236,448
$ 3,400,514
$ 1,427,574

$ 10,110,844
$ 4,094,868
$ 1,686,939

$ 8,316,608
$ 3,304,050
$ 1,335,708

$ 8,356,980
$ 3,256,850
$ 1,292,017

$ 8,397,548
$ 3,210,323
$ 1,249,755

$ 8,438,312
$ 3,164,461
$ 1,208,875

$ 8,479,275
$ 3,119,255
$ 1,169,332

$ 10,408,932
$ 3,756,178
$ 1,381,780

$ 8,561,798
$ 3,030,770
$ 1,094,085

$ 13,570,806
$ 4,007,497

$ 14,045,785
$ 3,950,247

$ 14,537,387
$ 3,893,815

$ 15,046,196
$ 3,838,189

$ 15,572,812
$ 3,783,357

$ 16,117,861
$ 3,729,310

$ 16,681,986
$ 3,676,034

$ 17,265,856
$ 3,623,519

$ 17,870,160
$ 3,571,754

$ 18,495,616
$ 3,520,729

$ 19,142,963
$ 3,470,433

$ 19,812,966
$ 3,420,856

$ 20,506,420
$ 3,371,986

$ 21,224,145
$ 3,323,815

$ 21,966,990
$ 3,276,332

$ 22,735,835
$ 3,229,527

$ 23,531,589
$ 3,183,391

$ 24,355,194
$ 3,137,914

$ 25,207,626
$ 3,093,087

$ 26,089,893
$ 3,048,900

$ 27,003,039
$ 3,005,344

$ 27,948,146
$ 2,962,411

$ 28,926,331
$ 2,920,090

$ 29,938,752
$ 2,878,375

$ 30,986,609
$ 2,837,255

$ 32,071,140
$ 2,796,723

$ 33,193,630
$ 2,756,770

$ 34,355,407
$ 2,717,387

$ 35,557,846
$ 2,678,568

$ 36,802,371
$ 2,640,302

$ 2,006,952
$
592,658

$ 2,077,195
$
584,192

$ 2,149,897
$
575,846

$ 2,225,144
$
567,620

$ 6,265,077
$ 1,522,077

$ 2,383,629
$
551,518

$ 2,467,056
$
543,639

$ 2,553,403
$
535,873

$ 2,642,773
$
528,218

$ 2,735,270
$
520,672

$ 7,701,380
$ 1,396,185

$ 2,930,089
$
505,902

$ 3,032,642
$
498,674

$ 3,138,785
$
491,551

$ 3,248,642
$
484,528

$ 3,362,345
$
477,607

$ 9,466,962
$ 1,280,706

$ 3,601,828
$
464,058

$ 3,727,892
$
457,429

$ 3,858,368
$
450,894

$ 3,993,411
$
444,453

$ 4,133,180
$
438,103

$ 11,637,313
$ 1,174,778

$ 4,427,566
$
425,676

$ 4,582,531
$
419,594

$ 4,742,919
$
413,600

$ 4,908,921
$
407,692

$ 5,080,734
$
401,867

$ 14,305,230
$ 1,077,611

$ 5,442,609
$
390,468

Non-Capital BCE Air diffusers AIR CORRECTED 6 years

56

57

58

59

60

2075

2076

2077

2078

2079

$ 38,090,454
$ 5,633,100
$
-

$ 39,423,620
$ 5,830,259
$
-

$ 40,803,447
$ 6,034,318
$
-

$ 42,231,567
$ 6,245,519
$
-

$ 43,709,672
$ 6,464,112
$
-

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$43,723,554

$45,253,879

$46,837,764

$48,477,086

$50,173,784

$ 8,603,360
$ 2,987,473
$ 1,058,297

$ 8,645,124
$ 2,944,795
$ 1,023,680

$ 8,687,091
$ 2,902,726
$
990,195

$ 8,729,261
$ 2,861,259
$
957,806

$ 8,771,636
$ 2,820,384
$
926,476

$ 38,090,454
$ 2,602,584

$ 39,423,620
$ 2,565,404

$ 40,803,447
$ 2,528,755

$ 42,231,567
$ 2,492,630

$ 43,709,672
$ 2,457,021

$ 5,633,100
$
384,889

$ 5,830,259
$
379,391

$ 6,034,318
$
373,971

$ 6,245,519
$
368,629

$ 6,464,112
$
363,363

Non-Capital BCE Air diffusers AIR CORRECTED 6 years

DISC DIFFUSERS
Aquarius 9" membrane
Capital cost
# of Basins

11

(10 BNR basins and 1 REAR basin)

Max
Airflow/diffuse
r
3

Element
BNR

# of Diffusers

Vendor Quote,
$/diffuser

100,000

$36

Total Material
Cost with
Markups
$6,035,400

Labor
min/diffuser

Labor rate, $/hr

10

65

Total Labor Cost


$1,213,333

Total Installed
Cost
$7,248,733

Notes:
1. Cost Markups: 19.75% + 40% for materials; 12% for labor
3. # of diffusers determined by dividing design airflow (300,000 scfm) by max. airflow/diffuser)
Annual Operations
Labor Cost, $/hr
Energy cost, $/kWh

$93
$0.09

Blower Energy
OTE

Headloss
43%

10

Annual Energy Cost


$5,555,748

Daily Oversight
Minutes/tank/day

No. Tanks

30

Annual Oversight Cost

11

$186,698

Note:
1. Energy cost based on blower operations estimate of $5,555,748 million for 9" membrane disc diffusers, adjusted for OTE and headloss differences
Maintenance/Replacement Cost
Labor cost, $/hr =
93
Maintenance Cost Multi 3.1
Maintenance
Maintenance
Procedure
Air Bumping
Scrubbing

Labor
Labor Units
Requirements
45 min/basin
1.51 min/diffuser

Material
Requirements
None
None

Material Cost

Maintenance Cost

Frequency

$2,378 Weekly
$725,555 Annually

Notes:
1. Vendor maintenance recommendations
2. Scrubbing includes 2 hours of labor to empty and refill each tank, 30 seconds of hosing per diffuser and 1 minute of scrubbing per diffuser
Replacement
Labor Requirements

Labor Units

2 min/diffusers

Material Requirements Material Cost


Membrane

$500,000

Replacement
Frequency
Cost
$1,461,000 8 years

Notes:
1. 6-10 membranes can be replaced in an hour
2. Membranes cost approximated at $5/membrane and 2 min/diffuser
Risk of Failure Cost:
With consistent routine maintenance, there is no extraneous risk associated with membrane disc diffusers

**Note regarding labor cost: 1 hour of maintenance mechanic requires 1.4 hours of controls person and 0.7 hours of electrician; therefore, maintenance hours are multiplied by 3.1 hours.

Alternative 3 - 9" Membrane Diffusers (Sanitaire)


Quantifiable Base and Annual Costs
Item and Description

Reference

Units

Quantity

Cost/Unit

Total Cost

Vendor quote

Diffusers

100000

97

9,723,700

Estimate

Hours

16667

73

1,213,333

Base Costs (unescalated)


9" Membrane Disc Diffusers
Installation Labor

Sub Total Capital Costs $ 10,937,033


Total Costs with net and soft cost markups $ 31,498,656
Annual Operational Costs (chemical, energy, operational oversight, etc.)
Energy Cost
Operational Oversight

Estimated

Total

5,555,748

5,555,748

Estimated

Hours

2007.5

93

186,698

Total Annual Operation $

5,742,446

Annual Maintenance Costs (Note: Enter non-recurring costs on LCC worksheet.)


Air Bumping

Estimated

Weeks

52

2,378

123,681

Scrubbing

Estimated

Total

725,555

725,555

Total Annual Maintenance $

849,236

Annual Risk Costs (Note: Enter non-recurring costs on LCC worksheet.)

Non-Capital BCE Air diffusers AIR CORRECTED 6 years

Page 15 of 41

Total Annual Risk $

9/21/2012

Alternative 3 - Sanitaire Membrane Disc Diffusers


Quantifiable Non-Recurring Costs
Starting Year
No. of Years

2020
60
Year

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

Year
2020
Capital Costs (including soft costs and contractor costs)
Capital Costs (including contingency)
$
31,498,656

2021

2022

2023

2024

2025

2026

2027

2028

2029

2030

2031

2032

2033

2034

2035

2036

2037

2038

2039

2040

2041

2042

2043

2044

Recurring Costs - Operation,


Operation Maintenance and Risk (from worksheet)
Annual Operation
$
5,742,446 $ 5,943,431 $ 6,151,452 $ 6,366,752 $
Annual Maintenance
$
849,236 $
878,959 $
909,723 $
941,563 $
Annual Risk
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
Non-Recurring Costs
Enter description, then enter the cost(s) under the appropriate year(s).
Membrane Replacement
$
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
Projected Inflation Rate

6,589,589
974,517
-

$
$
$

6,820,224
1,008,626
-

$
$
$

7,058,932
1,043,928
-

$
$
$

7,305,995
1,080,465
-

$
$
$

7,561,705
1,118,281
-

$
$
$

7,826,364
1,157,421
-

$
$
$

8,100,287
1,197,931
-

$
$
$

8,383,797
1,239,858
-

$
$
$

8,677,230
1,283,253
-

$
$
$

8,980,933
1,328,167
-

$
$
$

9,295,266
1,374,653
-

$
$
$

9,620,600
1,422,766
-

$
$
$

9,957,321
1,472,563
-

$ 10,305,827
$ 1,524,103
$
-

$ 10,666,531
$ 1,577,446
$
-

$ 11,039,860
$ 1,632,657
$
-

$ 11,426,255
$ 1,689,800
$
-

$ 11,826,174
$ 1,748,943
$
-

$ 12,240,090
$ 1,810,156
$
-

$ 12,668,493
$ 1,873,511
$
-

$ 13,111,890
$ 1,939,084
$
-

$
$
$
$
$

1,735,210
-

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

2,133,016
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$ 2,622,021
$
$
$
$
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$ 3,223,133
$
$
$
$
-

$
$
$
$

3.5%

Annual Expense (including inflation)

38,090,338

6,822,390

7,061,174

7,308,315

7,564,106

9,564,060

8,102,860

8,386,460

8,679,986

8,983,785

9,298,218

$ 11,756,671

9,960,483

$ 10,309,100

$ 10,669,919

$ 11,043,366

$ 11,429,884

$ 14,451,951

$ 12,243,977

$ 12,672,516

$ 13,116,055

$ 13,575,116

$ 14,050,246

$ 17,765,137

$ 15,050,974

Life Cycle Cost


Projected Discount Rate
3%
5%
7%

$
$
$

38,090,338
38,090,338
38,090,338

$
$
$

6,623,680
6,497,515
6,376,066

$
$
$

6,655,834
6,404,693
6,167,503

$
$
$

6,688,144
6,313,197
5,965,762

$
$
$

6,720,610
6,223,009
5,770,620

$
$
$

8,250,042
7,493,691
6,819,042

$
$
$

6,786,017
6,046,479
5,399,278

$
$
$

6,818,959
5,960,100
5,222,666

$
$
$

6,852,061
5,874,956
5,051,831

$
$
$

6,885,323
5,791,028
4,886,584

$
$
$

6,918,747
5,708,299
4,726,742

$
$
$

8,493,269
6,873,882
5,585,510

$
$
$

6,986,083
5,546,370
4,422,574

$
$
$

7,019,996
5,467,136
4,277,910

$
$
$

7,054,073
5,389,034
4,137,978

$
$
$

7,088,316
5,312,048
4,002,624

$
$
$

7,122,726
5,236,161
3,871,697

$ 8,743,668
$ 6,305,338
$ 4,575,117

$ 7,192,046
$ 5,087,625
$ 3,622,551

$ 7,226,959
$ 5,014,945
$ 3,504,056

$ 7,262,041
$ 4,943,303
$ 3,389,438

$ 7,297,294
$ 4,872,684
$ 3,278,568

$ 7,332,718
$ 4,803,075
$ 3,171,325

$ 9,001,449
$ 5,783,819
$ 3,747,500

$ 7,404,082
$ 4,666,824
$ 2,967,249

Total Life Cycle Cost


3% Discount Rate
5% Discount Rate
7% Discount Rate

$
$
$

504,515,062
307,189,790
211,322,607

Annualized Operations
Annual Expense
Projected Discount Rate
LCC Cost at 5% Discount
Annualized Operations Cost

$
$
$

5,742,446
5,742,446
232,436,749
$9,318,069

$
$

5,943,431
5,660,411

$
$

6,151,452
5,579,548

$
$

6,366,752
5,499,840

$
$

6,589,589
5,421,271

$
$

6,820,224
5,343,824

$
$

7,058,932
5,267,484

$
$

7,305,995
5,192,234

$
$

7,561,705
5,118,059

$
$

7,826,364
5,044,944

$
$

8,100,287
4,972,874

$
$

8,383,797
4,901,833

$
$

8,677,230
4,831,806

$
$

8,980,933
4,762,781

$
$

9,295,266
4,694,741

$
$

9,620,600
4,627,673

$
$

9,957,321
4,561,563

$ 10,305,827
$ 4,496,398

$ 10,666,531
$ 4,432,164

$ 11,039,860
$ 4,368,847

$ 11,426,255
$ 4,306,435

$ 11,826,174
$ 4,244,915

$ 12,240,090
$ 4,184,273

$ 12,668,493
$ 4,124,498

$ 13,111,890
$ 4,065,576

Annualized Maintenance
Annual Expense
Projected Discount Rate
LCC Cost at 5% Discount
Annualized Maintenance Cost

$
$
$

849,236
849,236
43,254,390
$1,734,009

$
$

878,959
837,104

$
$

909,723
825,145

$
$

941,563
813,357

$
$

974,517
801,738

$
$

2,743,835
2,149,867

$
$

1,043,928
778,995

$
$

1,080,465
767,866

$
$

1,118,281
756,897

$
$

1,157,421
746,084

$
$

1,197,931
735,426

$
$

3,372,874
1,972,050

$
$

1,283,253
714,564

$
$

1,328,167
704,355

$
$

1,374,653
694,293

$
$

1,422,766
684,375

$
$

1,472,563
674,598

$ 4,146,124
$ 1,808,940

$ 1,577,446
$
655,461

$ 1,632,657
$
646,098

$ 1,689,800
$
636,868

$ 1,748,943
$
627,770

$ 1,810,156
$
618,802

$ 5,096,644
$ 1,659,321

$ 1,939,084
$
601,248

Non-Capital BCE Air diffusers AIR CORRECTED 6 years

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

2045

2046

2047

2048

2049

2050

2051

2052

2053

2054

2055

2056

2057

2058

2059

2060

2061

2062

2063

2064

2065

2066

2067

2068

2069

2070

2071

2072

2073

2074

$ 13,570,806
$ 2,006,952
$
-

$ 14,045,785
$ 2,077,195
$
-

$ 14,537,387
$ 2,149,897
$
-

$ 15,046,196
$ 2,225,144
$
-

$ 15,572,812
$ 2,303,024
$
-

$ 16,117,861
$ 2,383,629
$
-

$ 16,681,986
$ 2,467,056
$
-

$ 17,265,856
$ 2,553,403
$
-

$ 17,870,160
$ 2,642,773
$
-

$ 18,495,616
$ 2,735,270
$
-

$ 19,142,963
$ 2,831,004
$
-

$ 19,812,966
$ 2,930,089
$
-

$ 20,506,420
$ 3,032,642
$
-

$ 21,224,145
$ 3,138,785
$
-

$ 21,966,990
$ 3,248,642
$
-

$ 22,735,835
$ 3,362,345
$
-

$ 23,531,589
$ 3,480,027
$
-

$ 24,355,194
$ 3,601,828
$
-

$ 25,207,626
$ 3,727,892
$
-

$ 26,089,893
$ 3,858,368
$
-

$ 27,003,039
$ 3,993,411
$
-

$ 27,948,146
$ 4,133,180
$
-

$ 28,926,331
$ 4,277,841
$
-

$ 29,938,752
$ 4,427,566
$
-

$ 30,986,609
$ 4,582,531
$
-

$ 32,071,140
$ 4,742,919
$
-

$ 33,193,630
$ 4,908,921
$
-

$ 34,355,407
$ 5,080,734
$
-

$ 35,557,846
$ 5,258,559
$
-

$ 36,802,371
$ 5,442,609
$
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$ 3,962,054
$
$
$
$
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$ 4,870,376
$
$
$
$
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$ 5,986,935
$
$
$
$
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$ 7,359,472
$
$
$
$
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$ 9,046,670
$
$
$
$
-

$
$
$
$

$ 15,577,758

$ 16,122,980

$ 16,687,284

$ 17,271,339

$ 21,837,890

$ 18,501,490

$ 19,149,042

$ 19,819,259

$ 20,512,933

$ 21,230,886

$ 26,844,342

$ 22,743,056

$ 23,539,062

$ 24,362,930

$ 25,215,632

$ 26,098,179

$ 32,998,551

$ 27,957,022

$ 28,935,518

$ 29,948,261

$ 30,996,450

$ 32,081,326

$ 40,563,644

$ 34,366,318

$ 35,569,140

$ 36,814,059

$ 38,102,551

$ 39,436,141

$ 49,863,076

$ 42,244,980

$ 7,440,024
$ 4,600,155
$ 2,870,189

$ 7,476,141
$ 4,534,439
$ 2,776,304

$ 7,512,433
$ 4,469,661
$ 2,685,491

$ 7,548,901
$ 4,405,809
$ 2,597,648

$ 9,266,829
$ 5,305,435
$ 3,069,595

$ 7,622,369
$ 4,280,828
$ 2,430,487

$ 7,659,371
$ 4,219,673
$ 2,350,986

$ 7,696,552
$ 4,159,392
$ 2,274,084

$ 7,733,914
$ 4,099,972
$ 2,199,698

$ 7,771,457
$ 4,041,401
$ 2,127,745

$ 9,540,034
$ 4,866,618
$ 2,514,320

$ 7,847,092
$ 3,926,757
$ 1,990,824

$ 7,885,184
$ 3,870,661
$ 1,925,703

$ 7,923,462
$ 3,815,365
$ 1,862,713

$ 7,961,925
$ 3,760,860
$ 1,801,783

$ 8,000,575
$ 3,707,134
$ 1,742,846

$ 9,821,293
$ 4,464,097
$ 2,059,491

$ 8,078,439
$ 3,601,972
$ 1,630,693

$ 8,117,655
$ 3,550,515
$ 1,577,353

$ 8,157,061
$ 3,499,794
$ 1,525,757

$ 8,196,659
$ 3,449,797
$ 1,475,849

$ 8,236,448
$ 3,400,514
$ 1,427,574

$ 10,110,844
$ 4,094,868
$ 1,686,939

$ 8,316,608
$ 3,304,050
$ 1,335,708

$ 8,356,980
$ 3,256,850
$ 1,292,017

$ 8,397,548
$ 3,210,323
$ 1,249,755

$ 8,438,312
$ 3,164,461
$ 1,208,875

$ 8,479,275
$ 3,119,255
$ 1,169,332

$ 10,408,932
$ 3,756,178
$ 1,381,780

$ 8,561,798
$ 3,030,770
$ 1,094,085

$ 13,570,806
$ 4,007,497

$ 14,045,785
$ 3,950,247

$ 14,537,387
$ 3,893,815

$ 15,046,196
$ 3,838,189

$ 15,572,812
$ 3,783,357

$ 16,117,861
$ 3,729,310

$ 16,681,986
$ 3,676,034

$ 17,265,856
$ 3,623,519

$ 17,870,160
$ 3,571,754

$ 18,495,616
$ 3,520,729

$ 19,142,963
$ 3,470,433

$ 19,812,966
$ 3,420,856

$ 20,506,420
$ 3,371,986

$ 21,224,145
$ 3,323,815

$ 21,966,990
$ 3,276,332

$ 22,735,835
$ 3,229,527

$ 23,531,589
$ 3,183,391

$ 24,355,194
$ 3,137,914

$ 25,207,626
$ 3,093,087

$ 26,089,893
$ 3,048,900

$ 27,003,039
$ 3,005,344

$ 27,948,146
$ 2,962,411

$ 28,926,331
$ 2,920,090

$ 29,938,752
$ 2,878,375

$ 30,986,609
$ 2,837,255

$ 32,071,140
$ 2,796,723

$ 33,193,630
$ 2,756,770

$ 34,355,407
$ 2,717,387

$ 35,557,846
$ 2,678,568

$ 36,802,371
$ 2,640,302

$ 2,006,952
$
592,658

$ 2,077,195
$
584,192

$ 2,149,897
$
575,846

$ 2,225,144
$
567,620

$ 6,265,077
$ 1,522,077

$ 2,383,629
$
551,518

$ 2,467,056
$
543,639

$ 2,553,403
$
535,873

$ 2,642,773
$
528,218

$ 2,735,270
$
520,672

$ 7,701,380
$ 1,396,185

$ 2,930,089
$
505,902

$ 3,032,642
$
498,674

$ 3,138,785
$
491,551

$ 3,248,642
$
484,528

$ 3,362,345
$
477,607

$ 9,466,962
$ 1,280,706

$ 3,601,828
$
464,058

$ 3,727,892
$
457,429

$ 3,858,368
$
450,894

$ 3,993,411
$
444,453

$ 4,133,180
$
438,103

$ 11,637,313
$ 1,174,778

$ 4,427,566
$
425,676

$ 4,582,531
$
419,594

$ 4,742,919
$
413,600

$ 4,908,921
$
407,692

$ 5,080,734
$
401,867

$ 14,305,230
$ 1,077,611

$ 5,442,609
$
390,468

Non-Capital BCE Air diffusers AIR CORRECTED 6 years

56

57

58

59

60

2075

2076

2077

2078

2079

$ 38,090,454
$ 5,633,100
$
-

$ 39,423,620
$ 5,830,259
$
-

$ 40,803,447
$ 6,034,318
$
-

$ 42,231,567
$ 6,245,519
$
-

$ 43,709,672
$ 6,464,112
$
-

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$ 43,723,554

$ 45,253,879

$ 46,837,764

$ 48,477,086

$ 50,173,784

$ 8,603,360
$ 2,987,473
$ 1,058,297

$ 8,645,124
$ 2,944,795
$ 1,023,680

$ 8,687,091
$ 2,902,726
$
990,195

$ 8,729,261
$ 2,861,259
$
957,806

$ 8,771,636
$ 2,820,384
$
926,476

$ 38,090,454
$ 2,602,584

$ 39,423,620
$ 2,565,404

$ 40,803,447
$ 2,528,755

$ 42,231,567
$ 2,492,630

$ 43,709,672
$ 2,457,021

$ 5,633,100
$
384,889

$ 5,830,259
$
379,391

$ 6,034,318
$
373,971

$ 6,245,519
$
368,629

$ 6,464,112
$
363,363

Non-Capital BCE Air diffusers AIR CORRECTED 6 years

DISC DIFFUSERS
Sanitare 9" Membrane
Capital cost
# of Basins

11

(10 BNR basins and 1 REAR basin)

Max
Airflow/diffuser

Element
BNR

Vendor Quote,
$/diffuser

# of Diffusers
100,000

$58

Total Material
Cost with
Markups
$9,723,700

Labor
min/diffuser

Labor rate, $/hr

10

65

Total Labor Cost


$1,213,333

Notes:
1. Cost Markups: 19.75% + 40% for materials; 12% for labor
3. # of diffusers determined by dividing design airflow (300,000 scfm) by max. airflow/diffuser)
Annual Operations
Labor Cost, $/hr
Energy cost, $/kWh

$93
$0.09

4.7637821

Blower Energy
OTE

OTE Adjustment
Factor
43%
1.00

Headloss

Head Loss
Annual Energy
Adjustment Factor
Cost
10.0
1.00
$5,555,748

Daily Oversight
Minutes/tank/day

No. Tanks

Annual Oversight Cost

30

11

$186,698

Note:
1. Energy cost based on blower operations estimate of $5,555,748 million for 9" membrane disc diffusers, adjusted for OTE and headloss differences
Maintenance/Replacement Cost
Labor cost, $/hr =
93
Maintenance Cost Multiplier**
3.1
Maintenance
Maintenance Procedure

Labor
Requirements

Air Bumping
Scrubbing

Labor Units

45 min/basin
1.51 min/diffuser

Material
Requirements
None
None

Material Cost

Maintenance
Frequency
Cost
$2,378 Weekly
$725,555 Annually

Notes:
1. Vendor maintenance recommendations
2. Scrubbing includes 2 hours of labor to empty and re-fill tank, 30 seconds of hosing per diffuser and 1 minute of scrubbing per diffuser
Replacement
Labor Requirements

Labor Units
2 min/diffuser

Material Requirements
44200 Membranes

Material Cost
$500,000

Replacement
Frequency
Cost
$1,461,000 5 years

Notes:
1. 6-10 membranes can be replaced in an hour
2. Vendor quote of $5 per diffuser and 2 min/diffuser
Risk of Failure Cost:
With consistent routine maintenance, there is no extraneous risk associated with membrane disc diffusers

**Note regarding labor cost: 1 hour of maintenance mechanic requires 1.4 hours of controls person and 0.7 hours of electrician; therefore, maintenance hours are multiplied by 3.1 hours.

Total Installed
Cost
$10,937,033

Alternative 4 - EDI Sock Diffusers


Quantifiable Base and Annual Costs

Item and Description

Reference

Units

Quantity

Cost/Unit

Total Cost

Vendor Quote

Diffusers

37500

208

7,795,725

Estimate

Hours

12500

73

910,000

Sub Total Capital Costs $

8,705,725

Total Costs with net and soft cost markups $

25,072,488

Base Costs (unescalated)


EDI MiniPanel Diffusers
Installation Labor

Annual Operational Costs (chemical, energy, operational oversight, etc.)


Energy Cost

Estimated

Total

5,536,890

5,536,890

Operational Oversight

Estimated

Hours

2007.5

93

186,698

Total Annual Operation $

5,723,587

Annual Maintenance Costs (Note: Enter non-recurring costs on LCC worksheet.)


Scrubbing

Estimated

Total

457,676

457,676

Total Annual Maintenance $

457,676

Annual Risk Costs (Note: Enter non-recurring costs on LCC worksheet.)


$

Non-Capital BCE Air diffusers AIR CORRECTED 6 years

Page 20 of 41

Total Annual Risk $

9/21/2012

Alternative 4 - EDI Sock Diffusers


Quantifiable Non-Recurring Costs
Starting Year
No. of Years

2020
60
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

Year
2020
Capital Costs (including soft costs and contractor costs)
Capital Costs (including contingency)
$
25,072,488

Year

2021

2022

2023

2024

2025

2026

2027

2028

2029

2030

2031

2032

2033

2034

2035

2036

2037

2038

2039

2040

2041

2042

2043

2044

2045

$ 10,271,982
$
821,380
$
-

$ 10,631,501
$
850,129
$
-

$ 11,003,604
$
879,883
$
-

$ 11,388,730
$
910,679
$
-

$ 11,787,336
$
942,553
$
-

$ 12,199,892
$
975,542
$
-

$ 12,626,889
$ 1,009,686
$
-

$ 13,068,830
$ 1,045,025
$
-

$ 13,526,239
$ 1,081,601
$
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$ 11,424,915
$
$
$
$
-

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

Recurring Costs - Operation, Maintenance and Risk (from worksheet)


Annual Operation
$
5,723,587 $ 5,923,913 $
6,131,250 $ 6,345,843 $ 6,567,948
Annual Maintenance
$
457,676 $
473,695 $
490,274 $
507,434 $
525,194
Annual Risk
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
Non-Recurring Costs
Enter description, then enter the cost(s) under the appropriate year(s).
Replacement
$
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
Projected Inflation Rate

$
$
$

6,797,826
543,576
-

$
$
$

7,035,750
562,601
-

$
$
$

7,282,001
582,292
-

$
$
$

7,536,871
602,672
-

$
$
$

7,800,662
623,766
-

$
$
$

8,073,685
645,598
-

$
$
$

8,356,264
668,193
-

$
$
$

8,648,733
691,580
-

$
$
$

8,951,439
715,786
-

$
$
$

9,264,739
740,838
-

$
$
$

9,589,005
766,767
-

$
$
$

9,924,620
793,604
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

6,588,816
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

8,676,213
-

$
$
$
$
$

3.5%

Annual Expense (including inflation)

31,253,751

6,397,608

6,621,524

6,853,277

7,093,142

7,341,402

7,598,351

$ 14,453,110

8,139,544

8,424,428

8,719,283

9,024,458

9,340,314

9,667,225

$ 10,005,577

$ 19,031,985

$ 10,718,225

$ 11,093,362

$ 11,481,630

$ 11,883,487

$ 12,299,409

$ 12,729,889

$ 13,175,435

$ 25,061,490

$ 14,113,855

$ 14,607,840

Life Cycle Cost


Projected Discount Rate
3%
5%
7%

$
$
$

31,253,751
31,253,751
31,253,751

$
$
$

6,211,270
6,092,960
5,979,073

$
$
$

6,241,421
6,005,917
5,783,495

$
$
$

6,271,720
5,920,119
5,594,316

$
$
$

6,302,165
5,835,546
5,411,324

$
$
$

6,332,758
5,752,181
5,234,318

$
$
$

6,363,499
5,670,007
5,063,102

$ 11,751,701
$ 10,271,555
$ 9,000,670

$
$
$

6,425,431
5,509,164
4,737,289

$
$
$

6,456,622
5,430,461
4,582,330

$
$
$

6,487,965
5,352,883
4,432,441

$
$
$

6,519,460
5,276,413
4,287,455

$
$
$

6,551,108
5,201,036
4,147,211

$
$
$

6,582,909
5,126,736
4,011,554

$
$
$

6,614,865
5,053,496
3,880,335

$ 12,215,907
$ 9,154,710
$ 6,898,067

$
$
$

6,679,243
4,910,142
3,630,634

$ 6,711,667
$ 4,839,997
$ 3,511,874

$ 6,744,248
$ 4,770,854
$ 3,397,000

$ 6,776,987
$ 4,702,699
$ 3,285,883

$ 6,809,885
$ 4,635,518
$ 3,178,401

$ 6,842,942
$ 4,569,296
$ 3,074,435

$ 6,876,161
$ 4,504,021
$ 2,973,869

$ 12,698,450
$ 8,159,302
$ 5,286,643

$ 6,943,081
$ 4,376,254
$ 2,782,499

$ 6,976,786
$ 4,313,736
$ 2,691,482

Total Life Cycle Cost


3% Discount Rate
5% Discount Rate
7% Discount Rate

$
$
$

496,657,692
299,097,270
203,188,015

Annualized Operations
Annual Expense
Projected Discount Rate
LCC Cost at 5% Discount
Annualized Operations Cost

$
$
$

5,723,587
5,723,587
231,673,407
$9,287,467

$
$

5,923,913
5,641,822

$
$

6,131,250
5,561,224

$
$

6,345,843
5,481,778

$
$

6,567,948
5,403,467

$
$

6,797,826
5,326,275

$
$

7,035,750
5,250,185

$
$

7,282,001
5,175,182

$
$

7,536,871
5,101,251

$
$

7,800,662
5,028,376

$
$

8,073,685
4,956,542

$
$

8,356,264
4,885,735

$
$

8,648,733
4,815,938

$
$

8,951,439
4,747,139

$
$

9,264,739
4,679,323

$
$

9,589,005
4,612,475

$
$

9,924,620
4,546,583

$ 10,271,982
$ 4,481,632

$ 10,631,501
$ 4,417,608

$ 11,003,604
$ 4,354,500

$ 11,388,730
$ 4,292,293

$ 11,787,336
$ 4,230,974

$ 12,199,892
$ 4,170,532

$ 12,626,889
$ 4,110,953

$ 13,068,830
$ 4,052,225

$ 13,526,239
$ 3,994,336

Annualized Maintenance
Annual Expense
Projected Discount Rate
LCC Cost at 5% Discount
Annualized Maintenance Cost

$
$
$

457,676
457,676
42,351,375
$1,697,808

$
$

473,695
451,138

$
$

490,274
444,693

$
$

507,434
438,340

$
$

525,194
432,078

$
$

543,576
425,906

$
$

562,601
419,822

$
$

7,171,108
5,096,373

$
$

602,672
407,912

$
$

623,766
402,085

$
$

645,598
396,341

$
$

668,193
390,679

$
$

691,580
385,098

$
$

715,786
379,596

$
$

740,838
374,174

$
$

9,442,980
4,542,235

$
$

793,604
363,559

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$ 12,434,602
$ 4,048,349

$ 1,045,025
$
324,029

$ 1,081,601
$
319,400

Non-Capital BCE Air diffusers AIR CORRECTED 6 years

821,380
358,366

850,129
353,246

879,883
348,200

910,679
343,225

942,553
338,322

975,542
333,489

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

2046

2047

2048

2049

2050

2051

2052

2053

2054

2055

2056

2057

2058

2059

2060

2061

2062

2063

2064

2065

2066

2067

2068

2069

2070

2071

2072

2073

2074

2075

$ 13,999,657
$ 1,119,457
$
-

$ 14,489,645
$ 1,158,638
$
-

$ 14,996,783
$ 1,199,190
$
-

$ 15,521,670
$ 1,241,162
$
-

$ 16,064,929
$ 1,284,603
$
-

$ 16,627,201
$ 1,329,564
$
-

$ 17,209,153
$ 1,376,099
$
-

$ 17,811,474
$ 1,424,262
$
-

$ 18,434,875
$ 1,474,111
$
-

$ 19,080,096
$ 1,525,705
$
-

$ 19,747,899
$ 1,579,105
$
-

$ 20,439,076
$ 1,634,374
$
-

$ 21,154,443
$ 1,691,577
$
-

$ 21,894,849
$ 1,750,782
$
-

$ 22,661,168
$ 1,812,059
$
-

$ 23,454,309
$ 1,875,481
$
-

$ 24,275,210
$ 1,941,123
$
-

$ 25,124,843
$ 2,009,062
$
-

$ 26,004,212
$ 2,079,380
$
-

$ 26,914,359
$ 2,152,158
$
-

$ 27,856,362
$ 2,227,483
$
-

$ 28,831,335
$ 2,305,445
$
-

$ 29,840,431
$ 2,386,136
$
-

$ 30,884,847
$ 2,469,651
$
-

$ 31,965,816
$ 2,556,088
$
-

$ 33,084,620
$ 2,645,551
$
-

$ 34,242,581
$ 2,738,146
$
-

$ 35,441,072
$ 2,833,981
$
-

$ 36,681,509
$ 2,933,170
$
-

$ 37,965,362
$ 3,035,831
$
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$ 15,044,432
$
$
$
$
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$ 19,810,644
$
$
$
$
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$ 26,086,835
$
$
$
$
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$ 34,351,380
$
$
$
$
-

$ 15,119,114

$ 15,648,283

$ 16,195,973

$ 16,762,832

$ 17,349,531

$ 33,001,197

$ 18,585,252

$ 19,235,736

$ 19,908,986

$ 20,605,801

$ 21,327,004

$ 22,073,449

$ 22,846,020

$ 43,456,274

$ 24,473,228

$ 25,329,791

$ 26,216,333

$ 27,133,905

$ 28,083,592

$ 29,066,517

$ 30,083,845

$ 57,223,615

$ 32,226,567

$ 33,354,497

$ 34,521,905

$ 35,730,171

$ 36,980,727

$ 38,275,053

$ 39,614,679

$ 75,352,573

$ 7,010,654
$ 4,252,111
$ 2,603,443

$ 7,044,686
$ 4,191,366
$ 2,518,284

$ 7,078,883
$ 4,131,490
$ 2,435,910

$ 7,113,247
$ 4,072,468
$ 2,356,231

$ 7,147,777
$ 4,014,290
$ 2,279,158

$ 13,200,055
$ 7,272,126
$ 4,051,656

$ 7,217,342
$ 3,900,416
$ 2,132,493

$ 7,252,377
$ 3,844,695
$ 2,062,738

$ 7,287,583
$ 3,789,771
$ 1,995,266

$ 7,322,960
$ 3,735,632
$ 1,930,000

$ 7,358,508
$ 3,682,265
$ 1,866,869

$ 7,394,229
$ 3,629,662
$ 1,805,803

$ 7,430,123
$ 3,577,809
$ 1,746,735

$ 13,721,473
$ 6,481,415
$ 3,105,168

$ 7,502,435
$ 3,476,316
$ 1,634,331

$ 7,538,855
$ 3,426,655
$ 1,580,872

$ 7,575,451
$ 3,377,702
$ 1,529,161

$ 7,612,225
$ 3,329,450
$ 1,479,142

$ 7,649,178
$ 3,281,886
$ 1,430,759

$ 7,686,310
$ 3,235,002
$ 1,383,958

$ 7,723,622
$ 3,188,788
$ 1,338,689

$ 14,263,488
$ 5,776,679
$ 2,379,785

$ 7,798,791
$ 3,098,330
$ 1,252,543

$ 7,836,649
$ 3,054,068
$ 1,211,572

$ 7,874,691
$ 3,010,439
$ 1,171,941

$ 7,912,917
$ 2,967,432
$ 1,133,607

$ 7,951,330
$ 2,925,041
$ 1,096,526

$ 7,989,928
$ 2,883,254
$ 1,060,659

$ 8,028,714
$ 2,842,065
$ 1,025,964

$ 14,826,913
$ 5,148,570
$ 1,823,855

$ 13,999,657
$ 3,937,274

$ 14,489,645
$ 3,881,027

$ 14,996,783
$ 3,825,584

$ 15,521,670
$ 3,770,933

$ 16,064,929
$ 3,717,062

$ 16,627,201
$ 3,663,961

$ 17,209,153
$ 3,611,619

$ 17,811,474
$ 3,560,024

$ 18,434,875
$ 3,509,167

$ 19,080,096
$ 3,459,036

$ 19,747,899
$ 3,409,621

$ 20,439,076
$ 3,360,912

$ 21,154,443
$ 3,312,899

$ 21,894,849
$ 3,265,572

$ 22,661,168
$ 3,218,921

$ 23,454,309
$ 3,172,937

$ 24,275,210
$ 3,127,609

$ 25,124,843
$ 3,082,929

$ 26,004,212
$ 3,038,887

$ 26,914,359
$ 2,995,474

$ 27,856,362
$ 2,952,682

$ 28,831,335
$ 2,910,501

$ 29,840,431
$ 2,868,922

$ 30,884,847
$ 2,827,937

$ 31,965,816
$ 2,787,538

$ 33,084,620
$ 2,747,716

$ 34,242,581
$ 2,708,463

$ 35,441,072
$ 2,669,771

$ 36,681,509
$ 2,631,631

$ 37,965,362
$ 2,594,037

$ 1,119,457
$
314,837

$ 1,158,638
$
310,339

$ 1,199,190
$
305,906

$ 1,241,162
$
301,536

$ 1,284,603
$
297,228

$ 16,373,996
$ 3,608,165

$ 1,376,099
$
288,797

$ 1,424,262
$
284,671

$ 1,474,111
$
280,604

$ 1,525,705
$
276,596

$ 1,579,105
$
272,644

$ 1,634,374
$
268,749

$ 1,691,577
$
264,910

$ 21,561,426
$ 3,215,843

$ 1,812,059
$
257,395

$ 1,875,481
$
253,718

$ 1,941,123
$
250,094

$ 2,009,062
$
246,521

$ 2,079,380
$
242,999

$ 2,152,158
$
239,528

$ 2,227,483
$
236,106

$ 28,392,280
$ 2,866,178

$ 2,386,136
$
229,408

$ 2,469,651
$
226,131

$ 2,556,088
$
222,900

$ 2,645,551
$
219,716

$ 2,738,146
$
216,577

$ 2,833,981
$
213,483

$ 2,933,170
$
210,434

$ 37,387,211
$ 2,554,534

Non-Capital BCE Air diffusers AIR CORRECTED 6 years

57

58

59

60

2076

2077

2078

2079

$ 39,294,150
$ 3,142,085
$
-

$ 40,669,445
$ 3,252,058
$
-

$ 42,092,876
$ 3,365,880
$
-

$ 43,566,126
$ 3,483,686
$
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$ 42,436,235

$ 43,921,503

$ 45,458,756

$ 47,049,812

$ 8,106,852
$ 2,761,443
$
959,943

$ 8,146,206
$ 2,721,994
$
928,543

$ 8,185,751
$ 2,683,108
$
898,170

$ 8,225,487
$ 2,644,778
$
868,790

$ 39,294,150
$ 2,556,979

$ 40,669,445
$ 2,520,451

$ 42,092,876
$ 2,484,444

$ 43,566,126
$ 2,448,952

$ 3,142,085
$
204,464

$ 3,252,058
$
201,543

$ 3,365,880
$
198,664

$ 3,483,686
$
195,826

Non-Capital BCE Air diffusers AIR CORRECTED 6 years

Tube Diffusers
EDI MiniPanel Diffusers
Capital cost
# of Tanks

11

(10 BNR basins and 1 REAR basin)

Max
Airflow/diffuser

Element
BNR

Vendor Quote,
$/diffuser

# of Diffusers
37,500

$124

Total Material
Labor min/diffuser Labor rate, $/hr
Cost with
Markups
$7,795,725
20
65

Total Labor Cost


$910,000

4.3168
Notes:
1. Cost Markups: 19.75% + 40% for materials; 12% for labor
3. # of diffusers determined by dividing design airflow (300,000 scfm) by max. airflow/diffuser)
Annual Operations
Labor Cost, $/hr
Energy cost, $/kWh

$93
$0.09

Blower Energy
OTE
43%

OTE
Adjustment
1.000

Headloss

Head Loss
Annual Energy
Adjustment Factor
Cost
9.0
0.997
$5,536,890

Daily Oversight
Minutes/tank/day

No. Tanks
30

11

Annual Oversight Cost


$186,698

Note:
1. Energy cost based on blower operations estimate of $5,555,748 million for 9" membrane disc diffusers (OTE 43%; HL=8.5 in), adjusted for OTE and headloss differences
Maintenance/Replacement Cost
Labor cost, $/hr =
93
Maintenance Cost Multiplier** 3.1
Maintenance
Maintenance Procedure
Scrubbing

Labor
Labor Units
Requirements
2.54 min/diffuser

Material
Requirements
None

Material Cost

Maintenance Cost

Frequency

$457,676 Annually

Notes:
1. Vendor maintenance recommendations
2. Scrubbing includes 2 hours of labor to empty and re-fill tank, 30 seconds of hosing per diffuser, and 2 minutes of scrubbing per diffuser
Replacement
Labor Requirements

Labor Units
20 min/diffuser

Material Requirements
Membrane

Material Cost
$1,575,000

Replacement
Cost

Frequency

$5,178,750 10 years

Notes:
1. Replacement labor and material costs and frequency provided by EDI
2. Material cost estimate: $42 per membrane replacement
Risk of Failure Cost:
With consistent routine maintenance, there is no extraneous risk associated with sock diffusers

**Note regarding labor cost: 1 hour of maintenance mechanic requires 1.4 hours of controls person and 0.7 hours of electrician; therefore, maintenance hours are multiplied by 3.1 hours.

Total
Installed
Cost
$8,705,725

Alternative 5 - Ovivo Aerostrip Diffusers (Moderate Efficiency)


Quantifiable Base and Annual Costs

Item and Description

Reference

Units

Quantity

Cost/Unit

Total Cost

Vendor Quote

Diffusers

19867.55

924

Estimate

Hours

34768.21

73

2,531,126

Base Costs (unescalated)


Panel Diffusers
Installation labor

$ 18,352,679

Sub Total Capital Costs $

20,883,805

Total Costs with net and soft cost markups $

60,145,357

Annual Operational Costs (chemical, energy, operational oversight, etc.)


Energy Cost

Estimated

Total

5,280,341

5,280,341

Operational Oversight

Estimated

Hours

3011.3

93

280,046

Total Annual Operation $

5,560,387

Annual Maintenance Costs (Note: Enter non-recurring costs on LCC worksheet.)


Flexing Cycle

Estimated

Days

365

264

96,460

Inspection

Estimated

Hours

33

288

9,514

Total Annual Maintenance $

105,974

Annual Risk Costs (Note: Enter non-recurring costs on LCC worksheet.)


Risk of Membrane Tear

Vendor
Recommendation

Non-Capital BCE Air diffusers AIR CORRECTED 6 years

Percentage

Page 25 of 41

2.00%

14,833,113

296,662

Total Annual Risk $

296,662

9/21/2012

Alternative 5 - Aerostrip Diffusers (Moderate Efficiency)


Quantifiable Non-Recurring Costs
Starting Year
No. of Years

2020
60
Year

Year
2020
Capital Costs (including soft costs and contractor costs)
Capital Costs (including contingency)
$ 60,145,357

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

2021

2022

2023

2024

2025

2026

2027

2028

2029

2030

2031

2032

2033

2034

2035

2036

2037

2038

2039

2040

2041

2042

2043

2044

2045

Recurring Costs - Operation, Maintenance and Risk (from worksheet)


Annual Operation
$
5,560,387 $ 5,755,001 $ 5,956,426 $ 6,164,901 $ 6,380,672
Annual Maintenance
$
105,974 $
109,683 $
113,522 $
117,496 $
121,608
Annual Risk
$
296,662 $
307,045 $
317,792 $
328,915 $
340,427
Non-Recurring Costs
Enter description, then enter the cost(s) under the appropriate year(s).
Replacement
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
Chemical Cleaning
$
- $
69,795 $
- $
74,766 $
Power Washing
$
- $
- $
13,589 $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
Projected Inflation Rate

$
$
$

6,603,996
125,864
352,342

$
$
$

6,835,135
130,269
364,674

$
$
$

7,074,365
134,829
377,437

$
$
$

7,321,968
139,548
390,648

$
$
$

7,578,237
144,432
404,320

$
$
$

7,843,475
149,487
418,471

$
$
$

8,117,997
154,719
433,118

$
$
$
$
$

80,091
15,066
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

85,795
-

$
$
$
$
$

16,704
-

20,216,010

$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

98,452
18,520
-

$ 8,402,127
$
160,134
$
448,277

$
$
$

8,696,201
165,739
463,967

$
$
$

9,000,568
171,540
480,206

$
$
$

9,315,588
177,544
497,013

$
$
$

9,641,634
183,758
514,408

$
$
$

9,979,091
190,189
532,412

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

105,464
-

$
$
$
$
$

20,533
-

$
$
$
$
$

112,976
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

121,023
22,766
-

######### $ 10,689,851
$ 196,846 $
203,736
$ 551,047 $
570,334

$ 11,063,996
$
210,866
$
590,295

$ 11,451,236
$
218,247
$
610,956

$ 11,852,029
$
225,885
$
632,339

$ 12,266,850
$
233,791
$
654,471

$ 12,696,190
$
241,974
$
677,377

$ 13,140,557
$
250,443
$
701,086

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$ 28,516,678
$
$
$

25,241
-

138,877
-

148,768
27,985
-

159,364
-

3.5%

Annual Expense (including inflation)

$ 66,108,381

6,241,524

6,401,329

6,686,077

6,842,707

7,177,358

7,330,079

7,672,427

7,868,867

28,342,999

8,411,434

8,822,806

$ 9,010,538

9,431,371

9,672,847

$ 10,103,121

$ 10,339,800

$ 10,845,481

Life Cycle Cost


Projected Discount Rate
3%
5%
7%

$ 66,108,381
$ 66,108,381
$ 66,108,381

$
$
$

6,059,732
5,944,309
5,833,200

$
$
$

6,033,866
5,806,194
5,591,168

$
$
$

6,118,707
5,775,684
5,457,830

$
$
$

6,079,656
5,629,512
5,220,268

$
$
$

6,191,252
5,623,648
5,117,357

$
$
$

6,138,825
5,469,817
4,884,341

$
$
$

6,238,385
5,452,650
4,778,002

$
$
$

6,211,757
5,325,959
4,579,752

$
$
$

21,722,549
18,270,150
15,416,714

$
$
$

6,258,897
5,163,891
4,275,946

$
$
$

6,373,783
5,158,512
4,191,652

$ 6,319,810
$ 5,017,405
$ 4,000,787

$
$
$

6,422,305
5,001,658
3,913,684

$
$
$

6,394,891
4,885,445
3,751,297

$
$
$

6,484,809
4,859,774
3,661,836

$
$
$

6,443,421
4,736,781
3,502,448

$
$
$

6,561,695
4,731,848
3,433,402

$ 6,506,131
$ 4,602,411
$ 3,277,063

Total Life Cycle Cost


3% Discount Rate
5% Discount Rate
7% Discount Rate

$ 562,109,921
$ 352,679,838
$ 249,992,419

Annualized Operations
Annual Expense
Projected Discount Rate
LCC Cost at 5% Discount
Annualized Operations Cost

$
5,560,387
$
5,560,387
$ 225,067,564
$9,022,648

$
$

5,755,001
5,480,953

$
$

5,956,426
5,402,654

$
$

6,164,901
5,325,473

$
$

6,380,672
5,249,395

$
$

6,603,996
5,174,403

$
$

6,835,135
5,100,483

$
$

7,074,365
5,027,619

$
$

7,321,968
4,955,796

$
$

7,578,237
4,884,999

$
$

7,843,475
4,815,213

$
$

8,117,997
4,746,425

$ 8,402,127
$ 4,678,619

$
$

8,696,201
4,611,781

$
$

9,000,568
4,545,899

$
$

9,315,588
4,480,957

$
$

9,641,634
4,416,943

$
$

9,979,091
4,353,844

Annualized Maintenance
Annual Expense
Projected Discount Rate
LCC Cost at 5% Discount
Annualized Maintenance Cost

$
402,637
$
402,637
$ 67,466,914
$2,704,656

$
$

486,523
463,356

$
$

444,903
403,540

$
$

521,176
450,211

$
$

462,035
380,117

$
$

573,363
449,245

$
$

494,943
369,334

$
$

598,061
425,031

$
$

546,899
370,163

$
$

20,764,762
13,385,151

$
$

567,959
348,677

$
$

704,809
412,087

$
$

$
$

735,170
389,876

$
$

672,279
339,547

$
$

787,533
378,817

$
$

698,166
319,838

$
$

866,391
378,003

608,411
338,786

Non-Capital BCE Air diffusers AIR CORRECTED 6 years

######### $ 39,980,599

$ 11,890,399

$ 12,419,315

$ 12,710,254

$ 13,331,866

$ 13,615,542

$ 14,251,450

$ 22,800,377
$ 15,821,681
$ 11,054,969

$ 6,583,426
$ 4,481,366
$ 3,072,705

$ 6,675,994
$ 4,457,818
$ 2,999,427

$ 6,633,386
$ 4,344,999
$ 2,868,872

$ 6,755,146
$ 4,340,473
$ 2,812,316

$ 6,697,944
$ 4,221,743
$ 2,684,258

$ 6,806,572
$ 4,208,493
$ 2,625,818

######### $ 10,689,851
$ 4,291,646 $ 4,230,337

$ 11,063,996
$ 4,169,904

$ 11,451,236
$ 4,110,334

$ 11,852,029
$ 4,051,615

$ 12,266,850
$ 3,993,735

$ 12,696,190
$ 3,936,681

$ 13,140,557
$ 3,880,443

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$ 1,065,015
$
346,738

$
$

$ 1,110,893
$
328,050

747,893
310,765

$ 29,290,748
$ 11,591,344

826,403
311,462

968,079
347,485

858,224
293,384

919,351
285,061

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

2046

2047

2048

2049

2050

2051

2052

2053

2054

2055

2056

2057

2058

2059

2060

2061

2062

2063

2064

2065

2066

2067

2068

2069

2070

2071

2072

2073

2074

2075

$ 13,600,476
$
259,209
$
725,624

$ 14,076,493
$
268,281
$
751,020

$ 14,569,170
$
277,671
$
777,306

$ 15,079,091
$
287,389
$
804,512

$ 15,606,859
$
297,448
$
832,670

$ 16,153,100
$
307,859
$
861,813

$ 16,718,458
$
318,634
$
891,977

$ 17,303,604
$
329,786
$
923,196

$ 17,909,230
$
341,328
$
955,508

$ 18,536,053
$
353,275
$
988,950

$ 19,184,815
$
365,639
$ 1,023,564

$ 19,856,284
$
378,437
$ 1,059,388

$ 20,551,254
$
391,682
$ 1,096,467

$ 21,270,547
$
405,391
$ 1,134,843

$ 22,015,017
$
419,580
$ 1,174,563

$ 22,785,542
$
434,265
$ 1,215,673

$ 23,583,036
$
449,464
$ 1,258,221

$ 24,408,442
$
465,195
$ 1,302,259

$ 25,262,738
$
481,477
$ 1,347,838

$ 26,146,934
$
498,329
$ 1,395,012

$ 27,062,076
$
515,771
$ 1,443,838

$ 28,009,249
$
533,823
$ 1,494,372

$ 28,989,573
$
552,506
$ 1,546,675

$ 30,004,208
$
571,844
$ 1,600,809

$ 31,054,355
$
591,859
$ 1,656,837

$ 32,141,258
$
612,574
$ 1,714,826

$ 33,266,202
$
634,014
$ 1,774,845

$ 34,430,519
$
656,204
$ 1,836,965

$ 35,635,587
$
679,171
$ 1,901,259

$ 36,882,832
$
702,942
$ 1,967,803

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$ 40,225,591

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

46,885
-

$ 56,742,169

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$ 80,040,434

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

31,027
-

170,715
-

$
$

195,899
-

38,141
-

209,852
-

224,799
42,287
-

240,810
-

$
$
$

276,335
51,982
-

296,017
-

57,633
-

317,101
-

339,686
63,899
-

$
$
$

$ 14,616,336

$ 15,266,509

$ 15,624,147

$ 56,396,584

$ 16,736,977

$ 17,518,670

$ 17,967,209

$ 18,766,438

$ 19,206,066

$ 20,145,364

$ 20,574,018

$ 21,534,919

$ 22,086,287

$ 79,552,951

$ 23,609,159

$ 24,763,797

$ 25,290,722

$ 26,471,914

$ 27,149,686

$ 28,357,376

$ 29,021,685

$ 30,441,029

$ 31,088,754

$ 6,777,518
$ 4,110,709
$ 2,516,867

$ 6,872,815
$ 4,089,109
$ 2,456,845

$ 6,828,952
$ 3,985,621
$ 2,349,906

$ 23,931,685
$ 13,701,343
$ 7,927,263

$ 6,895,413
$ 3,872,559
$ 2,198,688

$ 7,007,243
$ 3,860,405
$ 2,150,820

$ 6,977,333
$ 3,770,709
$ 2,061,578

$ 7,075,440
$ 3,750,896
$ 2,012,413

$ 7,030,283
$ 3,655,967
$ 1,924,819

$ 7,159,328
$ 3,652,159
$ 1,886,874

$ 7,098,703
$ 3,552,257
$ 1,800,956

$ 7,213,830
$ 3,541,108
$ 1,761,747

$ 7,183,038
$ 3,458,831
$ 1,688,648

$ 25,119,126
$ 11,865,161
$ 5,684,457

$ 7,237,549
$ 3,353,579
$ 1,576,629

$ 7,370,399
$ 3,350,086
$ 1,545,547

$ 7,307,987
$ 3,258,447
$ 1,475,172

$ 7,426,508
$ 3,248,220
$ 1,443,055

$ 7,394,808
$ 3,172,749
$ 1,383,180

$ 7,498,785
$ 3,156,077
$ 1,350,194

$ 7,450,927
$ 3,076,202
$ 1,291,424

$ 7,587,693
$ 3,072,998
$ 1,265,965

$ 7,523,441
$ 2,988,938
$ 1,208,320

$ 26,365,486
$ 10,275,055
$ 4,076,193

$ 13,600,476
$ 3,825,008

$ 14,076,493
$ 3,770,365

$ 14,569,170
$ 3,716,503

$ 15,079,091
$ 3,663,410

$ 15,606,859
$ 3,611,075

$ 16,153,100
$ 3,559,489

$ 16,718,458
$ 3,508,639

$ 17,303,604
$ 3,458,515

$ 17,909,230
$ 3,409,108

$ 18,536,053
$ 3,360,406

$ 19,184,815
$ 3,312,401

$ 19,856,284
$ 3,265,081

$ 20,551,254
$ 3,218,437

$ 21,270,547
$ 3,172,459

$ 22,015,017
$ 3,127,138

$ 22,785,542
$ 3,082,465

$ 23,583,036
$ 3,038,429

$ 24,408,442
$ 2,995,023

$ 25,262,738
$ 2,952,237

$ 26,146,934
$ 2,910,062

$ 27,062,076
$ 2,868,490

$ 28,009,249
$ 2,827,512

$ 28,989,573
$ 2,787,119

$ 1,015,860
$
285,701

$ 1,190,016
$
318,744

$ 1,054,977
$
269,118

$ 41,317,492
$ 10,037,933

$ 1,130,118
$
261,484

$ 1,365,571
$
300,916

$ 1,248,751
$
262,071

$ 1,462,834
$
292,380

$ 1,296,836
$
246,859

$ 1,609,311
$
291,752

$ 1,389,203
$
239,856

$ 1,678,635
$
276,027

$ 1,535,034
$
240,395

$ 58,282,404
$ 8,692,702

$ 1,594,143
$
226,441

$ 1,978,254
$
267,621

$ 1,707,685
$
220,018

$ 2,063,471
$
253,197

$ 1,886,948
$
220,511

$ 2,210,442
$
246,014

$ 1,959,608
$
207,712

$ 2,431,780
$
245,486

$ 2,099,181
$
201,820

Non-Capital BCE Air diffusers AIR CORRECTED 6 years

70,846
-

########## $ 33,373,897

389,798
-

417,561
78,548
-

447,302
-

$ 34,858,455

$ 35,675,061

$ 37,419,797

$ 38,216,017

$ 40,000,879

$ 7,612,822
$ 2,910,328
$ 1,132,969

$ 7,719,864
$ 2,895,035
$ 1,105,950

$ 7,670,595
$ 2,821,767
$ 1,057,811

$ 7,811,394
$ 2,818,828
$ 1,036,958

$ 7,745,247
$ 2,741,721
$
989,741

$ 7,870,860
$ 2,733,116
$
968,193

$ 30,004,208
$ 2,747,303

$ 31,054,355
$ 2,708,056

$ 32,141,258
$ 2,669,369

$ 33,266,202
$ 2,631,235

$ 34,430,519
$ 2,593,646

$ 35,635,587
$ 2,556,594

$ 36,882,832
$ 2,520,071

$ 82,213,086
$ 7,527,752

$ 2,319,541
$
202,273

$ 2,717,198
$
225,666

$ 2,408,859
$
190,532

$ 2,989,278
$
225,182

$ 2,580,430
$
185,127

$ 3,118,047
$
213,045

57

58

59

60

2076

2077

2078

2079

$ 38,173,731
$
727,545
$ 2,036,676

$ 39,509,812
$
753,009
$ 2,107,959

$ 40,892,656
$
779,365
$ 2,181,738

$ 42,323,898
$
806,642
$ 2,258,099

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

87,088
-

479,161
-

513,289
96,556
-

$ 41,025,040

$ 42,849,942

$ 43,853,758

$ 45,998,485

$ 7,837,263
$ 2,669,613
$
928,020

$ 7,947,461
$ 2,655,585
$
905,889

$ 7,896,739
$ 2,588,377
$
866,458

$ 8,041,689
$ 2,585,681
$
849,377

$ 38,173,731
$ 2,484,070

$ 39,509,812
$ 2,448,583

$ 40,892,656
$ 2,413,604

$ 42,323,898
$ 2,379,124

$ 2,851,309
$
185,543

$ 3,340,130
$
207,001

$ 2,961,103
$
174,773

$ 3,674,586
$
206,557

Non-Capital BCE Air diffusers AIR CORRECTED 6 years

Strip Diffusers (Moderate Efficiency)


Ovivo Aerostrip
Capital cost
# of Tanks

11

(10 BNR basins and 2 REAR basin)

Max
Airflow/diffuser

Element
Aerostrip Diffusers

15.1

# of Diffusers
19,868

Vendor Quote,
$/diffuser
$551

Total Material
Labor
Cost with
min/diffuser
Markups
$18,352,679
105

Labor rate, $/hr


65

Total Labor Cost


$2,531,126

Notes:
1. Cost Markups: 19.75% + 40% for materials; 12% for labor
2. Airflow/diffuser from Budgetary proposal for airflow at assumed 47% OTE
3. # of diffusers determined by dividing design airflow (300,000 scfm) by max. airflow/diffuser
Annual Operations
Labor Cost, $/hr
Energy cost, $/kWh

$93
$0.09

Blower Energy
OTE

OTE Adjustment
Factor
47%
0.913

Head Loss
Headloss
Adjustment Factor
20.5
1.037

Annual Energy
Cost
$5,280,341

Daily Oversight
Minutes/tank/day

No. Tanks
45

Annual
Oversight Cost
11
$280,046

Note:
1. Energy cost based on blower operations estimate of $5,555,748 million for 9" membrane disc diffusers (OTE 43%; HL=8.5 in), adjusted for OTE and headloss differences
2. Oversight cost includes completing a daily log of header pressures and other values required by the manufacturer
Maintenance/Replacement Cost
Labor cost, $/hr =
93
Maintenance Cost Multiplier** 3.1
Maintenance
Maintenance Procedure
Flexing Cycle
Chemical Cleaning (injection)
Power Wash
Inspection

Labor
Requirements
5
14
4
3

Labor Units
min/basin
hours/month
hrs/basin
hrs/basin

Material
Requirements
None
Acetic Acid ($/yr)
None
None

Maintenance
Cost
$264
$67,434
$19,000
$12,685
$9,514

Material Cost

Frequency
Daily
Every 2 years
Every 3 years
Annually

Notes:
1. Vendor maintenance recommendations
2. Chemical cleaning includes moving and set-up of injection system and cost of Acetic Acid
3. Power wash includes taking basins out of service and applying 2000 psi water pressure with a powerwashing wand with rotating nozzle
4. Inspection includes taking basin out of service and checking diffusers for needed repairs and additional cleaning

Total Installed
Cost
$20,883,805

Replacement
Labor Requirements

Labor Units
2 hr/diffuser

Material
Requirements

Material Cost

Membrane

$3,377,483

Replacement Cost

Frequency

$14,833,113 10 years

Notes:
1. Replacement takes 2 hours for removal from basin, repair, and replacement
2. Vendor quote $170/membrane
Risk of Failure Cost:
Labor cost, $/hr =
Risk
Membrane Tear

93
% Chance
Risk Cost, $/yr
2.00%
$296,662

Notes:
1. Vendor recommendation of 0.25-0.5% membrane replacement each year
**Note regarding labor cost: 1 hour of maintenance mechanic requires 1.4 hours of controls person and 0.7 hours of electrician; therefore, maintenance hours are multiplied by 3.1 hours.

1.000760392
3.93700787
4.92125985

Alternative 6 - Ovivo Aerostrip Diffusers (High Efficiency)


Quantifiable Base and Annual Costs

Item and Description

Reference

Units

Quantity

Cost/Unit

Total Cost

Vendor Quote

Diffusers

39735.1

924

Estimate

Hours

69536.42

73

5,062,252

Estimate

Blowers

2,000,000

3,353,000

Sub Total Capital Costs $

38,414,609

Base Costs (unescalated)


Panel Diffusers
Installation labor
Discount for 1 less blower

$ 36,705,358

Total Costs with net and soft cost markups $ 110,634,075


Annual Operational Costs (chemical, energy, operational oversight, etc.)
Energy Cost

Estimated

LS

4,713,553

4,713,553

Operational Oversight

Estimated

Hours

3011.3

93

280,046

Total Annual Operation $

4,993,599

Annual Maintenance Costs (Note: Enter non-recurring costs on LCC worksheet.)


Flexing Cycle

Estimated

Days

365

264

96,460

Inspection

Estimated

Hours

33

288

9,514

Total Annual Maintenance $

105,974

Annual Risk Costs (Note: Enter non-recurring costs on LCC worksheet.)


Risk of Membrane Tear

Vendor
Recommendation

Non-Capital BCE Air diffusers AIR CORRECTED 6 years

Percentage

Page 31 of 41

2.00%

26,802,318

536,046

Total Annual Risk $

536,046

9/21/2012

Alternative 6 - Ovivo Aerostrip (High Efficiency)


Quantifiable Non-Recurring Costs
Starting Year
No. of Years

2020
60
Year

Year
2020
Capital Costs (including soft costs and contractor costs)
Capital Costs (including contingency)
$ 110,634,075

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

2021

2022

2023

2024

2025

2026

2027

2028

2029

2030

2031

2032

2033

2034

2035

2036

2037

2038

2039

2040

2041

2042

2043

2044

2045

Recurring Costs - Operation, Maintenance and Risk (from worksheet)


Annual Operation
$
4,993,599 $ 5,168,375 $ 5,349,269 $ 5,536,493 $ 5,730,270
Annual Maintenance
$
105,974 $
109,683 $
113,522 $
117,496 $
121,608
Annual Risk
$
536,046 $
554,808 $
574,226 $
594,324 $
615,126
Non-Recurring Costs
Enter description, then enter the cost(s) under the appropriate year(s).
Replacement
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
Chemical Cleaning
$
- $
69,795 $
- $
74,766 $
Power Washing
$
- $
- $
13,589 $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
Projected Inflation Rate

$
$
$

5,930,830
125,864
636,655

$
$
$

6,138,409
130,269
658,938

$
$
$

6,353,253
134,829
682,001

$
$
$

6,575,617
139,548
705,871

$
$
$

6,805,763
144,432
730,576

$
$
$

7,043,965
149,487
756,146

$
$
$

7,290,504
154,719
782,611

$
$
$
$
$

80,091
15,066
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

85,795
-

$
$
$
$
$

16,704
-

36,528,808

$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

98,452
18,520
-

$ 7,545,672
$
160,134
$
810,003

$
$
$

7,809,770
165,739
838,353

$
$
$

8,083,112
171,540
867,695

$
$
$

8,366,021
177,544
898,065

$
$
$

8,658,832
183,758
929,497

$
$
$

8,961,891
190,189
962,029

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

105,464
-

$
$
$
$
$

20,533
-

$
$
$
$
$

112,976
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

121,023
22,766
-

$ 9,275,557
$ 196,846
$ 995,700

$ 9,600,201
$
203,736
$ 1,030,550

$ 9,936,208
$
210,866
$ 1,066,619

$ 10,283,976
$
218,247
$ 1,103,951

$ 10,643,915
$
225,885
$ 1,142,589

$ 11,016,452
$
233,791
$ 1,182,580

$ 11,402,028
$
241,974
$ 1,223,970

$ 11,801,099
$
250,443
$ 1,266,809

$
$
$
$
$

$ 51,527,491

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$

25,241
-

138,877
-

148,768
27,985
-

159,364
-

3.5%

Annual Expense (including inflation)

$ 116,269,695

5,902,661

6,050,606

6,323,078

6,467,004

6,788,506

6,927,616

7,255,878

7,437,739

44,209,580

7,949,599

8,344,807

$ 8,515,809

8,919,327

9,142,881

9,554,606

9,772,086

$ 10,257,898

Life Cycle Cost


Projected Discount Rate
3%
5%
7%

$ 116,269,695
$ 116,269,695
$ 116,269,695

$
$
$

5,730,739
5,621,582
5,516,506

$
$
$

5,703,276
5,488,078
5,284,833

$
$
$

5,786,512
5,462,113
5,161,515

$
$
$

5,745,849
5,320,420
4,933,646

$
$
$

5,855,825
5,318,972
4,840,111

$
$
$

5,801,769
5,169,494
4,616,163

$
$
$

5,899,693
5,156,617
4,518,596

$
$
$

5,871,420
5,034,155
4,328,832

$
$
$

33,882,962
28,497,889
24,047,082

$
$
$

5,915,248
4,880,364
4,041,173

$
$
$

6,028,466
4,879,036
3,964,558

$ 5,972,817
$ 4,741,921
$ 3,781,121

$
$
$

6,073,627
4,730,109
3,701,203

$
$
$

6,044,521
4,617,776
3,545,767

$
$
$

6,132,738
4,595,929
3,463,029

$
$
$

6,089,641
4,476,705
3,310,144

$
$
$

6,206,197
4,475,487
3,247,388

$ 6,148,907
$ 4,349,713
$ 3,097,134

Total Life Cycle Cost


3% Discount Rate
5% Discount Rate
7% Discount Rate

$ 658,888,942
$ 430,166,376
$ 317,248,770

Annualized Operations
Annual Expense
Projected Discount Rate
LCC Cost at 5% Discount
Annualized Operations Cost

$
4,993,599
$
4,993,599
$ 202,125,721
$8,102,941

$
$

5,168,375
4,922,262

$
$

5,349,269
4,851,944

$
$

5,536,493
4,782,631

$
$

5,730,270
4,714,307

$
$

5,930,830
4,646,960

$
$

6,138,409
4,580,575

$
$

6,353,253
4,515,138

$
$

6,575,617
4,450,636

$
$

6,805,763
4,387,056

$
$

7,043,965
4,324,384

$
$

7,290,504
4,262,607

$ 7,545,672
$ 4,201,712

$
$

7,809,770
4,141,688

$
$

8,083,112
4,082,521

$
$

8,366,021
4,024,199

$
$

8,658,832
3,966,711

$
$

8,961,891
3,910,043

Annualized Maintenance
Annual Expense
Projected Discount Rate
LCC Cost at 5% Discount
Annualized Maintenance Cost

$
642,021
$
642,021
$ 117,406,583
$4,706,668

$
$

734,286
699,320

$
$

701,337
636,134

$
$

786,585
679,482

$
$

736,733
606,112

$
$

857,676
672,012

$
$

789,207
588,919

$
$

902,625
641,479

$
$

862,123
583,518

$
$

37,403,816
24,110,834

$
$

905,634
555,980

$
$

1,054,303
616,429

$
$

$
$

1,109,556
588,422

$
$

1,059,769
535,255

$
$

1,188,585
571,730

$
$

1,113,255
509,995

$
$

1,296,007
565,444

970,137
540,209

Non-Capital BCE Air diffusers AIR CORRECTED 6 years

######### $ 62,361,978

$ 11,238,935

$ 11,745,050

$ 12,012,389

$ 12,609,576

$ 12,867,972

$ 13,477,715

$ 35,564,165
$ 24,678,752
$ 17,243,607

$ 6,222,726
$ 4,235,836
$ 2,904,354

$ 6,313,543
$ 4,215,796
$ 2,836,583

$ 6,269,176
$ 4,106,434
$ 2,711,354

$ 6,389,168
$ 4,105,316
$ 2,659,951

$ 6,330,189
$ 3,989,945
$ 2,536,877

$ 6,437,032
$ 3,980,007
$ 2,483,258

$ 9,275,557
$ 3,854,185

$ 9,600,201
$ 3,799,126

$ 9,936,208
$ 3,744,852

$ 10,283,976
$ 3,691,355

$ 10,643,915
$ 3,638,621

$ 11,016,452
$ 3,586,641

$ 11,402,028
$ 3,535,403

$ 11,801,099
$ 3,484,897

$ 1,192,546
$ 495,528

$ 52,761,777
$ 20,879,627

$ 1,302,726
$
490,984

$ 1,461,074
$
524,441

$ 1,368,474
$
467,813

$ 1,593,124
$
518,675

$ 1,465,944
$
454,542

$ 1,676,616
$
495,109

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

2046

2047

2048

2049

2050

2051

2052

2053

2054

2055

2056

2057

2058

2059

2060

2061

2062

2063

2064

2065

2066

2067

2068

2069

2070

2071

2072

2073

2074

2075

$ 12,214,137
$
259,209
$ 1,311,147

$ 12,641,632
$
268,281
$ 1,357,037

$ 13,084,089
$
277,671
$ 1,404,534

$ 13,542,032
$
287,389
$ 1,453,692

$ 14,016,003
$
297,448
$ 1,504,572

$ 14,506,563
$
307,859
$ 1,557,232

$ 15,014,293
$
318,634
$ 1,611,735

$ 15,539,793
$
329,786
$ 1,668,145

$ 16,083,686
$
341,328
$ 1,726,530

$ 16,646,615
$
353,275
$ 1,786,959

$ 17,229,247
$
365,639
$ 1,849,503

$ 17,832,270
$
378,437
$ 1,914,235

$ 18,456,400
$
391,682
$ 1,981,233

$ 19,102,374
$
405,391
$ 2,050,577

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$ 72,684,616

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

########## $
$
$
- $
$
- $
$
- $

31,027
-

170,715
-

$
$

195,899
-

38,141
-

209,852
-

224,799
42,287
-

240,810
-

46,885
-

$ 13,815,521

$ 14,437,665

$ 14,766,294

$ 87,967,729

$ 15,818,023

$ 16,567,553

$ 16,982,802

$ 17,747,577

$ 18,151,545

$ 19,053,935

$ 19,444,389

$ 20,365,752

$ 20,876,200

$ 6,406,184
$ 3,885,487
$ 2,378,970

$ 6,499,679
$ 3,867,104
$ 2,323,459

$ 6,454,004
$ 3,766,788
$ 2,220,883

$ 37,328,786
$ 21,371,436
$ 12,364,992

$ 6,516,816
$ 3,659,934
$ 2,077,968

$ 6,626,808
$ 3,650,817
$ 2,034,048

$ 6,595,051
$ 3,564,116
$ 1,948,626

$ 6,691,302
$ 3,547,253
$ 1,903,156

$ 6,644,280
$ 3,455,234
$ 1,819,136

$ 6,771,452
$ 3,454,293
$ 1,784,648

$ 6,708,945
$ 3,357,218
$ 1,702,073

$ 6,822,180
$ 3,348,855
$ 1,666,099

$ 6,789,486
$ 3,269,325
$ 1,596,129

$ 39,180,964
$ 18,507,349
$ 8,866,650

$ 12,214,137
$ 3,435,113

$ 12,641,632
$ 3,386,040

$ 13,084,089
$ 3,337,668

$ 13,542,032
$ 3,289,987

$ 14,016,003
$ 3,242,987

$ 14,506,563
$ 3,196,659

$ 15,014,293
$ 3,150,992

$ 15,539,793
$ 3,105,978

$ 16,083,686
$ 3,061,607

$ 16,646,615
$ 3,017,870

$ 17,229,247
$ 2,974,757

$ 17,832,270
$ 2,932,261

$ 18,456,400
$ 2,890,371

$ 19,102,374
$ 2,849,080

$ 1,601,383
$
450,374

$ 1,796,033
$
481,064

$ 1,682,204
$
429,120

$ 74,425,697
$ 18,081,449

$ 1,802,019
$
416,947

$ 2,060,989
$
454,158

$ 1,968,509
$
413,123

$ 2,207,783
$
441,275

$ 2,067,859
$
393,627

$ 2,407,320
$
436,424

$ 2,215,142
$
382,461

$ 2,533,482
$
416,595

$ 2,419,800
$
378,954

$ 19,770,957
$
419,580
$ 2,122,347
-

########## $ 22,312,883

$ 20,462,940
$
434,265
$ 2,196,629

$ 21,179,143
$
449,464
$ 2,273,511

$ 21,920,413
$
465,195
$ 2,353,084

$ 22,687,628
$
481,477
$ 2,435,442

$ 23,481,695
$
498,329
$ 2,520,682

$ 24,303,554
$
515,771
$ 2,608,906

$ 25,154,179
$
533,823
$ 2,700,218

$ 26,034,575
$
552,506
$ 2,794,725

$ 26,945,785
$
571,844
$ 2,892,541

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

########## $
$
$
- $
$
- $
$
- $

276,335
51,982
-

296,017
-

57,633
-

317,101
-

339,686
63,899
-

$ 23,422,151

$ 23,902,119

$ 25,034,710

$ 25,662,180

$ 26,817,807

$ 27,428,231

$ 28,791,804

$ 29,381,807

$ 6,840,167
$ 3,169,449
$ 1,490,063

$ 6,971,088
$ 3,168,586
$ 1,461,813

$ 6,906,738
$ 3,079,540
$ 1,394,176

$ 7,023,311
$ 3,071,869
$ 1,364,709

$ 6,989,654
$ 2,998,917
$ 1,307,397

$ 7,091,664
$ 2,984,728
$ 1,276,889

$ 7,041,829
$ 2,907,301
$ 1,220,518

$ 7,176,610
$ 2,906,510
$ 1,197,378

$ 7,110,362
$ 2,824,829
$ 1,141,976

$ 41,125,043
$ 16,027,092
$ 6,358,070

$ 19,770,957
$ 2,808,379

$ 20,462,940
$ 2,768,259

$ 21,179,143
$ 2,728,713

$ 21,920,413
$ 2,689,731

$ 22,687,628
$ 2,651,306

$ 23,481,695
$ 2,613,431

$ 24,303,554
$ 2,576,096

$ 25,154,179
$ 2,539,295

$ 26,034,575
$ 2,503,019

$ 26,945,785
$ 2,467,262

########## $ 2,541,926
$ 15,658,269 $
361,070

$ 2,959,211
$
400,327

$ 2,722,975
$
350,827

$ 3,114,296
$
382,138

$ 2,974,552
$
347,610

$ 3,336,112
$
371,298

$ 3,124,677
$
331,205

$ 3,637,625
$
367,215

$ 3,347,232
$
321,810

Non-Capital BCE Air diffusers AIR CORRECTED 6 years

$ 27,888,887
$
591,859
$ 2,993,780
70,846
-

########## $ 31,545,372

$ 28,864,998
$
612,574
$ 3,098,562

$ 29,875,273
$
634,014
$ 3,207,012

$ 30,920,908
$
656,204
$ 3,319,257

$ 32,003,140
$
679,171
$ 3,435,431

$ 33,123,250
$
702,942
$ 3,555,671

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

389,798
-

417,561
78,548
-

447,302
-

$ 32,965,932

$ 33,716,299

$ 35,392,478

$ 36,117,742

$ 37,829,165

$ 7,195,723
$ 2,750,874
$ 1,070,895

$ 7,300,740
$ 2,737,859
$ 1,045,906

$ 7,249,436
$ 2,666,836
$
999,732

$ 7,388,190
$ 2,666,110
$
980,778

$ 7,319,990
$ 2,591,185
$
935,398

$ 7,443,538
$ 2,584,731
$
915,628

$ 27,888,887
$ 2,432,015

$ 28,864,998
$ 2,397,272

$ 29,875,273
$ 2,363,025

$ 30,920,908
$ 2,329,268

$ 32,003,140
$ 2,295,992

$ 33,123,250
$ 2,263,192

########## $ 3,656,484
$ 13,559,830 $
318,859

$ 4,100,933
$
340,587

$ 3,841,025
$
303,811

$ 4,471,570
$
336,843

$ 4,114,602
$
295,193

$ 4,705,915
$
321,538

57

58

59

60

2076

2077

2078

2079

$ 34,282,563
$
727,545
$ 3,680,120

$ 35,482,453
$
753,009
$ 3,808,924

$ 36,724,339
$
779,365
$ 3,942,236

$ 38,009,691
$
806,642
$ 4,080,214

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

87,088
-

479,161
-

513,289
96,556
-

$ 38,777,316

$ 40,523,547

$ 41,445,940

$ 43,506,393

$ 7,407,867
$ 2,523,347
$
877,175

$ 7,515,981
$ 2,511,409
$
856,707

$ 7,463,164
$ 2,446,260
$
818,885

$ 7,606,009
$ 2,445,594
$
803,360

$ 34,282,563
$ 2,230,861

$ 35,482,453
$ 2,198,992

$ 36,724,339
$ 2,167,578

$ 38,009,691
$ 2,136,612

$ 4,494,753
$
292,486

$ 5,041,094
$
312,417

$ 4,721,601
$
278,683

$ 5,496,702
$
308,982

Non-Capital BCE Air diffusers AIR CORRECTED 6 years

Strip Diffusers
Ovivo Aerostrip
Capital cost
# of Tanks

11

(10 BNR basins and 2 REAR basin)

Max
Airflow/diffuser

Element
Aerostrip Diffusers

7.55

# of Diffusers
39,735

Vendor Quote,
$/diffuser
$551

Total Material
Labor
Cost with
min/diffuser
Markups
$36,705,358
105

Labor rate, $/hr


65

Total Labor Cost


$5,062,252

Notes:
1. Cost Markups: 19.75% + 40% for materials; 12% for labor
2. Airflow/diffuser taken as 1/2 that of Moderate Efficiency (from Aerostrip proposal)
3. # of diffusers determined by dividing design airflow (300,000 scfm) by max. airflow/diffuser
Annual Operations
Labor Cost, $/hr
Energy cost, $/kWh

$93
$0.09

Blower Energy
OTE

OTE Adjustment
Factor
53%
0.811

Head Loss
Headloss
Adjustment Factor
20.5
1.037

Annual Energy
Cost
$4,713,553

Daily Oversight
Minutes/tank/day

No. Tanks
45

Annual
Oversight Cost
11
$280,046

Note:
1. Energy cost based on blower operations estimate of $5,555,748 million for 9" membrane disc diffusers (OTE 43%; HL=8.5 in), adjusted for OTE and headloss differences
2. Oversight cost includes completing a daily log of header pressures and other values required by the manufacturer
Maintenance/Replacement Cost
Labor cost, $/hr =
93
Maintenance Cost Multiplier** 3.1
Maintenance
Maintenance Procedure
Flexing Cycle
Chemical Cleaning (injection)
Power Wash
Inspection

Labor
Requirements
5
14
4
3

Labor Units
min/basin
hours/month
hrs/basin
hrs/basin

Material
Requirements
None
Acetic Acid ($/yr)
None
None

Maintenance
Cost
$264
$67,434
$19,000
$12,685
$9,514

Material Cost

Frequency
Daily
Every 2 years
Every 3 years
Annually

Notes:
1. Vendor maintenance recommendations
2. Chemical cleaning includes moving and set-up of injection system and cost of Acetic Acid
3. Power wash includes taking basins out of service and applying 2000 psi water pressure with a powerwashing wand with rotating nozzle
4. Inspection includes taking basin out of service and checking diffusers for needed repairs and additional cleaning

Total Installed
Cost
$41,767,609

Replacement
Labor Requirements

Labor Units
1.75 hr/diffuser

Material
Requirements

Material Cost

Membrane

$6,754,967

Replacement Cost

Frequency

$26,802,318 10 years

52.8

Notes:
1. Replacement takes 2 hours for removal from basin, repair, and replacement
2. Vendor quote $170/membrane
Risk of Failure Cost:
Labor cost, $/hr =
Risk
Membrane Tear

93
% Chance
Risk Cost, $/yr
2.00%
$536,046

Notes:
1. Vendor recommendation of 0.25-0.5% membrane replacement each year
**Note regarding labor cost: 1 hour of maintenance mechanic requires 1.4 hours of controls person and 0.7 hours of electrician; therefore, maintenance hours are multiplied by 3.1 hours.

1.000760392
3.93700787
4.92125985

Alternative 7 - Coarse Bubble Diffusers


Quantifiable Base and Annual Costs

Item and Description

Reference

Units

Quantity

Estimate

LS

Cost/Unit

Total Cost

Base Costs (unescalated)


Diffusers

5,906,375

5,906,375

Sub Total Capital Costs $

5,906,375

Total Costs with net and soft cost markups $

17,010,361

Annual Operational Costs (chemical, energy, operational oversight, etc.)


Energy Cost

Estimated

Total

13,179,036

Operational Oversight

Estimated

Hours

2008

93

186,698

Total Annual Operation $

13,365,733

$ 13,179,036

Annual Maintenance Costs (Note: Enter non-recurring costs on LCC worksheet.)


Inspection

Estimated

Hours

33

288

9,514

Total Annual Maintenance $

9,514

Annual Risk Costs (Note: Enter non-recurring costs on LCC worksheet.)

Non-Capital BCE Air diffusers AIR CORRECTED 6 years

Page 37 of 41

Total Annual Risk $

9/21/2012

Alternative 7 - Coars Bubble Diffusers


Quantifiable Non-Recurring Costs
Starting Year
No. of Years

2020
60
Year

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

Year
2020
Capital Costs (including soft costs and contractor costs)
Capital Costs (including contingency)
$
17,010,361

2021

2022

2023

2024

2025

2026

2027

2028

2029

2030

2031

2032

2033

2034

2035

2036

2037

2038

2039

2040

2041

2042

2043

$ 17,600,118
$
12,528
$
-

$
$
$

18,216,122
12,966
-

$
$
$

18,853,687
13,420
-

$ 19,513,566
$
13,890
$
-

$
$
$

20,196,540
14,376
-

$
$
$

20,903,419
14,879
-

$
$
$

21,635,039
15,400
-

$
$
$

22,392,265
15,939
-

$ 23,175,995
$
16,497
$
-

$ 23,987,154
$
17,074
$
-

$ 24,826,705
$
17,672
$
-

$ 25,695,639
$
18,290
$
-

$ 26,594,987
$
18,931
$
-

$ 27,525,811
$
19,593
$
-

$ 28,489,215
$
20,279
$
-

$ 29,486,337
$
20,989
$
-

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

Recurring Costs - Operation, Maintenance and Risk (from worksheet)


Annual Operation
$
13,365,733 $ 13,833,534 $ 14,317,707 $ 14,818,827
Annual Maintenance
$
9,514 $
9,847 $
10,192 $
10,548
Annual Risk
$
- $
- $
- $
Non-Recurring Costs
Enter description, then enter the cost(s) under the appropriate year(s).
$
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
Projected Inflation Rate

$
$
$

15,337,486
10,917
-

$
$
$

15,874,298
11,300
-

$
$
$

16,429,899
11,695
-

$
$
$

17,004,945
12,104
-

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

3.5%

Annual Expense (including inflation)

30,385,608

13,843,381

14,327,899

$ 14,829,375

15,348,404

15,885,598

16,441,594

17,017,049

$ 17,612,646

18,229,089

18,867,107

$ 19,527,456

20,210,917

20,918,299

21,650,439

22,408,204

$ 23,192,492

$ 24,004,229

$ 24,844,377

$ 25,713,930

$ 26,613,918

$ 27,545,405

$ 28,509,494

$ 29,507,326

Life Cycle Cost


Projected Discount Rate
3%
5%
7%

$
$
$

30,385,608
30,385,608
30,385,608

$
$
$

13,440,175
13,184,172
12,937,739

$
$
$

13,505,419
12,995,827
12,514,542

$ 13,570,979
$ 12,810,172
$ 12,105,188

$
$
$

13,636,858
12,627,170
11,709,224

$
$
$

13,703,056
12,446,781
11,326,212

$
$
$

13,769,576
12,268,970
10,955,728

$
$
$

13,836,418
12,093,699
10,597,363

$ 13,903,585
$ 11,920,932
$ 10,250,720

$
$
$

13,971,079
11,750,633
9,915,416

$
$
$

14,038,899
11,582,767
9,591,080

$ 14,107,049
$ 11,417,299
$ 9,277,353

$
$
$

14,175,530
11,254,195
8,973,889

$
$
$

14,244,343
11,093,420
8,680,350

$
$
$

14,313,491
10,934,943
8,396,414

$
$
$

14,382,974
10,778,729
8,121,764

$ 14,452,794
$ 10,624,748
$ 7,856,099

$ 14,522,953
$ 10,472,966
$ 7,599,124

$ 14,593,453
$ 10,323,352
$ 7,350,555

$ 14,664,295
$ 10,175,875
$ 7,110,116

$ 14,735,481
$ 10,030,506
$ 6,877,542

$ 14,807,012
$ 9,887,213
$ 6,652,576

$ 14,878,891
$ 9,745,967
$ 6,434,968

$ 14,951,119
$ 9,606,739
$ 6,224,478

Total Life Cycle Cost


3% Discount Rate
5% Discount Rate
7% Discount Rate

$
$
$

946,022,628
558,399,691
370,318,823

Annualized Operations
Annual Expense
Projected Discount Rate
LCC Cost at 5% Discount
Annualized Operations Cost

$
$
$

13,365,733
13,365,733
541,004,236
$21,688,114

$
$

13,833,534
13,174,794

$
$

14,317,707
12,986,583

$ 14,818,827
$ 12,801,060

$
$

15,337,486
12,618,188

$
$

15,874,298
12,437,928

$
$

16,429,899
12,260,243

$
$

17,004,945
12,085,097

$ 17,600,118
$ 11,912,453

$
$

18,216,122
11,742,275

$
$

18,853,687
11,574,528

$ 19,513,566
$ 11,409,178

$
$

20,196,540
11,246,189

$
$

20,903,419
11,085,530

$
$

21,635,039
10,927,165

$
$

22,392,265
10,771,062

$ 23,175,995
$ 10,617,190

$ 23,987,154
$ 10,465,516

$ 24,826,705
$ 10,316,009

$ 25,695,639
$ 10,168,637

$ 26,594,987
$ 10,023,371

$ 27,525,811
$ 9,880,180

$ 28,489,215
$ 9,739,034

$ 29,486,337
$ 9,599,905

Annualized Maintenance
Annual Expense
Projected Discount Rate
LCC Cost at 5% Discount
Annualized Maintenance Cost

$
$
$

9,514
9,514
385,094
$15,438

$
$

9,847
9,378

$
$

10,192
9,244

$
$

$
$

10,917
8,982

$
$

11,300
8,853

$
$

11,695
8,727

$
$

12,104
8,602

$
$

$
$

12,966
8,358

$
$

13,420
8,239

$
$

$
$

14,376
8,005

$
$

14,879
7,891

$
$

15,400
7,778

$
$

15,939
7,667

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

10,548
9,112

12,528
8,479

13,890
8,121

Non-Capital BCE Air diffusers AIR CORRECTED 6 years

16,497
7,557

17,074
7,449

17,672
7,343

18,290
7,238

18,931
7,135

19,593
7,033

20,279
6,932

20,989
6,833

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

2044

2045

2046

2047

2048

2049

2050

2051

2052

2053

2054

2055

2056

2057

2058

2059

2060

2061

2062

2063

2064

2065

2066

2067

2068

2069

2070

2071

2072

2073

$ 30,518,359
$
21,723
$
-

$ 31,586,502
$
22,484
$
-

$ 32,692,029
$
23,271
$
-

$ 33,836,250
$
24,085
$
-

$ 35,020,519
$
24,928
$
-

$ 36,246,237
$
25,801
$
-

$ 37,514,856
$
26,704
$
-

$ 38,827,875
$
27,638
$
-

$ 40,186,851
$
28,606
$
-

$ 41,593,391
$
29,607
$
-

$ 43,049,160
$
30,643
$
-

$ 44,555,880
$
31,715
$
-

$ 46,115,336
$
32,825
$
-

$ 47,729,373
$
33,974
$
-

$ 49,399,901
$
35,163
$
-

$ 51,128,897
$
36,394
$
-

$ 52,918,409
$
37,668
$
-

$ 54,770,553
$
38,986
$
-

$ 56,687,522
$
40,351
$
-

$ 58,671,586
$
41,763
$
-

$ 60,725,091
$
43,225
$
-

$ 62,850,469
$
44,738
$
-

$ 65,050,236
$
46,304
$
-

$ 67,326,994
$
47,924
$
-

$ 69,683,439
$
49,602
$
-

$ 72,122,359
$
51,338
$
-

$ 74,646,642
$
53,134
$
-

$ 77,259,274
$
54,994
$
-

$ 79,963,349
$
56,919
$
-

$ 82,762,066
$
58,911
$
-

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$ 30,540,082

$ 31,608,985

$ 32,715,300

$ 33,860,335

$ 35,045,447

$ 36,272,038

$ 37,541,559

$ 38,855,514

$ 40,215,457

$ 41,622,998

$ 43,079,803

$ 44,587,596

$ 46,148,161

$ 47,763,347

$ 49,435,064

$ 51,165,291

$ 52,956,077

$ 54,809,539

$ 56,727,873

$ 58,713,349

$ 60,768,316

$ 62,895,207

$ 65,096,539

$ 67,374,918

$ 69,733,040

$ 72,173,697

$ 74,699,776

$ 77,314,268

$ 80,020,268

$ 82,820,977

$ 15,023,697
$ 9,469,500
$ 6,020,874

$ 15,096,627
$ 9,334,221
$ 5,823,930

$ 15,169,912
$ 9,200,875
$ 5,633,427

$ 15,243,552
$ 9,069,434
$ 5,449,156

$ 15,317,550
$ 8,939,871
$ 5,270,913

$ 15,391,907
$ 8,812,158
$ 5,098,500

$ 15,466,625
$ 8,686,270
$ 4,931,726

$ 15,541,706
$ 8,562,181
$ 4,770,408

$ 15,617,151
$ 8,439,864
$ 4,614,367

$ 15,692,963
$ 8,319,294
$ 4,463,430

$ 15,769,142
$ 8,200,447
$ 4,317,430

$ 15,845,691
$ 8,083,298
$ 4,176,205

$ 15,922,612
$ 7,967,822
$ 4,039,600

$ 15,999,906
$ 7,853,996
$ 3,907,464

$ 16,077,576
$ 7,741,796
$ 3,779,650

$ 16,155,622
$ 7,631,199
$ 3,656,016

$ 16,234,048
$ 7,522,182
$ 3,536,427

$ 16,312,854
$ 7,414,722
$ 3,420,749

$ 16,392,042
$ 7,308,798
$ 3,308,856

$ 16,471,615
$ 7,204,386
$ 3,200,622

$ 16,551,575
$ 7,101,466
$ 3,095,929

$ 16,631,922
$ 7,000,017
$ 2,994,660

$ 16,712,659
$ 6,900,017
$ 2,896,704

$ 16,793,789
$ 6,801,445
$ 2,801,952

$ 16,875,312
$ 6,704,282
$ 2,710,299

$ 16,957,231
$ 6,608,506
$ 2,621,645

$ 17,039,548
$ 6,514,099
$ 2,535,890

$ 17,122,264
$ 6,421,040
$ 2,452,940

$ 17,205,382
$ 6,329,311
$ 2,372,704

$ 17,288,903
$ 6,238,892
$ 2,295,092

$ 30,518,359
$ 9,462,764

$ 31,586,502
$ 9,327,581

$ 32,692,029
$ 9,194,330

$ 33,836,250
$ 9,062,983

$ 35,020,519
$ 8,933,512

$ 36,246,237
$ 8,805,890

$ 37,514,856
$ 8,680,092

$ 38,827,875
$ 8,556,090

$ 40,186,851
$ 8,433,860

$ 41,593,391
$ 8,313,377

$ 43,049,160
$ 8,194,614

$ 44,555,880
$ 8,077,548

$ 46,115,336
$ 7,962,155

$ 47,729,373
$ 7,848,410

$ 49,399,901
$ 7,736,289

$ 51,128,897
$ 7,625,771

$ 52,918,409
$ 7,516,831

$ 54,770,553
$ 7,409,448

$ 56,687,522
$ 7,303,599

$ 58,671,586
$ 7,199,262

$ 60,725,091
$ 7,096,415

$ 62,850,469
$ 6,995,038

$ 65,050,236
$ 6,895,109

$ 67,326,994
$ 6,796,607

$ 69,683,439
$ 6,699,513

$ 72,122,359
$ 6,603,805

$ 74,646,642
$ 6,509,465

$ 77,259,274
$ 6,416,473

$ 79,963,349
$ 6,324,809

$ 82,762,066
$ 6,234,455

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

21,723
6,736

22,484
6,639

23,271
6,545

24,085
6,451

24,928
6,359

25,801
6,268

26,704
6,179

27,638
6,090

28,606
6,003

29,607
5,918

30,643
5,833

31,715
5,750

32,825
5,668

33,974
5,587

35,163
5,507

36,394
5,428

Non-Capital BCE Air diffusers AIR CORRECTED 6 years

37,668
5,351

38,986
5,274

40,351
5,199

41,763
5,125

43,225
5,051

44,738
4,979

46,304
4,908

47,924
4,838

49,602
4,769

51,338
4,701

53,134
4,634

54,994
4,567

56,919
4,502

58,911
4,438

55

56

57

58

59

60

2074

2075

2076

2077

2078

2079

$ 85,658,738
$
60,973
$
-

$ 88,656,794
$
63,107
$
-

$ 91,759,782
$
65,316
$
-

$ 94,971,374
$
67,602
$
-

$ 98,295,372
$
69,968
$
-

##########
$
72,417
$
-

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$ 85,719,711

$ 88,719,901

$ 91,825,098

$ 95,038,976

$ 98,365,340

##########

$ 17,372,830
$ 6,149,765
$ 2,220,019

$ 17,457,164
$ 6,061,912
$ 2,147,402

$ 17,541,907
$ 5,975,313
$ 2,077,160

$ 17,627,062
$ 5,889,951
$ 2,009,215

$ 17,712,631
$ 5,805,809
$ 1,943,493

$ 17,798,614
$ 5,722,869
$ 1,879,921

$ 85,658,738
$ 6,145,391

$ 88,656,794
$ 6,057,600

$ 91,759,782
$ 5,971,063

$ 94,971,374
$ 5,885,762

$ 98,295,372
$ 5,801,679

##########
$ 5,718,798

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

60,973
4,374

63,107
4,312

65,316
4,250

67,602
4,190

69,968
4,130

72,417
4,071

Non-Capital BCE Air diffusers AIR CORRECTED 6 years

DISC DIFFUSERS
Sanitare 9" Membrane
Capital cost
# of Basins

11

(10 BNR basins and 1 REAR basin)

Total Installed
Cost
$5,906,375
$5,906,375

Basin
All
Total

Notes:
1. Cost Markups: 19.75% + 40% for materials; 12% for labor
2. Capital cost of coarse bubble assumed to be ~ 81.5% the cost of fine bubble (per B&V study)
Annual Operations
Labor Cost, $/hr
Energy cost, $/kWh

$93
$0.09

Blower Energy
OTE

OTE Adjustment
Factor
18%
2.39

Headloss

Annual Energy
Head Loss
Adjustment Factor
Cost
5.0
0.98
$13,179,036

Daily Oversight
Minutes/tank/day

No. Tanks
30

Annual Oversight Cost


11

$186,698

Note:
1. Energy cost based on blower operations estimate of $5,555,748 million for 9" membrane disc diffusers, adjusted for OTE and headloss differences
2. OTE from Sanitaire data
Maintenance/Replacement Cost
Labor cost, $/hr =
93
Maintenance Cost Multiplier**
3.1
Maintenance
Maintenance Procedure

Labor
Requirements

Inspection/possible cleaning

Labor Units
3 hr/basin

Material
Requirements
None

Material Cost

Maintenance
Frequency
Cost
$9,514 Annually

Notes:
1. Sanitaire maintenance recommendations
Replacement
It was assumed that no replacement of coarse bubble diffusers is necessary. With stainless steel as the material or construction, these diffusers should last
Risk of Failure Cost:
With consistent routine maintenance, there is no extraneous risk associated with coarse bubble diffusers

**Note regarding labor cost: 1 hour of maintenance mechanic requires 1.4 hours of controls person and 0.7 hours of electrician; therefore, maintenance hours are multiplied by 3.1 hours.

Business Case Evaluation


BNR Anoxic Basin Mixers

Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant

Sacramento Regional County Sanitation District

PRELIMINARY
FOR REVIEW ONLY

September 2012

BNR Anoxic Basin Mixers

Contents
1.0 Executive Summary .............................................................................................................................. 1
1.1 Mixer Types ........................................................................................................................................................ 1
1.2 Recommendation ................................................................................................................................................ 3
2.0 Goal Statement ...................................................................................................................................... 5
3.0 Design Criteria ...................................................................................................................................... 5
3.1 Basis of Design ................................................................................................................................................... 5
3.2 Design Criteria .................................................................................................................................................... 6
4.0 Analysis .................................................................................................................................................. 6
4.1 BNR Process ....................................................................................................................................................... 6
4.2 Process Background............................................................................................................................................ 7
5.0 Alternatives ............................................................................................................................................ 8
6.0 Viable Alternatives................................................................................................................................ 9
6.1 Submersible Mixers ............................................................................................................................................ 9
6.1.1 Basis for Estimating Operation and Maintenance Cost ............................................................................. 11
6.1.2 Maintenance Assessment .......................................................................................................................... 12
6.2 Top Mounted Mixers ........................................................................................................................................ 13
6.2.1 Basis for Estimating Operation and Maintenance Cost ............................................................................. 15
6.2.2 Maintenance Assessment .......................................................................................................................... 15
6.2.3 Invent Top Mounted Mixers ..................................................................................................................... 16
6.3 Jet Mixers ......................................................................................................................................................... 16
6.3.1 Basis for Estimating Operation and Maintenance Cost ............................................................................. 17
6.3.2 Maintenance Assessment .......................................................................................................................... 17
7.0 Advantages, Disadvantages and risks ............................................................................................... 19
8.0 Alternative Cost Analysis ................................................................................................................... 19

List of Figures
Figure 1. Submersible mixers: Wilo-Emu (LEFT); Flygt (RIGHT) .............................................................................. 1
Figure 2. Solar Bee mixer Figure 3. Aeromix surface aerator................................................................................. 2
Figure 4. Invent Hyperclassic mixer
Figure 5. Lotus right angle top entry mixer...................................2
Figure 6. Siemens jet mixer Figure 7. Mixing systems jet mixer ............................................................................ 3
Figure 8. Preliminary layout of submersible mixers in BNR basin ............................................................................. 10
Figure 9. Sample cross-sectional view of submersible mixer in basin. ....................................................................... 11
Figure 10. Top mounted mixer platform plan .............................................................................................................. 14
Figure 11. Top mounted mixer elevation..................................................................................................................... 14
Figure 12. Top mounted mixer layout in BNR ............................................................................................................ 15

List of Tables
Table 1. Financial Impact Summary .............................................................................................................................. 4
Table 2. Advantages, Disadvantages and risks of different type of mixers ................................................................... 4
Table 3. Anoxic and swing zone dimensions................................................................................................................. 5
Table 4. Mixer types and major manufacturers ............................................................................................................. 9
Table 5. Manufacturer's selection for anoxic and swing zones submersible mixers.................................................... 10
Table 6. Manufacturer's selection for anoxic and swing zones top mounted mixers ................................................... 13
Table 7. Advantages, Disadvantages and risks of different type of mixers ................................................................. 19
Table 8. Financial Aspects of Anoxic Zone Mixers .................................................................................................... 19

Sacramento Regional County Sanitation District


Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant
Z:\05. BNR\B. Planning\BCE03 - Anoxic Mixer Technology Selection (E)\BNR Anoxic Mixers BCE Formatted DRAFT Final 9-17-12.docx

i
September 21, 2012

BNR Anoxic Basin Mixers

1.0 Executive Summary


The Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) system is a completely new process designed for the
Sacramento Regional County Sanitation District (SRCSD) advanced wastewater treatment
project. It has four major pieces of mechanical equipment:

Aeration blowers Supply a wide range of airflows at required discharge pressure to


meet dissolved oxygen demand in BNR process

Aeration diffusers Distribute air supplied from blowers into aeration basins depending
on dissolved oxygen requirements of each basin.

Anoxic and swing zones mixers Provide mixing to keep solids in suspension, keep
inflow streams and basin volume completely mixed, and prevent short circuiting of flow
from one zone to another.

Mixed liquor recirculation (MLR) pumps Recirculate a portion of mixed liquor from
swing zone to anoxic zone for denitrification and to produce high quality effluent.

This BCE discusses the anoxic and swing zone mixers

1.1 Mixer Types


The purpose of this BCE is to determine the type of mixing equipment best suited to the anoxic
and swing zones of the BNR. Mixer types compared include:

Submersible - Submersible mixers are installed in the basins and mount on a rail system
for ease of removal. Because of weight, mixers are recovered using a winch that can be
installed at each location or one winch could be provided for multiple units with a
connection point at the mixer. Depending on the weight of the mixer, the winch may be
too heavy to manually relocate and therefore may need to be permanently located.

Figure 1. Submersible mixers: Wilo-Emu (LEFT); Flygt (RIGHT)

Sacramento Regional County Sanitation District


Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant
Z:\05. BNR\B. Planning\BCE03 - Anoxic Mixer Technology Selection (E)\BNR Anoxic Mixers BCE Formatted DRAFT Final 9-17-12.docx

1
September 21, 2012

BNR Anoxic Basin Mixers

Pontoon (floating) mixers - Pontoon mixers are typically used in pond systems, but can
be adopted for use on the anoxic basins.

Figure 2. Solar Bee mixer

Top (pedestal mounted) mixers - Top (pedestal mounted) mixers use large diameter
impellers at slow speeds to induce mixing and engage more of the fluid within the basin.
Turbulent flow is still used to provide overall mixing, but more of the flow is engaged in
creating the mixing, therefore fewer numbers of units are required.

Figure 4. Invent Hyperclassic mixer

Figure 3. Aeromix surface aerator

Figure 5. Lotus right angle top entry mixer

Jet mixers - Jet mixers are essentially submersible pumps installed in the basins and
recirculate flow to create the mixing energy needed to suspend solids. The pumps are
also installed using a rail system for removal by winch.

Sacramento Regional County Sanitation District


Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant
Z:\05. BNR\B. Planning\BCE03 - Anoxic Mixer Technology Selection (E)\BNR Anoxic Mixers BCE Formatted DRAFT Final 9-17-12.docx

2
September 21, 2012

BNR Anoxic Basin Mixers

Figure 6. Siemens jet mixer

Figure 7. Mixing systems jet mixer

1.2 Findings/Recommendation
This BCE provides a summary of cost, operations, and maintenance considerations for
submersible and top mounted mixers. All three mixer types are suitable for mixing the anoxic
zones, but jet pumps have some mounting issues when used in the swing zones. Submersible
pumps and mixers mount on rails for easy removal, but must be removed for annual inspections
and maintenance. Top mounted mixers provide easy access to the motor and gear box, but
require a support structure and walkway for access.
Table 1 summarizes the capital, annual, and present value (life cycle) costs for mixers for the
submersible mixer from Flygt, top mounted mixers from Lightnin and Invent, and jet mixer
from Fluidyne. Table 2 provides a comparison of advantages, disadvantages, and risks.

1.2.1 Findings
1. The life cycle cost of the Invent top mounted mixer is the lowest.
2. The Fluidyne jet mixer has the highest life cycle cost and based on the high
operating cost, jet mixing is not recommended for either anoxic or swing zone
mixing.
3. The life cycle costs for the Flygt submersible and Lightnin top mounted mixer
were the same (although the Lightnin mixer was double the capital cost with half
the maintenance costs).
4. Operating experience with submersible mixers varies from plant to plant. Some
plants have experienced multiple failures within the useful life cycle of these
mixers while other plants (typically smaller) have had success operating and
maintaining this type of mixer. To account for this higher variability of failure
based on full scale experience, the submersible mixers were allocated risk costs.
5. Submersible mixers are more expensive to maintain as units have to be extracted
from the basins.
6. Top mounted mixers appear to provide the best life cycle value and are
recommended
Sacramento Regional County Sanitation District
Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant
Z:\05. BNR\B. Planning\BCE03 - Anoxic Mixer Technology Selection (E)\BNR Anoxic Mixers BCE Formatted DRAFT Final 9-17-12.docx

3
September 21, 2012

BNR Anoxic Basin Mixers


Table 1. Financial Impact Summary

Alternative

Annualized
Operations

Base Cost

Annualized
Maintenance
and Risk

60- year Life-Cycle


Cost at 5% Discount
Rate

Submersible, Flygt

$9,264,000

$384,000

$516,000

$31,720,000

Top Mounted,
Lightnin

$18,710,000

$324,400

$242,400

$32,845,000

Top Mounted,
Invent

$8,462,000

$414,000

$261,000

$25,300,000

Jet, Fluidyne

$8,100,000

$986,000

$296,000

$40,062,000

Table 2. Advantages, Disadvantages and risks of different type of mixers


Type
Submersible
Mixers

Advantages

Jet Mixers

Top Mounted
Mixers

Disadvantages

Easy removal of mixers


using guide rails.
Flexible to direct to water
surface for scum prevention
or to floor for bottom
scouring

No moving parts in the basin


Redundancy can be provided
by standby pump
Effective in deep and larger
tanks.

Have better capabilities to


keep solids in suspension
Easy access to motor
Less energy requirement to
mix unit volume
More intense and uniform
mixing

Risk

Submerged mixer motor.


Bearing and seal failure
High energy requirement to mix
unit volume
Mixer can become tangled in
power cord.

Need to drain the basin to repair


header and nozzles.
Pump station/house is required
for recirculation pumps
When redundancy is not
provided, failure of circulation
pumps results in no-mixing

Power failure
Difficult to identify a
plugged nozzle

Flow inlet and outlet location


influence mixer location and
orientation.
May require baffles on tank
walls to prevent swirling of low
viscosity fluid.
Need to dewater the basin to
service, repair or replace shaft
and impeller.

Difficult to identify
shaft failure
(bending)
Power failure

Sacramento Regional County Sanitation District


Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant
Z:\05. BNR\B. Planning\BCE03 - Anoxic Mixer Technology Selection (E)\BNR Anoxic Mixers BCE Formatted DRAFT Final 9-17-12.docx

Power failure
Difficult to identify
whether mixer is
working
Lifting cable breaks
at water surface.

4
September 21, 2012

BNR Anoxic Basin Mixers


1.2.2 Recommendation
Jet mixing does not appear to be a viable option for economic reasons. The Invent mixer is a
proprietary top mount system, this mixer style must be bid as as alternative to other top
mounted mixers to avoid sole sourcing the equipment. Top mounted mixers are preferred
because of maintenance access to the motor and gear reducer. During detailed design of the
BNR basins, the capital and operating costs for the top mounted mixer alternatives must be
updated using computational fluid dynamic models to ensure adequate mixing energy is
introduced into anoxic zones and swing zones (if used).
In addition to evaluating the most appropriate mixer(s) for design and bidding, the designer
should consider the ability of the swing zones to be mixed using the diffused aeration system
that is installed for the purpose of switching the zone to full aeration.

2.0 Goal Statement


The goal of this BCE is to evaluate the life cycle cost and pros/cons of various mixing
technologies for the anoxic zones. Selecting the right mixing technology and speed is essential
to anoxic zone performance. Aeration is typically not a viable option for anoxic zone mixing as
it introduces dissolved oxygen into wastewater and inhibits denitrification. Therefore
mechanical mixing is required.

3.0 Design Criteria


3.1 Basis of Design
There are ten BNR basins, and in the modified Ludzack Ettinger (MLE) configuration each
basin has been conceptually divided into six zones: two anoxic zones, three oxic zones and one
swing zone. The oxic and swing zones are equipped with aeration diffusers. Mixers are
provided in the anoxic zones and mixers and diffusers are installed in the swing zone.
Depending on the zone dimensions, multiple mixer units may be required. Baffle walls will be
used to separate the zones. Approximate dimensions of zones are provided in following table.
Table 3. Anoxic and swing zone dimensions
Zone

Type

Length, ft

Width, ft

Side Water
Depth, ft

Volume, million
gal

AER1

Anoxic

200

45

25

1.68

AER2

Anoxic

200

45

25

1.68

AER6

Swing

100

37

25

0.69

Flow inlet and outlet positions influence mixer orientation and location. Influent will enter the
BNR basin AER1 anoxic zone through pipes located at approximately 10 ft above basin floor.
Flow from one zone to another flows over a baffle wall. The effluent will exit the BNR basin
from swing zone to the MLSS channel for conveyance to the secondary sedimentation tanks.
ML recirculation from swing zone AER6 to anoxic zone AER1 flows through a pipe
penetrating the common wall. See drawings available on the Districts web site.

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3.2 Design Criteria
The anoxic zones are designed as complete mix zones. The mixers in BNR basins must be
designed to meet following requirements:

Keep mixed liquor suspended solids in suspension and ensure non-settling condition

Prevent solids settling and dead zones/areas

Prevent flow short circuiting

Complete mix of zone and influent streams (RAS, SSB return stream and other side
streams [i.e. BRF], primary effluent and ML recirculation)

Provide more than justminimum mixing with one mixer out of service

The cross-sectional velocity in the anoxic zones and in the swing zone(s) does not provide
adequate energy for mixing. A cross-sectional velocity of between 0.3 0.6 m/s is required to
keep solids in suspension in a racetrack (oxidation ditch).1 Mixer manufactures often use a 1
ft/sec bulk velocity to shear the entire basin volume and keep solids in suspension.
The typical power requirement for mechanical mixing in anoxic zones ranges from 8 to 13
kW/103 m3 (0.3 0.5 HP/103 ft3)2. The power requirement for mechanical mixing using a
vertical turbine mixer ranges from 12 to 16 W/m3, and using horizontal mixers ranges from 5 to
7 W/m3. However using energy per unit volume is not a good measure of mixing effectiveness
because of the differences in efficiency between mixer types.
The mixers should be designed with no redundancy unit and a criticality code of 3 (Ref:
Facility plan report Table 1-4). Multiple units may be required to mix anoxic and swing zones
because of the zone geometry. The mixing energy needs to be balanced between too much
mixing with all mixers running and insufficient mixing with one mixer out of service. The
advantage of RAS, primary effluent, and MLR flows entering anoxic zone AER1 from different
directions can be considered to provide some level of mixing.

4.0 Analysis
4.1 BNR Process
Biological nitrogen removal is a two-stage process: nitrification and de-nitrification.
Nitrification is a process that converts ammonium nitrogen to nitrite and nitrate nitrogen in an
aerobic environment. Aeration is used to provide dissolved oxygen for oxidation and mixing.
De-nitrification converts nitrate and nitrite nitrogen into nitrogen gas and releases the gas to
atmosphere, thus removing nitrogen from wastewater. This process occurs in an anoxic
environment with little dissolved oxygen and no aeration, however mixing is needed to keep
solids in suspension. The BNR process designed for SRCSD wastewater treatment plant

Design of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants, Volume 2: Liquid Treatment Processes(Fifth edition), McGraw
Hills
2
Wastewater Engineering Treatment and Reuse (Fourth edi.), McGraw Hill,
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(WWTP) uses anoxic zone basins at the influent end where primary effluent, return activated
sludge (RAS) and mixed liquor (ML) recirculation enter the BNR process for de-nitrification.
Anoxic zone mixing provides a complete mix of inflow streams, keeps mixed liquor suspended
solids (MLSS) in suspension, brings microorganisms in contact with liquid and organic matter,
promotes de-nitrification, and optimizes the basin volume by limiting any dead or settled zones
in the basin. Mixing operates 24/7 and must be easy to maintain as redundant units are typically
not installed in the tanks.
Proper mixing speed is essential to minimize any air entrainment due to surface turbulence or
vortexing. This business case evaluation (BCE) will evaluate the available classes of mixing
technologies on the market and recommend suitable mixing technology for this application.
The evaluation will cover:

Functional requirements of anoxic zone mixing

Mixing technologies for anoxic zone available in the market

Features: Advantages, disadvantages and risks

Operational and maintenance requirements including failure mode and consequences of


failure

Economics

Alternatives and recommendation

4.2 Process Background


Continuous mixing is used in activated sludge process to keep solids in suspension. Mixing
with an impeller causes two reactions: shearing the fluid and circulation. Historically, mixing
energy has been defined in terms of power (HP or kW) applied per volume of basin with the
reasoning that more input power creates greater turbulence and eventually leads to better
mixing. This has tended to result in providing too much power. Velocity gradient G is a
function of power or an indicator of power input in mixing. G value is not an effective measure
of mixing since it is an average velocity and it does not take mixer pumping characteristics or
basin geometry into account. Modern methods have used force (Newtons or lbs). Anoxic basin
mixing requires between 700 and 800 N (150 to 180 lbs).
Some manufacturers use thrust to define required mixing capacity. The thrust is more related to
fluid motion and depends on the required bulk flow velocity which can be determined from the
highest value of solids settling velocities or inflows. Bulk flow velocity affects the time
required for inflows to mix into a homogeneous volume. All the factors (mixing requirements,
tank shape and size, and liquid rheology influence mixing capacity) can be combined to
develop the thrust required for tank mixing. The mixer input thrust has to be greater than the
estimated thrust to ensure homogeneous mixing. Manufacturers use customized software to
size the mixer based on above factors and to incorporate mixer characteristics such as impeller

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diameter, orientation, number of units required, etc. Selecting the mixer using thrust provides
better mixing capacity.
Each of the mixer types mentioned in Section 1.1 inject a large amount of energy into a
relatively small location and use turbulent flow to mix adjacent areas and provide overall
mixing. One limitation is that many units are necessary to mix the anoxic zones. Another is
that the mixing energy tends to dissipate very quickly and the mixers are often set up to create a
swirl pattern, which is not the best mixing due to the potential for short circuiting.
The power consumed by mixers is the product of impeller pumping capacity and velocity head.
Both pumping capacity and velocity head are proportional to propeller speed and diameter.
However, pumping capacity greatly depends on diameter, whereas velocity head depends on
impeller speed. A larger diameter impeller with low speed results in higher pumping and low
shear. Conversely, a smaller diameter impeller with high speed results in low pumping and high
shear. Again, the impeller design depends on the application requirements.
Torque applied to fluid determines the level of mixing. For a given horsepower, a larger
impeller with low speed produces greater torque which results in greater mixing than a smaller
impeller with high speed. There are different impeller types that are specific to certain
applications.
Mixing of the swing zones could be done by a mechanical mixer when operating in an anoxic
mode or using an aeration diffuser system when operating in an aerobic mode. One alternative
would be to select diffusers and piping configuration that allows the diffused aeration system to
be used even in the anoxic mode. Swing zone mixing using the diffused aeration system and/or
mechanical mixing was not evaluated in this BCE, but needs to be evaluated during design.

5.0 Alternatives
The alternatives considered were:
0. No Action (Status Quo)
1. Submersible Mixers
2. Top mounted mixers
3. Pontoon Mixers
4. Jet mixers
Alternative 0 was not considered, because the status quo is not a viable alternative since the
existing high purity activated sludge system does not remove nitrogen and the BNR basin has
not yet been constructed. Alternative 3 (pontoon mixers) was not considered a viable option
because of the geometry of the zone and this technology is typically not employed in large high
rate activated sludge systems since the mixers cannot provide enough energy to mix the zones
without causing air entrainment.

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6.0 Viable Alternatives


The viable alternatives that were considered are:
1. Submersible mixers
2. Top mounted mixers
3. Jet mixers
Major manufacturers of above mixer types are listed in Table 4.
Table 4. Mixer types and major manufacturers
Mixers

Manufacturer

Submersible Mixer

Flygt, Wilo-Emu, Philadelphia

Top Mounted Mixer

Invent, Lightnin, Hayward Gordon

Jet Mixer

Flygt, Fluidyne, Siemens

This alternative analysis considers failure mode and consequences of failure to evaluate
advantages, disadvantages and risk associated with each mixer type. The modes of failure are
typically related to one of the four following items: capacity, level of service, mortality, or
efficiency. In this case, all of the equipment and facilities are designed new with the same
capacity and level of service. For this reason, capacity and level of service failures are
considered to be equal for all of the equipment alternatives. Failure modes of each mixer type
are discussed under its respective section.

6.1 Submersible Mixers


Anoxic and swing zones are assumed to be equipped with two submersible mixers per zone and
can produce a minimum thrust of 3,600 N. Different mounting options are available for
submersible mixers depending on basin configuration: guide rail, cantilever, guide rail and
tripod, floor and flanged (through wall inspection hall). In general practice, mixers are mounted
to a guide rail for easy removal.
Using larger propellers in submersible mixers will significantly reduce power requirements
since it produces higher thrust per unit power and the propeller speed is slower than smaller
propeller mixers. However, these mixers are prone to bend if impeded by fibrous materials
present in the wastewater or any objects dropped into basin.
Smaller propeller submersible mixers have the following advantages over larger propeller
mixers:

Ease of handling

Can operate at lower tank depth

Flexible enough to aim at water surface for scum prevention or towards floor for bottom
scouring

Effectively resuspend settled solids

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Can handle heavier sludge

Can be used in variety of basin geometries

Require less expensive mast or guide rail system

Lower capital cost

Smaller propeller mixers require more power to produce thrust required for mixing, and high
propeller speed increases wear on seals.
Manufacturers were contacted to ascertain their approach to mixer sizing and each uses
different design criteria to size the mixers. Table 5 provides the mixer sizing information from
two manufacturers.
Table 5. Manufacturer's selection for anoxic and swing zones submersible mixers

Manufacturer
A

Option
Opt 1

Opt 2

Opt 1

No. of
Mixers/
zone

Zone

Power
Input,
kW

Propeller
speed, rpm

HP

Thrust
produced/mixer,
N (if available)

Anoxic AER1
and AER2

3.5

30

3.4

1,763

Swing AER6

6.17

30

5.5

1,825

Anoxic AER1
and AER2

40

440

36

3,889

Swing AER6

13.95

600

12.2

2,327

Anoxic AER1
and AER2

7.4

58

7.1

3,600

Swing AER6

5.6

225

5.4

1,860

The submersible mixers have the flexibility to be located in alternative positions if the
recommended layout below is not viable. Figure 8 and Figure 9 show the preliminary layout of
submersible mixers in a BNR basin and a sample cross-sectional view respectively.
200ft

AER3
AER4
250ft

BNRBasin

100ft

200ft

AER2
31.5ft

39ft

200ft

AER1
AER5

AER6

250ft

100ft

100ft
X

39ft

26ft
4ft

30ft

25ft
4ft

SectionXX AnoxicZonesAER1andAER2
X
Mixerlocationinplan AnoxicZonesAER1andAER2

Figure 8. Preliminary layout of submersible mixers in BNR basin


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Crane

Mixed
Liquor
Channel

LiftingCable

SubmersibleMixer

Figure 9. Sample cross-sectional view of submersible mixer in basin.

6.1.1 Basis for Estimating Operation and Maintenance Cost


Submersible mixer operational data was obtained from Flygt. Routine maintenance
requirements for submersible mixers were taken from the Flygt O&M manual as well as past
experience. The following assumptions were used to estimate O&M costs:
6.1.1.1 Operating Requirements
The mixers run continuously 24/7; all are in service and run at constant speed since the zone
volume does not change. (However the mixed liquor suspended solids concentration may
change and therefore variable mixing speed may be required). The anoxic zone mixers operate
at 3.5 HP, and the swing zone mixers operate at 6.14 HP. The total annual energy consumption
is approximately 300 kW for all mixers in operation in the BNR basins.

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6.1.1.2 Routine Maintenance Requirements and Cost
Mixers require an oil change each year. In addition, preventative maintenance is provided by
the manufacturers shop on wheels, which costs approximately $140/hour and requires
approximately 1.5 hours per mixer on the maintenance staffs end.
Overhaul is estimated to occur every 15 years. This requires approximately 16 hours per mixer
and $4,300 in materials for anoxic mixers and $2,400 in materials for swing zone mixers.

6.1.2 Maintenance Assessment

Maintenance Concerns
Redundancy is not provided. It is assumed that each zone has at least two mixers and both
will not fail at the same time.
It is difficult to make sure that propellers are in place and running from superficial
inspection. Mixers should run once a month when it is not in service for a prolonged
period.

Criticality
Mixers receive a criticality code of 3 in the facility plan.

Modes of Failure
Propeller falls off
Seal fails
Mixer falls off support
Mixer sticks to rail and cannot be removed by winch
Mixer gets tangled in power cord.
Experience at operating facilities: Although many plants have minimal problems, many
other plants have an unusually high failure rate. Seal failure is the most common
reason for failure. When the equipment cannot be removed by winch, the entire basin
(anoxic and aerobic) must be removed from service.

Consequences of Failure
The main consequence of failure is a loss of mixing. Where multiple units are located in
the same zone, loss of one unit does not typically create adverse conditions, as some
mixing remains. Submersible mixers come as a single sealed unit, so seal failure results in
the loss of the motor and the entire unit has to be replaced. The mixer needs to be taken out
of the basin for service when it fails. The BNR basins need to have vehicle access and
mixer removal (cranes) facilities. Spare mixers can be installed without impacting process
efficiency.

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6.2 Top Mounted Mixers
Top mounted mixer can provide strong, rapid , and uniform mixing, and have better capabilities
of keeping solids in suspension. These mixers use both fluid pumped through the impeller and
induced turbulence for mixing. The two mixing components, fluid velocity and shear, produce
movement throughout the fluid and keep solids in suspension, thereby producing small
turbulence eddy currents within large velocity streams for micro-mixing. Though all impellers
produce both fluid velocity and shear, their degree of efficiency depends on the application
requirements.
Top mounted mixer orientation and location is greatly influenced by fluid inlet and outlet
locations and orientation in the basins. The mixers require a structure joined to the tank or basin
that supports mixer weight and bending loads from mixing. Baffles on basin walls may be
required to prevent swirling of low viscosity fluid. Key things to note about top mounted
mixers include:

They provide uniform mixing

They require structural supports

Mixing intensity can be controlled by a VFD motor


Table 6. Manufacturer's selection for anoxic and swing zones top mounted mixers
No. of
Mixers/zone

Rated
power,
HP

Rated torque, lb-in (if


available)

7.5

17,100

Swing AER6

7.5

18,900

Anoxic AER1 and AER2

30

99,170

Swing AER6

15

60,600

Manufacturer
A
B

Zone
Anoxic AER1 and AER2

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BNRBasin
Mixer
Mounting
Platform

3ft

Walkway

19.5ft

Figure 10. Top mounted mixer platform plan

Mixer
Mixer
Mounting
Platform
Walkway
WSE
19.5ft

25ft

BNRBasin

Concrete
Supporting
Column

Figure 11. Top mounted mixer elevation

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100ft

100ft

40ft

60ft

60ft

40ft

19.5ft

39ft

30ft

25ft

X
Mixerlocationinplan AnoxicZonesAER1andAER2

SectionXX AnoxicZonesAER1andAER2

Figure 12. Top mounted mixer layout in BNR

Performance requirements are simply to provide sufficient mixing to keep the biological
material from settling, but not over mix. A critical issue is to engage as much of the zone
volume as possible to limit short-circuiting and efficiently provide detention time.

6.2.1 Basis for Estimating Operation and Maintenance Cost


6.2.1.1 Operating requirements
The mixers run continuously 24/7; all are in service and run at constant speed since the zone
volume does not change. (However the mixed liquor suspended solids concentration may
change and therefore variable mixing speed may be required). Anoxic and swing zone mixers
operate at 4.25 HP, and consume approximately 254 kW each year for all mixers in operation
in all BNR basins.
6.2.1.2 Routine Maintenance Requirements and Cost
Mixers require an oil change every year. In addition, the manufacturer-provided service
contract includes inspection of units that costs approximately $28,800 each year. In addition,
bearings in the gear drive must be greased twice a year.
Overhaul is expected to occur approximately once every 30 years. This requires 16 hours of
labor per mixer, $4,250 in materials for anoxic mixers, and $3,750 in materials for swing zone
mixers.
Maintenance of the motor and gear box can all be accomplished from the walkway without the
need to remove the mixer from the basin. All of the annual maintenance and most of the
moving parts maintenance can be accomplished from the walkway.

6.2.2 Maintenance Assessment

Maintenance Concerns
Redundancy is not provided. It is assumed that each zone has at least two mixers and both
will not fail at the same time. Assuming routine maintenance is consistent, there are no
additional maintenance concerns associated with top-mounted mixers.

Criticality
Mixers receive a criticality code of 3 in the Facility Plan.

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Failure Modes
Impeller falls off
Shaft breaks
Gear reducer fails

Experience at operating facilities:


Most problems are associated with installation problems or manufacturer defects.

Consequence of Failure
The main consequence of failure is a loss of mixing. Where multiple units are located in
the same zone, loss of one unit does not typically create adverse conditions as some mixing
remains.
Sub-surface failures, even for top mounted mixers, require that the entire basin be removed
from service to access the equipment. It is often very difficult to determine whether subsurface failures have occurred because the motors continue to run. Top mounted units
allow for the separate replacement of the motor, gear reducer, shaft and impeller. The
basins need to have vehicle access and mixer removal (cranes) facilities.

6.2.3 Invent Top Mounted Mixers


The Invent HyperClassic model is a patented top mounted mixer with a hyperboloid shape.
The shape of this mixer optimizes tank flow mechanics with its large diameter. The body
rotates very slowly compared to other mixers, which reduces energy consumption and regular
wear on the mixer and shaft. The drive and shaft are located outside of the tank, as with other
top mounted mixers. These low-speed mixers require a smaller support structure, because they
weigh less than a ton, compared to other top mounted mixers, weighing between 2 and 3.5 tons.
The mixer is a one-piece unit and made of fiberglass reinforced plastic. It is polished to avoid
issues with pH, chlorine, chemicals, and biological contaminants. The patented design consists
of only 4 parts, providing simple installation. Invent was assessed because of the reviews that
have been made by users of the Invent mixers.

6.3 Jet Mixers


Jet mixing uses fluid hydraulics as the driving force in fluid mixing. It works on the principle of
recirculated fluid velocity through a series of nozzles to move the fluid in the tank/basin. The
jet plume travels horizontally, and creates shear and fluid circulation to keep the tank liquid in
continual motion. Apart from mixing, jet mixing can be used for aeration and introducing
chemical into liquid.
There are three types of jet mixers: directional, bidirectional and eddy. In directional mixing,
nozzles are arranged along the header length in one direction, whereas in bidirectional nozzles
are arranged in two perpendicular headers along the header length. Eddy mixer nozzles are

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radially arranged in a common chamber. The selection of jet mixing type mainly depends on
tank/basin geometry. Some features of jet mixing are as follows:

No in-basin moving parts

No long shafts and submerged bearings

Can be installed close to tank bottom (approximately 18 inches above tank bottom)

No special baffles required

No external support system required such as pedestals or cantilevered beams

Suitable for large and deep tanks

Recirculation pumps can be located outside the tanks

Using jet mixing in swing zone with aeration diffusers is not efficient since the plumes created
in jet mixing disturb the even distribution of air in the basin. Solids with a size larger than the
nozzle diameter may cause nozzle plugging.

6.3.1 Basis for Estimating Operation and Maintenance Cost


6.3.1.1 Operating Requirements
The mixers run continuously 24/7. Each mixer has a submersible pump that runs at
approximately 20 HP. At 70% efficiency, the pumps consume 770 kW each year. These
mixers consume the most energy of all the mixers and therefore have the greatest operating
cost.
6.3.1.2 Routine Maintenance Requirements and Cost
Maintenance is required to change and replace oil. In addition, preventative maintenance is
required each year. In the case of maintenance, the unit must be removed from the water, as the
pump is submerged in the water. An overhaul should occur approximately once every 15 years.
This cost is equal to approximately 50% of the original capital investment.

6.3.2 Maintenance Assessment

Maintenance Concerns
Redundancy is not provided in mixing. Assuming that oil checks are made and seals are
replaced regularly, the equipment has been shown to be reliable. However, there is
approximately a 1 percent risk that the equipment will be ruined by a seal leak which
damages the motor. In this case, the pump will be replaced.

Criticality
Mixers receive a criticality code of 3 in the Facility Plan.

Failure Modes
Seal fails
Mixer sticks to base or rails

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Nozzle plugging
Circulation pump fails

Experience at operating facilities:


Most installations have few problems

Consequences of Failure
The main consequence of failure is the loss of mixing or reduced level of mixing. Where
multiple units are located in the same zone, loss of one unit does not typically create
adverse conditions as some mixing remains. It is very difficult to determine that subsurface failures in nozzles have occurred because the pumps continue to run. When nozzles
get plugged the basin needs to be dewatered and the failed nozzles shall be repaired or
replaced. Pump parts shall be repaired or replaced depending on failure.
Failure of circulation pump results in reduced mixing and the pump must be replaced.
Spares maintained in the warehouse can be installed without adverse consequences to
process operation.

Functional Requirements
Performance requirements are simply to provide sufficient mixing to keep the biological
material from settling, but not over mix. A critical issue is to engage as much of the zone
volume as possible to limit short-circuiting and efficiently provide detention time.

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7.0 Advantages, Disadvantages and risks


Table 7 summarizes the main advantages, disadvantages, and risks for selection of each mixer
type.
Table 7. Advantages, Disadvantages and risks of different type of mixers
Advantages

Disadvantages

Submersible Mixers

Type

Easy removal of mixers using


guide rails.
Flexible to direct to water surface
for scum prevention or to floor for
bottom scouring

Submerged mixer motor.


Bearing and seal failure
High energy requirement to mix
unit volume
Mixer can become tangled in
power cord.

Power failure
Difficult to identify
whether mixer is
working
Lifting cable breaks at
water surface.

Risk

Top Mounted Mixers

Have better ability to keep solids


in suspension
Easy access to motor
Less energy requirement to mix
unit volume
More intense and uniform mixing

Flow inlet and outlet location


influence mixer location and
orientation.
May require baffles on tank
walls to prevent swirling of low
viscosity fluid.
Need to dewater the basin to
service, repair or replace shaft
and impeller.

Difficult to identify shaft


failure (bending)
Power failure

Jet Mixers

No moving parts in the basin


Redundancy can be provided by
standby pump
Effective in deep and larger tanks.

Need to drain the basin to repair


header and nozzles.
Pump station/house is required
for recirculation pumps
When redundancy is not
provided, failure of circulation
pumps results in no-mixing

Power failure
Difficult to identify a
plugged nozzle

8.0 Alternative Cost Analysis


Table 8 summarizes the financial aspects of submersible propeller mixer (Flygt), two types of
top mounted mixers (Lightnin and Invent), and a submersible jet pump mixer (Fluidyne). The
base cost for all but the Lightnin mixers are the same and include all mounting and support
requirements. Operating costs are comparable, except for the jet mixers because of the lower
mixing efficiency. Maintenance costs are comparable, but the submersible propeller mixers are
higher because they must be removed from the basin for maintenance and because of increased
risk associated with submersible mixer failure.
The 60-year lifecycle cost of jet mixers has the highest financial burden, and therefore it is not
recommended to evaluate this type of mixer during design. The remainng mixers are similar
enough in lifecycle cost, and these present values being about equal, the maintenance costs for
the top mounted mixers are significantly less.

Table 8. Financial Aspects of Anoxic Zone Mixers

Alternative

Base Cost

Annualized
Operations

Annualized
Maintenance
and Risk

60- year Life-Cycle


Cost at 5% Discount
Rate

Sacramento Regional County Sanitation District


Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant
Z:\05. BNR\B. Planning\BCE03 - Anoxic Mixer Technology Selection (E)\BNR Anoxic Mixers BCE Formatted DRAFT Final 9-17-12.docx

19
September 21, 2012

BNR Anoxic Basin Mixers


Submersible
propeller, Flygt

$9,264,000

$384,000

$516,000

$31,720,000

Top Mounted,
Lightnin

$18,710,000

$324,400

$242,400

$32,845,000

Top Mounted,
Invent

$8,462,000

$414,000

$261,000

$25,300,000

Jet, Fluidyne

$8,100,000

$986,000

$296,000

$40,062,000

9.0 Recommendation
Jet mixing does not appear to be a viable option for economic reasons. The Invent mixer is a
proprietary top mount system, this mixer style must be bid as as alternative to other top
mounted mixers to avoid sole sourcing the equipment. Top mounted mixers are preferred
because of maintenance access to the motor and gear reducer. During detailed design of the
BNR basins, the capital and operating costs for the top mounted mixer alternatives must be
updated using computational fluid dynamic models to ensure adequate mixing energy is
introduced into anoxic zones and swing zones (if used).
In addition to evaluating the most appropriate mixer(s) for design and bidding, the designer
should consider the ability of the swing zones to be mixed using the diffused aeration system
that is installed for the purpose of switching the zone to full aeration.

Sacramento Regional County Sanitation District


Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant
Z:\05. BNR\B. Planning\BCE03 - Anoxic Mixer Technology Selection (E)\BNR Anoxic Mixers BCE Formatted DRAFT Final 9-17-12.docx

20
September 21, 2012

APPENDIX DETAILED LIFE CYCLE COST


ANALYSIS

Non - Capital Engineering


Business Case Evaluation

Aeration Diffusers

NON-CAPITAL BUSINESS CASE EVALUATION SUMMARY


Date
Work Order Title
Work Order #
PMR #
Customer
BCE #

Functional/Business Objective

To assess the different costs associated with a number of anoxic mixing


technologies

Background Information

Continuous mixing is used in activated sludge process to keep solids in


suspension. Mixing with an impeller causes two reactions: shearing the fluid
and circulation. Historically, mixing energy has been defined in terms of power
(HP or kW) applied per volume of basin with the reasoning that more input
power creates greater turbulence and eventually leads to better mixing. This
has tended to result in providing too much power. Velocity gradient G is a
function of power or an indicator of power input in mixing. G value is not an
effective measure of mixing since it is an average velocity and it does not take
mixer pumping characteristics or basin geometry into account. Modern
methods have used force (Newtons or lbs). Anoxic basin mixing requires
between 700 and 800 N (150 to 180 lbs).
Some manufacturers use thrust to define required mixing capacity. The thrust
is more related to fluid motion and depends on the required bulk flow velocity
which can be determined from the highest value of solids settling velocities or
inflows. Bulk flow velocity affects the time required for inflows to mix into a
homogeneous volume. All the factors (mixing requirements, tank shape and
size, and liquid rheology influence mixing capacity) can be combined to
develop the thrust required for tank mixing. The mixer input thrust has to be
greater than estimated thrust to ensure homogeneous mixing. Manufacturers
use special customized software to size the mixer based on above factors
and to incorporate mixer characteristics such as impeller diameter,
orientation, number of units required, etc. Selecting the mixer using thrust
provides better mixing capacity.

Problem/Issue/Opportunity
Description

Selecting the right mixing technology and speed is essential to anoxic zone
performance. Aeration is not a viable option for anoxic zone mixing as it
introduces dissolved oxygen into wastewater and inhibits denitrification.
Mechanical mixing is required. Proper mixing speed is essential to minimize
any air entrainment due to turbulence or vortexing. This business case
evaluation (BCE) will evaluate the available mixing technologies on the
market and recommend suitable mixing technology for this application.

Description of Alternatives

Non-Capital BCE Mixers

9/21/2012

NON-CAPITAL BUSINESS CASE EVALUATION SUMMARY


Date
Work Order Title
Work Order #
PMR #
Customer
BCE #
Alternative 0 -

Alternative 0 was not considered, because the BNR facility does not exist yet.

Alternative 1 -

Submersible Mixers - Flygt: 4 mixers in each anoxic zone (model 4410, 3.5
HP); 2 mixers in each swing zone (model 4430, 6.14 HP)

Alternative 2 -

Top Mounted Mixers - Lightnin: 3 mixers in each anoxic zone and 2 mixers in
each swing zone (all 4.25 HP)

Alternative 3 -

Top Mounted Mixers - Invent Hyper Classic: 3 mixers in each anoxic zone
and 2 mixers in each swing zone (all 7 HP)

Alternative 4 -

Jet Mixers - Fluidyne: 2 mixers in each anoxic zone (21.2 HP) and 1 mixer in
each swing zone (18.5 HP)

Non-Capital BCE Mixers

9/21/2012

NON-CAPITAL BUSINESS CASE EVALUATION SUMMARY


Date
Work Order Title
Work Order #
PMR #
Customer
BCE #
Financial Factors
Inflation Rate
Starting Year
Number of Years

3.5%

Select an inflation rate to use in the evaluation, the starting year of the
analysis, and the number of years in the life-cycle period.

2012
60

Financial Impact Table

Alternative
Submersible, Flygt
Top Mounted,
Lightnin
Top Mounted,
Invent
Jet, Fluidyne

Non-Capital BCE Mixers

Base Cost

Annualized
Operations

Annualized
Maintenance
and Risk

60- year Life-Cycle


Cost at 5% Discount
Rate

$9,264,000

$384,000

$516,000

$31,720,000

$18,710,000

$324,400

$242,400

$32,845,000

$8,462,000
$8,100,000

$414,000
$986,000

$261,000
$296,000

$25,300,000
$40,062,000

9/21/2012

Alternative 1 - Flygt Submersible Mixers (Model SR 4600 series)


Quantifiable Base and Annual Costs

Item and Description

Reference

Units

Quantity

Cost/Unit

Total Cost

Anoxic zone mixers

Vendor quote

EA

80

42,058

3,364,648

Swing zone mixers

Base Costs (unescalated)

Vendor quote

EA

20

42,058

841,162

Guide System

Estimated

LS

100

1,470

147,000

Hoist

Estimated

EA

100

5,369

536,900

14,796

14,796

Shipping, start-up, comissioning

Sub Total Capital Costs $

4,904,506

Total Costs with net and soft cost markups $

13,634,527

Annual Operational Costs (chemical, energy, operational oversight, etc.)


Energy cost

Estimated

kwh

2,631,223

0.09

236,810

Total Annual Operation $

236,810

Annual Maintenance Costs (Note: Enter non-recurring costs on LCC worksheet.)


Preventive maintenance service
Oil Change

Vendor
recommendation

Mixers

Estimated

Mixers

100

572

57,245

100.00

1,221

122,075

Total Annual Maintenance $

179,320

Annual Risk Costs (Note: Enter non-recurring costs on LCC worksheet.)


Risk associated with mixer failure

Non-Capital BCE Mixers

Estimated

LS

Page 5 of 27

105,145

105,145

Total Annual Risk $

105,145

9/21/2012

Alternative 1 - Flygt Submersible Mixers (Model SR 4600 series)


Quantifiable Non-Recurring Costs
Starting Year
No. of Years

2012
60
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

Year
2012
Capital Costs (including soft costs and contractor costs)
Capital Costs (including contingency)
$
13,634,527

Year

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

2021

2022

2023

2024

2025

2026

2027

2028

2029

2030

2031

2032

2033

2034

2035

2036

2037

2038

Recurring Costs - Operation, Maintenance and Risk (from worksheet)


Annual Operation
$
236,810 $
245,098 $
253,677 $ 262,556 $ 271,745
Annual Maintenance
$
179,320 $
185,596 $
192,092 $ 198,815 $ 205,774
Annual Risk
$
105,145 $
108,825 $
112,634 $ 116,576 $ 120,657
Non-Recurring Costs
Enter description, then enter the cost(s) under the appropriate year(s).
Overhaul
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
Projected Inflation Rate

$
$
$

281,256
212,976
124,880

$
$
$

291,100
220,430
129,250

$
$
$

301,289
228,145
133,774

$
$
$

311,834
236,130
138,456

$
$
$

322,748
244,395
143,302

$
$
$

334,044
252,949
148,318

$
$
$

345,736
261,802
153,509

$
$
$

357,836
270,965
158,882

$
$
$

370,361
280,449
164,443

$
$
$

383,323
290,264
170,198

$ 396,740
$ 300,424
$ 176,155

$
$
$

410,625
310,938
182,320

$
$
$

424,997
321,821
188,702

$
$
$

439,872
333,085
195,306

$
$
$

455,268
344,743
202,142

$
$
$

471,202
356,809
209,217

$
$
$

487,694
369,297
216,539

$
$
$

504,763
382,223
224,118

$
$
$

522,430
395,600
231,962

$
$
$

540,715
409,446
240,081

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$ 1,092,658
$
$
$
-

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$815,252

$1,936,443

$873,318

$ 559,640
$ 423,777
$ 248,484

$ 579,228
$ 438,609
$ 257,181

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

3.5%

Annual Expense (including inflation)

14,155,802

Life Cycle Cost


Projected Discount Rate
3%
5%
7%

$
$
$

14,155,802
14,155,802
14,155,802

Total Life Cycle Cost


3% Discount Rate
5% Discount Rate
7% Discount Rate

$
$
$

52,175,559
36,089,165
28,241,375

Annualized Operations
Life Cycle Cost
Net Present Value
Annualized Payments

$
$

Annualized Maintenance and Risk


Annual Expense (including inflation)
Life Cycle cost (5% discount)
Net Present Value (5% discount)
Annualized Payments

$
$
$

$539,520

$558,403

$577,947

$598,175

$619,112

$640,781

$663,208

$686,420

$710,445

$735,310

$761,046

$787,683

$903,884

$935,520

$968,263

$1,002,153

$1,037,228

$1,073,531

$1,111,104

$1,149,993

$1,190,243

$1,231,901

$1,275,018

$
$
$

523,806
513,829
504,224

$
$
$

526,349
506,488
487,731

$
$
$

528,904
499,253
471,777

$
$
$

531,471
492,120
456,345

$
$
$

534,051
485,090
441,418

$
$
$

536,644
478,160
426,979

$
$
$

539,249
471,329
413,012

$
$
$

541,866
464,596
399,503

$
$
$

544,497
457,959
386,435

$
$
$

547,140
451,417
373,795

$
$
$

549,796
444,968
361,568

$
$
$

552,465
438,611
349,741

$
$
$

555,147
432,345
338,300

$ 1,280,217
$
978,035
$
750,986

$ 560,550
$ 420,081
$ 316,531

$
$
$

563,271
414,080
306,177

$
$
$

566,005
408,164
296,162

$
$
$

568,753
402,333
286,474

$
$
$

571,514
396,586
277,104

$
$
$

574,288
390,920
268,039

$
$
$

577,076
385,336
259,272

$
$
$

579,877
379,831
250,791

$
$
$

582,692
374,405
242,587

$
$
$

585,521
369,056
234,652

$ 588,363
$ 363,784
$ 226,977

$ 591,219
$ 358,587
$ 219,552

236,810
9,585,345
$384,263

233,427

230,092

226,805

223,565

220,372

217,223

214,120

211,061

208,046

205,074

202,144

199,257

196,410

193,604

$ 190,838

188,112

185,425

182,776

180,165

177,591

175,054

172,553

170,088

167,658

$ 165,263

$ 162,902

284,465
284,465
12,869,287
$515,912

$
$

294,422
280,401

$
$

304,726
276,396

$
$

315,392
272,447

$
$

326,430
268,555

$
$

337,855
264,719

$
$

349,680
260,937

$
$

361,919
257,209

$
$

374,586
253,535

$
$

387,697
249,913

$
$

401,266
246,343

$
$

415,311
242,824

$
$

429,847
239,355

$
$

444,891
235,935

$ 1,553,120
$
784,431

$ 476,579
$ 229,242

$
$

493,259
225,968

$
$

510,523
222,739

$
$

528,391
219,557

$
$

546,885
216,421

$
$

566,026
213,329

$
$

585,837
210,282

$
$

606,341
207,278

$
$

627,563
204,316

$
$

649,528
201,398

$ 672,261
$ 198,521

$ 695,790
$ 195,685

Non-Capital BCE Mixers

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

57

58

2039

2040

2041

2042

2043

2044

2045

2046

2047

2048

2049

2050

2051

2052

2053

2054

2055

2056

2057

2058

2059

2060

2061

2062

2063

2064

2065

2066

2067

2068

2069

$
$
$

599,501
453,961
266,182

$
$
$

620,483
469,849
275,499

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$1,319,644

$
$
$

642,200
486,294
285,141

$
$
$

664,677
503,314
295,121

$
$
$

687,941
520,930
305,450

$
$
$

712,019
539,163
316,141

$
$
$

736,939
558,034
327,206

$
$
$

762,732
577,565
338,658

$
$
$

789,428
597,779
350,511

$
$
$

817,058
618,702
362,779

$
$
$

845,655
640,356
375,476

$
$
$

875,253
662,769
388,618

$
$
$

905,887
685,966
402,220

$
$
$

937,593
709,974
416,297

$
$
$

970,408
734,824
430,868

$ 1,830,583
$
$
$
-

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$1,365,831

$3,244,218

$1,463,112

$1,514,321

$1,567,323

$1,622,179

$1,678,955

$1,737,719

$1,798,539

$1,861,488

$1,926,640

$1,994,072

$2,063,864

$2,136,100

$ 1,004,373
$ 760,542
$ 445,948

$ 1,039,526
$ 787,161
$ 461,556

$
$
$

1,075,909
814,712
477,711

$ 1,113,566
$ 843,227
$ 494,431

$ 1,152,541
$ 872,740
$ 511,736

$ 1,192,880
$
903,286
$
529,646

$ 1,234,631
$
934,901
$
548,184

$ 1,277,843
$
967,622
$
567,371

$ 1,322,567
$ 1,001,489
$ 587,229

$ 1,368,857
$ 1,036,541
$
607,782

$ 1,416,767
$ 1,072,820
$ 629,054

$ 1,466,354
$ 1,110,369
$ 651,071

$ 1,517,676
$ 1,149,232
$ 673,858

$ 1,570,795
$ 1,189,455
$
697,443

$ 1,625,773
$ 1,231,086
$
721,854

$ 1,682,675
$ 1,274,174
$ 747,119

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

3,066,865
-

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$2,210,863

$2,288,243

$5,435,197

$2,451,224

$2,537,016

$2,625,812

$2,717,715

$2,812,835

$2,911,285

$3,013,180

$3,118,641

$3,227,793

$3,340,766

$3,457,693

$3,578,712

$3,703,967

$
$
$

594,089
353,464
212,371

$
$
$

596,973
348,415
205,424

$ 1,376,672
$ 788,171
$ 456,016

$
$
$

602,783
338,531
192,205

$
$
$

605,709
333,695
185,918

$
$
$

608,649
328,928
179,836

$
$
$

611,604
324,229
173,954

$
$
$

614,573
319,597
168,264

$
$
$

617,556
315,031
162,760

$
$
$

620,554
310,531
157,436

$
$
$

623,567
306,095
152,286

$
$
$

626,594
301,722
147,305

$
$
$

629,635
297,412
142,486

$
$
$

632,692
293,163
137,826

$
$
$

635,763
288,975
133,317

$
$
$

638,849
284,847
128,956

$
$
$

641,951
280,778
124,738

$
$
$

1,480,394
635,164
276,904

$
$
$

648,198
272,813
116,711

$ 651,345
$ 268,915
$ 112,894

$
$
$

654,507
265,074
109,201

$
$
$

657,684
261,287
105,629

$
$
$

660,877
257,554
102,174

$
$
$

664,085
253,875
98,832

$
$
$

667,308
250,248
95,599

$ 670,548
$ 246,673
$
92,472

$ 673,803
$ 243,149
$
89,447

$
$
$

677,074
239,676
86,521

$
$
$

680,360
236,252
83,691

$
$
$

683,663
232,877
80,953

$ 686,982
$ 229,550
$
78,305

160,575

158,281

156,020

153,791

151,594

149,429

147,294

145,190

143,116

141,071

139,056

137,069

135,111

133,181

131,278

129,403

127,554

125,732

123,936

$ 122,165

120,420

118,700

117,004

115,333

113,685

$ 112,061

$ 110,460

108,882

107,327

105,794

$ 104,282

$
$

720,143
192,889

$
$

745,348
190,133

$ 2,602,018
$ 632,151

$
$

798,435
184,740

$
$

826,381
182,101

$
$

855,304
179,499

$
$

885,239
176,935

$
$

916,223
174,407

$
$

948,291
171,916

$
$

981,481
169,460

$ 1,015,833
$
167,039

$ 1,248,718
$ 153,223

$
$

4,359,287
509,432

$ 1,337,658
$ 148,877

$ 1,384,476
$ 146,750

$ 1,432,932
$
144,653

$ 1,644,323
$
136,563

$ 1,701,874
$ 134,612

$ 1,761,440
$ 132,689

$ 1,823,090
$ 130,793

$ 1,952,940
$
127,083

$ 2,021,292
$ 125,268

$ 1,051,387
$ 164,653

$ 1,088,185
$ 162,301

$ 1,126,272
$ 159,982

$ 1,165,691
$
157,697

$ 1,206,491
$ 155,444

Non-Capital BCE Mixers

$ 1,483,085
$
142,587

$ 1,534,993
$
140,550

$ 1,588,718
$ 138,542

$ 1,886,898
$
128,925

59

60

2070

2071

$ 1,741,568
$ 1,318,770
$ 773,268

$ 1,802,523
$ 1,364,927
$ 800,332

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$3,833,606

$3,967,782

$
$
$

690,317
226,271
75,744

$
$
$

693,668
223,038
73,266

102,792

101,324

$ 2,092,038
$ 123,478

$ 2,165,259
$ 121,714

Non-Capital BCE Mixers

Submersible mixers:
Capital cost
# of BNR basins

10
Flygt - Model 4410 & 4430

Zone

# of mixers/zone

Anoxic - AER1
Anoxic - AER2
Swing - AER6
Guide system mast,4x4 tube x 30 ft long
Hoist (Portable)
Start-up, commissioning, and operator training
Total

4
4
2
10
10

Total # of
mixers

Unit Price, $

40
40
20
100
100

$29,938
$29,938
$29,938
$1,050
$3,835

Total Material
Cost
$1,676,500
$1,676,500
$838,250
$147,000
$536,900

Labor Hours,
$/mixer

Labor Rate
2
2
2
8

$65
$65
$65
$65
-

Total Labor Cost


$5,824
$5,824
$2,912
$58,240

Note:

64400
64400

1.Vendorquote:Budgetarypricingforthemixersincludedpricingforthemixerandtheguidesystem(lessmast,whichis2x2or4x4squaretubing,
dependinginmixersizeandistypicallyfurnishedbythecontractor)

32200

2.Vendorsuggestion:OurFieldServiceRateiscurrently$137/hour,includingtraveltime.startup610mixers/eighthourday($1,100/day).Wevedone
trainingformixersinaslittleasonehourorlessandwevealsodonetrainingformixersforafullday(multipleextendedsessionswithfieldand
classroomtraining)
4. Assume guide system mast, 4"x4" x 30 ft long is $1,050 ($35/ft on Amazon)
5.Assume hoist price: Crane with Worm Gear Hand Winch = $2,370, Socket Base = 370 or rolling base = $1,260, 36 ft cable = $205
Annual Energy Cost
# of BNR Basins =
Power cost, $/kWh =
Flygt - Model 4410 & 4430
Zone
Anoxic - AER1
Anoxic - AER2
Swing - AER6

10
0.09

# of mixer/zone

Maintenance Cost
# of BNR Basins =
Flygt - Model 4410 & 4430
Required Maintenance
Oil change
Anoxic - AER1
Anoxic - AER2
Swing - AER6
Preventative Mainteance
Anoxic Overhaul
Swing Overhaul

Total mixers
4
4
2

HP of mixer
40
40
20

3.5
3.5
6.14

Total kW
Operation hrs
Power cost
104.40
8760
82,307
104.40
8760
82,307
91.57
8760
72,195
300.37 Total
236,810

10

# of mixers

Total Mixers

4
4
2
10
6
2

40
40
20
100
60
20

Frequency
(years)
1
1
1
1
15
15

Labor Time**,
hr/mixer

Material Cost,
$/mixer

2.5
2.5
2.5
1.5
16
16

$500
$500
$500
$140
$4,300
$2,400
Total

Annual cost,
$/yr
$48,830
$48,830
$24,415
$57,245
$35,651
$9,350
$224,322

Total
Installation
Cost, $
$1,682,324
$1,682,324
$841,162
$205,240
$536,900
$14,796
$4,962,746

161000
1610000 The unit price for submersibles is approx. 2.6 times higher than in the report

Note:
1. One hour per unit for annual preventive maintenance service is a typical charge for medium sized equipment. Years 1-4 would incur an
approximate labor charge ($ 140/hour) for our "Shop on Wheels" to perform an Annual Periodic Maintenance Service on each mixer.
2. Assume $500.00 for oil cost/year/mixer
3. Overhaul includes vendor-quoted repair kits: $4,300 for anoxic; $2,400 for swing and labor

Risk of Failure Cost:


# of BNR Basins =
Flygt - Model 4410 & 4430
Zone
Anoxic - AER1
Anoxic - AER2
Swing - AER6

10
# of mixer/zone

Risk
cost/mixer, $
40
$1,051
40
$1,051
20
$1,051
Total

Total mixers

4
4
2

Note:
1. Assume risk of failure to be 5% with risk costs 50% of initial capital cost

Total cost, $
$42,058
$42,058
$21,029
105,145

Alternative 2 - Lightnin Top Mounted Mixers


Quantifiable Base and Annual Costs

Item and Description

Reference

Units

Quantity

Cost/Unit

Total Cost

Mixer cost - Anoxic zones

Vendor quote

Mixer

60

109,118

6,547,086

Mixer cost - Swing zone

Base Costs (unescalated)

Vendor quote

Mixer

20

75,588

1,511,762

Anoxic Mixer Support Structure

Estimated

Mixer

60

14,225

853,496

Swing Mixer Support Structure

Estimated

Mixer

20

12,906

258,116

Sub Total Capital Costs $

9,170,461

Total Costs with net and soft cost markups $

25,493,880

Annual Operational Costs (chemical, energy, operational oversight, etc.)


Energy cost

Estimated

kwh

2,220,993

0.09

199,889

Total Annual Operation $

199,889

Annual Maintenance Costs (Note: Enter non-recurring costs on LCC worksheet.)


Oil Change

Vendor
recommendation

Mixer

80

788

63,064

Service Contract

Vendor
recommendation

Mixer

80

360

28,800

Estimate

Mixer

80

577

46,128

Total Annual Maintenance $

137,992

Greasing Bearings and drive

Annual Risk Costs (Note: Enter non-recurring costs on LCC worksheet.)

Non-Capital BCE Mixers

Page 11 of 27

Total Annual Risk $

9/21/2012

Alternative 2 - Lightnin Top Mounted Mixers


Quantifiable Non-Recurring Costs
Starting Year
No. of Years

2012
60
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

Year
2012
Capital Costs (including soft costs and contractor costs)
Capital Costs (including contingency)
$
25,493,880

Year

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

2021

2022

2023

2024

2025

2026

2027

2028

2029

2030

2031

2032

2033

2034

2035

2036

2037

2038

$ 334,884
$ 231,185
$
-

$
$
$

346,605
239,276
-

$
$
$

358,737
247,651
-

$
$
$

371,292
256,319
-

$
$
$

384,288
265,290
-

$ 397,738
$ 274,575
$
-

$
$
$

411,658
284,185
-

$
$
$

426,066
294,132
-

$
$
$

440,979
304,426
-

$
$
$

456,413
315,081
-

$
$
$

472,388
326,109
-

$
$
$

488,921
337,523
-

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

Recurring Costs - Operation, Maintenance and Risk (from worksheet)


Annual Operation
$
199,889 $
206,885 $ 214,126 $ 221,621 $ 229,378
Annual Maintenance
$
137,992 $
142,822 $ 147,820 $ 152,994 $ 158,349
Annual Risk
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
Non-Recurring Costs
Enter description, then enter the cost(s) under the appropriate year(s).
Overhaul
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
Projected Inflation Rate

$
$
$

237,406
163,891
-

$
$
$

245,715
169,627
-

$
$
$

254,315
175,564
-

$
$
$

263,216
181,709
-

$
$
$

272,429
188,069
-

$
$
$

281,964
194,651
-

$
$
$

291,832
201,464
-

$
$
$

302,047
208,515
-

$
$
$

312,618
215,813
-

$
$
$

323,560
223,367
-

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

3.5%

Annual Expense (including inflation)

25,831,762

349,707

361,947

374,615

387,727

401,297

415,342

429,879

444,925

460,498

476,615

493,297

510,562

528,432

546,927

$ 566,069

585,882

606,387

627,611

649,577

$ 672,313

695,844

720,198

745,405

771,494

798,496

826,444

Life Cycle Cost


Projected Discount Rate
3%
5%
7%

$
$
$

25,831,762
25,831,762
25,831,762

$
$
$

339,522
333,054
326,829

$
$
$

341,170
328,297
316,138

$
$
$

342,826
323,607
305,798

$
$
$

344,490
318,984
295,795

$
$
$

346,162
314,427
286,119

$
$
$

347,843
309,935
276,760

$
$
$

349,531
305,507
267,707

$
$
$

351,228
301,143
258,951

$
$
$

352,933
296,841
250,480

$
$
$

354,646
292,600
242,287

$
$
$

356,368
288,420
234,362

$
$
$

358,098
284,300
226,696

$
$
$

359,836
280,239
219,280

$
$
$

361,583
276,235
212,108

$ 363,338
$ 272,289
$ 205,170

$
$
$

365,102
268,399
198,458

$
$
$

366,874
264,565
191,967

$
$
$

368,655
260,785
185,687

$
$
$

370,445
257,060
179,614

$ 372,243
$ 253,388
$ 173,738

$
$
$

374,050
249,768
168,055

$
$
$

375,866
246,200
162,558

$
$
$

377,691
242,682
157,241

$
$
$

379,524
239,216
152,097

$
$
$

381,366
235,798
147,122

$
$
$

383,218
232,430
142,310

Total Life Cycle Cost


3% Discount Rate
5% Discount Rate
7% Discount Rate

$
$
$

49,766,719
39,630,836
34,685,510

Annualized Operations
Life Cycle Cost
Net Present Value
Annualized Payments

$
$

199,889
8,090,916
$324,354

197,034

194,219

191,444

188,710

186,014

183,356

180,737

178,155

175,610

173,101

170,628

168,191

165,788

163,420

$ 161,085

158,784

156,516

154,280

152,076

$ 149,903

147,762

145,651

143,570

141,519

139,497

137,505

Annualized Maintenance and Risk


Annual Expense (including inflation)
Life Cycle cost (5% discount)
Net Present Value (5% discount)
Annualized Payments

$
$
$

137,992
137,992
6,046,041
$242,377

$
$

142,822
136,021

$
$

147,820
134,078

$
$

152,994
132,162

$
$

158,349
130,274

$
$

163,891
128,413

$
$

169,627
126,579

$
$

175,564
124,770

$
$

181,709
122,988

$
$

188,069
121,231

$
$

194,651
119,499

$
$

201,464
117,792

$
$

208,515
116,109

$
$

215,813
114,450

$
$

223,367
112,815

$ 231,185
$ 111,204

$
$

239,276
109,615

$
$

247,651
108,049

$
$

256,319
106,506

$
$

265,290
104,984

$ 274,575
$ 103,484

$
$

284,185
102,006

$
$

294,132
100,549

$
$

304,426
99,112

$
$

315,081
97,697

$
$

326,109
96,301

$
$

337,523
94,925

Non-Capital BCE Mixers

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

2039

2040

2041

2042

2043

2044

2045

2046

2047

2048

2049

2050

2051

2052

2053

2054

2055

2056

2057

2058

2059

2060

2061

2062

2063

2064

2065

2066

2067

$ 1,078,616
$ 744,614
$
-

$ 1,116,367
$ 770,675
$
-

$ 1,155,440
$ 797,649
$
-

$ 1,195,881
$
825,567
$
-

$ 1,237,737
$ 854,461
$
-

$
$
$

1,281,057
884,368
-

$ 1,325,894
$
915,320
$
-

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$

506,033
349,336
-

$
$
$

523,744
361,563
-

$
$
$

542,076
374,217
-

$
$
$

561,048
387,315
-

$
$
$

580,685
400,871
-

$
$
$

601,009
414,902
-

$
$
$

622,044
429,423
-

$
$
$

643,816
444,453
-

$
$
$

666,349
460,009
-

$
$
$

689,671
476,109
-

$
$
$

713,810
492,773
-

$
$
$

738,793
510,020
-

$
$
$

764,651
527,871
-

$
$
$

791,414
546,346
-

$
$
$

819,113
565,468
-

$
$
$

847,782
585,260
-

$
$
$

877,455
605,744
-

$
$
$

908,166
626,945
-

$
$
$

939,951
648,888
-

$
$
$

972,850
671,599
-

$
$
$

1,006,899
695,105
-

$
$
$

1,042,141
719,434
-

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

1,895,668
-

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

855,369

885,307

2,811,961

948,363

981,556

1,015,910

$ 1,051,467

1,088,269

$ 1,126,358

1,165,781

$ 1,206,583

$ 1,248,813

1,292,522

$ 1,337,760

1,384,582

$ 1,433,042

1,483,198

$
$
$

385,078
229,109
137,655

$
$
$

386,947
225,836
133,152

$
$
$

1,193,245
683,156
395,257

$
$
$

390,713
219,430
124,584

$
$
$

392,610
216,295
120,509

$
$
$

394,516
213,205
116,567

$
$
$

396,431
210,159
112,754

$
$
$

398,355
207,157
109,066

$
$
$

400,289
204,198
105,498

$
$
$

402,232
201,281
102,047

$
$
$

404,185
198,405
98,709

$
$
$

406,147
195,571
95,480

$
$
$

408,118
192,777
92,357

$
$
$

410,099
190,023
89,336

$
$
$

412,090
187,308
86,414

$
$
$

414,091
184,633
83,587

$
$
$

135,540

133,604

131,695

129,814

127,959

126,131

124,330

122,553

120,803

119,077

117,376

115,699

114,046

112,417

110,811

109,228

$
$

349,336
93,569

$
$

361,563
92,232

$
$

2,269,885
551,460

$
$

387,315
89,616

$
$

400,871
88,336

$
$

414,902
87,074

$
$

429,423
85,830

$
$

444,453
84,604

$
$

460,009
83,395

$
$

476,109
82,204

$
$

492,773
81,029

$
$

510,020
79,872

$
$

527,871
78,731

$
$

546,346
77,606

$
$

565,468
76,497

$
$

585,260
75,405

Non-Capital BCE Mixers

$ 1,535,110

$ 1,588,839

$ 1,644,449

1,702,004

1,761,575

416,101
181,995
80,853

$
$
$

418,121
179,395
78,208

$
$
$

420,150
176,832
75,650

$
$
$

422,190
174,306
73,176

$
$
$

424,240
171,816
70,782

$
$
$

107,668

106,129

104,613

103,119

101,646

$
$

605,744
74,327

$
$

626,945
73,266

$
$

648,888
72,219

$
$

671,599
71,187

$
$

695,105
70,170

$
$
$
$

$ 1,823,230

$ 1,887,043

$ 1,953,089

$ 2,021,447

$ 2,092,198

2,165,425

$ 2,241,215

426,299
169,361
68,467

$
$
$

428,368
166,942
66,227

$
$
$

430,448
164,557
64,061

$
$
$

432,537
162,206
61,965

$
$
$

434,637
159,889
59,939

$
$
$

436,747
157,605
57,978

$
$
$

438,867
155,353
56,081

$
$
$

440,997
153,134
54,247

100,194

98,762

97,351

95,961

94,590

93,239

91,907

90,594

$
$

719,434
69,168

$
$

744,614
68,180

$
$

770,675
67,206

$
$

797,649
66,246

$
$

825,567
65,299

$
$

854,461
64,366

$
$

884,368
63,447

$
$

915,320
62,541

57

58

59

60

2068

2069

2070

2071

$ 1,470,043
$ 1,014,832
$
-

$ 1,521,494
$ 1,050,351
$
-

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$ 1,372,301
$ 947,357
$
-

$
$
$

1,420,331
980,514
-

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$ 2,319,657

2,400,845

$
$
$

443,138
150,947
52,473

$
$
$

89,299

$
$

947,357
61,647

$ 2,484,875

$ 2,571,845

445,289
148,790
50,756

$
$
$

447,451
146,665
49,096

$
$
$

449,623
144,569
47,490

88,024

86,766

85,527

$
$

980,514
60,766

$ 1,014,832
$
59,898

$ 1,050,351
$
59,043

Non-Capital BCE Mixers

Top mounted mixers:


Capital cost
Lightnin - Model 77Q30 and 76Q15
# of BNR basins
Zone
Anoxic - AER1 (Model 77Q30)
Anoxic - AER2 (Model 77Q30)
Swing - AER6 (Model 76Q15)
Anoxic Support Structure
Swing Support Structure
Total
Support Structure
Description
Cost per cubic yard concrete
Cost per cubic yard concrete
Cost per foot
Platforms
Legs
Anoxic walkway
Anoxic Guardrail
Swing Walkway
Swing Guardrail

10
# of mixers/zone

Unit Price, $
30
30
20
60
20

Dimensions

Type, quantity
Slab
Column
Guardrail
Slab, 1 per mixer
Columns, 4 per mixer
Slab, 1 per mixer
2 per walkway
Slab, 1 per mixer
2 per walkway

Annual Energy Cost


# of BNR Basins =
Power cost, $/kWh =
Lightnin - Model 77Q30 and 76Q15
Zone
Anoxic - AER1
Anoxic - AER2
Swing - AER6

Total # of mixers
3
3
2
6
2

$77,838
$77,838
$53,888
$9,745
$8,802

Unit Cost

Material/mixer

12 ft x 12 ft x 1 ft
1 ft x 1 ft x 28 ft
22.5 ft x 4 ft x 1.2 ft
22.5 ft
18.5 ft x 4 ft x 1.2 ft
18.5 ft

Total Material Cost Labor Hours/mixer Cost/hr


$3,269,175
2
$3,269,175
2
$1,508,850
2
$818,552
8
$246,468
8

5.3
4.1
4.0
45.0
3.3
37.0

Labor Cost
65
65
65
65
65

Total Cost

$425
$525
$80
$2,267
$2,178
$1,700
$3,600
$1,398
$2,960
Total Support Cost

$181,340
$174,229
$102,004
$216,000
$27,957
$59,200
$760,729

10
0.09

# of mixer/zone

Total mixers
3
3
2

HP of mixer
30
30
20

Total kW
4.25
4.25
4.25

Operation hrs
95.08
95.08
63.38

Power cost
8760
8760
8760

Total

$74,958.51
$74,958.51
$49,972.34
199,889

Note:
1. Invested HP is 80% of Nameplate HP. Assume 5% loss in gear box and total invested HP is 85% of name plate HP.
Maintenance Cost
# of BNR Basins =
Labor Rate ($/hr)
Required Maintenance
Oil change
Anoxic - AER1
Anoxic - AER2
Swing - AER6
Service contract
Greasing bearings in gear drive
Anoxic Overhaul
Swing Overhaul

10
$93
# of mixers

Total Mixers
3
3
2
8
8
6
2

Frequency (years)
30
30
20
80
80
60
20

1
1
1
1
0.5
30
30

Labor Time**,
hr/mixer

Material Cost,
$/mixer
1
1
1

$500.00
$500.00
$500.00
$360.00

1
16
16

$4,250.00
$3,750.00
Total

Annual cost, $/yr


$23,649.00
$23,649.00
$15,766.00
$28,800.00
$46,128.00
$17,725.60
$5,575.20
$137,992.00

$4,368
$4,368
$2,912
$34,944
$11,648

Installed Cost, $
$3,273,543
$3,273,543
$1,511,762
$853,496
$258,116
$9,170,461

Note:
1. A service contract would NOT include changing the oil or supplying any oil but would be a general inspection of the units, looking for any
obvious signs of problems. We would check the units 3 times a year @ $9,600 per instance. Total for the one year period $28,800. This is based
on inspecting 10-12 units per day, 3 times per year. It comes out to $2,400/mo.
2. Vendor provided: Cost of oil and grease. Figure approximately $500.00 per mixer per year
3. Bearings in Gear drive needs to be regreased every 6 months when operating below 160 degree F or every 4 months when operating under
extreme pressure
4. Under normal circumstances mixers that have been in service, but will be idle less than 3 months, must be run for at least
15 minutes every week, to redistribute oil and grease, and receive regular maintenance.
5. Overhaul includes cost of repair kit: $4,250 for anoxic; $3,750 for swing and labor
Risk of Failure Cost:
There was no risk identified with failure of top-mounted mixers

Alternative 3 - Invent Top Mounted Mixers


Quantifiable Base and Annual Costs
Item and Description

Reference

Units

Quantity

Cost/Unit

Total Cost

Vendor Quote

Mixers

60

36,071

2,164,236

Vendor Quote

Mixers

20

36,071

721,412

Anoxic Support Structure

Estimate

Mixers

60

16,283

977,004

Swing Support Structure

Estimate

Mixers

20

14,267

285,348

Sub Total Capital Costs $

4,148,000

Base Costs (unescalated)


Anoxic Zone Mixers
Swing Zone Mixers

Total Costs with net and soft cost markups $ 11,531,440


Annual Operational Costs (chemical, energy, operational oversight, etc.)
Energy Cost

kWh

2,835,032

0.09

255,153

Total Annual Operation $

255,153

Annual Maintenance Costs (Note: Enter non-recurring costs on LCC worksheet.)


Check Oil

Estimate

Mixer

80

577

46,128

Oil Lube

Estimate

Mixer

80

288

23,064

Total Annual Maintenance $

69,192

Annual Risk Costs (Note: Enter non-recurring costs on LCC worksheet.)

Non-Capital BCE Mixers

Page 17 of 27

Total Annual Risk $

9/21/2012

Alternative 3 - Invent Top Mounted Mixers


Quantifiable Non-Recurring Costs
Starting Year
No. of Years

2012
60
Year

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

Year
2012
Capital Costs (including soft costs and contractor costs)
Capital Costs (including contingency)
$
11,531,440

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

2021

2022

2023

2024

2025

2026

2027

2028

2029

2030

2031

2032

2033

2034

2035

2036

2037

Recurring Costs - Operation, Maintenance and Risk (from worksheet)


Annual Operation
$
255,153 $
264,083 $ 273,326 $ 282,893 $ 292,794
Annual Maintenance
$
69,192 $
71,614 $
74,120 $
76,714 $
79,399
Annual Risk
$
19,699 $
20,388 $
21,102 $
21,840 $
22,605
Non-Recurring Costs
Enter description, then enter the cost(s) under the appropriate year(s).
Overhaul
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
Oil Change
$
- $
65,271 $
- $
69,920 $
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
Projected Inflation Rate

$
$
$

303,042
82,178
23,396

$
$
$

313,648
85,055
24,215

$
$
$

324,626
88,032
25,062

$
$
$

335,988
91,113
25,940

$
$
$

347,747
94,302
26,848

$
$
$

359,918
97,602
27,787

$
$
$

372,515
101,018
28,760

$
$
$

385,554
104,554
29,766

$
$
$

399,048
108,213
30,808

$
$
$

413,015
112,001
31,886

$
$
$

427,470
115,921
33,002

$
$
$

442,432
119,978
34,158

$
$
$

457,917
124,177
35,353

$
$
$

473,944
128,523
36,590

$
$
$

490,532
133,022
37,871

$
$
$

507,700
137,677
39,197

$
$
$

525,470
142,496
40,568

$
$
$

543,861
147,484
41,988

$
$
$

562,896
152,645
43,458

$
$
$

582,598
157,988
44,979

$
$
$

602,989
163,518
46,553

$
$
$
$
$

74,900
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

80,235
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

85,950
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

92,072
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

98,629
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

105,654
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

113,179
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

121,241
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

129,876
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

139,126
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

149,036
-

3.5%

Annual Expense (including inflation)

11,875,484

421,357

368,548

451,368

394,798

483,516

422,918

517,955

453,040

554,846

485,308

594,365

519,874

636,699

556,902

682,048

596,567

730,626

639,058

782,665

684,574

838,411

733,333

898,126

785,565

962,095

Life Cycle Cost


Projected Discount Rate
3%
5%
7%

$
$
$

11,875,484
11,875,484
11,875,484

$
$
$

409,084
401,292
393,791

$
$
$

347,392
334,284
321,904

$
$
$

413,065
389,908
368,450

$
$
$

350,773
324,801
301,190

$
$
$

417,085
378,848
344,740

$
$
$

354,187
315,588
281,808

$
$
$

421,145
368,101
322,556

$
$
$

357,634
306,635
263,673

$
$
$

425,243
357,659
301,800

$
$
$

361,115
297,937
246,706

$
$
$

429,382
347,513
282,379

$
$
$

364,629
289,485
230,830

$
$
$

433,561
337,655
264,207

$
$
$

368,178
281,273
215,976

$
$
$

437,780
328,077
247,205

$
$
$

371,761
273,294
202,078

$
$
$

442,041
318,770
231,298

$
$
$

375,379
265,542
189,074

$
$
$

446,343
309,727
216,413

$
$
$

379,032
258,009
176,907

$
$
$

450,687
300,941
202,487

$
$
$

382,721
250,690
165,523

$
$
$

455,073
292,404
189,457

$
$
$

386,446
243,578
154,871

$
$
$

459,502
284,109
177,265

Total Life Cycle Cost


3% Discount Rate
5% Discount Rate
7% Discount Rate

$
$
$

40,489,149
28,365,162
22,387,751

Annualized Operations
Life Cycle Cost
Net Present Value
Annualized Payments

$
$

255,153
10,327,811
$414,028

251,508

247,915

244,373

240,882

237,441

234,049

230,705

227,410

224,161

220,959

217,802

214,691

211,624

208,600

205,620

202,683

199,788

196,933

194,120

191,347

188,613

185,919

183,263

180,645

178,064

Annualized Maintenance and Risk


Annual Expense (including inflation)
Life Cycle cost (5% discount)
Net Present Value (5% discount)
Annualized Payments

$
$
$

88,891
88,891
6,505,909
$260,813

$
$

157,273
149,784

$
$

95,222
86,369

$
$

168,475
145,535

$
$

102,004
83,919

$
$

180,475
141,407

$
$

109,270
81,539

$
$

193,329
137,395

$
$

117,052
79,226

$
$

207,099
133,498

$
$

125,389
76,978

$
$

221,850
129,711

$
$

134,320
74,795

$
$

237,651
126,031

$
$

143,887
72,673

$
$

254,577
122,456

$
$

154,136
70,611

$
$

272,710
118,982

$
$

165,114
68,608

$
$

292,133
115,607

$
$

176,874
66,662

$
$

312,941
112,328

$
$

189,472
64,771

$
$

335,230
109,141

$
$

202,967
62,934

$
$

359,107
106,045

Non-Capital BCE Mixers

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

2038

2039

2040

2041

2042

2043

2044

2045

2046

2047

2048

2049

2050

2051

2052

2053

2054

2055

2056

2057

2058

2059

2060

2061

2062

2063

2064

2065

$
$
$

624,093
169,241
48,183

$
$
$

645,937
175,164
49,869

$
$
$

668,544
181,295
51,614

$
$
$

691,943
187,640
53,421

$
$
$

716,162
194,208
55,291

$
$
$

741,227
201,005
57,226

$
$
$

767,170
208,040
59,229

$
$
$

794,021
215,322
61,302

$
$
$

821,812
222,858
63,447

$
$
$

850,575
230,658
65,668

$
$
$

880,345
238,731
67,966

$
$
$

911,157
247,086
70,345

$
$
$

943,048
255,734
72,807

$
$
$

976,055
264,685
75,356

$
$
$

1,010,217
273,949
77,993

$
$
$

1,045,574
283,537
80,723

$
$
$

1,082,169
293,461
83,548

$
$
$

1,120,045
303,732
86,472

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

159,651
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

6,753,500
171,022
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

183,203
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

196,252
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

210,230
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

225,203
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

241,243
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

258,426
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

276,832
-

841,517

1,030,621

901,454

7,857,527

965,660

$ 1,182,661

$ 1,034,439

$ 1,266,896

1,108,117

1,357,131

$ 1,187,043

1,453,792

$ 1,271,590

1,557,339

1,362,159

1,668,260

1,459,178

1,787,082

$
$
$

390,207
236,669
144,905

$
$
$

463,974
276,050
165,858

$
$
$

394,005
229,955
135,581

$
$
$

3,334,313
1,908,957
1,104,476

$
$
$

397,839
223,432
126,856

$
$
$

473,049
260,611
145,199

$
$
$

401,711
217,094
118,693

$
$
$

477,653
253,218
135,855

$
$
$

405,621
210,935
111,055

$
$
$

482,302
246,035
127,113

$
$
$

409,568
204,952
103,908

$
$
$

486,996
239,055
118,933

$
$
$

413,554
199,138
97,222

$
$
$

491,735
232,274
111,280

$
$
$

417,579
193,489
90,965

$
$
$

496,521
225,685
104,119

$
$
$

421,643
188,000
85,112

$
$
$

175,520

173,013

170,541

168,105

165,704

163,336

161,003

158,703

156,436

154,201

151,998

149,827

147,686

145,577

143,497

141,447

139,426

$
$

217,423
61,148

$
$

384,684
103,037

$
$

232,909
59,414

$
$

7,165,583
1,740,852

$
$

249,498
57,728

$
$

441,434
97,274

$
$

267,269
56,091

$
$

472,875
94,515

$
$

286,305
54,500

$
$

506,555
91,834

$
$

306,697
52,954

$
$

542,635
89,228

$
$

328,542
51,451

$
$

581,284
86,697

$
$

351,942
49,992

$
$

622,686
84,238

$
$

377,009
48,574

Non-Capital BCE Mixers

$ 1,159,247
$
314,363
$
89,499

$ 1,199,820
$
325,366
$
92,631

$
$
$

1,241,814
336,753
95,873

$
$
$

1,285,278
348,540
99,229

$
$
$

1,330,262
360,739
102,702

$
$
$

1,376,821
373,365
106,296

$
$
$

1,425,010
386,432
110,017

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

296,550
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

317,671
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

340,297
-

$
$
$
$
$

$ 1,563,108

$ 1,914,367

1,674,441

2,050,717

1,793,703

2,196,780

1,921,459

501,353
219,283
97,419

$
$
$

425,747
182,667
79,635

$
$
$

506,232
213,062
91,150

$
$
$

429,890
177,485
74,510

$
$
$

511,159
207,018
85,284

$
$
$

434,074
172,450
69,715

$
$
$

516,134
201,146
79,796

$
$
$

137,434

135,471

133,536

131,628

129,748

127,894

126,067

$
$

667,037
81,848

$
$

403,862
47,196

$
$

714,546
79,527

$
$

432,627
45,857

$
$

765,440
77,271

$
$

463,440
44,556

$
$

819,958
75,079

$ 1,474,886
$
399,957
$
113,867

$
$
$

1,526,507
413,956
117,853

$
$
$

1,579,934
428,444
121,978

$
$
$
$
$

364,535
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

390,499
-

$ 2,353,245

2,058,315

2,520,855

438,298
167,558
65,229

$
$
$

521,157
195,440
74,661

$
$
$

442,564
162,805
61,032

$
$
$

526,229
189,896
69,857

124,266

122,491

120,741

119,016

$
$

496,449
43,292

$
$

878,360
72,949

$
$

531,809
42,064

$
$

940,921
70,879

55

56

57

58

59

60

2066

2067

2068

2069

2070

2071

$ 1,635,232
$
443,440
$
126,247

$ 1,692,465
$
458,960
$
130,665

$ 1,751,701
$
475,024
$
135,239

$ 1,813,011
$
491,650
$
139,972

$ 1,876,466
$
508,857
$
144,871

$ 1,942,143
$
526,668
$
149,942

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

418,312
-

448,107
-

480,023
-

$ 2,204,919

$ 2,700,403

$ 2,361,964

$ 2,892,739

$ 2,530,195

$ 3,098,775

$
$
$

446,871
158,187
57,104

$
$
$

531,351
184,509
65,361

$
$
$

451,220
153,700
53,430

$
$
$

536,522
179,275
61,155

$
$
$

455,612
149,339
49,991

$
$
$

541,744
174,189
57,220

117,316

115,640

113,988

112,360

110,755

109,172

$
$

569,687
40,871

$ 1,007,938
$
68,869

$
$

610,263
39,711

$ 1,079,729
$
66,915

$
$

653,729
38,585

$ 1,156,632
$
65,017

Non-Capital BCE Mixers

Invent HyperClassic
Top mounted mixers:
Capital cost
# of BNR basins
Zone
Mixers, Spare Parts, Invent Installation
Anoxic Support Structure
Swing Support Structure
Total
Support Structure
Description
Cost per square foot steel
Cost per foot column
Cost per foot
Anoxic Walkway
Anoxic Guardrail
Swing Walkway
Swing Guardrail
Columns

10
# of mixers/zone

Type, quantity
Steel slab
Aluminum column
Handrails
1 per mixer
2 per mixer
1 per swing mixer
2 per mixer
aluminum, 2 per mixer

Annual Energy Cost


# of BNR Basins =
Power cost, $/kWh =
Zone
Anoxic - AER1
Anoxic - AER2
Swing - AER6

Total # of mixers
8
6
2

Unit Price, $
80
60
20

Dimensions

$35,925
$11,475
$10,035

Unit Cost

Material/mixer

22.5 ft x 4 ft
22.5 ft
18.5 ft x 4 ft
18.5 ft
6 in x 6 in x 28 ft

Total Material Cost Labor Hours/mixer


$4,023,600
$963,900
$280,980

90.0
45.0
74.0
37.0
45.0

Cost/hr
2
3
3

Total Labor Cost, $


Installed Cost, $
$11,648
$4,035,248
$13,104
$977,004
$4,368
$285,348
$5,297,600
1700000 Price from invent now is higher than from the report
(only about 1.5 times as opposed to 2.6, like submerisbles)
65
65
65

Total Cost

$50
$75
$80
$4,500
$3,600
$3,700
$2,960
$3,375
Total Support Cost

$270,000
$216,000
$74,000
$59,200
$270,000
$889,200

10
0.09
# of mixer/zone

Total mixers
3
3
2

Total kW

HP of mixer
30
30
20

5.8
5.8
4.3

Operation hrs
129.75
129.75
64.13

Power cost
8760
8760
8760

Total

$102,296.32
$102,296.32
$50,560.25
$255,153

Note:
1. Vendor-provided input power (5.8 HP for anoxic, 4.3 HP for swing)
Maintenance Cost
# of BNR Basins =
Labor Rate ($/hr)
Required Maintenance
Oil change
Anoxic - AER1
Anoxic - AER2
Swing - AER6
Check oil in drive motor
Oil Lube
Overhaul

10
$93
# of mixers

Total Mixers
3
3
2
8
8
8

Frequency (years)
30
30
20
80
80
80

2
2
2
0.5
1
30

Labor Time**, hr/mixer

Material Cost, $/mixer

1
1
1
1
1
3

$500
$500
$500

$30,264
Total

Annual cost, $/yr


$11,825
$11,825
$7,883
$46,128
$23,064
$83,011
$77,660

Note:
1. A service contract would NOT include changing the oil or supplying any oil but would be a general inspection of the units, looking for any obvious
2. Vendor provided: Cost of oil and grease. Figure approximately $500.00 per mixer per year

3. Bearings in Gear drive needs to be regreased every 6 months when operating below 160 degree F or every 4 months when operating under extreme
pressure

4. Under normal circumstances mixers that have been in service, but will be idle less than 3 months, must be run for at least
5. Overhaul includes cost of repair kit: $4,250 for anoxic; $3,750 for swing and labor
Risk of Failure Cost:
There was no risk identified with failure of top-mounted mixers

Alternative 4 - Fluidyne Jet Mixers


Quantifiable Base and Annual Costs
Item and Description

Reference

Units

Quantity

Cost/Unit

Total Cost

Vendor Quote

Basins

10

396,890

3,968,895

Sub Total Capital Costs $

3,968,895

Total Costs with net and soft cost markups $

11,033,528

Base Costs (unescalated)


2 jet mixers for each anoxic zone; 1
jet mixer for swing zone

Annual Operational Costs (chemical, energy, operational oversight, etc.)


Energy Cost

Estimated

kWh

6749251.611

0.09

607,433

Total Annual Operation $

607,433

Annual Maintenance Costs (Note: Enter non-recurring costs on LCC worksheet.)


Oil Check

Estimated

Mixers

50

721

36,038

Preventative Maintenance

Estimated

Mixers

50

572

28,623

Total Annual Maintenance $

64,660

Annual Risk Costs (Note: Enter non-recurring costs on LCC worksheet.)


Risk associated with Mixer Failure

Non-Capital BCE Mixers

Estimated

Mixer

Page 23 of 27

50

394

19,699

Total Annual Risk $

19,699

9/21/2012

Alternative 4 - Fluidyne Jet Mixers


Quantifiable Non-Recurring Costs
Starting Year
No. of Years

2012
60
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

Year
2012
Capital Costs (including soft costs and contractor costs)
Capital Costs (including contingency)
$
11,033,528

Year

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

2021

2022

2023

2024

2025

2026

2027

2028

2029

2030

2031

2032

2033

2034

2035

2036

2037

2038

Recurring Costs - Operation, Maintenance and Risk (from worksheet)


Annual Operation
$
607,433 $
628,693 $ 650,697 $
673,471 $
697,043
Annual Maintenance
$
64,660 $
66,923 $
69,265 $
71,690 $
74,199
Annual Risk
$
19,699 $
20,388 $
21,102 $
21,840 $
22,605
Non-Recurring Costs
Enter description, then enter the cost(s) under the appropriate year(s).
Oil Replacement
$
- $
- $
73,106 $
- $
Overhaul
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
Projected Inflation Rate

$
$
$

721,439
76,796
23,396

$
$
$

746,690
79,484
24,215

$
$
$

772,824
82,266
25,062

$
$
$

799,873
85,145
25,940

$
$
$

827,868
88,125
26,848

$
$
$

856,844
91,209
27,787

$
$
$

886,833
94,402
28,760

$
$
$

917,872
97,706
29,766

$
$
$

949,998
101,125
30,808

$
$
$

983,248
104,665
31,886

$ 1,017,662
$ 108,328
$
33,002

$ 1,053,280
$
112,120
$
34,158

$ 1,090,145
$ 116,044
$
35,353

$ 1,128,300
$
120,105
$
36,590

$ 1,167,790
$
124,309
$
37,871

$ 1,208,663
$ 128,660
$
39,197

$
$
$

1,250,966
133,163
40,568

$
$
$

81,054
-

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

89,866
-

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

99,636
-

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

110,468
2,464,272
-

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

135,793
-

$
$
$

122,478
-

$ 1,294,750
$ 137,824
$
41,988

$
$
$

1,340,066
142,647
43,458

$
$
$

$
$
$

150,556
-

$ 1,474,562

1,676,728

$ 1,386,968
$
147,640
$
44,979

$ 1,435,512
$ 152,807
$
46,553

$ 1,485,755
$
158,156
$
48,183

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

166,924
-

3.5%

Annual Expense (including inflation)

11,725,320

716,004

814,170

767,002

793,847

902,685

850,388

880,152

$ 1,000,823

942,841

975,840

$ 1,109,630

$ 1,045,344

$ 1,081,932

3,694,539

$ 1,158,992

$ 1,199,557

$ 1,364,019

$ 1,284,995

$ 1,329,970

$ 1,512,312

1,424,697

Life Cycle Cost


Projected Discount Rate
3%
5%
7%

$
$
$

11,725,320
11,725,320
11,725,320

$
$
$

695,150
681,909
669,163

$
$
$

767,433
738,476
711,128

$
$
$

701,915
662,565
626,102

$
$
$

705,322
653,100
605,622

$
$
$

778,664
707,277
643,602

$
$
$

712,187
634,573
566,650

$
$
$

715,644
625,508
548,114

$
$
$

790,059
677,396
582,488

$
$
$

722,609
607,764
512,843

$
$
$

726,117
599,081
496,068

$
$
$

801,621
648,778
527,177

$
$
$

733,184
582,087
464,145

$
$
$

736,743
573,771
448,963

$
$
$

2,442,526
1,865,993
1,432,806

$
$
$

743,913
557,495
420,072

$
$
$

747,524
549,531
406,331

$
$
$

825,254
595,117
431,813

$
$
$

754,799
533,942
380,184

$
$
$

758,463
526,314
367,748

$
$
$

837,331
569,975
390,810

$
$
$

765,845
511,384
344,083

$
$
$

769,563
504,079
332,828

$
$
$

Total Life Cycle Cost


3% Discount Rate
5% Discount Rate
7% Discount Rate

$
$
$

65,936,406
42,998,643
31,776,680

Annualized Operations
Life Cycle Cost
Net Present Value
Annualized Payments

$
$

607,433
24,587,027
$985,660

598,755

590,201

581,770

573,459

565,267

557,191

549,232

541,385

533,651

526,028

518,513

511,106

503,804

496,607

489,513

482,520

475,626

468,832

462,134

455,532

449,025

442,610

Annualized Maintenance and Risk


Annual Expense (including inflation)
Life Cycle cost (5% discount)
Net Present Value (5% discount)
Annualized Payments

$
$
$

84,359
84,359
7,378,088
$295,777

$
$

87,311
83,154

$
$

163,473
148,275

$
$

93,530
80,795

$
$

96,804
79,641

$
$

181,246
142,011

$
$

103,699
77,381

$
$

107,328
76,276

$
$

200,950
136,011

$
$

114,972
74,112

$
$

118,997
73,054

$
$

222,797
130,265

$
$

127,472
70,981

$
$

131,934
69,967

$
$

2,711,291
1,369,386

$
$

141,331
67,982

$
$

146,277
67,011

$
$

273,874
119,491

$
$

156,696
65,110

$
$

162,180
64,180

$
$

303,649
114,442

$
$

173,731
62,360

$
$

179,812
61,469

Non-Capital BCE Mixers

$ 1,579,587

$ 1,634,873

$ 1,859,018

849,584
545,894
353,700

$
$
$

777,052
489,779
311,410

$
$
$

780,824
482,782
301,224

$
$
$

862,017
522,832
320,114

436,287

430,054

423,911

417,855

$
$

336,662
109,607

$
$

192,619
59,725

$
$

199,361
58,872

$
$

373,263
104,977

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

2039

2040

2041

2042

2043

2044

2045

2046

2047

2048

2049

2050

2051

2052

2053

2054

2055

2056

2057

2058

2059

2060

2061

2062

2063

2064

2065

2066

2067

$ 1,537,757
$ 163,691
$
49,869

$ 1,591,578
$ 169,420
$
51,614

$ 1,647,283
$
175,350
$
53,421

$
$
$

1,704,938
181,487
55,291

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
185,072
$ 4,128,516
$
-

$
$
$

$ 1,751,317

$ 1,812,613

$ 6,189,642

1,941,716

$
$
$

788,424
469,087
281,840

$
$
$

792,251
462,386
272,621

$ 2,626,552
$ 1,503,751
$
870,033

$
$
$

411,885

406,001

400,201

$
$

213,560
57,202

$
$

221,035
56,385

$ 4,542,359
$ 1,103,549

$ 1,764,611
$
187,839
$
57,226

$ 1,826,372
$
194,414
$
59,229

$
$
$

1,890,295
201,218
61,302

$
$
$

$
$
$

205,193
-

$
$
$

$ 2,009,676

$ 2,285,208

2,152,815

799,961
449,269
255,078

$
$
$

803,845
442,851
246,734

$
$
$

887,431
479,588
262,207

$
$
$

394,484

388,849

383,294

$
$

236,778
54,785

$
$

245,065
54,002

$
$

458,835
96,294

$ 1,956,456
$
208,261
$
63,447

$ 2,024,932
$
215,550
$
65,668

$
$
$

2,095,804
223,094
67,966

$
$
$

$
$
$

227,501
-

$
$
$

$ 2,228,164

$ 2,533,650

2,386,865

811,668
430,289
230,857

$
$
$

815,608
424,142
223,305

$
$
$

900,417
459,326
237,309

$
$
$

377,818

372,421

367,100

$
$

262,520
52,471

$
$

271,708
51,721

$
$

508,719
92,226

$ 2,169,157
$
230,903
$
70,345

$ 2,245,078
$
238,984
$
72,807

$
$
$

2,323,656
247,349
75,356

$
$
$

$
$
$

252,234
-

$
$
$

$ 2,470,405

$ 2,809,104

2,646,360

823,546
412,110
208,935

$
$
$

827,544
406,223
202,101

$
$
$

913,594
439,921
214,775

$
$
$

361,856

356,687

351,591

$
$

291,061
50,254

$
$

301,248
49,536

$
$

564,026
88,329

$ 2,404,984
$
256,006
$
77,993

$
$
$

2,489,158
264,966
80,723

$
$
$

2,576,279
274,240
83,548

$ 2,666,448
$
283,838
$
86,472

$
$
$

2,759,774
293,772
89,499

$
$
$

2,856,366
304,055
92,631

$
$
$

$
$
$

279,657
-

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

310,060
6,916,704
-

$
$
$

$ 2,738,982

3,114,503

2,934,066

$ 3,036,759

$ 10,369,809

3,253,052

835,597
394,699
189,096

$
$
$

839,654
389,061
182,910

$
$
$

926,963
421,335
194,381

$
$
$

847,826
378,024
171,140

$
$
$

851,941
372,624
165,542

$
$
$

2,824,443
1,211,830
528,305

$
$
$

346,569

341,618

336,737

331,927

327,185

322,511

$
$

322,704
48,131

$
$

333,999
47,443

$
$

625,345
84,598

$
$

357,788
46,097

$
$

370,310
45,439

$
$

7,610,035
889,319

Non-Capital BCE Mixers

$ 2,956,339
$
314,696
$
95,873

$
$
$

3,059,811
325,711
99,229

$ 3,166,904
$
337,111
$
102,702

$
$
$

3,277,746
348,910
106,296

$
$
$

$
$
$

343,769
-

$
$
$

$
$
$

$ 3,366,909

3,828,520

$ 3,606,717

3,732,952

860,233
362,053
154,889

$
$
$

864,408
356,881
149,823

$
$
$

954,292
386,486
159,218

$
$
$

872,821
346,757
140,181

$
$
$

317,904

313,362

308,885

304,473

$
$

396,686
44,150

$
$

410,570
43,519

$
$

768,709
77,601

$
$

439,813
42,285

$ 3,392,467
$
361,121
$
110,017

$ 3,511,203
$
373,761
$
113,867

$ 3,634,095
$
386,842
$
117,853

$ 3,761,289
$ 400,382
$ 121,978

$ 3,892,934
$ 414,395
$ 126,247

$ 4,029,186
$
428,899
$
130,665

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

381,143
-

422,580
-

$ 4,244,748

$ 3,998,831

$ 4,138,790

$ 4,706,228

$ 4,433,576

$ 4,588,751

877,058
341,804
135,596

$
$
$

968,257
370,158
144,100

$
$
$

885,594
332,108
126,870

$
$
$

889,893
327,363
122,720

$
$
$

982,427
354,520
130,417

$
$
$

898,554
318,077
114,823

$
$
$

902,916
313,533
111,067

300,123

295,836

291,610

287,444

283,337

279,290

275,300

$
$

455,206
41,680

$
$

852,281
74,322

$
$

487,628
40,498

$
$

504,695
39,920

$
$

944,940
71,182

$
$

540,642
38,787

$
$

559,564
38,233

57

58

59

60

2068

2069

2070

2071

$ 4,170,208
$
443,910
$
135,239

$ 4,316,165
$ 459,447
$ 139,972

$ 4,467,231
$
475,528
$
144,871

$ 4,623,584
$
492,171
$
149,942

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

468,522
-

519,459
-

$ 5,217,880

$ 4,915,585

$ 5,087,630

$ 5,785,156

$
$
$

996,803
339,542
118,033

$ 911,703
$ 304,639
$ 103,920

$
$
$

916,129
300,287
100,521

$ 1,011,390
$
325,197
$
106,825

271,367

$ 267,490

263,669

$ 1,047,672
$
68,175

$ 599,419
$
37,148

$
$

620,399
36,618

$ 1,161,572
$
65,295

259,902

Non-Capital BCE Mixers

Fluidyne Jet Mixers


Capital cost
# of BNR basins
Description

10
Total # of
mixers

# of mixers/basin

2 jet mixers for each anoxic zone; 1


jet mixer for swing zone

Unit Price,
$/basin
50

Material Cost,
$

$281,413

Labor Hours,
hr/mixer

$3,939,775

Labor Rate

Total Labor Cost

65

$29,120

Note:
1. Vendor quote of $235,000 for all 5 mixers in each basin
Annual Energy Cost
# of BNR Basins =
Power cost, $/kWh =
Flygt - Model 4410 & 4430
Zone
Anoxic - AER1
Anoxic - AER2
Swing - AER6

10
0.09

# of mixer/zone
2
2
1

Maintenance Cost
# of BNR Basins =
Flygt - Model 4410 & 4430
Required Maintenance

Total mixers

HP
20
20
10

Total kW
Operation hrs
Power cost
21.2
316.08
8760
$249,194
21.2
316.08
8760
$249,194 Total
18.5
138.31
8760
$109,045

10
Quantity/basin

Oil Check
Oil Replacement
Preventative Mainteance
Overhaul

Total Mixers

5
5
5
5

50
50
50
50

Frequency
(years)

Labor Time**,
Material Cost,
hr/mixer
$/unit
1
2.5
$0.00
3.0
$500.00
3
1
1.5
$140
8.0
$140,706
15
Average Annual Cost ($/yr)

Note:
1. One hour per unit for annual preventive maintenance service is a typical charge for medium sized equipment. Years 1-4 would
incur an approximate labor charge ($ 140/hour) for our "Shop on Wheels" to perform an Annual Periodic Maintenance Service on
each mixer. (from Flygt Submersible, used same assumption for purpose of comparison)
2. Assume $500 for oil cost/year/mixer
3. Overhaul includes 50% of intial capital cost and overhaul labor
Risk of Failure Cost:
# of BNR Basins =
Failure
Seal leaks and mixer is ruined

10
# of
mixer/basin

% Chance
1

Risk
cost/mixer, $
50
394
Total

Total mixers
5

Total cost, $
$19,699
$19,699

Annual cost,
$/yr
$36,038
$22,748
$28,623
$101,492
$188,901

$607,433

Total Installed
Cost, $
$3,968,895

Business Case Evaluation


BNR Mixed Liquor
Recirculation Pumps

Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant

Sacramento Regional County Sanitation District

PRELIMINARY
FOR REVIEW ONLY

September 2012

BNR Mixed Liquor Recirculation Pumps

Contents
1.0 Executive Summary .............................................................................................................................. 1
1.1 Pump Types ........................................................................................................................................................ 1
1.2 Findings/Recommendation ................................................................................................................................. 2
1.2.1 Findings....................................................................................................................................................... 3
1.2.2 Recommendation ........................................................................................................................................ 3
2.0 Goal Statement ...................................................................................................................................... 3
3.0 Design Criteria ...................................................................................................................................... 3
3.1 Basis of Design ................................................................................................................................................... 3
3.2 Design Criteria .................................................................................................................................................... 3
3.2.1 Flexibility Strategies ................................................................................................................................... 4
4.0 Analysis .................................................................................................................................................. 4
4.1 Recirculation Pumps ........................................................................................................................................... 4
4.2 Process Background............................................................................................................................................ 5
5.0 MLR Alternatives ................................................................................................................................. 5
6.0 Viable Alternatives................................................................................................................................ 6
6.1 Submersible Pumps............................................................................................................................................. 6
6.1.1 Assumptions ................................................................................................................................................ 7
6.1.2 Maintenance Assessment ............................................................................................................................ 7
6.2 Top Mounted Pumps........................................................................................................................................... 8
6.2.1 Assumptions ................................................................................................................................................ 9
6.2.2 Maintenance Assessment .......................................................................................................................... 10
7.0 Advantages, Disadvantages and Risks .............................................................................................. 10
8.0 Life Cycle Cost Analysis ..................................................................................................................... 11
9.0 Recommendation................................................................................................................................. 12

List of Figures
Figure 1. Flygt Submersible Propeller Pump (LEFT); Lakeside Submersible Pump (RIGHT) .................................... 1
Figure 2. Out of water discharge pump (LEFT); Vertical Propeller Pump outside of basin (RIGHT) .......................... 2
Figure 3. Sample Layout of Submersible MLR Pumps in 2-pass BNR basin ............................................................... 6
Figure 4. Sample Section of Submersible MLR Pump in 2-pass BNR basin ................................................................ 7
Figure 5. Sample section of Top-Mounted MLR Pump ................................................................................................ 9

List of Tables
Table 1. Life Cycle Cost Summary ............................................................................................................................... 2
Table 2. Design flows used in the Basis of Design of MLR Pumps .............................................................................. 3
Table 3. Design Criteria for MLR Pumps...................................................................................................................... 4
Table 4. Pump types and manufacturers ........................................................................................................................ 6
Table 5. Failure Types of Submersible Pumps .............................................................................................................. 8
Table 6. Failure Types of Top Mounted pumps .......................................................................................................... 10
Table 7. Advantages, Disadvantages, and Risks of Submersible and Top Mounted pumps ....................................... 11
Table 8. Financial Impact of Submersible and Top Mounted pumps .......................................................................... 12

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BNR Mixed Liquor Recirculation Pumps

1.0 Executive Summary


The Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) is a completely new process designed for the
Sacramento Regional County Sanitation District (SRCSD) advanced wastewater treatment
project. It has four major pieces of equipment:

Aeration blowers Supply a wide range of airflows at required discharge pressure to


meet dissolved oxygen demand in BNR process

Aeration diffusers Distribute air supplied from blowers into aeration basins depending
on dissolved oxygen requirements of each basin.

Anoxic and swing zones mixers Provide mixing to keep solids in suspension, keep
inflow streams and basin volume completely mixed, and prevent short circuiting of flow
from one zone to another.

Mixed liquor recirculation (MLR) pumps Recirculate a portion of mixed liquor from
swing zone to anoxic zone for denitrification and to produce high quality effluent.

This BCE discusses the mixed liquor recirculation pumps.

1.1 Pump Types


The purpose of this BCE is to determine the type of pumping equipment best suited to pump
from the last aerobic zone back to the first anoxic zone within the BNR. Pump types evaluated
include:

Submersible - Submersible pumps are installed in the basin wall and mount on a rail
system for ease of removal. Because of weight, pumps are recovered using a winch that
can be installed at each location or one winch could be provided for multiple units with
a connection point at the pump.

Figure 1. Flygt Submersible Propeller Pump (LEFT); Lakeside Submersible Pump (RIGHT)

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Top (pedestal mounted) Pumps - Top (pedestal mounted) pumps are vertical mixed flow
or propeller pumps that discharge to the anoxic zone. Discharge can occur above or
below the water level, but in this application, discharge from top-mounted pumps will
occur underwater to avoid excessive turbulence and air entrainment in the anoxic zone.

Figure 2. Out of water discharge pump (LEFT); Vertical Propeller Pump outside of basin (RIGHT)

1.2 Findings/Recommendation
Both pump types are suitable for pumping recycled mixed liquor in the BNR; however, each
one has its own advantages. Submersible pumps provide a low capital cost solution with more
time-consuming maintenance. Indirect access to the motor complicates maintenance and repair
procedures. Top mounted pumps provide easier motor maintenance, but require a greater initial
capital investment. The motor is accessed from above, requiring less maneuvering and time on
the part of maintenance.
Table 1 summarizes the capital, annual, and present value (life cycle) costs for submersible
pumps from Grundfos and Flygt and top mounted pumps from Morris.
Table 1. Life Cycle Cost Summary

Alternative

Base Cost

Annualized
Operations Cost

Annualized
Maintenance and
Risk Cost

60 year Life-Cycle
Cost at 5% Discount
Rate

Submersible,
Grundfos

$2,730,000

$434,300

$529,000

$26,800,000

Submersible, Flygt

$3,140,000

$401,320

$469,000

$24,850,000

Top Mounted,
Morris

$6,145,000

$298,200

$90,000

$21,360,000

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1.2.1 Findings
2. Life cycle costs are about equal and do not create a clear distinction among these
equipment types.
3. Top mounted pumps tend to be more efficient, but not universally so. This needs to
be reviewed during detailed design.
4. Operating experience for submersible pumps varies from plant to plant. Some have
had very good luck and others have not. This needs to be reviewed during detailed
design.
5. Flexibility varies with the top mounted pump being more favorable for conversion of
the basin from nitrification-denitrification to phosphorus removal + nitrificationdenitrification and the submersible pump being better when considering a 3 pass
rather than 2 pass basin.

1.2.2 Recommendation
Top mounted pumps are easier to access for maintenance and do not require removal of the
equipment for regular maintenance. In addition, flow measurement is important to process
control and is difficult to provide using submersible pumps. Therefore, top mounted pumps are
recommended for mixed liquor recirculation.

2.0 Goal Statement


Select a recirculation pump technology that provides a reliable, efficient, low maintenance
solution for mixed liquor transfer from the last aerobic zone to the first anoxic zone.

3.0 Design Criteria


3.1 Basis of Design
Ten BNR basins were assumed for this evaluation, and each has been divided into six zones:
two anoxic zones, three oxic zones and one swing zone. Nitrate produced in the oxic zones is
recycled between the swing zone and the first anoxic zone. The SRWTP flows and nitrate
limits create the basis for MLR pump design. Table 2 shows the existing and projected flows
considered in mixed-liquor recycle requirements
Table 2. Design flows used in the Basis of Design of MLR Pumps
Flow

Year 2020

Design

Average Day Dry Weather Flow (ADWF)

150 mgd

181 mgd

Maximum Month Flow (MMF)

225 mgd

272 mgd

3.2 Design Criteria


The pumps must recycle the mixed liquor so that nitrate generated in the aerobic zones can be
consumed by bacteria in the anoxic zone. The model created to determine the BNR size and
performance (see Facilities Plan) reported a stable nitrate concentration below 10 mg/L at a
mixed liquor return rate of 200% of the influent flow. To provide this flow with a standard
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pump size, two equally sized pumps were selected. Head losses for the pump were determined
from the manufacturer literature and based on hydraulic calculations. In addition, pump
discharge head accounts for the static head difference between AER1 (see Figure 3) and the
swing zone of approximately 1.1 ft. Table 3 summarizes the selected pump sizes based on
MMF and the phasing strategy described below.
Table 3. Design Criteria for MLR Pumps
Percent of MMF

200 %

MLR Flow per basin

55 mgd

Number of MLF Pumps

2 + space (300% MMF)

MLR Capacity (each)

27.5 mgd (19,100 gpm)

MLR Pump Horsepower

~23 HP

3.2.1 Flexibility Strategies


Initial construction will include 2 pumps per basin that provide 200% of the MMF. This will
provide 240 % of the expected MMF in 2020. To meet future conditions, a space will be left in
the BNR to install a third pump. This pump will increase the MLR pump total capacity to 300%
at the design MMF. District staff could also install a third pump for reliability purposes.
Transition from nitrification-denitrification to phosphorus removal with nitrificationdenitrification changes the location of suction and discharge on MLR. This transition favors
submersible pumps because installation does not require fixed supports and pumps can be
relocated in the future. On the other hand, a 3-pass design of the BNR favors top mounted
pumps due to suction and discharge locations.

4.0 Analysis
4.1 Recirculation Pumps
Biological ammonia removal and denitrification is a two-stage process: ammonia enters the
BNR basin and travels through the anoxic zones to the aerobic zones where bacteria convert the
ammonia to nitrate. Nitrate rich mixed liquor exiting the last aerobic zone is returned to the
anoxic zone where bacteria convert nitrate to nitrogen gas. The mixed liquor recirculation
(MLR) pumps vary the recycle flow in proportion to the influent flow rate. The total
recirculation rate is between two and three times the flow into the basin.
Pumping is continuous. Pumping too little flow allows nitrate to exit the basin and could cause
permit violations. Too much flow impacts the capacity of the BNR and increases the power
cost due to over pumping. Multiple pumps without a standby or redundant units are typically
installed in the tanks because the loss of one pump decreases, but does not inhibit, the
nitrification for that basin. Multiple pumps in multiple basins would need to be out of service to
impact the treatment performance of the entire facility.
Selecting the right pump technology is important because of the differences between electricity
use and maintenance costs. Submersible pumps are more prone to seal failure that ruins the
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electric motor, although current motors include sensors that alert staff if a leak is detected.
However, these pumps are easily removed and replaced with a spare pump. They could become
stuck during removal, requiring the tank to be drained for pump removal. However, this has a
low probability of occurrence.
Top-mounted pumps require more energy, due to the increased TDH, which increases operating
cost. They are more difficult to remove due to their weight and height.
Selecting the right pump is essential to ensure process reliability, flexibility, effluent quality,
and conservation of energy. This business case evaluation (BCE) evaluates the available pump
types in the market and recommends the preferred pump type for this application. The
evaluation will cover:

Functional requirements of MLR internal recirculation

Recirculation pump types available in the market

Features: Advantages, disadvantages, and risks

Operational and maintenance requirements including failure mode and consequences of


failure

Economics

Preferred alternative and recommendation

4.2 Process Background


To cover the daily diurnal flow, two MLR pumps are required to meet permit limits, but in
order to cover both a two time influent flow and three times influent flow, three pumps are
recommended and offer the added flexibility of postponing the installation of one pump
depending on the effluent nitrate limits. Three pumps also provide the necessary redundancy, so
that one pump will be taken off-line while the other two operate when appropriate.

5.0 MLR Alternatives


The viable options considered include:
6. No pumping
7. Submersible pumps
8. Top mounted pumps
Alternative 0 was not included in this analysis, because this treatment process does not yet
function without pumping. Also, to meet the permit values, these pumps are essential, so
Alternative 1 is not applicable.

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6.0 Viable Alternatives


The alternatives that were considered include:
1. Submersible Pumps
2. Top Mounted Pumps
Manufacturers providing information for comparison of Alternatives 2 and 3 are listed in Table
4.
Table 4. Pump types and manufacturers
Pump Type

Manufacturer

Submersible

Grundfos, Flygt

Top Mounted

Morris, Cascade

6.1 Submersible Pumps


Submersible pumps are commonly used in wastewater treatment applications. Generally, they
maintain steady flows in large basins. They require little above-ground construction,
simplifying the engineering. Submersible pumps are attached to a winch for removal when
maintenance is necessary. Pumps weigh about 1000 lbs, and can be easily removed with a
winch. Truck access is not required on the basins; however, there must be a designated area for
pump maintenance preferably near the basin for efficient repair.
Based on the maximum month flow, pumps should be sized at a minimum of 19,100
gpm/pump. Two submersible pumps per tank will be laid out in parallel in the wall between
swing zone and the first anoxic zone (AER1). A spare location for a future third pump will be
provided in the event that treatment requirements change. This placement does not allow for
movement of the pumps if a new configuration is selected later in the process, unless piping or
channels are installed with the initial construction. The approximate location of the pumps for
nitrification-denitrification is shown in the sample drawing in Figure 3. Figure 4 shows a cross
section of submersible pumps connecting the two tanks.

AER5

AER6

SwingZone

BNROutlet

AER4

MLRPumps

AER3

AER2

AER1

BNRInlet

Figure 3. Sample Layout of Submersible MLR Pumps in 2-pass BNR basin

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WaterLevel

SwingZone

WaterLevel

AnoxicZone1

MLRPump
Figure 4. Sample Section of Submersible MLR Pump in 2-pass BNR basin

6.1.1 Assumptions
A number of assumptions were made in the life-cycle cost analysis of MLR pumps. Operating
requirements were provided by manufacturers, and routine maintenance was determined by
O&M manuals and the experience of engineers.
6.1.1.1 Operating Requirements
20 pumps run continuously (24/7). Pump sizing and energy requirements are based on the
MMF. In addition to the dynamic head, there is approximately 1.1 ft static head between the
anoxic zone 1 and the swing zone. Grundfos sized a 20,800 gpm pump with 1.5 ft total
dynamic head. This head, added to the 1.1 ft of static head between the swing zone and AER1,
requires a 23 HP motor. The submersible pump operates at an efficiency of approximately 60
percent. For 20 pumps, the annual energy requirement is approximately 340 kW.
6.1.1.2 Routine Maintenance Cost
Maintenance of submerged pumps requires them to be removed, serviced, and replaced. The oil
is checked every year and replaced every three years. Other maintenance includes replacing the
seal every 5 years and the bearings every 10 years. The life of a submersible pump is
approximately 15 years, at which point, the entire unit will be overhauled. Every 15 years,
100% of the initial capital investment will be re-invested in overhaul of submersible pumps.

6.1.2 Maintenance Assessment

Redundancy
Redundancy is provided not only with the use of 10 basins, but also with the availability of
space for a third pump. As described in the phasing strategy, two pumps will be running at
start-up and a third will be available when capacity increases or redundancy is desired.

Maintenance Concerns
Risk occurs in equipment that lacks safety features and sensors that function properly.
Assuming all safety equipment is effectively maintained, risk in equipment failure is
minimal. However, there is about a 5 percent risk that a problem requires the basin to be
taken out of service. These problems include a ragged propeller or mounting problems. In

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such cases, operations and maintenance will drain the basin, fix the problem, and then put
the basin back in service, increasing O&M costs. In addition, there is approximately a 1
percent risk that the equipment will be ruined by a seal leak which damages the motor. In
this case, the entire piece of equipment must be replaced.

Criticality
MLR pumps receive a criticality code of 4 in the Facility Plan.

Failure Modes
The modes of failure are typically related to one of the four following modes: capacity,
level of service, mortality, or efficiency. In this case, all of the equipment, facilities, and
efficiencies are designed new with the same capacity, and level of service and efficiency
are considered to be equivalent for the equipment alternatives. Table 5 summarizes the
possible failure types for submersible pumps.

Table 5. Failure Types of Submersible Pumps


Pump Type
Submersible pumps

Failure Type

Experience at Operating Facilities

Propeller becomes entangled with


debris
Seal fails
Pump gets stuck on rail and cannot be
removed

Although many plants have not experienced failure with


submersible pumps, many plants have unusually high
failure rates. Seal failure is the most common reason.
When equipment cannot be removed by winch, the
entire basin (anoxic and aerobic) must be removed from
service.

Consequences of Failure
Rail system failure restricts pump removal. Should this occur, the entire basin must be
taken out of service and drained so that the issue can be resolved. In addition, submersible
pump seal failure results in the loss of the motor, and subsequently the loss of the whole
unit. Should this occur, the entire unit must be replaced at 100 percent the capital cost

6.2 Top Mounted Pumps


Top-mounted pumps have the motor placed outside of the basin with the mixed liquor
discharge pipe below the water level. In the BNR, a discharge below the water level is utilized.
These pumps require more head due to the flow of water through the pipe column. In addition,
they require more construction for pump support in the basins. Access to the motor is required
on all sides for maintenance purposes. Maintenance is much simpler and can be accomplished
without the removal of the entire unit from the water. The pump weighs about 7000 lbs (7 times
more than submersible pumps) and must be removed from the water by boom truck, should
removal be necessary. Depending on the boom reach, it may be necessary to drive on top of the
basins to remove the pumps. Truck access requires additional concrete for support.
As with submersible pumps, these pumps should be sized at a minimum of 19,100 gpm/pump.
Two top-mounted pumps per tank will be laid out in parallel between the last aerobic zone and
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the first anoxic zone (between AER6 and AER1). A location for a third pump will be provided
in the event that treatment requirements change in the future. Figure 3 displays this
configuration in the BNR. Pump anchorage will be required to mount all three pumps. Figure 5
shows a sample cross section of a top-mounted pump with discharge through the wall.

Figure 5. Sample section of Top-Mounted MLR Pump

6.2.1 Assumptions
A number of assumptions were made in the life-cycle cost analysis of MLR pumps. Operating
requirements were provided by manufacturers, and routine maintenance was determined by
O&M manuals and the experience of engineers.
6.2.1.1 Operating Requirements
20 pumps run continuously (24/7). Capacity may change based on the flow to the WWTP, but
energy requirements are based on the MMF. In addition to the dynamic head, the pump must be
able to overcome the 1.1 ft static head between the anoxic zone 1 and the swing zone. Morris
specifies a top-mounted pump with a total head of 3.1 ft, including the 1.1 ft of static head.
Additional head is required due to the frictional loss in piping. At 3.1 ft TDH and 20,800 gpm,
a 24 HP motor is required. This pump operates at an efficiency of approximately 68%. With 20
pumps running continuously, the annual energy requirement is approximately 357 kW, which
exceeds that of submersible pumps.
6.2.1.2 Routine Maintenance Cost
Top mounted pumps use grease, and must be greased once each year. Since the units do not
need to be removed from the basin, the labor time required is only about 1 hour. Each year, the
slip ring is refurbished, and every 10 years, seal replacement and pump inspection occurs. The
lifetime of a top-mounted pump is approximately 30 years. Not only does this exceed the life of
a submersible pump, but overhaul of the top-mounted pump requires approximately 60 percent
of the original capital cost if routine maintenance is sustained.
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6.2.2 Maintenance Assessment

Redundancy
Redundancy is provided not only with the use of 10 basins, but also with the availability of
space for a third pump. As described in the phasing strategy, two pumps will be running at
start-up and a third will be available when capacity increases or redundancy is desired.

Maintenance Concerns
Assuming safety features are maintained, there are essentially no risks associated with topmounted pumps. Preventative maintenance is required to control temperature and vibration,
but no risk exists on its own.

Criticality
MLR pumps receive a criticality rating of 4 in the Facility Plan.

Failure Modes
The modes of failure are typically related to one of the four following modes: capacity,
level of service, mortality, or efficiency. In this case, all of the equipment, facilities, and
efficiencies are designed new with the same capacity, and level of service and efficiency
are considered to be equivalent for the equipment alternatives. Table 6 summarizes the
possible failure types of top-mounted pumps.

Table 6. Failure Types of Top Mounted pumps


Pump Type
Top (pedestal) Mounted pumps

Failure Type
Impeller rags
Seal fails

Experience at Operating Facilities


Most problems are associated with installation
problems or manufacturer defects

Consequences of Failure
Top mounted units allow for unit replacement of the motor and seal. All of the preventive
maintenance (grease) and many of the repairs can be done without removing the pump.
Only for impeller or shaft problems would the basin need to be removed from service for
repairs.

7.0 Advantages, Disadvantages and Risks


Table 7 summarizes the main advantages, disadvantages, and risks for selection of each pump
type. Most of the considerations include the maintenance requirements associated with the
pumps.

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Table 7. Advantages, Disadvantages, and Risks of Submersible and Top Mounted pumps
Type
Submersible Pumps

Top Mounted Pumps

Advantages

Disadvantages

Risk

Bearing and seal failure


Submerged motor
Winch access required
Maintenance labor
requirements

No need for above-ground


construction
Easy Installation
Low head requirement

Easy access to motor


Above-ground motor
Less maintenance labor
Longer pump life
More efficient pumping

Platform and walkway


required to access motor
Higher head/energy
requirement
High capital cost
Boom truck needed for
removal
May require boom truck
access on top of basins

Shroud connection
failure
Seal failure
Ragged propeller
Ragged impeller
Impeller connection
fails, motor runs but
impeller does not

Both pump types have been utilized for this application, and both are feasible options with
different benefits. Selection of submersible pumps will decrease the initial investment and
construction. They do not require construction of a support structure and are easily removed by
winch. However, submersible pumps increase the maintenance time and costs. Submersible
pumps also have a greater risk of failure, because they are submerged. Should failure occur and
damage the motor, submersible pumps require full replacement whereas top-mounted pumps
require only partial replacement. The 5% risk of the basins being taken out of service should be
considered by maintenance, operations, and district staff.

8.0 Life Cycle Cost Analysis


Table 8 summarizes the financial impact of 2 submersible pump manufacturers and 1 top
mounted pump manufacturer. The base cost for both submersible pumps is less than for top
mounted; however, the 60-year life-cycle cost for submersible pumps exceeds that of top
mounted. This is due to the operation and maintenance costs. Though top mounted pumps
require more head, as stated above, they operate at greater efficiency.
Annualized maintenance and risk cost includes all procedures mentioned in routine
maintenance, recurring and non-recurring, as well as estimated risk costs. The annualized
investment for submersible pumps exceeds that of top mounted pumps. This is due, not only to
the increase in manhours but also to the frequency of overhaul and risk associated with
submersible pump failure.
The 60-year life cycle cost of top mounted pumps is approximately 5 million dollars less than
that of submersible pumps. This small difference should be taken into account when
considering the advantages, consequences, and risks discussed above. District staff may carry
both alternatives into design and select the type of MLR pump based on personal preference,
experience, and the final BNR basin layout.

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Table 8. Financial Impact of Submersible and Top Mounted pumps

Base Cost

Annualized
Operations Cost

Annualized
Maintenance and
Risk Cost

60 year Life-Cycle
Cost at 5% Discount
Rate

Submersible,
Grundfos

$2,730,000

$434,300

$529,000

$26,800,000

Submersible, Flygt

$3,140,000

$401,320

$469,000

$24,850,000

Top Mounted,
Morris

$6,145,000

$298,200

$90,000

$21,360,000

Alternative

9.0 Recommendation
Due to the reduced maintenance costs and ease of access associated with top mounted pumps,
this style of pump is recommended for use in the BNR basins for mixed liquor recirculation.

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Non - Capital Engineering


Business Case Evaluation

Mixed Liquor Recirculation


(MLR) Pumps

NON-CAPITAL BUSINESS CASE EVALUATION SUMMARY


Date
Work Order Title
Work Order #
PMR #
Customer
BCE #

September, 2012

Functional/Business Objective

To evaluate submersible and top-mounted pumps for the purpose of mixed-liquor


recycle in the BNR

Background Information

Biological ammonia removal and denitrification is a two-stage process: ammonia


enters the BNR basin and travels through the anoxic zones to the aerobic zones
where bacteria convert the ammonia to nitrate. Nitrate rich mixed liquor exiting
the last aerobic zone is returned to the anoxic zone where bacteria convert nitrate
to nitrogen gas. The mixed liquor recirculation recirculation (MLR) pumps vary the
recycle flow in proportion to the influent flow rate. The total recirculation rate is
between two and three times the flow into the basin.
Pumping operates 24/7. Pumping too little flow allows nitrate to exit the basin and
could cause permit violation. Too much flow impacts the capacity of the BNR and
increases the power cost due to over pumping. Multiple pumps without a standby
or redundant unit are typically installed in the tanks because the loss of one pump
decreases, but does not inhibit the nitrification for that basin. Multiple pumps in
multiple basins would need to be out of service to impact the treatment
performance of the entire facility.

Problem/Issue/Opportunity
Description

Selecting the right pump technology is important because of the differences


between electricity use and maintenance costs. Submersible pumps are more
prone to seal failure that ruins the electric motor and could become stuck,
requiring the tank to be drained for pump removal. Top-mounted pumps require
more energy, due to the increased TDH, which increases operating cost.
Pump selection must ensure process reliability, flexibility, effluent quality, and
conserve energy. To cover the low flow to peak day range and cover the daily
diurnal flow, two pumps are required, but in order to cover both a two time influent
flow and three times influent flow, three pumps are recommended and offer the
added flexibility of postponing the installation of one pump depending on the
effluent nitrate limits. Three pumps also provides the necessary redundancy, so
that one pump will be taken off-line while the other two operate when appropriate.

Non-Capital BCE MLR Pumps

9/20/2012

NON-CAPITAL BUSINESS CASE EVALUATION SUMMARY


Date
Work Order Title
Work Order #
PMR #
Customer
BCE #

Description of Alternatives

Alternative 1 -

Submersible pumps: Specifically, the Grundfos SRP.245.32.422.11; 20,800 gpm;


2.6 TDH; 60% efficiency

Alternative 2 -

Submersible pumps; Specifically, the Flygt PP4680.412, 304 SS Construction;


20,600 gpm; 2.1 ft TDH; 50.7% Efficiency

Alternative 3 -

Top-Mounted Pumps: Specifically, the Morris 7200 series; 20,800 gpm, 3.1 ft
TDH; 68% efficiency

Alternative 4 -

Top-Mounted Pumps: Specifically, the Cascade axial flow; 20,8500 gpm; 5 ft


TDH; 66 % efficiency

Alternative 5 -

Financial Factors
Inflation Rate
Starting Year
Number of Years

Alternative

0
0
0

3.5%
2012
60

Base Cost

Select an inflation rate to use in the evaluation, the starting year of the analysis,
and the number of years in the life-cycle period.

Financial Impact Table


Annualized
Maintenance and
Operations Cost
Risk Cost

Life-Cycle Cost at
5% Discount Rate

Non-Capital BCE MLR Pumps

9/20/2012

NON-CAPITAL BUSINESS CASE EVALUATION SUMMARY


Date
Work Order Title
Work Order #
PMR #
Customer
BCE #
Report Summary Table:

Alternative
Submersible,
Grundfos
Submersible, Flygt
Top Mounted,
Morris

Non-Capital BCE MLR Pumps

Financial Impact Table

Base Cost

Annualized
Operations Cost

Annualized
Maintenance and
Risk Cost

60 year Life-Cycle
Cost at 5%
Discount Rate

$2,730,000

$434,300

$529,000

$26,800,000

$3,140,000

$401,320

$469,000

$24,850,000

$6,145,000

$298,200

$90,000

$21,360,000

9/20/2012

Alternative 1 - Grundfos Submersible Pumps


Quantifiable Base and Annual Costs
Item and Description

Reference

Units

Quantity

Vendor quote

Each

20

Estimate

Each

Cost/Unit

Total Cost

Base Costs (unescalated)

Grundfos submersible pump, model


SRP245.32.422.11, 20,800 gpm at 1.8 ft, 60
to 30 Hz VFD turn down, 25 HP
Hoist

60,425

1,208,494

20

6,429

128,588

Sub Total Capital Costs $

1,337,082

Total Costs with net and soft cost markups $

3,717,087

Annual Operational Costs (chemical, energy, operational oversight, etc.)


Energy: 20 Continuous running, 22.8 HP
motors

Estimated

kWh

2,974,837

0.09

267,735

Total Annual Operation $

267,735

Annual Maintenance Costs (Note: Enter non-recurring costs on LCC worksheet.)


Oil Check

Estimated

Labor Hours

50

288

14,415

Total Annual Maintenance $

14,415

Annual Risk Costs (Note: Enter non-recurring costs on LCC worksheet.)


5% Risk of taking Basin out of service
1% Risk that Equipment is Ruined

Non-Capital BCE MLR Pumps

Estimated

Pumps

20

231

4,613

Estimated

Pumps

20

5,200

103,992

Total Annual Risk $

108,604

Page 5 of 24

9/20/2012

Alternative 1 - Grundfos Submersible Pumps


Quantifiable Non-Recurring Costs
Starting Year
No. of Years

2020
60
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

Year
2020
Capital Costs (including soft costs and contractor costs)
Capital Costs (including contingency)
$
3,717,087

Year

2021

2022

2023

2024

2025

2026

2027

2028

2029

2030

2031

2032

2033

2034

2035

2036

2037

2038

2039

2040

2041

2042

2043

2044

2045

2046

Recurring Costs - Operation, Maintenance and Risk (from worksheet)


Annual Operation
$
267,735 $
277,106 $
286,805 $ 296,843 $
307,232
Annual Maintenance
$
14,415 $
14,920 $
15,442 $
15,982 $
16,542
Annual Risk
$
108,604 $
112,405 $
116,340 $ 120,412 $
124,626
Non-Recurring Costs
Enter description, then enter the cost(s) under the appropriate year(s).
Oil Replacement (every 3 years)
$
- $
29,242 $
- $
Seal Replacement (every 5 years)
$
- $
$
- $
259,279
Bearing Replacement (every 10 years)
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
VFD Replacement (every 10 years)
Overhaul
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
-

317,986
17,120
128,988

$
$
$

329,115
17,720
133,502

$
$
$

340,634
18,340
138,175

$
$
$

352,556
18,982
143,011

$
$
$

364,896
19,646
148,017

$
$
$

377,667
20,334
153,197

$
$
$

390,885
21,045
158,559

$
$
$

404,566
21,782
164,109

$
$
$

418,726
22,544
169,852

$
$
$

433,382
23,333
175,797

$ 448,550
$
24,150
$ 181,950

$
$
$

464,249
24,995
188,318

$
$
$

480,498
25,870
194,909

$
$
$

497,315
26,776
201,731

$
$
$

514,722
27,713
208,792

$
$
$

532,737
28,683
216,100

$
$
$

551,383
29,687
223,663

$
$
$

570,681
30,726
231,491

$
$
$

590,655
31,801
239,594

$
$
$

611,328
32,914
247,979

$
$
$

632,724
34,066
256,659

$
$
$

654,870
35,258
265,642

$
$
$

32,421
-

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

35,946
-

$
$
$

39,854
-

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

44,187
365,739
-

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

48,991
-

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

60,223
-

$
$
$

515,911
-

$
$
$

$
$
$

66,770
-

$ 6,016,828

434,383
126,783
176,197
-

54,317
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$

307,943
89,879
124,909
-

$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$611,123

$7,059,267

$654,650

3.5%

Projected Inflation Rate


Annual Expense (including inflation)

4,107,841

Life Cycle Cost


Projected Discount Rate
3%
5%
7%

$
$
$

4,107,841
4,107,841
4,107,841

$
$
$
$

48,636,074
29,732,375
20,354,480
26,015,285

Annualized Operations
Life Cycle Cost
Net Present Value
Annualized Payments

$
$

Annualized Maintenance and Risk


Annual Expense (including inflation)
Life Cycle cost (5% discount)
Net Present Value (5% discount)
Annualized Payments

$
$
$

Total Life Cycle Cost


3% Discount Rate
5% Discount Rate
7% Discount Rate

$
$
$

$404,431

$447,828

$433,237

$707,679

$496,515

$480,337

$497,149

$550,495

$1,055,289

$551,198

$610,344

$590,457

$677,563

$750,269

$725,823

$1,488,590

$831,836

$804,732

$832,898

$922,272

$1,408,132

$923,449

$1,022,539

$
$
$

392,651
385,172
377,973

$
$
$

422,121
406,194
391,151

$
$
$

396,473
374,246
353,650

$
$
$

628,764
582,210
539,885

$
$
$

428,299
389,033
354,009

$
$
$

402,275
358,435
320,069

$
$
$

404,228
353,315
309,599

$
$
$

434,566
372,597
320,393

$
$
$

808,791
680,249
574,008

$
$
$

410,143
338,388
280,201

$
$
$

440,926
356,856
289,970

$
$
$

414,135
328,789
262,170

$
$
$

416,145
324,092
253,594

$ 4,667,007
$ 3,565,409
$ 2,737,705

$ 420,195
$ 314,898
$ 237,275

$
$
$

422,235
310,399
229,514

$
$
$

453,925
327,340
237,516

$
$
$

426,344
301,594
214,745

$
$
$

848,922
589,086
411,608

$
$
$

460,568
313,510
214,962

$
$
$

432,583
288,853
194,353

$
$
$

434,683
284,726
187,996

$
$
$

467,308
300,265
194,550

$
$
$

692,708
436,617
277,609

$
$
$

441,044
272,697
170,145

$
$
$

474,146
287,580
176,077

267,735
10,837,109
$434,445

263,911

260,140

256,424

252,761

249,150

245,591

242,082

238,624

235,215

231,855

228,543

225,278

222,059

218,887

$ 215,760

212,678

209,640

206,645

203,693

200,783

197,915

195,087

192,300

189,553

186,845

184,176

123,019
123,019
15,178,176
$608,472

$
$

127,325
121,262

$
$

161,024
146,053

$
$

136,394
117,822

$
$

400,447
329,449

$
$

178,530
139,883

$
$

151,222
112,844

$
$

156,515
111,232

$
$

197,939
133,973

$
$

690,394
445,034

$
$

173,531
106,533

$
$

219,459
128,313

$
$

185,891
103,511

$
$

192,397
102,032

$ 6,625,885
$ 3,346,522

$ 206,100
$
99,138

$
$

213,314
97,721

$
$

269,771
117,700

$
$

228,507
94,949

$
$

973,868
385,393

$
$

299,100
112,728

$
$

253,350
90,938

$
$

262,217
89,639

$
$

331,617
107,965

$
$

796,805
247,064

$
$

290,725
85,852

$
$

367,670
103,404

Non-Capital BCE MLR Pumps

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

57

2047

2048

2049

2050

2051

2052

2053

2054

2055

2056

2057

2058

2059

2060

2061

2062

2063

2064

2065

2066

2067

2068

2069

2070

2071

2072

2073

2074

2075

2076

$
$
$

677,790
36,493
274,939

$
$
$

701,513
37,770
284,562

$
$
$

$
$
$

$989,222

$
$
$

726,066
39,092
294,522

$
74,029
$ 612,741
$ 178,840
$ 248,543
##########

$1,023,844

$12,254,118

$
$
$

751,478
40,460
304,830

$
$
$

777,780
41,876
315,499

$
$
$

805,002
43,342
326,541

$
$
$

833,177
44,859
337,970

$
$
$

862,338
46,429
349,799

$
$
$

892,520
48,054
362,042

$
$
$

923,758
49,736
374,714

$
$
$

956,090
51,476
387,829

$
$
$

989,553
53,278
401,403

$
$
$

1,024,187
55,143
415,452

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

82,077
-

$
$
$

$
$

727,744
-

$
$
$

91,000
-

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

100,894
-

$
$
$
$

864,331
252,272
350,595

$1,096,768

$1,135,155

$1,256,962

$1,216,006

$1,986,310

$1,393,616

$1,348,207

$1,395,395

$1,545,127

$ 1,060,034
$
57,073
$
429,993

$ 1,097,135
$
59,070
$
445,042

$ 1,135,535
$
61,138
$ 460,619

$ 1,175,278
$
63,278
$
476,741

$
$
$

1,216,413
65,492
493,426

$ 1,258,988
$
67,784
$ 510,696

$ 1,303,052
$
70,157
$ 528,571

$ 1,348,659
$
72,612
$ 547,071

$ 1,395,862
$
75,154
$ 566,218

$ 1,444,717
$
77,784
$ 586,036

$ 1,495,282
$
80,507
$
606,547

$ 1,547,617
$
83,324
$
627,776

$
$
$

1,601,784
86,241
649,748

$
$
$

1,657,846
89,259
672,490

$ 1,715,871
$
92,383
$
696,027

$ 1,775,926
$
95,617
$
720,388

$
$
$

1,838,084
98,963
745,601

$
$
$

$
$
$

111,863
-

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

124,024
1,026,554
-

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

137,508
-

$
$
$

$
$
$

152,457
-

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

169,032
-

$
$ 1,448,056
$
-

$
$
$

$
$
$

187,409
-

16,887,995

$
$ 1,219,225
$ 355,854
$ 494,549
$
-

$2,037,234

$4,178,165

$2,961,980

$1,547,099

$1,713,110

$1,657,291

$1,715,296

$19,813,905

$1,837,468

$1,901,780

$2,105,850

$2,334,793

$2,258,718

$2,337,773

$2,588,627

$3,952,337

$2,591,931

$2,870,057

$
$
$

445,337
264,961
159,196

$
$
$

447,499
261,176
153,988

$ 5,199,990
$ 2,977,093
$ 1,722,473

$
$
$

451,854
253,767
144,079

$
$
$

454,047
250,142
139,366

$
$
$

488,125
263,794
144,225

$
$
$

458,466
243,046
130,398

$
$
$

727,079
378,104
199,067

$
$
$

495,268
252,649
130,530

$
$
$

465,175
232,778
118,016

$
$
$

467,433
229,453
114,156

$
$
$

502,516
241,975
118,136

$
$
$

935,256
441,773
211,648

$
$
$

474,274
219,759
103,316

$
$
$

509,870
231,752
106,918

$
$
$

478,890
213,525
96,667

$
$
$

481,214
210,474
93,505

$
$
$

5,396,749
2,315,479
1,009,448

$
$
$

485,898
204,504
87,488

$
$
$

488,256
201,582
84,627

$
$
$

524,902
212,584
87,577

$
$
$

493,008
195,864
79,181

$
$
$

981,661
382,569
151,768

$
$
$

532,583
203,603
79,261

$
$
$

500,223
187,589
71,662

$
$
$

502,651
184,909
69,318

$
$
$

540,377
195,001
71,735

$
$
$

801,021
283,551
102,360

$
$
$

510,007
177,097
62,736

$
$
$

548,284
186,763
64,923

181,545

178,951

173,875

171,391

168,943

166,529

164,150

161,805

159,494

157,215

154,969

152,755

150,573

148,422

146,302

144,212

142,152

140,121

138,119

136,146

134,201

132,284

130,394

128,531

126,695

124,885

123,101

121,343

119,609

$
$

311,432
83,416

$
$

322,332
82,225

########## $
$ 2,800,698 $

345,290
79,892

$
$

357,375
78,751

$
$

451,960
94,851

$
$

382,829
76,517

$ 1,123,972
$ 213,953

$
$

501,096
90,844

$
$

424,449
73,284

$
$

439,305
72,237

$
$

555,574
87,006

$
$

1,937,792
289,018

$
$

487,065
69,186

$
$

615,975
83,330

$
$

521,757
67,223

$
$

540,018
66,263

$
$

18,597,492
2,173,328

$
$

578,481
64,383

$
$

598,728
63,463

$
$

757,191
76,438

$
$

641,372
61,663

$ 2,733,448
$ 250,285

$
$

839,511
73,208

$
$

711,101
59,058

$
$

735,989
58,214

$
$

930,781
70,116

$ 2,236,466
$
160,450

$
$

816,004
55,755

$
$

1,031,974
67,153

176,395

Non-Capital BCE MLR Pumps

58

59

60

2077

2078

2079

$ 1,902,417
$ 102,427
$ 771,697

$ 1,969,001
$ 106,012
$ 798,707

$
$
$

2,037,916
109,722
826,661

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$
$

207,784
1,719,837
501,968
697,610

$2,776,541

$2,873,720

$6,101,498

$
$
$

514,970
172,074
58,699

$
$
$

517,470
169,615
56,779

$
$
$

1,066,695
342,979
112,666

117,900

116,216

114,556

$
$

874,124
54,173

$
$

904,719
53,399

$
$

4,063,582
228,423

Non-Capital BCE MLR Pumps

SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS
Grundfos SRP245.32.422.11
Capital cost
# of BNR basins

10

Capital Cost

# pumps/basin

Total # of Pumps

2
2

20
20

Top-Mounted Pumps
Hoist
Total

Unit Price,
$/pump

Total Material
Cost, $

$41,913
$4,592

$1,173,550
$128,588

Labor Hours,
hr/pump
-

Labor Rate,
$/hr
24

$65

Labor Cost
$34,944

Total
Installation
Cost, $
$1,208,494
$128,588
$1,337,082

Note:
1. Vendor quote: $35,000 Budget cost for equipment, delivery, and start-up
2. Assume hoist price: Crane with Worm Gear Hand Winch = $2,370, Socket Base = 370 or rolling base = $1,260, 36 ft cable = $205
3. Cost Markups: 59.75 % for pump; 12% for labor
Annual Energy Cost
# of BNR Basins =
Power cost, $/kWh =

10
0.09

# of pumps/basin
2

Total Pumps
Running
20

Note:
1. 2 Pumps per basin for 24/7 operation

Flow, GPM

TDH, ft

20,800
19,097

HP of pump
2.6

22.8

Total kW for all


running pumps
340

Operation, Annual Power


hrs
cost ($/yr)
8760
$267,735

Maintenance/Replacement Cost
# of BNR Basins =
10
Labor cost, $/hr =
93
Maintenance Cost Multiplier**
3.1
Required Maintenance

# of
pumps/basin

Oil Check
Oil Replacement
Seal Replacement
Bearing Replacement
VFD Replacement
Overhaul

Frequency
(years)

Total Pumps

2
2
2
2
2
2

20
20
20
20
20
20

1
3
5
10
10
15

Notes:
1. Assume $500.00 for oil every 3 years
2. Assume seal replacement every 5 years and bearing and VFD replacement every 10 years.
3. Lifetime of equipment is 15 years; requires complete replacement of pumps every 15 years.
Risk of Failure Cost:
# of BNR Basins =
Labor cost, $/hr =
Problem
Problem requires taking basin out
of service
Equipment is ruined

Labor Time**,
Material Cost,
Annual cost,
hr/pump
$/pump
$/yr
2.5
$0.00
$14,415
3.0
$500.00
$9,099
4.5
$10,000.00
$45,189
4.5
$2,000.00
$6,595
8.0
$2,276.09
$9,165
16.0
$58,677.5
$84,387
Average Annual Cost ($/yr)
$168,850

10
93
% Chance
(%/pump/yr)

# of pumps/basin

Total Pumps

Risk Cost/pump,
$/yr

Total Risk Cost,


$/yr

20

$231

$4,613

20

$5,200
Total

$103,992
$108,604

Notes:
1. Problems that require taking basin out of service include: tangled electrical cord, ragged propeller, mounting problems
2. The cost of taking the basin out of service includes draining the basin and putting it back in service (8 hours operations, 8 hours maintenance**)
3. If the motor is ruined, the whole unit must be replaced.
**Note regarding labor cost: 1 hour of maintenance mechanic requires 1.4 hours of controls person and 0.7 hours of electrician; therefore, maintenance hours are multiplied by 3.1 hours.

Alternative 2 - Flygt PP7680 Submersible Pump


Quantifiable Base and Annual Costs
Item and Description

Reference

Units

Quantity

Cost/Unit

Total Cost

Vendor Quote

Pumps

20

70,484

1,409,674

Estimate

Each

20

6,429

128,588

Sub Total Capital Costs $

1,538,262

Total Costs with net and soft cost markups $

4,276,367

Base Costs (unescalated)

Flygt PP7680 Submersible Pump;


20,600 gpm
Hoist

Annual Operational Costs (chemical, energy, operational oversight, etc.)


21 HP Motor running continuously

kWh

2749102

0.09

247,419

Total Annual Operation $

247,419

Annual Maintenance Costs (Note: Enter non-recurring costs on LCC worksheet.)


Oil Check

Estimated

Labor Hours

50

288

14,415

Total Annual Maintenance $

14,415

Annual Risk Costs (Note: Enter non-recurring costs on LCC worksheet.)


5% Risk of taking Basin out of service
1% Risk that Equipment is Ruined

Non-Capital BCE MLR Pumps

Estimated

Pumps

20

231

4,613

Estimated

Pumps

20

5,300

106,003

Total Annual Risk $

110,616

Page 10 of 24

9/20/2012

Alternative 2 Quantifiable Non-Recurring Costs


Starting Year
No. of Years

2020
60
Year

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

Year
2020
Capital Costs (including soft costs and contractor costs)
Capital Costs (including contingency)
$
4,276,367

2021

2022

2023

2024

2025

2026

2027

2028

2029

2030

2031

2032

2033

2034

2035

2036

2037

2038

2039

2040

2041

2042

2043

2044

Recurring Costs - Operation, Maintenance and Risk (from worksheet)


Annual Operation
$
247,419 $
256,079 $
265,042 $
274,318 $
283,919
Annual Maintenance
$
14,415 $
14,920 $
15,442 $
15,982 $
16,542
Annual Risk
$
110,616 $
114,488 $
118,495 $
122,642 $
126,935
Non-Recurring Costs
Enter description, then enter the cost(s) under the appropriate year(s).
Oil Replacement (every 3 years)
$
- $
- $
29,242 $
- $
Seal Replacement (every 6 years)
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
Bearing Replacement (every 6 years)
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
VFD Replacement (every 10 years)
- $
- $
- $
Overhaul (every 15 yrs)
$
- $

$
$
$

293,856
17,120
131,377

$
$
$

304,141
17,720
135,975

$
$
$

314,786
18,340
140,735

$
$
$

325,804
18,982
145,660

$
$
$

337,207
19,646
150,758

$
$
$

349,009
20,334
156,035

$
$
$

361,225
21,045
161,496

$
$
$

373,867
21,782
167,149

$
$
$

386,953
22,544
172,999

$
$
$

400,496
23,333
179,054

$
$
$

414,513
24,150
185,321

$
$
$

429,021
24,995
191,807

$
$
$

444,037
25,870
198,520

$
$
$

459,578
26,776
205,468

$
$
$

475,664
27,713
212,660

$
$
$

492,312
28,683
28,683

$
$
$

509,543
29,687
29,687

$
$
$

527,377
30,726
30,726

$
$
$

545,835
31,801
31,801

$
$
$

564,939
32,914
32,914

$
$
$

32,421
259,279
78,324

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

35,946
-

$
$

$
$
$

39,854
318,721
96,281

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

44,187
-

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

48,991
391,789
118,353

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

60,223
481,609
145,487

$
$
$

6,922,132

169,556

54,317
-

$
$
$

120,202
-

$
$

$
$

$
$
$

3.5%

Projected Inflation Rate


Annual Expense (including inflation)

4,648,817

385,486

428,220

412,942

427,395

812,379

457,836

473,861

526,392

627,813

525,378

998,622

562,798

582,496

7,569,202

623,984

645,824

1,227,561

691,822

885,592

603,995

568,916

588,828

$ 1,296,755

630,768

Life Cycle Cost


Projected Discount Rate
3%
5%
7%

$
$
$

4,648,817
4,648,817
4,648,817

$
$
$

374,258
367,130
360,267

$
$
$

403,639
388,408
374,024

$
$
$

377,901
356,715
337,084

$
$
$

379,735
351,619
326,058

$
$
$

700,766
636,520
579,215

$
$
$

383,431
341,645
305,076

$
$
$

385,292
336,764
295,097

$
$
$

415,539
356,283
306,365

$
$
$

481,166
404,694
341,489

$
$
$

390,931
322,536
267,075

$
$
$

721,425
583,873
474,438

$
$
$

394,735
313,387
249,889

$
$
$

396,651
308,910
241,715

$
$
$

5,004,134
3,822,962
2,935,467

$
$
$

400,512
300,147
226,161

$
$
$

402,456
295,859
218,763

$
$
$

742,695
535,581
388,614

$
$
$

406,373
287,466
204,685

$
$
$

505,041
350,459
244,874

$
$
$

334,417
227,639
156,084

$
$
$

305,821
204,208
137,401

$
$
$

307,305
201,291
132,906

$
$
$

657,055
422,186
273,546

$
$
$

310,296
195,581
124,354

Total Life Cycle Cost


3% Discount Rate
5% Discount Rate
7% Discount Rate

$
$
$

44,860,408
28,272,827
19,888,546

Annualized Operations
Life Cycle Cost
Net Present Value
Annualized Payments

$
$

247,419
10,014,775
$401,478.52

243,885

240,401

236,966

233,581

230,244

226,955

223,713

220,517

217,367

214,261

211,200

208,183

205,209

202,278

199,388

196,540

193,732

190,964

188,236

185,547

182,897

180,284

177,708

175,170

Annualized Maintenance and Risk


Annual Expense (including inflation)
Life Cycle cost (5% discount)
Net Present Value (5% discount)
Annualized Payments

$
$
$

125,031
125,031
13,981,685
$560,506.48

$
$

129,407
123,245

$
$

163,179
148,008

$
$

138,624
119,749

$
$

143,476
118,038

$
$

518,523
406,276

$
$

153,695
114,690

$
$

159,074
113,051

$
$

200,588
135,766

$
$

290,606
187,327

$
$

176,369
108,275

$
$

637,397
372,673

$
$

188,931
105,204

$
$

195,543
103,701

$
$

7,168,706
3,620,684

$
$

209,471
100,759

$
$

216,802
99,320

$
$

783,524
341,849

$
$

232,244
96,502

$
$

409,929
162,223

$
$

111,683
42,092

$
$

59,373
21,312

$
$

61,451
21,007

$
$

750,920
244,478

$
$

65,828
20,411

Non-Capital BCE MLR Pumps

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

2045

2046

2047

2048

2049

2050

2051

2052

2053

2054

2055

2056

2057

2058

2059

2060

2061

2062

2063

2064

2065

2066

2067

2068

2069

2070

$
$
$

584,712
34,066
34,066

$
$
$

605,177
35,258
35,258

$
$
$

626,358
36,493
36,493

$
$
$

648,281
37,770
37,770

$
$
$

670,971
39,092
39,092

$
$
$

694,455
40,460
40,460

$
$
$

718,761
41,876
41,876

$
$
$

743,917
43,342
43,342

$
$
$

769,954
44,859
44,859

$
$
$

796,903
46,429
46,429

$
$
$

824,794
48,054
48,054

$
$
$

853,662
49,736
49,736

$
$
$

883,540
51,476
51,476

$
$
$

914,464
53,278
53,278

$
$
$

946,470
55,143
55,143

$
$
$

979,597
57,073
57,073

$ 1,013,883
$
59,070
$
59,070

$
$
$

1,049,369
61,138
61,138

$
$
$

1,086,097
63,278
63,278

$
$
$

1,124,110
65,492
65,492

$
$
$

1,163,454
67,784
67,784

$
$
$

1,204,175
70,157
70,157

$
$
$

1,246,321
72,612
72,612

$
$
$

1,289,942
75,154
75,154

$
$
$

1,335,090
77,784
77,784

$
$
$

1,381,818
80,507
80,507

$
$
$

$
$
$

66,770
-

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

82,077
-

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

91,000
727,744
219,840

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

100,894
-

$
$

337,381

$
$
$

74,029
592,020
178,840
239,176
11,596,986

$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$

111,863
894,583
270,240

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

124,024
-

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

137,508
1,099,671
332,194

$
$
$

$
$

$ 19,428,997

475,909
-

152,457
-

$
$

$
$
$
$

652,845

742,464

699,343

723,820

13,430,205

775,374

802,513

912,678

859,672

889,760

$ 1,959,486

953,133

986,493

1,121,914

1,394,137

1,093,742

$ 2,408,709

1,171,644

1,212,652

$ 20,808,115

1,299,023

1,344,489

2,960,918

1,440,250

1,966,568

1,695,289

$
$
$

311,802
192,787
120,286

$
$
$

344,277
208,811
127,849

$
$
$

314,837
187,318
112,546

$
$
$

316,365
184,642
108,864

$
$
$

5,699,058
3,262,819
1,887,787

$
$
$

319,444
179,404
101,859

$
$
$

320,995
176,841
98,527

$
$
$

354,427
191,540
104,722

$
$
$

324,119
171,825
92,187

$
$
$

325,692
169,370
89,171

$
$
$

696,369
355,236
183,531

$
$
$

328,862
164,566
83,433

$
$
$

330,458
162,215
80,704

$
$
$

364,876
175,698
85,778

$
$
$

440,204
207,933
99,618

$
$
$

335,294
155,361
73,041

$
$
$

716,899
325,854
150,331

$
$
$

338,557
150,954
68,340

$
$
$

340,201
148,798
66,105

$
$
$

5,667,543
2,431,664
1,060,099

$
$
$

343,512
144,577
61,851

$
$
$

345,179
142,511
59,828

$
$
$

738,035
298,902
123,137

$
$
$

348,539
138,469
55,978

$
$
$

462,046
180,067
71,434

$
$
$

386,707
147,836
57,551

172,667

170,200

167,769

165,372

163,010

160,681

158,386

156,123

153,893

151,694

149,527

147,391

145,285

143,210

141,164

139,147

137,160

135,200

133,269

131,365

129,488

127,639

125,815

124,018

122,246

120,500

$
$

68,132
20,120

$
$

137,287
38,611

$
$

72,985
19,549

$
$

75,540
19,270

$
$

12,759,234
3,099,809

$
$

80,920
18,723

$
$

83,752
18,456

$
$

168,760
35,417

$
$

89,717
17,932

$
$

92,857
17,676

$ 1,134,692
$
205,709

$
$

99,471
17,174

$
$

102,953
16,929

$
$

207,450
32,488

$
$

447,666
66,769

$
$

114,145
16,214

$ 1,394,826
$
188,694

$
$

122,275
15,754

$
$

126,555
15,529

$ 19,684,005
$ 2,300,299

$
$

135,569
15,088

$
$

140,314
14,873

$
$

1,714,597
173,087

$
$

150,308
14,451

$
$

631,478
57,821

$
$

313,471
27,336

Non-Capital BCE MLR Pumps

52

53

54

55

56

57

58

59

60

2071

2072

2073

2074

2075

2076

2077

2078

2079

$
$
$

1,430,182
83,324
83,324

$
$
$

1,480,238
86,241
86,241

$
$
$

1,532,046
89,259
89,259

$
$
$

1,585,668
92,383
92,383

$
$
$

1,641,166
95,617
95,617

$
$
$

1,698,607
98,963
98,963

$
$
$

1,758,058
102,427
102,427

$
$
$

1,819,591
106,012
106,012

$
$
$

1,883,276
109,722
109,722

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

169,032
1,351,776
408,351

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

187,409
-

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$
$

207,784
1,661,678
501,968
671,317

1,596,831

1,652,720

3,639,724

1,770,435

1,832,400

2,083,943

1,962,913

2,031,614

5,145,467

$
$
$

353,639
132,619
50,662

$
$
$

355,356
130,724
49,005

$
$
$

759,793
274,180
100,862

$
$
$

358,814
127,016
45,852

$
$
$

360,556
125,201
44,352

$
$
$

398,108
135,608
47,141

$
$
$

364,065
121,650
41,498

$
$
$

365,832
119,912
40,140

$
$
$

899,557
289,239
95,013

118,778

117,081

115,409

113,760

112,135

110,533

108,954

107,398

105,863

$
$

166,649
13,840

$
$

172,482
13,643

$
$

2,107,678
158,771

$
$

184,767
13,256

$
$

191,233
13,066

$
$

385,336
25,075

$
$

204,854
12,696

$
$

212,024
12,514

$
$

3,262,191
183,375

Non-Capital BCE MLR Pumps

SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS
Flygt - Xylem PP4600
Capital cost
# of BNR basins

10

Capital Cost

# pumps/basin

Top-Mounted Pumps
Hoist (Portable)
Total

2
2

Total # of
Pumps

Unit Price,
$/pump
20
20

Total Material
Cost, $

$49,098
$4,592

$1,374,730
$128,588

Labor Hours,
hr/pump
-

Labor Rate,
$/hr
24

Labor Cost

$65

$34,944

Total
Installation
Cost, $
$1,409,674
$128,588
$1,538,262

Note:
1. Vendor quote: $41,000 Budget cost for equipment, delivery, and start-up
2. Assume hoist price: Crane with Worm Gear Hand Winch = $2,370, Socket Base = 370 or rolling base = $1,260, 36 ft cable = $205
3. Cost Markups: 59.75 % for pump; 12% for labor
Annual Energy Cost
# of BNR Basins =
Power cost, $/kWh =

10
0.09

# of pumps/basin
2

Total Pumps
Running
20

Flow, GPM

TDH, ft

20,600

HP of pump
2.05

21.0

Total kW for all


running pumps
314

Operation, Annual Power


hrs
cost ($/yr)
8760
$247,419

Note:
1. 2 Pumps per basin for 24/7 operation
Maintenance/Replacement Cost
# of BNR Basins =
10
Labor cost, $/hr =
93
Maintenance Cost Multiplier**
3.1
Required Maintenance

# of
pumps/basin

Oil Check
Oil Replacement
Seal Replacement
Bearing Replacement
VFD Replacement
Overhaul

Total Pumps

2
2
2
2
2
2

20
20
20
20
20
20

Frequency
(years)

Labor Time**,
hr/pump
1
3
6
6
10
15

Notes:
1. Oil check occurs ever year
2. Assume $500.00 for oil every 3 years
3. Assume seal and bearing replacement every 6 years.
4. Assume VFD Replacement every 10 years
5. Lifetime of equipment is 15 years; requires complete replacement of pumps every 15 years.
Risk of Failure Cost:
# of BNR Basins =
Labor cost, $/hr =
Problem
Problem requires taking basin
out of service
Equipment is ruined

Material Cost,
$/pump

2.5
$0.00
3
$500.00
4.5
$10,000.00
4.5
$2,000.00
8.0
$2,103.38
16
$68,736.50
Average Annual Cost ($/yr)

Annual cost,
$/yr
$14,415
$9,099
$37,658
$10,991
$8,820
$97,799
$178,782
3 hours, 3 people to remove and install when maintenance occurs.

10
93
% Chance
(%/pump/yr)

# of
pumps/basin

Total Pumps

Risk Cost/pump, Total Risk Cost,


$/yr
$/yr

20

$231

$4,613

20

$5,300
Total

$106,003
$110,616

Notes:
1. Problems that require taking basin out of service include: ragged propeller, mounting problems
2. The cost of taking the basin out of service includes draining the basin and putting it back in service (8 hours operations, 8 hours maintenance**)
3. If the motor is ruined, the whole unit must be replaced.

**Note regarding labor cost: 1 hour of maintenance mechanic requires 1.4 hours of controls person and 0.7 hours of electrician; therefore, maintenance hours are multiplied by 3.1 hours.

Alternative 3 - Morris Vertical Turbine Pumps


Quantifiable Base and Annual Costs
Item and Description

Reference

Units

Quantity

Cost/Unit

Total Cost

Pump

20

142,939

Pump

20

7,661

153,228

Base Costs (unescalated)


Morris Vertical Propeller Pump,
20,800 gpm
Support Structure

Vendor Quote from Las


Vegas (scaled up)
Concrete Estimates

$ 2,858,786

Installed Cost $ 3,012,014


Total Costs with net and soft cost markups $ 8,373,399

Annual Operational Costs (chemical, energy, operational oversight, etc.)


Continuous running 23.9 HP motor

9 cents per kWh

kWh

3,129,636

0.09

281,667

0
0

$
$

$
$

Total Annual Operation $

281,667

Annual Maintenance Costs (Note: Enter non-recurring costs on LCC worksheet.)


Slip Ring Refurbishment

Estimated

Pump

20

272

5,442

Greasing

Estimated

Labor Hours

20

288

5,766

0
0

$
$

$
$

Total Annual Maintenance $

11,208

Annual Risk Costs (Note: Enter non-recurring costs on LCC worksheet.)


$

Non-Capital BCE MLR Pumps

Page 15 of 24

0
0

$
$

$
$

Total Annual Risk $

9/20/2012

Alternative 3 Quantifiable Non-Recurring Costs


Starting Year
No. of Years

2020
60
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

Year
2020
Capital Costs (including soft costs and contractor costs)
Capital Costs (including contingency)
$
8,373,399

Year

2021

2022

2023

2024

2025

2026

2027

2028

2029

2030

2031

2032

2033

2034

2035

2036

2037

2038

2039

2040

2041

2042

2043

2044

2045

$
$
$

334,532
13,311
-

$ 346,241
$
13,777
$
-

$
$
$

358,359
14,259
-

$
$
$

370,902
14,758
-

$
$
$

383,884
15,275
-

$
$
$

397,319
15,809
-

$
$
$

411,226
16,363
-

$
$
$

425,619
16,935
-

$ 440,515
$
17,528
$
-

$
$
$

455,933
18,142
-

$
$
$

471,891
18,776
-

$
$
$

488,407
19,434
-

$
$
$

505,501
20,114
-

$
$
$

523,194
20,818
-

$
$
$

541,506
21,546
-

$
$
$

560,458
22,301
22,301

$
$
$

580,074
23,081
23,081

$
$
$

600,377
23,889
23,889

$
$
$

621,390
24,725
24,725

$
$
$

643,139
25,590
25,590

$
$
$

665,649
26,486
26,486

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

128,138
159,865
-

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

180,751
225,506
-

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

Recurring Costs - Operation, Maintenance and Risk (from worksheet)


Annual Operation
$
281,667 $
291,526 $ 301,729 $ 312,290 $ 323,220
Annual Maintenance
$
11,208 $
11,600 $
12,006 $
12,426 $
12,861
Annual Risk
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
Non-Recurring Costs
Enter description, then enter the cost(s) under the appropriate year(s).
VFD Replacement
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
Seal Replacement and Pump Inspection $
- $
- $
- $
- $
Overhaul
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
3.5%

Projected Inflation Rate


Annual Expense (including inflation)

8,666,273

303,125

313,735

324,715

336,081

347,843

$ 360,018

372,618

385,660

687,161

413,129

427,588

442,554

$ 458,043

474,075

490,667

507,841

525,615

544,012

969,309

605,059

626,237

648,155

670,840

694,320

718,621

Life Cycle Cost


Projected Discount Rate
3%
5%
7%

$
$
$

8,666,273
8,666,273
8,666,273

$
$
$

294,296
288,691
283,295

$
$
$

295,725
284,567
274,028

$
$
$

297,161
280,501
265,065

$
$
$

298,603
276,494
256,394

$
$
$

300,053
272,544
248,007

$ 301,509
$ 268,651
$ 239,895

$
$
$

302,973
264,813
232,048

$
$
$

304,444
261,030
224,458

$
$
$

526,652
442,950
373,770

$
$
$

307,407
253,625
210,014

$
$
$

308,899
250,002
203,144

$
$
$

310,398
246,431
196,499

$ 311,905
$ 242,910
$ 190,072

$
$
$

313,419
239,440
183,854

$
$
$

314,941
236,019
177,840

$
$
$

316,470
232,648
172,023

$
$
$

318,006
229,324
166,396

$
$
$

319,550
226,048
160,953

$
$
$

552,783
383,588
268,022

$
$
$

335,007
228,041
156,359

$
$
$

336,633
224,783
151,244

$
$
$

338,267
221,572
146,297

$
$
$

339,909
218,406
141,512

$
$
$

341,559
215,286
136,883

$
$
$

343,217
212,211
132,405

Total Life Cycle Cost


3% Discount Rate
5% Discount Rate
7% Discount Rate

$
$
$

34,786,105
23,591,956
18,051,573

Annualized Operations
Life Cycle Cost
Net Present Value
Annualized Payments

$
$

281,667
7,440,267
$298,270

272,454

263,542

254,921

246,583

238,517

$ 230,715

223,168

215,868

208,807

201,977

195,370

188,980

$ 182,798

176,819

171,035

165,440

160,029

154,794

149,731

144,833

140,096

135,513

131,080

126,793

122,645

Annualized Maintenance and Risk


Annual Expense (including inflation)
Life Cycle cost (5% discount)
Net Present Value (5% discount)
Annualized Payments

$
$
$

11,208
11,208
2,237,908
$89,715

$
$

11,600
10,841

$
$

12,006
10,486

$
$

12,426
10,143

$
$

12,861
9,811

$
$

13,311
9,491

$
$

$
$

14,259
8,880

$
$

14,758
8,589

$
$

303,278
164,963

$
$

15,809
8,037

$
$

16,363
7,774

$
$

16,935
7,519

$
$

$
$

18,142
7,036

$
$

18,776
6,805

$
$

19,434
6,583

$
$

20,114
6,368

$
$

20,818
6,159

$
$

427,803
118,291

$
$

44,601
11,526

$
$

46,162
11,149

$
$

47,778
10,784

$
$

49,450
10,431

$
$

51,181
10,090

$
$

52,972
9,760

13,777
9,180

Non-Capital BCE MLR Pumps

17,528
7,274

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

2046

2047

2048

2049

2050

2051

2052

2053

2054

2055

2056

2057

2058

2059

2060

2061

2062

2063

2064

2065

2066

2067

2068

2069

2070

2071

2072

2073

2074

$
$
$

688,946
27,413
27,413

$
$
$

713,060
28,373
28,373

$
$
$

738,017
29,366
29,366

$
$
$

763,847
30,393
30,393

$
$
$

790,582
31,457
31,457

$
$
$

818,252
32,558
32,558

$
$
$

846,891
33,698
33,698

$
$
$

876,532
34,877
34,877

$
$
$

907,211
36,098
36,098

$
$
$

938,963
37,361
37,361

$ 971,827
$
38,669
$
38,669

$ 1,005,841
$
40,022
$
40,022

$
$
$

1,041,045
41,423
41,423

$
$
$

1,077,482
42,873
42,873

$
$
$

1,115,194
44,373
44,373

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

254,967
318,098
9,489,279

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

359,656
448,708
-

$
$
$

743,773

769,805

796,748

10,886,978

853,496

883,369

914,286

946,286

979,406

$ 1,013,686

$ 1,049,165

$ 1,085,885

1,123,891

1,971,592

1,203,941

$
$
$

344,883
209,179
128,074

$
$
$

346,558
206,191
123,885

$
$
$

348,240
203,245
119,833

$
$
$

4,619,849
2,644,951
1,530,304

$
$
$

351,629
197,480
112,121

$
$
$

353,336
194,659
108,454

$
$
$

355,051
191,878
104,906

$
$
$

356,775
189,137
101,475

$
$
$

358,507
186,435
98,155

$
$
$

360,247
183,771
94,945

$ 361,996
$ 181,146
$
91,839

$
$
$

363,753
178,558
88,835

$
$
$

365,519
176,007
85,929

$
$
$

622,537
294,059
140,880

$
$
$

118,633

114,753

110,999

107,369

103,856

100,459

97,173

93,995

90,920

87,946

85,069

82,287

79,595

76,991

$
$

54,826
9,441

$
$

56,745
9,132

$
$

58,731
8,833

$
$

10,123,131
1,422,936

$
$

62,914
8,265

$
$

65,116
7,995

$
$

67,395
7,733

$
$

69,754
7,480

$
$

72,196
7,235

$
$

74,722
6,999

$
$

77,338
6,770

$
$

80,045
6,548

$
$

82,846
6,334

$
$

894,111
63,889

$ 1,154,226
$
45,926
$
45,926

$ 1,194,624
$
47,534
$
47,534

$ 1,236,435
$
49,198
$
49,198

$ 1,279,711
$
50,920
$
50,920

$ 1,324,500
$
52,702
$
52,702

$
$
$

1,370,858
54,546
54,546

$
$
$

1,418,838
56,455
56,455

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

$ 1,468,497
$
58,431
$
58,431

$
$
$

1,519,895
60,476
60,476

$
$
$

1,573,091
62,593
62,593

$
$
$

$
$
$

507,331
632,948
-

$
$
$

$ 1,246,079

$ 1,289,691

$ 1,334,831

$ 1,381,550

$ 1,429,904

1,479,950

1,531,749

$ 1,585,360

2,781,126

1,698,277

369,076
171,015
80,400

$
$
$

370,868
168,572
77,770

$
$
$

372,668
166,163
75,226

$
$
$

374,477
163,790
72,765

$
$
$

376,295
161,450
70,385

$
$
$

378,122
159,143
68,083

$
$
$

379,957
156,870
65,856

$
$
$

381,802
154,629
63,702

$ 383,655
$ 152,420
$
61,618

$
$
$

653,426
254,651
101,022

$
$
$

74,473

72,037

69,681

67,401

65,197

63,064

61,001

59,006

57,076

55,209

$
$

88,747
5,927

$
$

91,853
5,733

$
$

95,068
5,545

$
$

98,395
5,364

$
$

101,839
5,188

$
$

105,403
5,019

$
$

109,092
4,854

$
$

112,911
4,696

$ 116,863
$
4,542

$
$

1,261,231
45,813

Non-Capital BCE MLR Pumps

$ 1,628,149
$
64,784
$
64,784

$ 1,685,134
$
67,051
$
67,051

$ 1,744,114
$
69,398
$
69,398

$ 1,805,158
$
71,827
$
71,827

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

$ 1,757,717

$ 1,819,237

$ 1,882,910

$ 1,948,812

387,389
148,096
57,653

$
$
$

389,270
145,980
55,767

$
$
$

391,159
143,895
53,943

$
$
$

393,058
141,839
52,178

$
$
$

394,966
139,813
50,471

53,403

51,656

49,966

48,332

46,751

$
$

125,186
4,250

$
$

129,568
4,111

$
$

134,103
3,976

$
$

138,796
3,846

$
$

143,654
3,720

56

57

58

59

60

2075

2076

2077

2078

2079

$ 1,868,339
$
74,341
$
74,341

$ 1,933,731
$
76,943
$
76,943

$ 2,001,411
$
79,636
$
79,636

$ 2,071,461
$
82,423
$
82,423

$
$
$

2,143,962
85,308
85,308

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$

715,640
892,835

$ 2,017,021

$ 2,087,616

$ 2,160,683

$ 2,236,307

3,923,053

$
$
$

396,883
137,816
48,821

$
$
$

398,810
135,847
47,224

$
$
$

400,746
133,906
45,679

$
$
$

402,691
131,993
44,185

$
$
$

685,848
220,524
72,440

45,222

43,743

42,312

40,928

39,589

$
$

148,682
3,599

$
$

153,886
3,481

$
$

159,272
3,367

$
$

164,846
3,257

$
$

1,779,091
32,852

Non-Capital BCE MLR Pumps

TOP-MOUNTED PUMPS
Morris
Capital cost
# of BNR basins

10

Capital Cost

# pumps/basin

Top-Mounted Pumps
Support Structure
Total

2
2

Support Structure
Concrete Type

Cost, $/yd3

Pump support and


thickened slabs
Columns

Total # of
Pumps

Unit Price, $/pump

20
20

Quantity (per
basin)

$425.00
$525.00

Total Material Cost,


$

$101,788
$5,472

Dimensions

Labor Hours,
hr/pump

$2,850,050
$153,228

Concrete/basin (ft3)

3 8 ft x 8 ft x 2 ft
4 1.5 ft x 1.5 ft x 28 ft

384
252

Labor Rate,
$/hr
6

$65

Total
Installation
Cost, $
$8,736
$2,858,786
$153,228
$3,012,014

Labor Cost

Cost per basin


$6,045
$4,900

Note:
1. Vendor quote: $85,000 budget cost for equipment, delivery, and start-up
2. Cost Markups: 40% for pump and concrete; 19.75% for pump; 12% for labor
Annual Energy Cost
# of BNR Basins =
Power cost, $/kWh =
# of pumps/basin
2

10
0.09
Total Pumps
Running
20

Flow, GPM
20,800

TDH, ft

HP of pump
3.1

23.9

Annual Power
Total kW for all
Operation, hrs
cost ($/yr)
running pumps
357
8760
$281,667

Note:
1. 2 Pumps per basin for 24/7 operation
Maintenance/Replacement Cost
# of BNR Basins =
10
Labor cost, $/hr =
93
Required
# of pumps/basin Total Pumps
Maintenance
Greasing
2
20
Slip Ring Refurbishment
2
20
VFD Replacement
2
20
2
20
Seal Replacement and P
Overhaul
2
20

Frequency (years)

Labor Time**,
hr/pump

1
1
10
10
30

Notes:
1. Greasing occurs every year
2. Slip ring is refurbished every year
3. Assume seal and VFD replacement every 10 years
4. Lifetime of equipment is 30 years; requires overhaul every 30 years at 60% initial capital cost

Material Cost,
Annual cost,
$/pump
$/yr
1
$0.00
$5,766
0.3
$200.00
$5,442
8.0
$2,394.53
$9,402
3.0
$5,000.00
$11,730
16
$85,502
$60,076
$92,415
Average Annual Cost ($/yr)

Risk of Failure Cost:


Assuming control/monitoring equipment works properly, top-mounted pumps have no risk

**Note regarding labor cost: 1 hour of maintenance mechanic requires 1.4 hours of controls person and 0.7 hours of electrician; therefore, maintenance hours are multiplied by 3.1 hours.

Alternative 4 - Cascade Top Mounted Axial Pumps


Quantifiable Base and Annual Costs
Item and Description

Reference

Units

Quantity

Cost/Unit

Total Cost

Pumps

20

118,037

Pump

20

7,661

153,228

Base Costs (unescalated)


Cascade Axial Pump; 20,850 gpm
Support Structure

Vendor Quote
Concrete Estimates

$ 2,360,736

Sub Total Capital Costs $ 2,513,964


Total Costs with net and soft cost markups $ 6,988,820
Annual Operational Costs (chemical, energy, operational oversight, etc.)
Continuous running 38.7 HP Motor

kWh

5,213,266

0.09

469,194

Total Annual Operation $

469,194

Annual Maintenance Costs (Note: Enter non-recurring costs on LCC worksheet.)


Slip Ring Refurbishment

Estimated

Pump

20

272

5,442

Oil Check

Estimated

Labor Hours

20

288

5,766

Total Annual Maintenance $

11,208

Annual Risk Costs (Note: Enter non-recurring costs on LCC worksheet.)

Non-Capital BCE MLR Pumps

Page 20 of 24

Total Annual Risk $

9/20/2012

Alternative 4 Quantifiable Non-Recurring Costs


Starting Year
No. of Years

2020
60
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

Year
2020
Capital Costs (including soft costs and contractor costs)
Capital Costs (including contingency)
$
6,988,820

Year

2021

2022

2023

2024

2025

2026

2027

2028

2029

2030

2031

2032

2033

2034

2035

2036

2037

2038

2039

2040

2041

2042

2043

2044

$ 733,799
$
17,528
$
-

$
$
$

759,482
18,142
-

$
$
$

786,063
18,776
-

$
$
$

813,576
19,434
-

$
$
$

842,051
20,114
-

$
$
$

871,523
20,818
-

$
$
$

902,026
21,546
-

$
$
$

933,597
22,301
22,301

$
$
$

966,273
23,081
23,081

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

242,049
225,506
-

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

Recurring Costs - Operation, Maintenance and Risk (from worksheet)


Annual Operation
$
469,194 $
485,616 $
502,612 $
520,204 $
Annual Maintenance
$
11,208 $
11,600 $
12,006 $
12,426 $
Annual Risk
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
Non-Recurring Costs
Enter description, then enter the cost(s) under the appropriate year(s).
VFD Replacement
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
Seal Replacement and Pump Inspection $
- $
- $
- $
- $
Overhaul
$
- $
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
- $

538,411
12,861
-

$
$
$

557,255
13,311
-

$
$
$

576,759
13,777
-

$
$
$

596,946
14,259
-

$
$
$

617,839
14,758
-

$
$
$

639,463
15,275
-

$
$
$

661,844
15,809
-

$
$
$

685,009
16,363
-

$
$
$

708,984
16,935
-

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

171,593
159,865
-

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$ 1,000,092
$
23,889
$
23,889

$ 1,035,096
$
24,725
$
24,725

$ 1,071,324
$
25,590
$
25,590

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

3.5%

Projected Inflation Rate


Annual Expense (including inflation)

7,469,221

497,215

514,618

532,630

551,272

570,566

590,536

611,205

632,597

986,196

677,654

701,372

725,920

$ 751,327

777,623

804,840

833,009

862,165

892,340

$ 1,391,127

978,198

$ 1,012,435

$ 1,047,870

$ 1,084,546

$ 1,122,505

Life Cycle Cost


Projected Discount Rate
3%
5%
7%

$
$
$

7,469,221
7,469,221
7,469,221

$
$
$

482,733
473,539
464,687

$
$
$

485,077
466,774
449,487

$
$
$

487,432
460,106
434,784

$
$
$

489,798
453,533
420,563

$
$
$

492,175
447,054
406,806

$
$
$

494,565
440,667
393,499

$
$
$

496,965
434,372
380,628

$
$
$

499,378
428,167
368,177

$
$
$

755,837
635,711
536,425

$
$
$

504,238
416,021
344,485

$
$
$

506,686
410,077
333,217

$
$
$

509,145
404,219
322,317

$ 511,617
$ 398,445
$ 311,774

$
$
$

514,101
392,753
301,576

$
$
$

516,596
387,142
291,711

$
$
$

519,104
381,611
282,169

$
$
$

521,624
376,160
272,939

$
$
$

524,156
370,786
264,011

$
$
$

793,340
550,516
384,658

$
$
$

541,604
368,673
252,785

$
$
$

544,234
363,406
244,516

$
$
$

546,876
358,214
236,518

$
$
$

549,530
353,097
228,782

$
$
$

552,198
348,053
221,298

Total Life Cycle Cost


3% Discount Rate
5% Discount Rate
7% Discount Rate

$
$
$

47,451,792
30,376,079
21,957,310

Annualized Operations
Life Cycle Cost
Net Present Value
Annualized Payments

$
$

469,194
12,393,799
$496,850.31

453,846

439,001

424,641

410,751

397,315

384,319

371,748

359,588

347,826

336,448

325,443

314,797

$ 304,500

294,540

284,906

275,586

266,572

257,852

249,418

241,259

233,368

225,734

218,350

211,208

Annualized Maintenance and Risk


Annual Expense (including inflation)
Life Cycle cost (5% discount)
Net Present Value (5% discount)
Annualized Payments

$
$
$

11,208
11,208
2,574,691
$103,215.81

$
$

11,600
10,841

$
$

12,006
10,486

$
$

12,426
10,143

$
$

12,861
9,811

$
$

13,311
9,491

$
$

13,777
9,180

$
$

14,259
8,880

$
$

14,758
8,589

$
$

346,733
188,600

$
$

15,809
8,037

$
$

16,363
7,774

$
$

16,935
7,519

$
$

$
$

18,142
7,036

$
$

18,776
6,805

$
$

19,434
6,583

$
$

20,114
6,368

$
$

20,818
6,159

$
$

489,101
135,240

$
$

44,601
11,526

$
$

46,162
11,149

$
$

47,778
10,784

$
$

49,450
10,431

$
$

51,181
10,090

Non-Capital BCE MLR Pumps

17,528
7,274

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

2045

2046

2047

2048

2049

2050

2051

2052

2053

2054

2055

2056

2057

2058

2059

2060

2061

2062

2063

2064

2065

2066

2067

2068

2069

2070

2071

2072

2073

$ 1,108,820
$
26,486
$
26,486

$ 1,147,629
$
27,413
$
27,413

$
$
$

1,187,796
28,373
28,373

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$ 1,161,792

$ 1,202,455

1,244,541

$
$
$

554,878
343,080
214,059

$
$
$

557,572
338,179
207,057

$
$
$

204,299

197,617

$
$

52,972
9,760

$
$

54,826
9,441

$ 1,229,369
$
29,366
$
29,366

$
$
$

1,272,397
30,393
30,393

$
$
$

1,316,931
31,457
31,457

$ 1,363,023
$
32,558
$
32,558

$
$
$

1,410,729
33,698
33,698

$
$
$
$

$
341,434
$
318,098
$ 11,371,695
$
-

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$ 1,288,100

$ 13,364,410

1,379,845

$ 1,428,139

1,478,124

560,279
333,348
200,284

$
$
$

562,999
328,586
193,733

$
$
$

5,671,139
3,246,834
1,878,539

$
$
$

568,478
319,265
181,266

$
$
$

571,237
314,704
175,337

$
$
$

191,152

184,900

178,852

173,001

167,342

$
$

56,745
9,132

$
$

58,731
8,833

$ 12,092,014
$ 1,699,687

$
$

62,914
8,265

$
$

65,116
7,995

$ 1,460,104
$
34,877
$
34,877

$
$
$

1,511,208
36,098
36,098

$
$
$
$

$ 1,564,100
$
37,361
$
37,361

$
$
$

1,618,844
38,669
38,669

$
$
$

1,675,503
40,022
40,022

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$ 1,638,823

1,696,182

1,755,548

$ 1,734,146
$
41,423
$
41,423

$
$
$

1,794,841
42,873
42,873

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

481,626
448,708
-

$ 1,816,992

2,810,921

$
$

$ 1,529,859

1,583,404

574,010
310,208
169,602

$
$
$

576,797
305,777
164,054

$
$
$

579,597
301,408
158,688

$
$
$

582,410
297,103
153,497

$
$
$

585,238
292,858
148,476

$
$
$

588,079
288,675
143,619

$
$
$

590,933
284,551
138,922

$
$
$

161,869

156,574

151,452

146,498

141,706

137,071

132,587

$
$

67,395
7,733

$
$

69,754
7,480

$
$

72,196
7,235

$
$

74,722
6,999

$
$

77,338
6,770

$
$

80,045
6,548

$
$

82,846
6,334

$ 1,857,661
$
44,373
$
44,373

$ 1,922,679
$
45,926
$
45,926

$ 1,989,972
$
47,534
$
47,534

$
$
$

2,059,622
49,198
49,198

$
$
$

2,131,708
50,920
50,920

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$ 2,206,318
$
52,702
$
52,702

$
$
$

2,283,539
54,546
54,546

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$ 2,311,721

2,392,632

$ 1,946,407

$ 2,014,532

$ 2,085,040

2,158,017

2,233,547

887,558
419,243
200,854

$
$
$

596,685
276,479
129,982

$
$
$

599,581
272,529
125,730

$
$
$

602,492
268,636
121,617

$
$
$

605,416
264,798
117,639

$
$
$

608,355
261,015
113,791

$
$
$

611,308
257,287
110,069

$
$
$

128,250

124,055

119,997

116,072

112,275

108,603

105,051

$
$

1,016,080
72,604

$
$

88,747
5,927

$
$

91,853
5,733

$
$

95,068
5,545

$
$

98,395
5,364

$
$

101,839
5,188

$
$

105,403
5,019

Non-Capital BCE MLR Pumps

$ 2,363,463
$
56,455
$
56,455

$ 2,446,184
$
58,431
$
58,431

$ 2,531,801
$
60,476
$
60,476

$ 2,620,414
$
62,593
$
62,593

$ 2,712,128
$
64,784
$
64,784

$ 2,807,053
$
67,051
$
67,051

$ 2,905,300
$
69,398
$
69,398

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

679,381
632,948
-

$ 2,476,374

$ 2,563,047

$ 3,965,082

$ 2,745,600

$ 2,841,696

$ 2,941,155

$ 3,044,096

614,276
253,611
106,469

$
$
$

617,258
249,988
102,986

$
$
$

620,254
246,417
99,617

$
$
$

931,597
363,058
144,028

$
$
$

626,291
239,427
93,207

$
$
$

629,331
236,006
90,158

$
$
$

632,386
232,635
87,209

$
$
$

635,456
229,311
84,356

101,614

98,290

95,075

91,965

88,957

86,047

83,233

80,510

$
$

109,092
4,854

$
$

112,911
4,696

$
$

116,863
4,542

$ 1,433,281
$
52,063

$
$

125,186
4,250

$
$

129,568
4,111

$
$

134,103
3,976

$
$

138,796
3,846

55

56

57

58

59

60

2074

2075

2076

2077

2078

2079

$
$
$

3,006,985
71,827
71,827

$
$
$

3,112,230
74,341
74,341

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

3,150,639

3,260,911

$
$
$

638,541
226,035
81,597

$
$
$

77,877

$
$

143,654
3,720

$ 3,221,158
$
76,943
$
76,943

$ 3,333,898
$
79,636
$
79,636

$ 3,450,585
$
82,423
$
82,423

$
$
$

3,571,355
85,308
85,308

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$

958,334
892,835

$ 3,375,043

$ 3,493,170

$ 3,615,431

5,593,140

641,640
222,806
78,928

$
$
$

644,755
219,623
76,346

$
$
$

647,885
216,486
73,849

$
$
$

651,030
213,393
71,433

$
$
$

977,821
314,403
103,279

75,329

72,865

70,482

68,176

65,946

$
$

148,682
3,599

$
$

153,886
3,481

$
$

159,272
3,367

$
$

164,846
3,257

$
$

2,021,785
37,333

Non-Capital BCE MLR Pumps

TOP-MOUNTED PUMPS
Cascade
Capital cost
# of BNR basins

10

Pump

# pumps/basin

Top-Mounted Pumps
Support Structure
Total

2
2

Total # of
Pumps

Unit Price, $/pump

20
20

Total Material
Cost, $

$84,000
$5,472

Labor Hours,
hrs/pump

$2,352,000
$153,228

Labor Rate,
$/hr
6

$65

Total
Installation
Cost, $
$8,736 $2,360,736
$153,228
$2,513,964

Labor Cost, $

Support Structure
Concrete Type
Pump support and thickened
slabs
Columns

Dimensions

Concrete/basin
(ft3)

3 8 ft x 8 ft x 2 ft
4 1.5 ft x 1.5 ft x 28 ft

384.0
252.0

Quantity (per
basin)

Cost, $/yd3
$425.00
$525.00

Cost per basin


$6,045
$4,900

Note:
1. Vendor quote: $60,000 budget cost for equipment, delivery, and start-up
2. Cost Markups: 40% for pump and concrete; 19.75% for pump; 12% for labor
Annual Energy Cost
# of BNR Basins =
Power cost, $/kWh =

10
0.09

# of pumps/basin
2

Total Pumps
Running
20

Flow, GPM
20,850

TDH, ft

HP of pump
5.0

39.9

Total kW for all


running pumps
595

Operation, Annual Power


hrs
cost ($/yr)
8760
$469,194

Note:
1. 2 Pumps per basin for 24/7 operation
Maintenance/Replacement Cost
# of BNR Basins =
10
Labor cost, $/hr =
93
Required Maintenance
Greasing
Slip Ring Refurbishment
VFD Replacement
Seal Replacement and Pump Insp
Equipment Replacement

# of
pumps/basin
2
2
2
2
2

Total Pumps
20
20
20
20
20

Frequency (years)

Labor Time**,
hr/pump

1
1
10
10
30

Notes:
1. Greasing occurs every year
2. Slip ring is refurbished every year
3. Assume seal and VFD replacement every 10 years
4. Lifetime of equipment is 30 years; requires overhaul every 30 years at 60% initial capital cost

Material Cost,
Annual cost,
$/pump
$/yr
1
$0.00
$5,766
0.3
$200.00
$5,442
8.0
$3,988.75
$12,590
3.0
$5,000.00
$11,730
16
$70,560
$50,115
Average Annual Cost ($/yr)
$85,643

Risk of Failure Cost:


Assuming control/monitoring equipment works properly, top-mounted pumps have no risk

**Note regarding labor cost: 1 hour of maintenance mechanic requires 1.4 hours of controls person and 0.7 hours of electrician; therefore, maintenance hours are multiplied by 3.1 hours.

Business Case Evaluation


BNR Blowers
Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant

Sacramento Regional County Sanitation District


PRELIMINARY
FOR REVIEW ONLY

September 2012

BNR Blowers

Contents
1.0 Executive Summary .............................................................................................................................. 1
1.1 Blower Types ...................................................................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Findings/Recommendation ................................................................................................................................. 3
1.2.1 Findings....................................................................................................................................................... 3
1.2.2 Recommendation ........................................................................................................................................ 3
2.0 Goal Statement ...................................................................................................................................... 3
3.0 Design Criteria ...................................................................................................................................... 3
3.1 Basis of Design ................................................................................................................................................... 4
4.0 Analysis .................................................................................................................................................. 6
4.1 Process Background............................................................................................................................................ 6
4.2 Blower Challenges .............................................................................................................................................. 6
4.3 Site Constraints ................................................................................................................................................... 7
4.4 Operational Evaluation ....................................................................................................................................... 7
4.4.1 Operating Requirements.............................................................................................................................. 7
4.4.2 Routine Maintenance Cost .......................................................................................................................... 7
4.4.3 Maintenance Assessment ............................................................................................................................ 8
4.4.4 Mortality ..................................................................................................................................................... 9
4.4.5 Consequence of Failure ............................................................................................................................. 10
5.0 Alternatives Development .................................................................................................................. 10
5.1 Multistage Blower Elimination ......................................................................................................................... 10
5.2 Viable Alternatives ........................................................................................................................................... 11
6.0 Advantages, Disadvantages, and Risks ............................................................................................. 14
7.0 Lifecycle Cost Comparisons ............................................................................................................... 15
8.0 Recommendation................................................................................................................................. 16

List of Figures
Figure 1. Roots Centrifugal Single Stage Blower .......................................................................................................... 1
Figure 2. Neuros Turbo Blower ..................................................................................................................................... 2
Figure 3. Lampson Multi Stage Blower......................................................................................................................... 2
Figure 4. Efficiency and Turndown of Various Blower Types ................................................................................... 11
Figure 5. Single Stage Blowers (5+1).......................................................................................................................... 13
Figure 6. Turbo Blowers on Basin ............................................................................................................................... 13
Figure 7. Turbo Blowers in a Single Building ............................................................................................................. 14

List of Tables
Table 1. Oxygen Demand at Startup Year (2020) ......................................................................................................... 5
Table 2. Oxygen Demand and Blower Operation at Midpoint of Facility (2035) ......................................................... 5
Table 3. Oxygen Demand at 181 ADWF ...................................................................................................................... 6
Table 4. Failure Types of Blowers ................................................................................................................................ 9
Table 5. Comparison between Multistage and Single Stage Blowers......................................................................... 11
Table 6. Overview of Blower Types............................................................................................................................ 12
Table 7. Technology Configurations ........................................................................................................................... 12
Table 8. Advantages, Disadvantages, and Risks of Blower options ............................................................................ 14
Table 9. Installation Comparison ................................................................................................................................. 15
Table 10. Viable Alternative Cost Comparison ........................................................................................................... 15
Sacramento Regional County Sanitation District
Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant
Z:\05. BNR\B. Planning\BCE02 - Aeration Blower Selection (E)\BNR Blower BCE 9-17-12.docx

i
September 21, 2012

BNR Blowers

1.0 Executive Summary


The Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) is a completely new process designed for the
Sacramento Regional County Sanitation District (SRCSD) advanced wastewater treatment
project. It has four major pieces of equipment:

Aeration blowers Supply a wide range of airflows at the required discharge pressure to
meet dissolved oxygen demand in BNR process.

Aeration diffusers Distribute air supplied from blowers into aeration basins depending
on dissolved oxygen requirements of each basin.

Anoxic and swing zone mixers Provide mixing to keep solids in suspension, keep
inflow streams and basin volumes completely mixed, and prevent short circuiting of
flow from one zone to another.

Mixed liquor recirculation (MLR) pumps Recirculate a portion of mixed liquor from
swing zone to anoxic zone for denitrification and to produce high-quality effluent.

This BCE discusses the aeration blowers.

1.1 Blower Types


This BCE evaluates the type of blower equipment best suited for the BNR. The two viable
blower types evaluated include:

Gear Driven, Constant Speed Single Stage Centrifugal - This type of blower uses a
single impeller operating at high speed (typically 10,000 14,000 rpm) to provide
discharge pressure. Individually controlled inlet and outlet vanes vary the flow in a way
that maintains optimum efficiency over a significant change in flows. Single stage
blowers use gearing between the motor and blower shaft in order to amplify the speed of
the impeller.

Figure 1. Roots Centrifugal Single Stage Blower

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Direct Drive, Variable Speed Single Stage Centrifugal (Turbo) - This type of blower
uses special low-friction bearings to support the impeller shaft and operates at very high
speeds (up to 30,000 rpm). These blowers come in relatively small packages (i.e. ~7x5
footprint for a single turbo, and ~10x6 for a duplex turbo). The all-inclusive nature of
the turbos allows a complete system to be in a single enclosure. The control panel,
variable frequency drives (VFD), filtration, and all electronics are packaged together.
One major difference between turbos and single stage centrifugal blowers is that the
turbo units cool the recirculating cooling fluid through the air discharge stream, thereby
raising the temperature of the aeration air. Some turbo blowers reject heat to the ambient
space, but this lowers the efficiency of the turbo in comparison with the single-stage.

Figure 2. Neuros Turbo Blower

Multistage Blower with Inlet Valve or Variable Speed Drive - This type of blower uses
a multiple impeller operating at speeds up to 3,600 rpm to provide discharge pressure.
The largest blowers are in the 40,000 scfm range. Individually controlled inlet valves or
variable speed drives can be used to vary the flow to meet the air demand.

Figure 3. Lampson Multi Stage Blower


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1.2 Findings/Recommendation
This BCE provides a summary of cost, operations, and maintenance considerations for single
stage and turbo blowers. While multistage and positive displacement (PD) blowers can be
considered as alternatives, both have intrinsic disadvantages that exclude them from
consideration (as will be described later). Both viable blower types are suitable for efficiently
transferring air to the BNR basins; however, each one has its own advantages. Single stage
blowers provide a fairly low capital cost solution with little maintenance; however the small
number of blowers limits operational flexibility. Turbo blowers provide a high range of
operational and locational flexibility, but are slightly less efficient compared to single stage and
do not have the same track record in wastewater applications.

1.2.1 Findings
1. Life cycle costs are prohibitively high for the turbo options located in a single
building. Long term life cycle costs for single stage and turbo blowers in separate
buildings are fairly comparable.
2. Single stage blowers are slightly more efficient (~2%) than turbo blowers, yielding a
savings in yearly operational costs.
3. Overhaul costs are essentially zero for single stage blowers (when adequate
maintenance is performed). Turbo blowers have a significant overhaul cost due to
the blowers requiring major rehabilitation every twenty years.
4. The most economical alternative from an initial capital cost standpoint is the turbo
blowers installed in individual buildings.

1.2.2 Recommendation
Single stage blowers in a single building is the most economical option for a full 60-year life
cycle analysis, and as such provides the most value to the District. These types of blowers have
been used in New York, Chicago, and San Jose, many for over sixty years without major
equipment replacement and provide continuous, reliable service with regular maintenance.

2.0 Goal Statement


Aeration air must be provided to the BNR facility at the flow rate required to satisfy the oxygen
demand and pressure required by the submergence, piping, and diffuser losses. As important,
the blows must be capable of operating efficiently over the entire range from low air demands
after startup (year 2020) through the design condition (181 MGD). Operational flexibility and
low maintenance are key considerations in selecting blowers.

3.0 Design Criteria


The blowers provide air to the basins for mixing and to provide dissolved oxygen for BOD and
ammonia removal. Activated sludge oxygen demand will vary diurnally, seasonally, and with
primary clarifier performance. The design capacities for oxygen demand for both BOD and
ammonia are based on the maximum day permit limit for each constituent at the permit

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condition of 181 MGD (ref: Flows and Loads TM). The air flow required to meet that oxygen
demand is about 300,000 scfm (ref: Facilities Plan).
Blowers typically operate at average conditions which are lower than the required maximum
design conditions of aeration capacity. Peak day air flow requirements are used for capacity
sizing, and annual average conditions are used to determine blower efficiency and operating
costs.
Site location and air piping designs will be finalized by the designer, but based on prior
experience, a discharge pressure of 11 psi will be used for evaluation purposes. This includes
24 ft of submergence, losses through fine bubble diffusers, distribution piping, and control
valves.
The blower building consists of the blowers, intake filters, air silencers, discharge piping,
header, and valves. Blowers compress air that is filtered for particulates; develop sufficient
pressure to overcome static, diffuser and piping losses; and supply air through diffusers located
in the aeration basins. Blowers also generate heat, and can produce elevated noise levels.

3.1 Basis of Design


Selection for the aeration blowers is based on:
1. The oxygen required to meet the biological oxygen demand (BOD) and ammonia
demand at the peak day loading
2. The loading variation during the time of year, time of day, and point in the facility
utilization
3. Blower efficiencies
4. Lifecycle cost
5. Equipment reliability
To get a better understanding of the aeration air required over the full design period, scenarios
for initial, mid-point, and build out of the BNR facility were approximated. Table 1
summarizes the oxygen demand at startup in 2020. Table 2 summarizes the oxygen demand at
midpoint of design capacity in 2035. Tables 3, 4, and 5 below list the BOD and ammonia
(NH4) loading in pounds per day (lb/day); total loading; total air flow rate to satisfy the oxygen
demand in standard cubic feet per minute (scfm) followed by a comparison of the number of
single stage blowers and single turbo blowers required to be running and their percent of
turndown to meet the total air flow requirement at different loading conditions. Note that at the
maximum day demand, the blowers may be less than 100% because standard sized units may
be slightly larger than the total air flow required to meet the maximum day airflow requirement.
Table 3 summarizes the oxygen demand when the plant reaches the permitted capacity of
181 MGD ADWF.

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Table 1. Oxygen Demand at Startup Year (2020)
Percent
Capacity of
Each Single
Stage
Blower
Running

Number of
Turbo
Blowers
Running

Percent
Capacity of
Each Turbo
Blower
Running

BOD (lb/day)

NH4 (lb/day)

Total (lb/day)

Design air
flow (acfm)

Number of
Single
Stage
Blowers
Running

ADWF

334,000

32,750

391,291

102,906

86%

91%

Annual
Average

340,900

41,000

430,388

113,188

94%

10

91%

Max
Month

404,400

59,200

553,812

145,647

81%

12

97%

Max Day

703,400

66,200

812,707

213,734

89%

18

95%

Min Day

191,332

20,760

232,338

61,103

51%

98%

Percent
Capacity of
Each Single
Stage
Blower
Running

Number of
Turbo
Blowers
Running

Percent
Capacity of
Each Turbo
Blower
Running

Table 2. Oxygen Demand and Blower Operation at Midpoint of Facility (2035)

BOD (lb/day)

NH4 (lb/day)

Total
(lb/day)

Design air flow


(scfm)

Number of
Single Stage
Blowers
Running

ADWF

407,500

38,750

472,456

124,251

57%

10

99%

Annual
Average

423,900

48,000

522,963

137,534

76%

12

92%

Max
Month

490,900

68,700

659,320

173,395

96%

14

99%

Max Day

857,900

77,200

976,717

256,867

86%

21

98%

Min Day

237,916

25,815

288,906

75,979

63%

87%

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Table 3. Oxygen Demand at 181 ADWF
Percent
Capacity of
Each Single
Stage
Blower
Running

Number of
Turbo
Blowers
Running

Percent
Capacity of
Each Turbo
Blower
Running

BOD (lb/day)

NH4 (lb/day)

Total
(lb/day)

Design air flow


(scfm)

Number of
Single Stage
Blowers
Running

ADWF

481,000

44,750

553,621

145,597

81%

12

97%

Annual
Average

506,900

55,000

615,538

161,880

90%

13

100%

Max
Month

577,400

78,200

764,827

201,142

84%

17

95%

Max Day

1,012,400

88,200

1,140,727

300,000

100%

24

100%

Min Day

284,500

30,869

345,474

90,856

76%

91%

4.0 Analysis
4.1 Process Background
Design of the activated sludge process requires analysis of several parameters: aeration basin
volume, waste activated sludge quantity, sludge return rate, total oxygen demand, and clarifier
volume. Process performance depends on factors such as temperature, dissolved oxygen,
nutrients, toxic and inhibitory substances, pH and wastewater characteristics. Aeration greatly
influences the performance and efficiency of the activated sludge process to supply required
dissolved oxygen level. Thus, the right selection of aeration equipment is very important to
efficiently transfer oxygen from air to wastewater and to reduce the Districts power
consumption.
The aeration blowers must also take into account the air at atmospheric conditions of humidity
and barometric pressure. The blower facility will require a significant amount of electrical
energy, thereby requiring extensive new electrical infrastructure. The operation of the blowers
will be overseen by the Plant Control Center.

4.2 Blower Challenges


Aeration blowers are a critical component in the BNR process and typically the largest
consumer of electrical power for wastewater treatment. Different types of blowers operate at
different optimum efficiency points. When blowers are turned down to meet system minimum
or normal operation requirements, they work at a lower efficiency point unless blowers are
turned off to maintain the optimum efficiency point of the remaining blowers. Additionally,
increases in operating pressure due to sudden changes in air humidity, temperature, or valve
operation may cause short term surge conditions. Sudden shut down of blowers may lead to
failure due to blower assembly and mechanical functions, however, all blowers are provided
with surge protection to prevent damage to the blower. The design and selection of blowers
becomes very important to ensure system reliability and function for design period of the plant.
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Blower turn-down is critical because all blowers lose efficiency as they turn-down, some more
than others. Blowers must be able to turn down to minimum air flows to avoid over aeration
during low demand periods seasonally and at night. The turn down is critical because overaeration disrupts denitrification and may increase the chances of a nitrate permit violation. At
some plants, when the maximum blower turn-down has been reached, vent excess air to another
basin or to atmosphere.
The challenge is to determine the size, number, and blower efficiency that:
1. Meets the firm capacity
2. Operates efficiently (wire to water electricity consumption) from the lowest air
demand to the peak demand
3. Operates effectively (low maintenance and operations requirements)
4. Avoids surge conditions
5. Efficiently tracks air requirements using DO measurement in the aeration zones
6. Meets District reliability criteria

4.3 Site Constraints


The blower facility has major footprint considerations for connection to the BNR basins and
location on site. The following items must be taken into account for siting of the blower
building and ancillary electrical yard.
1. Proximity to the plant SMUD 69 kVA electrical feed
2. Location of facility electrical yard to account for future BNR expansion
3. Minimal runs of aeration discharge piping
4. Clear accessibility to the blowers and blower building for maintenance purposes

4.4 Operational Evaluation


4.4.1 Operating Requirements

Peak day:

300,000 scfm at 11 psi (107 DegF, 80% RH)

Average day:

172,000 scfm at 11 psi (107 DegF, 80% RH)

Continuous 24/7 operation

Number and turn-down must account for peak, average, minimum as well as daily
diurnal cycles

4.4.2 Routine Maintenance Cost


Maintenance of aeration blowers requires yearly checkup of the turbine bearings, blower oil,
and blower oil cooling systems.

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The service life of single stage blowers can be up to sixty years, at which point the entire unit
will be replaced. The life of a turbo blower is approximately twenty years, after which the
entire turbine section and electrical equipment must be replaced.

4.4.3 Maintenance Assessment

REDUNDANCY:
The level of redundancy provided for the aeration blowers is firm capacity. A single
blower (for single-stage) or multiple blowers (for turbo) are provided to maintain full
standby capacity of the largest piece of equipment. If a blower goes down and standby is
activated, there is no loss in service, but only a loss in standby capacity.

MAINTENANCE CONCERNS:
Risk occurs in equipment that lacks safety features and sensors that function properly.
Assuming all safety equipment is effectively maintained, risk of equipment failure or
damage is minimal. The equipment is designed to stop safely should the power fail.

CRITICALITY: Aeration blowers receive a Criticality Code of five (5) in the Facility
Plan.

FAILURE MODES
The modes of failure are typically related to one of the four following modes: capacity,
level of service, mortality, or efficiency. In this case, all of the equipment and facilities are
designed new with the same capacity and level of service and for the blower type selected,
the efficiency of the blower will be assumed to provide the lowest lifecycle cost, so these
would be considered equivalent for the equipment alternatives. For this reason, capacity
and level of service failures are considered to be equivalent for all of the equipment
alternatives. Table 4 summarizes the typical failures aeration blowers encounter.

CONSEQUENCES OF FAILURE
For single stage blowers, repeatedly going into a surge condition can have disastrous
effects on the blower. Going into surge will permanently damage the impeller in a turbo
blower, resulting in complete replacement of the turbine section of the blower. Both
blower types have built-in safeguards to shut down the blower as surge is detected and can
stop safely if power fails. Blowers must completely stop before they can be restarted.

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Table 4. Failure Types of Blowers
Blower Type

Failure Type

Experience at Operating Facilities

Gear Driven,
Constant Speed
Single Stage
Centrifugal

Depending on instrumentation setpoints,


rapid atmospheric changes can cause
blowers to go into surge.
Check valves fail and the blower goes into
surge.
Instrumentation fails and the blower
experiences vibration, temperature, or
airflow issues that go undetected.

These types of blowers are remarkably reliable and are


designed for continuous operation. They are the
workhorses of a wastewater facility. There is a very low
problem-reporting rate for these blowers.

Direct Drive,
Variable Speed
Single Stage
Centrifugal
(Turbo)

Depending on instrumentation setpoints,


rapid atmospheric changes can cause
blowers to go into surge.
Check valves fail and the blower goes into
surge.
Instrumentation fails and the blower
experiences vibration, temperature, or
airflow issues that go undetected.

These blowers have a limited history at wastewater


facilities, but the longest running Neuros units (6 years)
have a reported availability level of 99.6%

4.4.4 Mortality
Some blowers have failed because check valves leak and the blower spins backwards when
called to operate. The additional torque between the motor and the blower causes the coupling
to fail, requiring replacement and realignment of the blower and motor. Mounting assemblies
could be impacted, and backward rotation could cause damage to the motor and electrical gear.
Because of the size of these blowers, check valves will be replaced with mechanically actuated
valves that open and close with blower operation and provide a firm seal when the blower is
off. Limit switches confirm valve closure. The bypass valve is open when the blower is off;
therefore, failure in the discharge valve to completely close should not cause reverse rotation.
For these blowers, this type of failure was not considered.
Single-stage blowers typically fail because of bearing failure. Bearing failure could be the
result of a cooling system failure or lubrication failure. Power or instrumentation failure could
result in a partial failure of the lubrication system and accelerated wear.
Turbo blowers do not have mechanical bearings, but they ride on a cushion of air created by the
spinning turbine or are held in suspension by electromagnetic forces. If the turbine spins when
the air cushion is unbalanced, failure results immediately. Blowers use various strategies to
avoid sudden shutdown: an uninterruptable power supply (UPS) for short term power failures, a
generator that allows the turbine to slow to a stop for longer power failures, and touchdown
bearings. All blowers have cooling units. Some units are more sensitive to air filtration than
others. Many units in the US have operated for over six years without any major overhaul.
All blowers suffer from accelerated maintenance and shortened life due to operating at overpressure (surge). High-speed blowers are sized for the maximum pressure (membrane fouling,
high water level, high inlet temperature and humidity). As a consequence, blowers are turned
down to a lower efficiency point during normal operation. Turning off blowers may be
required to maintain high efficiency targets; however, changes in pressure conditions can result
in short-term surge conditions. Single stage blowers with inlet and outlet guide vanes allow the
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blowers to adjust to the pressure demand while maintaining optimum efficiency. Based on a
review of flows and loads for SRCSD, both the diurnal and seasonal demands are significant
and cannot be met by high-speed blowers without removing units from service.

4.4.5 Consequence of Failure


The consequence of failure is loss of reliability as the standby blower is placed into service.
Other costs are associated with unplanned maintenance.
Unless two blowers are out of service during peak day demands, there will be no impact to the
treatment process. Normal demand is approximately of the peak demand; therefore of the
blowers will be in standby and available should one fail.

5.0 Alternatives Development


The alternatives considered include:
0. No Action
1. Gear Driven, Constant Speed Single Stage Centrifugal
2. Direct Drive, Variable Speed Single Stage Centrifugal (Turbo)
3. Multistage
4. Positive Displacement
Alternative 0 was not a viable alternative, because this treatment process does not yet exist at
the SRWTP. Alternatives 3 and 4, multistage and positive displacement (PD) blowers
respectively, were subsequently eliminated from consideration due to poor efficiency and
misapplication for the Districts needs. Multistage and PD blowers are both inefficient, and PD
blowers are catered to applications with varying water levels (which is not the case at the BNR
basins).

5.1 Multistage Blower Elimination


Multistage blowers are impractical and the turndown inefficiencies are well documented.
Isentropic efficiency is a measure of machine efficiency that allows for comparison between
different blowers and ignores minor friction and other losses. The following published
comparison shows the poorest efficiency is for multistage blowers with inlet control valves and
provides a higher turndown than multistage with speed control. Multistage with speed control
maintains higher efficiency, but only allows a 25% turndown. Single stage blowers with dual
point control are being considered for the BNR aeration and provide for a 65% turndown.

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Figure 4. Efficiency and Turndown of Various Blower Types

Multistage blowers can have capacities in the upper range of 43,000 scfm. Using the design
peak airflow of 300,000 scfm and minimum airflow of 76,000 scfm, the peak airflow can be
met with seven 43,000 scfm blowers and both the multistage blower with inlet valve and single
stage blower have enough turndown to meet the minimum demand. The single stage blowers at
a capacity of 60,000 scfm each have the ability to turn down to meet the minimum flow, and
can meet the peak day requirement with five blowers. Table 5 lists the size, number, and cost
comparison between blower options.
Table 5. Comparison between Multistage and Single Stage Blowers
Number of
Blowers

Size
(scfm)

Multistage with Inlet


valve

62

7+1

43,000

$41.2 M

$439 M

$480 M

Multistage with speed


control

70

7+1

43,000

$48.8 M

$389 M

$438 M

Single stage dual


control

82

5+1

60,000

$78.4 M

$332 M

$411 M

Blower

Capital
Cost

60 yr PV of
Electrical Operating
$

Avg
Efficiency

LLC $

Note: LCC based on capital cost of machines and 60 yrs of electrical costs without building costs or other O&M
LCC based on generic comparison from Table 4 and are not comparable with LCC developed for BNR in Table 10

The comparison shows that the single stage dual control blower has the lowest life cycle cost.
Due to poor efficiency and turndown, multistage blowers are not appropriate in this application
and are not considered a viable alternative.

5.2 Viable Alternatives


Two types of blowers and five configurations have been evaluated in this business case
analysis. These blowers represent the best available technologies for the large scale application
at the District. Table 6 summarizes the acceptable blower types. Table 7 describes the
configurations of the 5 options.
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Table 6. Overview of Blower Types
Type

Description and Operation

Key Differences

Air flow and Pressure


Ranges

Gear Driven,
Constant Speed
Single Stage
Centrifugal

Similar to multi-stage but uses a single


impeller operating at high speed (typically
10,000 14,000 rpm) to provide discharge
pressure. Uses gearing between motor and
blower shaft.

Differences are in speed and


type of control (e.g., one or
two sets of variable vanes,
single or dual control)

500 70,000
scfm,
4 24 psig

Direct Drive,
Variable Speed Single
Stage Centrifugal
(Turbo)

Centrifugal single-stage blower uses


special low friction bearings to support
shaft (up to 30,000 rpm). Uses a single or
dual impeller.

Some blowers have magnetic


bearings others use air
bearings

400 25,000
scfm,
4 35 psig
(Manufacturer
s are
currently
expanding
their range of
offerings)

Table 7. Technology Configurations

Type

Size Used
(acfm)

Number
(Duty +
Standby)

Building Size
(sf)

Single-Stage

60,000

5+1

30,625

Single-Stage

100,000

3+1

30,625

Turbo (In a
Single Building)

5,900

51+2

51,250

Turbo (At the


Basins)

12,500

24+1

13 buildings @
600 sf each

Turbo (Duplex
Units In a Single
Building)

12,500

24+1

15,000

Figure 5 is a representation of the 5+1 single-stage blower configuration in a single building.


This building size and layout closely resembles the 3+1 option as well.
Figure 6 is a representation of the turbo blower configuration where each blower package is
installed on the basins in individual buildings. Figure 7 is a representation of the turbo blower
configuration with all blowers in a single building.

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Figure 5. Single Stage Blowers (5+1)

Figure 6. Turbo Blowers on Basin

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Figure 7. Turbo Blowers in a Single Building

6.0 Advantages, Disadvantages, and Risks


Table 8 summarizes the advantages, disadvantages, and risks associated with the two blower
technologies.
Table 8. Advantages, Disadvantages, and Risks of Blower options
Type

Advantages

Disadvantages

Risks

Gear Driven,
Constant Speed
Single Stage
Centrifugal

Can maintain good


efficiency at turndown
Typically come with integral
control system for surge
protection

Surge can be damaging


Can be noisy (enclosures are commonly used for noise
control)

Fewer blowers mean


less standby capacity
if a blower fails.

Direct Drive,
Variable Speed
Single Stage
Centrifugal
(Turbo)

Small footprint
Quiet operation
Efficient technology for
lower air flow capacity
ranges
Can maintain good
efficiency at turndown
May come with integrated
control systems to modulate
flow and for surge protection

Typically higher capital cost compared to single stage


blower
Limited experience (new technology)
More units required for larger plants (will change as
manufacturers expand air flow range)
Bump air foil bearing design is not very resistant to
unbalanced forces and surge or choke can instantly
destroy the bearings

New technology
More moving parts

Table 9 summarizes the installation requirements for single-stage and turbo blowers. The table
demonstrates that the installation costs for turbo blowers are much lower than that of the single
stage.

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Table 9. Installation Comparison
Item

Single Stage Blower

Turbo Blower

MCC Room

Level Check and


Alignment

Alignment

Anchor Bolts with


Concrete
Foundation

Misc. Pneumatic
and Electric Lines

Install Inlet Piping


and Filter

X (When combined in
single building)

Discharge Piping
and Valving

Final Alignment

7.0 Lifecycle Cost Comparisons


Table 10 summarizes the life cycle cost analysis of the two alternatives (and various options
that were analyzed.
Table 10. Viable Alternative Cost Comparison

Base Price
(Includes blowers,
controls, startup,
training, piping,
and building [if
applicable])

Annual
Operational Costs
(Annual energy
and internal
staffing costs to
operate and
maintain the
equipment)

Total Annual Maintenance (Annual


cost for maintenance, including
major overhauls)

60-Year Lifecycle Cost

Alternative 1A
(Single Stage 5+1)

$78,448,000

$12,008,000

$49,000

$379,184,000

Alternative 1B
(Single Stage 3+1)

$76,219,000

$13,655,000

$77,000

$418,737,000

Alternative 2A
(Turbo 53+2)*

$125,654,000

$12,075,000

Alternatives

Alternative 2B
(Turbo 24+1, On
Basin In
Buildings)*

$55,752,000

Alternative 2C
(Turbo 24+1, In
Single Building)*

$88,107,000

20 Year Over-haul

$421,000

20 Year Over-haul

$437,348,000

30 Year Over-haul

$335,000

30 Year Over-haul

$435,212,000

20 Year Over-haul

$456,000

20 Year Over-haul

$400,216,000

30 Year Over-haul

$354,000

30 Year Over-haul

$397,686,000

20 Year Over-haul

$456,000

20 Year Over-haul

$432,571,000

30 Year Over-haul

$354,000

30 Year Over-haul

$430,041,000

$13,354,000

$13,354,000

*The turbo blower alternatives were evaluated under two scenarios, one for a 20-year blower overhaul timing and
one for a 30 year for sensitivity analysis.

Sacramento Regional County Sanitation District


Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant
Z:\05. BNR\B. Planning\BCE02 - Aeration Blower Selection (E)\BNR Blower BCE 9-17-12.docx

15
September 21, 2012

BNR Blowers

8.0 Recommendation
Based on the economic evaluation above and a careful consideration for standby characteristics,
the suggested option for the Districts use at the BNR facility is the 5+1 single-stage blower
configuration in a building. The turbo blowers on the basin are economically very close
behind; however, they do not have an established track record that can verify performance for
the next 60 years.

Sacramento Regional County Sanitation District


Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant
Z:\05. BNR\B. Planning\BCE02 - Aeration Blower Selection (E)\BNR Blower BCE 9-17-12.docx

16
September 21, 2012

Non - Capital Engineering


Business Case Evaluation

Blower Configuration Analysis

NON-CAPITAL BUSINESS CASE EVALUATION SUMMARY


Date
Work Order Title
Work Order #
PMR #
Customer
BCE #

September 1, 2012

Functional/Business Objective

Determine which blower technology/configuration is most economically and


operationally effective for the District

Background Information

The BNR basins require aeration air to complete the nutrient removal process.
Different types of blowers provide the capability to meet this need.

Problem/Issue/Opportunity
Description

The two types of blowers that have been identified as viable for this application have
a variety of configuration possibilities (i.e. large vs. small buildings, 53 blowers vs. 25
blowers, etc.) This BCE's goal is to evaluate the different configurations to identify
the most economical option.

Description of Alternatives
Alternative 1 -

Single Stage (5+1) In Building

Alternative 2 -

Single Stage (3+1) In Building

Alternative 3 -

Turbo (51+2) In One Building

Alternative 4 -

Turbo (25) In Buildings On Basins

Alternative 5 -

Turbo (25) In One Building

Blower Options LCC Analysis 9-11-12

9/21/2012

NON-CAPITAL BUSINESS CASE EVALUATION SUMMARY


Date
Work Order Title
Work Order #
PMR #
Customer
BCE #

September 1, 2012

Financial Factors
3.5%

Inflation Rate
Starting Year
Number of Years

2020
60

Select an inflation rate to use in the evaluation, the starting year of the analysis, and
the number of years in the life-cycle period.

Financial Impact Table


Alternative
Alternative 1
Alternative 2
Alternative 3
Alternative 4
Alternative 5

Base Cost

Annual
Operation

Annual Maintenance, Life-Cycle Cost at 5%


Overhaul, and Risk
Discount Rate

78,448,000

$ 12,008,000

49,000

379,184,000

76,219,000

$ 13,655,000

77,000

418,737,000

125,654,000

$ 12,075,000

421,000

437,348,000

55,752,000

$ 13,354,000

453,000

400,145,000

88,107,000

$ 13,354,000

456,000

432,571,000

Blower Options LCC Analysis 9-11-12

9/21/2012

Alternative 1 - Single Stage Blowers (5+1) In a Building


Quantifiable Base and Annual Cost Factors

Item and Description

Reference

Units

Quantity

Cost/Unit

Total Cost

Base Costs (unescalated)


Blowers

Vendor Quote

Blowers

2,174,608

13,047,647

Building Cost

HDR Cost Estimator

Building

6,277,078

6,277,078

Electrical Equipment

HDR Cost Estimator

Building

1,754,577

1,754,577

Exterior Piping

B&C Cost Estimator

Building

1,002,062

1,002,062

Major Interior Piping

HDR Cost Estimator

Building

5,157,436

5,157,436

Sub Total Capital Costs $

27,238,800

Total Costs with net and soft cost markups $

78,447,745

Annual Operational Costs (chemical, energy, operational oversight, etc.)


Energy Cost, 3500 HP per blower

Vendor Quote (HP)

Oversight

Estimate

kWh

81,654,150

0.09

7,348,874

Hours

548

93

50,918

Total Annual Operation $

7,399,791

Annual Maintenance Costs (Note: Enter non-recurring costs on LCC worksheet.)


Yearly Service

Howden

Blowers

10,000

30,000

Total Annual Maintenance $

30,000

Annual Risk Costs (Note: Enter non-recurring costs on LCC worksheet.)

Blower Options LCC Analysis 9-11-12

Page 4 of 33

Total Annual Risk $

9/21/2012

Alternative 1 - Single Stage Blowers (5+1) In a Building


Quantifiable Non-Recurring Costs
Starting Year
No. of Years

2020
60
Year

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

Year
2020
Capital Costs (including soft costs and contractor costs)
Capital Costs (including contingency)
$
78,447,745

2021

2022

2023

2024

2025

2026

2027

2028

2029

2030

2031

2032

2033

2034

2035

2036

2037

2038

2039

2040

2041

2042

$ 10,438,136
$
42,318
$
-

$ 10,803,471
$
43,799
$
-

$
$
$

11,181,592
45,332
-

$ 11,572,948
$
46,919
$
-

$ 11,978,001
$
48,561
$
-

$
$
$

12,397,231
50,260
-

$ 12,831,134
$
52,020
$
-

$
$
$

13,280,224
53,840
-

$ 13,745,032
$
55,725
$
-

$ 14,226,108
$
57,675
$
-

$ 14,724,022
$
59,694
$
-

$
$
$

15,239,362
61,783
-

$
$
$

15,772,740
63,945
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

Recurring Costs - Operation, Maintenance and Risk (from worksheet)


Annual Operation
$
7,399,791 $ 7,658,784 $
7,926,841 $
8,204,281
Annual Maintenance
$
30,000 $
31,050 $
32,137 $
33,262
Annual Risk
$
- $
- $
- $
Non-Recurring Costs
Enter description, then enter the cost(s) under the appropriate year(s).
$
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
Projected Inflation Rate

$
$
$

8,491,430
34,426
-

$
$
$

8,788,630
35,631
-

$
$
$

9,096,233
36,878
-

$
$
$

9,414,601
38,168
-

$
$
$

9,744,112
39,504
-

$
$
$

10,085,156
40,887
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

3.5%

Annual Expense (including inflation)

85,877,536

Life Cycle Cost


Projected Discount Rate
3%
5%
7%

$
$
$

85,877,536
85,877,536
85,877,536

Total Life Cycle Cost


3% Discount Rate
5% Discount Rate
7% Discount Rate

$
$
$

594,503,036
379,183,092
274,706,404

Annualized Operations
Life Cycle Cost
Net Present Value
Annualized Payments

$
$

Annualized Maintenance and Risk


Annual Expense (including inflation)
Life Cycle cost (5% discount)
Net Present Value (5% discount)
Annualized Payments

$
$
$

$7,689,834

$7,958,978

$8,237,542

$8,525,856

$8,824,261

$9,133,110

$9,452,769

$9,783,616

$10,126,042

$10,480,454

$10,847,270

$11,226,924

$11,619,867

$12,026,562

$12,447,492

$12,883,154

$13,334,064

$13,800,757

$14,283,783

$14,783,715

$15,301,145

$15,836,686

$
$
$

7,465,858
7,323,651
7,186,760

$
$
$

7,502,100
7,219,028
6,951,680

$
$
$

7,538,518
7,115,899
6,724,288

$
$
$

7,575,113
7,014,243
6,504,335

$
$
$

7,611,885
6,914,039
6,291,576

$
$
$

7,648,836
6,815,267
6,085,777

$
$
$

7,685,966
6,717,906
5,886,709

$
$
$

7,723,277
6,621,936
5,694,154

$
$
$

7,760,768
6,527,337
5,507,896

$
$
$

7,798,442
6,434,090
5,327,731

$
$
$

7,836,299
6,342,174
5,153,460

$
$
$

7,874,339
6,251,572
4,984,889

$
$
$

7,912,564
6,162,263
4,821,832

$
$
$

7,950,974
6,074,231
4,664,108

$
$
$

7,989,571
5,987,456
4,511,544

$
$
$

8,028,356
5,901,921
4,363,970

$
$
$

8,067,328
5,817,608
4,221,223

$
$
$

8,106,490
5,734,499
4,083,146

$
$
$

8,145,842
5,652,578
3,949,585

$
$
$

8,185,385
5,571,827
3,820,393

$
$
$

8,225,120
5,492,229
3,695,427

$
$
$

8,265,047
5,413,769
3,574,548

7,399,791
299,521,041
$12,007,386

7,294,080

7,189,879

7,087,166

6,985,921

6,886,122

6,787,749

6,690,781

6,595,198

6,500,981

6,408,110

6,316,566

6,226,329

6,137,381

6,049,705

5,963,280

5,878,090

5,794,118

5,711,345

5,629,754

5,549,329

5,470,053

5,391,909

30,000
30,000
1,214,309
$48,680

$
$

31,050
29,571

$
$

32,137
29,149

$
$

33,262
28,733

$
$

34,426
28,322

$
$

35,631
27,917

$
$

36,878
27,519

$
$

38,168
27,126

$
$

39,504
26,738

$
$

40,887
26,356

$
$

42,318
25,980

$
$

43,799
25,608

$
$

45,332
25,243

$
$

46,919
24,882

$
$

48,561
24,527

$
$

50,260
24,176

$
$

52,020
23,831

$
$

53,840
23,490

$
$

55,725
23,155

$
$

57,675
22,824

$
$

59,694
22,498

$
$

61,783
22,177

$
$

63,945
21,860

Blower Options LCC Analysis 9-11-12

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

2043

2044

2045

2046

2047

2048

2049

2050

2051

2052

2053

2054

2055

2056

2057

2058

2059

2060

2061

2062

2063

2064

2065

2066

2067

2068

$ 17,487,519
$
70,897
$
-

$ 18,099,582
$
73,379
$
-

$
$
$

18,733,068
75,947
-

$
$
$

19,388,725
78,605
-

$
$
$

20,067,330
81,356
-

$ 20,769,687
$
84,204
$
-

$ 21,496,626
$
87,151
$
-

$
$
$

22,249,008
90,201
-

$
$
$

23,027,723
93,358
-

$
$
$

23,833,693
96,626
-

$ 24,667,873
$
100,008
$
-

$
$
$

25,531,248
103,508
-

$
$
$

26,424,842
107,131
-

$
$
$

27,349,711
110,880
-

$ 28,306,951
$
114,761
$
-

$
$
$

29,297,694
118,778
-

$
$
$

30,323,114
122,935
-

$
$
$

31,384,423
127,238
-

$
$
$

32,482,878
131,691
-

$
$
$

33,619,778
136,300
-

$ 34,796,470
$
141,071
$
-

$
$
$

36,014,347
146,008
-

$
$
$

37,274,849
151,119
-

$
$
$

38,579,469
156,408
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$ 16,324,786
$
66,183
$
-

$
$
$

16,896,154
68,500
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$16,390,970

$16,964,653

$17,558,416

$18,172,961

$18,809,015

$19,467,330

$20,148,687

$20,853,891

$21,583,777

$22,339,209

$23,121,081

$23,930,319

$24,767,880

$25,634,756

$26,531,973

$27,460,592

$28,421,712

$29,416,472

$30,446,049

$31,511,660

$32,614,569

$33,756,078

$34,937,541

$36,160,355

$37,425,968

$38,735,876

$
$
$

8,305,169
5,336,429
3,457,624

$
$
$

8,345,485
5,260,195
3,344,524

$
$
$

8,385,997
5,185,049
3,235,124

$
$
$

8,426,706
5,110,977
3,129,302

$
$
$

8,467,612
5,037,963
3,026,942

$
$
$

8,508,717
4,965,992
2,927,930

$
$
$

8,550,022
4,895,049
2,832,156

$
$
$

8,591,527
4,825,120
2,739,515

$
$
$

8,633,233
4,756,190
2,649,905

$
$
$

8,675,142
4,688,244
2,563,226

$
$
$

8,717,254
4,621,269
2,479,382

$
$
$

8,759,571
4,555,251
2,398,281

$
$
$

8,802,093
4,490,176
2,319,832

$
$
$

8,844,822
4,426,031
2,243,950

$
$
$

8,887,758
4,362,802
2,170,550

$
$
$

8,930,903
4,300,476
2,099,551

$
$
$

8,974,256
4,239,041
2,030,874

$
$
$

9,017,821
4,178,483
1,964,443

$
$
$

9,061,597
4,118,790
1,900,186

$
$
$

9,105,585
4,059,950
1,838,030

$
$
$

9,149,787
4,001,951
1,777,908

$
$
$

9,194,203
3,944,780
1,719,752

$
$
$

9,238,835
3,888,426
1,663,498

$
$
$

9,283,684
3,832,877
1,609,085

$
$
$

9,328,750
3,778,122
1,556,451

$
$
$

9,374,036
3,724,149
1,505,539

5,314,882

5,238,955

5,164,113

5,090,340

5,017,621

4,945,940

4,875,284

4,805,637

4,736,985

4,669,314

4,602,609

4,536,858

4,472,046

4,408,159

4,345,186

4,283,112

4,221,924

4,161,611

4,102,159

4,043,557

3,985,792

3,928,852

3,872,726

3,817,401

3,762,867

3,709,111

$
$

66,183
21,547

$
$

68,500
21,240

$
$

70,897
20,936

$
$

73,379
20,637

$
$

75,947
20,342

$
$

78,605
20,052

$
$

81,356
19,765

$
$

84,204
19,483

$
$

87,151
19,205

$
$

90,201
18,930

$
$

93,358
18,660

$
$

96,626
18,393

$
$

100,008
18,130

$
$

103,508
17,871

$
$

107,131
17,616

$
$

110,880
17,364

$
$

114,761
17,116

$
$

118,778
16,872

$
$

122,935
16,631

$
$

127,238
16,393

$
$

131,691
16,159

$
$

136,300
15,928

$
$

141,071
15,701

$
$

146,008
15,476

$
$

151,119
15,255

$
$

156,408
15,037

Blower Options LCC Analysis 9-11-12

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

57

58

59

60

2069

2070

2071

2072

2073

2074

2075

2076

2077

2078

2079

$ 42,773,747
$
173,412
$
-

$
$
$

44,270,828
179,481
-

$
$
$

45,820,307
185,763
-

$
$
$

47,424,018
192,265
-

$ 49,083,858
$
198,994
$
-

$
$
$

50,801,793
205,959
-

$
$
$

52,579,856
213,168
-

$
$
$

54,420,151
220,628
-

$
$
$

56,324,856
228,350
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$ 39,929,750
$
161,882
$
-

$
$
$

41,327,291
167,548
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$40,091,632

$41,494,839

$42,947,159

$44,450,309

$46,006,070

$47,616,282

$49,282,852

$51,007,752

$52,793,024

$54,640,779

$56,553,207

$
$
$

9,419,541
3,670,947
1,456,293

$
$
$

9,465,267
3,618,505
1,408,657

$
$
$

9,511,215
3,566,812
1,362,579

$
$
$

9,557,385
3,515,857
1,318,009

$
$
$

9,603,781
3,465,631
1,274,896

$
$
$

9,650,401
3,416,122
1,233,194

$
$
$

9,697,247
3,367,320
1,192,856

$
$
$

9,744,321
3,319,215
1,153,837

$
$
$

9,791,624
3,271,798
1,116,095

$
$
$

9,839,156
3,225,058
1,079,587

$
$
$

9,886,919
3,178,986
1,044,274

3,656,124

3,603,894

3,552,410

3,501,661

3,451,637

3,402,328

3,353,723

3,305,813

3,258,587

3,212,036

3,166,150

$
$

161,882
14,823

$
$

167,548
14,611

$
$

173,412
14,402

$
$

179,481
14,196

$
$

185,763
13,994

$
$

192,265
13,794

$
$

198,994
13,597

$
$

205,959
13,402

$
$

213,168
13,211

$
$

220,628
13,022

$
$

228,350
12,836

Blower Options LCC Analysis 9-11-12

Single Stage Blowers (5+1) In Building


Capital cost

Unit

Quantity

Building Material
Building Labor
Building Equipment
Total

1
1
1

Building Square Footage:


Total Building Cost:

Total Price
(Including
Markup)
$3,517,892
$2,446,468
$312,719
$6,277,078

Unit Price
$2,937,697
$2,184,346
$290,226

30,625 SF
205 $/SF

Unit

Quantity

Single Stage Blower


Building Cost
Electrical Cost
Major Interior Piping
Exterior Piping
Total

Units

6
30,625
1
1
1

Unit Price

EA
SF
LS
LS
LS

$1,536,792
$205
$1,595,070
$4,267,031
$747,240

Total Price
(Including
Markups)
$12,909,050
$6,277,078
$1,595,070
$4,267,031
$747,240

Note:
1. Vendor quote: $7.7 million Budget cost for equipment, delivery, and start-up
2. Cost Markups: 19.75% for Blowers and building; additional 40% for Blowers; 12% for labor
Annual Energy Cost
# of BNR Basins =
Power cost, $/kWh =

10
0.09

# of Blowers

HP of Blower
3

kW per Blower

3500

2,610

Annual Power cost


($/yr)
8760
$7,348,874

Operation, hrs

Note:
1. 3 blowers operating continuously
Annual Operational Cost
Labor Cost, $/hr =

93

# of Blowers
3

Time/Blower (min)
30

Frequency
Daily

Total Cost Daily


Total Annual Cost
$140
$50,918

Labor Cost
$138,597
$159,507
$890,404
$254,822

Total
Installation
Cost, $
$13,047,647
$6,277,078
$1,754,577
$5,157,436
$1,002,062
$27,238,800

Annual Maintenance/Replacement Cost

Required Maintenance
Routine Maintenance

Annual Cost per


Blower

No. of Blowers

$10,000

Total Cost per


year
30,000

Notes:
1. Maintenance of $10,000/blower estimated from vendor quote
2. Assume blower life of 60 years; no overhaul in the 60 year lifecycle
Risk of Failure Cost:
No risk was assumed to be associated with single stage blowers

**Note regarding labor cost: 1 hour of maintenance mechanic requires 1.4 hours of controls person and 0.7 hours of electrician; therefore, maintenance hours are
multiplied by 3.1 hours.

Alternative 2 - Single Stage Blowers (3+1) In a Building


Quantifiable Base and Annual Costs
Item and Description

Reference

Units

Quantity

Cost/Unit

Total Cost

Base Costs (unescalated)


Turblex Blowers

Vendor Quote

Blowers

3,178,087

12,712,347

Building

HDR Cost Estimator

Building

6,277,078

6,277,078

Electrical Equipment

HDR Cost Estimator

Building

1,315,933

1,315,933

Exterior Piping

B&C Cost Estimator

Building

1,002,062

1,002,062

Major Interior Piping

HDR Cost Estimator

Building

5,157,436

5,157,436

Sub Total Capital Costs $

26,464,856

Total Costs with net and soft cost markups $

76,218,785

Annual Operational Costs (chemical, energy, operational oversight, etc.)


Energy Cost, 3500 HP per blower

Vendor Quote HP

Oversight

Estimate

kWh

92,934,372

0.09

8,364,093

Hours

547.5

93

50,918

Total Annual Operation $

8,415,011

Annual Maintenance Costs (Note: Enter non-recurring costs on LCC worksheet.)


Yearly Service

Vendor Quote

Blower

15,000

30,000

Total Annual Maintenance $

30,000

Annual Risk Costs (Note: Enter non-recurring costs on LCC worksheet.)


0

Total Annual Risk $

Blower Options LCC Analysis 9-11-12

Page 10 of 33

9/21/2012

Alternative 2 - Single Stage Blowers (3+1) In a Building


Quantifiable Non-Recurring Costs
Starting Year
No. of Years

2020
60
Year

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

Year
2020
Capital Costs (including soft costs and contractor costs)
Capital Costs (including contingency)
$
76,218,785

2021

2022

2023

2024

2025

2026

2027

2028

2029

2030

2031

2032

2033

2034

2035

2036

2037

2038

2039

2040

2041

2042

$ 11,080,963
$
39,504
$
-

$
$
$

11,468,796
40,887
-

$
$
$

11,870,204
42,318
-

$ 12,285,661
$
43,799
$
-

$ 12,715,659
$
45,332
$
-

$ 13,160,707
$
46,919
$
-

$ 13,621,332
$
48,561
$
-

$ 14,098,079
$
50,260
$
-

$
$
$

14,591,512
52,020
-

$ 15,102,214
$
53,840
$
-

$ 15,630,792
$
55,725
$
-

$
$
$

16,177,870
57,675
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

Recurring Costs - Operation, Maintenance and Risk (from worksheet)


Annual Operation
$
8,415,011 $ 8,709,536 $
9,014,370 $
9,329,873
Annual Maintenance
$
30,000 $
31,050 $
32,137 $
33,262
Annual Risk
$
- $
- $
- $
Non-Recurring Costs
Enter description, then enter the cost(s) under the appropriate year(s).
$
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
Projected Inflation Rate

$
$
$

9,656,419
34,426
-

$
$
$

9,994,393
35,631
-

$
$
$

10,344,197
36,878
-

$
$
$

10,706,244
38,168
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$ 16,744,095
$
59,694
$
59,694

$
$
$

17,330,138
61,783
61,783

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$ 17,936,693
$
63,945
$
63,945
$
$
$
$
$

3.5%

Annual Expense (including inflation)

84,663,796

Life Cycle Cost


Projected Discount Rate
3%
5%
7%

$
$
$

84,663,796
84,663,796
84,663,796

Total Life Cycle Cost


3% Discount Rate
5% Discount Rate
7% Discount Rate

$
$
$

664,244,031
418,736,315
299,641,481

Annualized Operations
Life Cycle Cost
Net Present Value
Annualized Payments

$
$

Annualized Maintenance and Risk


Annual Expense (including inflation)
Life Cycle cost (5% discount)
Net Present Value (5% discount)
Annualized Payments

$
$
$

$8,740,586

$9,046,507

$9,363,135

$9,690,844

$10,030,024

$10,381,075

$10,744,412

$11,120,467

$11,509,683

$11,912,522

$12,329,460

$12,760,991

$13,207,626

$13,669,893

$14,148,339

$14,643,531

$15,156,055

$15,686,517

$16,235,545

$16,863,482

$17,453,704

$18,064,584

$
$
$

8,486,006
8,324,368
8,168,772

$
$
$

8,527,200
8,205,448
7,901,569

$
$
$

8,568,595
8,088,228
7,643,107

$
$
$

8,610,190
7,972,682
7,393,099

$
$
$

8,651,987
7,858,786
7,151,268

$
$
$

8,693,987
7,746,518
6,917,348

$
$
$

8,736,190
7,635,853
6,691,080

$
$
$

8,778,599
7,526,770
6,472,213

$
$
$

8,821,214
7,419,244
6,260,505

$
$
$

8,864,035
7,313,255
6,055,722

$
$
$

8,907,064
7,208,780
5,857,638

$
$
$

8,950,303
7,105,798
5,666,033

$
$
$

8,993,751
7,004,286
5,480,695

$
$
$

9,037,410
6,904,225
5,301,420

$ 9,081,281
$ 6,805,593
$ 5,128,009

$
$
$

9,125,364
6,708,370
4,960,271

$
$
$

9,169,662
6,612,536
4,798,019

$
$
$

9,214,175
6,518,072
4,641,074

$
$
$

9,258,904
6,424,956
4,489,263

$
$
$

9,336,901
6,355,669
4,357,844

$
$
$

9,382,226
6,264,874
4,215,298

$
$
$

9,427,771
6,175,376
4,077,414

8,415,011
340,614,056
$13,654,748

8,294,797

8,176,299

8,059,495

7,944,360

7,830,869

7,718,999

7,608,728

7,500,032

7,392,888

7,287,276

7,183,172

7,080,555

6,979,404

6,879,698

$ 6,781,417

6,684,540

6,589,046

6,494,917

6,402,132

6,310,673

6,220,521

6,131,656

30,000
30,000
1,903,473
$76,308

$
$

31,050
29,571

$
$

32,137
29,149

$
$

33,262
28,733

$
$

34,426
28,322

$
$

35,631
27,917

$
$

36,878
27,519

$
$

38,168
27,126

$
$

39,504
26,738

$
$

40,887
26,356

$
$

42,318
25,980

$
$

43,799
25,608

$
$

45,332
25,243

$
$

46,919
24,882

$
$

48,561
24,527

$
$

$
$

52,020
23,831

$
$

53,840
23,490

$
$

55,725
23,155

$
$

57,675
22,824

$
$

119,387
44,996

$
$

123,566
44,353

$
$

127,891
43,719

Blower Options LCC Analysis 9-11-12

50,260
24,176

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

2043

2044

2045

2046

2047

2048

2049

2050

2051

2052

2053

2054

2055

2056

2057

2058

2059

2060

2061

2062

2063

2064

2065

2066

2067

$
$
$

18,564,478
66,183
66,183

$
$
$

19,214,234
68,500
68,500

$
$
$

19,886,733
70,897
70,897

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$18,696,844

$19,351,234

$ 20,582,768
$
73,379
$
73,379

$
$
$

21,303,165
75,947
75,947

$
$
$

22,048,776
78,605
78,605

$
$
$

22,820,483
81,356
81,356

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$20,028,527

$20,729,526

$21,455,059

$22,205,986

$ 23,619,200
$
84,204
$
84,204

$
$
$

24,445,872
87,151
87,151

$
$
$

25,301,477
90,201
90,201

$
$
$

26,187,029
93,358
93,358

$
$
$

27,103,575
96,626
96,626

$
$
$

28,052,200
100,008
100,008

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$22,983,196

$23,787,607

$24,620,174

$25,481,880

$26,373,746

$27,296,827

$ 29,034,027
$
103,508
$
103,508

$ 30,050,218
$
107,131
$
107,131

$
$
$

31,101,976
110,880
110,880

$
$
$

32,190,545
114,761
114,761

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$28,252,216

$29,241,043

$30,264,480

$31,323,737

$ 10,089,108
$ 5,048,683
$ 2,559,628

$ 10,138,084
$ 4,976,559
$ 2,475,902

$
$
$

10,187,298
4,905,465
2,394,914

$ 33,317,214
$
118,778
$
118,778

$
$
$

34,483,317
122,935
122,935

$
$
$

35,690,233
127,238
127,238

$
$
$

36,939,391
131,691
131,691

$
$
$

38,232,269
136,300
136,300

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$32,420,067

$33,554,770

$34,729,187

$35,944,708

$37,202,773

$
$
$

10,236,751
4,835,387
2,316,576

$ 10,286,444
$ 4,766,310
$ 2,240,800

$
$
$

10,336,378
4,698,220
2,167,503

$
$
$

10,386,555
4,631,103
2,096,603

$
$
$

10,436,975
4,564,944
2,028,023

$ 39,570,399
$
141,071
$
141,071

$
$
$

40,955,363
146,008
146,008

$
$
$

42,388,801
151,119
151,119

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$38,504,870

$39,852,540

$41,247,379

$42,691,038

$
$
$

10,487,640
4,499,730
1,961,686

$ 10,538,551
$ 4,435,449
$ 1,897,518

$
$
$

10,589,709
4,372,085
1,835,450

$
$
$

10,641,115
4,309,627
1,775,412

$
$
$

9,473,537
6,087,156
3,944,041

$
$
$

9,519,525
6,000,197
3,815,030

$
$
$

9,565,736
5,914,480
3,690,240

$
$
$

9,612,172
5,829,987
3,569,531

$
$
$

9,658,833
5,746,702
3,452,771

$
$
$

9,705,720
5,664,606
3,339,829

$
$
$

9,752,835
5,583,683
3,230,583

$
$
$

9,800,179
5,503,916
3,124,909

$
$
$

9,847,753
5,425,289
3,022,693

$
$
$

9,895,558
5,347,784
2,923,820

$
$
$

9,943,594
5,271,388
2,828,181

$
$
$

9,991,864
5,196,082
2,735,670

$
$
$

10,040,368
5,121,852
2,646,186

6,044,061

5,957,717

5,872,607

5,788,713

5,706,017

5,624,502

5,544,152

5,464,950

5,386,879

5,309,924

5,234,068

5,159,296

5,085,591

5,012,940

4,941,327

4,870,736

4,801,154

4,732,566

4,664,958

4,598,316

4,532,626

4,467,874

4,404,047

4,341,132

4,279,116

$
$

132,367
43,095

$
$

137,000
42,479

$
$

141,795
41,872

$
$

146,758
41,274

$
$

151,894
40,685

$
$

157,210
40,103

$
$

162,713
39,530

$
$

168,408
38,966

$
$

174,302
38,409

$
$

180,402
37,860

$
$

186,717
37,320

$
$

193,252
36,786

$
$

200,015
36,261

$
$

207,016
35,743

$
$

214,262
35,232

$
$

221,761
34,729

$
$

229,522
34,233

$
$

237,556
33,744

$
$

245,870
33,262

$
$

254,475
32,787

$
$

263,382
32,318

$
$

272,600
31,856

$
$

282,142
31,401

$
$

292,016
30,953

$
$

302,237
30,511

Blower Options LCC Analysis 9-11-12

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

57

58

59

60

2068

2069

2070

2071

2072

2073

2074

2075

2076

2077

2078

2079

$
$
$

43,872,409
156,408
156,408

$
$
$
$
$

$ 45,407,943
$
161,882
$
161,882

$
$
$

46,997,221
167,548
167,548

$
$
$

48,642,124
173,412
173,412

$
$
$

50,344,598
179,481
179,481

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$44,185,224

$45,731,707

$47,332,316

$48,988,948

$
$
$

10,692,771
4,248,061
1,717,338

$ 10,744,678
$ 4,187,374
$ 1,661,163

$
$
$

10,796,836
4,127,554
1,606,826

$
$
$

10,849,248
4,068,589
1,554,266

4,217,986

4,157,729

4,098,333

$
$

312,815
30,075

$
$

323,764
29,645

$
$

335,096
29,222

$
$

$ 52,106,659
$
185,763
$
185,763

$
$
$

53,930,392
192,265
192,265

$
$
$

55,817,956
198,994
198,994

$
$
$

57,771,584
205,959
205,959

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$50,703,561

$52,478,185

$54,314,922

$56,215,944

$
$
$

10,901,915
4,010,467
1,503,426

$ 10,954,836
$ 3,953,174
$ 1,454,248

$
$
$

11,008,015
3,896,700
1,406,680

$
$
$

11,061,452
3,841,033
1,360,667

4,039,785

3,982,074

3,925,187

3,869,113

346,824
28,804

$
$

358,963
28,393

$
$

371,526
27,987

$
$

384,530
27,587

$
$

$ 59,793,590
$
213,168
$
213,168

$ 61,886,365
$
220,628
$
220,628

$
$
$

64,052,388
228,350
228,350

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$58,183,502

$60,219,925

$62,327,622

$64,509,089

$
$
$

11,115,149
3,786,161
1,316,159

$ 11,169,106
$ 3,732,073
$ 1,273,107

$ 11,223,325
$ 3,678,758
$ 1,231,463

$
$
$

11,277,807
3,626,204
1,191,182

3,813,840

3,759,357

3,705,652

3,652,714

3,600,532

397,988
27,193

$
$

411,918
26,805

$
$

426,335
26,422

$
$

441,257
26,044

$
$

456,701
25,672

Blower Options LCC Analysis 9-11-12

Single Stage Blowers (3+1) In Building


Capital cost

Unit

Quantity

Single Stage Blower


Building Cost
Electrical Cost
Major Interior Piping
Exterior Piping
Total

Units

4
30,625
1
1
1

Unit Price

EA
SF
LS
LS
LS

$2,245,313
$205
$1,196,303
$4,267,031
$747,240

Total Price
(Including
Markups)
$12,573,750
$6,277,078
$1,196,303
$4,267,031
$747,240

Labor Cost
$138,597
$119,630.25
$890,404
$254,822

Total
Installation
Cost, $
$12,712,347
$6,277,078
$1,315,933
$5,157,436
$1,002,062
$26,464,856

1. Vendor quote: $7.5 million Budget cost for equipment, delivery, and start-up
2. Cost Markups: 19.75% for Blowers and building; 40% for Blowers; 12% for labor
Annual Energy Cost
# of BNR Basins =
Power cost, $/kWh =

10
0.09

# of Blowers

HP of Blower
2

kW per Blower

5833

4,350

Annual Power cost


($/yr)
8760
$8,164,948

Operation, hrs

Note:
1. 2 Blowers operating continuously to meet annual oxygen demand
Annual Operational Cost
Labor Cost, $/hr =

93

# of Blowers
2

Time/Blower (min)
45

Frequency
Everyday

Total Cost Daily


Total Annual Cost
$140
$50,918

Annual Maintenance/Replacement Cost

Required Maintenance
Routine Maintenance

Annual Cost per


No. of Blowers
Blower
15000
2

Total Cost per


year
30000

Notes:
1. Maintenance of $15,000/blower estimated from vendor quote
2. Assume blower life of 60 years; no overhaul during life cycle
Risk of Failure Cost:
No risk was assumed to be associated with single stage blowers

**Note regarding labor cost: 1 hour of maintenance mechanic requires 1.4 hours of controls person and 0.7 hours of electrician; therefore, maintenance hours are
multiplied by 3.1 hours.

Alternative 3 - Turbo Blowers (51+2) In a Building


Quantifiable Base and Annual Costs

Item and Description

Reference

Units

Quantity

Cost/Unit

Total Cost

Base Costs (unescalated)


Neuros Turbo Blowers

Vendor Quote

Blowers

53

319,204

16,917,786

Building

HDR Cost Estimator

Building

12,869,469

12,869,469

Exterior Piping

B&C Cost Estimator

Building

1,002,062

1,002,062

Major Interior Piping

HDR Cost Estimator

Building

12,840,319

12,840,319

Sub Total Capital Costs $

43,629,636

Total Costs with net and soft cost markups $ 125,653,353


Annual Operational Costs (chemical, energy, operational oversight, etc.)
Energy Cost, 350 HP per blower

Vendor Quoted HP

Oversight

Estimate

kWh

80,857,524

0.09

7,277,177

Hours

1764

93

164,068

Total Annual Operation $

7,441,245

Annual Maintenance Costs (Note: Enter non-recurring costs on LCC worksheet.)


Annual Maintenenace

Vendor Estimate

Blowers

29

5,389

156,274

Total Annual Maintenance $

156,274

Annual Risk Costs (Note: Enter non-recurring costs on LCC worksheet.)

Blower Options LCC Analysis 9-11-12

Page 15 of 33

Total Annual Risk $

9/21/2012

Alternative 3 - Turbo Blowers (51+2) In a Building


Quantifiable Non-Recurring Costs
Starting Year
No. of Years

2020
60
Year

Year
Capital Costs (including soft costs and contractor costs)
Capital Costs (including contingency)
$

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

2020

2021

2022

2023

2024

2025

2026

2027

2028

2029

2030

2031

2032

2033

2034

2035

2036

2037

2038

2039

2040

2041

125,653,353

Recurring Costs - Operation, Maintenance and Risk (from worksheet)


Annual Operation
$
7,441,245 $
7,701,688 $
7,971,247 $
8,250,241
Annual Maintenance
$
156,274 $
161,743 $
167,404 $
173,264
Annual Risk
$
- $
- $
- $
Non-Recurring Costs
Enter description, then enter the cost(s) under the appropriate year(s).
Overhaul
$
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
Projected Inflation Rate

$
$
$

8,538,999
179,328
-

$
$
$

8,837,864
185,604
-

$
$
$

9,147,190
192,100
-

$
$
$

9,467,341
198,824
-

$
$
$

9,798,698
205,783
-

$
$
$

10,141,653
212,985
-

$
$
$

10,496,611
220,440
-

$
$
$

10,863,992
228,155
-

$
$
$

11,244,232
236,140
-

$
$
$

11,637,780
244,405
-

$
$
$

12,045,102
252,959
-

$
$
$

12,466,681
261,813
-

$
$
$

12,903,014
270,977
-

$
$
$

13,354,620
280,461
-

$
$
$

13,822,032
290,277
-

$
$
$

14,305,803
300,436
-

$
$
$

14,806,506
310,952
-

$
$
$

15,324,733
321,835
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

6,021,274
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

3.5%

Annual Expense (including inflation)

133,250,871

7,863,432

8,138,652

8,423,504

8,718,327

9,023,469

9,339,290

9,666,165

10,004,481

10,354,638

10,717,050

11,092,147

11,480,372

11,882,185

12,298,061

12,728,494

13,173,991

13,635,081

14,112,308

20,627,513

15,117,458

15,646,569

Life Cycle Cost


Projected Discount Rate
3%
5%
7%

$
$
$

133,250,871
133,250,871
133,250,871

$
$
$

7,634,400
7,488,982
7,349,001

$
$
$

7,671,460
7,381,997
7,108,614

$
$
$

7,708,700
7,276,540
6,876,089

$
$
$

7,746,121
7,172,589
6,651,170

$
$
$

7,783,723
7,070,124
6,433,608

$
$
$

7,821,508
6,969,122
6,223,163

$
$
$

7,859,477
6,869,563
6,019,602

$
$
$

7,897,630
6,771,426
5,822,699

$
$
$

7,935,968
6,674,692
5,632,237

$
$
$

7,974,492
6,579,339
5,448,005

$
$
$

8,013,203
6,485,349
5,269,799

$
$
$

8,052,102
6,392,701
5,097,422

$
$
$

8,091,190
6,301,376
4,930,684

$
$
$

8,130,467
6,211,357
4,769,400

$
$
$

8,169,936
6,122,623
4,613,392

$
$
$

8,209,596
6,035,157
4,462,487

$
$
$

8,249,448
5,948,940
4,316,517

$
$
$

8,289,494
5,863,956
4,175,323

$
$
$

11,763,583
8,163,007
5,703,679

$
$
$

8,370,170
5,697,611
3,906,638

$
$
$

8,410,802
5,616,216
3,778,851

Total Life Cycle Cost


3% Discount Rate
5% Discount Rate
7% Discount Rate

$
$
$

660,575,501
437,347,570
328,863,588

Annualized Operations
Life Cycle Cost
Net Present Value
Annualized Payments

$
$

7,441,245
301,198,957
$12,074,651

7,334,941

7,230,156

7,126,868

7,025,056

6,924,698

6,825,774

6,728,263

6,632,145

6,537,400

6,444,008

6,351,951

6,261,209

6,171,763

6,083,595

5,996,687

5,911,020

5,826,576

5,743,340

5,661,292

5,580,416

5,500,696

Annualized Maintenance and Risk


Annual Expense (including inflation)
Life Cycle cost (5% discount)
Net Present Value (5% discount)
Annualized Payments

$
$
$

156,274
156,274
10,495,261
$420,741

$
$

161,743
154,041

$
$

167,404
151,841

$
$

173,264
149,672

$
$

179,328
147,533

$
$

185,604
145,426

$
$

192,100
143,348

$
$

198,824
141,300

$
$

205,783
139,282

$
$

212,985
137,292

$
$

220,440
135,331

$
$

228,155
133,397

$
$

236,140
131,492

$
$

244,405
129,613

$
$

252,959
127,762

$
$

261,813
125,937

$
$

270,977
124,137

$
$

280,461
122,364

$
$

290,277
120,616

$
$

6,321,711
2,501,716

$
$

310,952
117,194

$
$

321,835
115,520

Blower Options LCC Analysis 9-11-12

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

2042

2043

2044

2045

2046

2047

2048

2049

2050

2051

2052

2053

2054

2055

2056

2057

2058

2059

2060

2061

2062

2063

2064

2065

2066

$
$
$

15,861,099
333,099
-

$
$
$

16,416,238
344,758
-

$
$
$

16,990,806
356,824
-

$
$
$

17,585,484
369,313
-

$
$
$

18,200,976
382,239
-

$
$
$

18,838,010
395,617
-

$
$
$

19,497,341
409,464
-

$
$
$

20,179,748
423,795
-

$
$
$

20,886,039
438,628
-

$
$
$

21,617,050
453,980
-

$
$
$

22,373,647
469,869
-

$
$
$

23,156,724
486,315
-

$
$
$

23,967,210
503,336
-

$
$
$

24,806,062
520,953
-

$
$
$

25,674,274
539,186
-

$
$
$

26,572,874
558,058
-

$
$
$

27,502,925
577,590
-

$
$
$

28,465,527
597,805
-

$
$
$

29,461,820
618,728
-

$
$
$

30,492,984
640,384
-

$
$
$

31,560,238
662,797
-

$
$
$

32,664,847
685,995
-

$
$
$

33,808,116
710,005
-

$
$
$

34,991,401
734,855
-

$
$
$

36,216,100
760,575
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

11,981,064
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

16,194,198

16,760,995

17,347,630

17,954,797

18,583,215

19,233,628

19,906,805

20,603,543

21,324,667

22,071,030

22,843,516

23,643,039

24,470,546

25,327,015

26,213,460

27,130,931

28,080,514

41,044,396

30,080,549

31,133,368

32,223,036

33,350,842

34,518,121

35,726,256

36,976,675

$
$
$

8,451,631
5,535,985
3,655,244

$
$
$

8,492,658
5,456,899
3,535,680

$
$
$

8,533,885
5,378,943
3,420,027

$
$
$

8,575,311
5,302,101
3,308,157

$
$
$

8,616,939
5,226,357
3,199,946

$
$
$

8,658,769
5,151,695
3,095,275

$
$
$

8,700,802
5,078,099
2,994,027

$
$
$

8,743,038
5,005,555
2,896,092

$
$
$

8,785,480
4,934,047
2,801,360

$
$
$

8,828,128
4,863,561
2,709,727

$
$
$

8,870,983
4,794,081
2,621,091

$
$
$

8,914,046
4,725,594
2,535,354

$
$
$

8,957,318
4,658,086
2,452,422

$
$
$

9,000,801
4,591,542
2,372,203

$
$
$

9,044,494
4,525,948
2,294,607

$
$
$

9,088,399
4,461,292
2,219,550

$
$
$

9,132,518
4,397,559
2,146,948

$
$
$

12,959,914
6,121,688
2,932,828

$
$
$

9,221,398
4,272,812
2,008,791

$
$
$

9,266,162
4,211,772
1,943,082

$
$
$

9,311,143
4,151,604
1,879,524

$
$
$

9,356,343
4,092,295
1,818,044

$
$
$

9,401,762
4,033,834
1,758,575

$
$
$

9,447,402
3,976,208
1,701,052

$
$
$

9,493,263
3,919,405
1,645,410

5,422,115

5,344,656

5,268,304

5,193,042

5,118,856

5,045,729

4,973,648

4,902,595

4,832,558

4,763,522

4,695,471

4,628,393

4,562,273

4,497,098

4,432,854

4,369,527

4,307,106

4,245,575

4,184,924

4,125,140

4,066,209

4,008,120

3,950,862

3,894,421

3,838,786

$
$

333,099
113,870

$
$

344,758
112,243

$
$

356,824
110,640

$
$

369,313
109,059

$
$

382,239
107,501

$
$

395,617
105,965

$
$

409,464
104,452

$
$

423,795
102,960

$
$

438,628
101,489

$
$

453,980
100,039

$
$

469,869
98,610

$
$

486,315
97,201

$
$

503,336
95,812

$
$

520,953
94,444

$
$

539,186
93,094

$
$

558,058
91,765

$
$

577,590
90,454

$
$

12,578,869
1,876,113

$
$

618,728
87,888

$
$

640,384
86,632

$
$

662,797
85,395

$
$

685,995
84,175

$
$

710,005
82,972

$
$

734,855
81,787

$
$

760,575
80,618

Blower Options LCC Analysis 9-11-12

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

57

58

59

60

2067

2068

2069

2070

2071

2072

2073

2074

2075

2076

2077

2078

2079

$
$
$

37,483,663
787,195
-

$
$
$

38,795,591
814,747
-

$
$
$

40,153,437
843,263
-

$
$
$

41,558,807
872,777
-

$
$
$

43,013,365
903,325
-

$
$
$

44,518,833
934,941
-

$
$
$

46,076,992
967,664
-

$
$
$

47,689,687
1,001,532
-

$
$
$

49,358,826
1,036,586
-

$
$
$

51,086,385
1,072,866
-

$
$
$

52,874,409
1,110,417
-

$
$
$

54,725,013
1,149,281
-

$
$
$

56,640,388
1,189,506
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

38,270,858

39,610,338

40,996,700

42,431,585

43,916,690

45,453,774

47,044,656

48,691,219

50,395,412

52,159,251

53,984,825

55,874,294

57,829,894

$
$
$

9,539,347
3,863,413
1,591,588

$
$
$

9,585,654
3,808,221
1,539,527

$
$
$

9,632,187
3,753,818
1,489,168

$
$
$

9,678,945
3,700,192
1,440,457

$
$
$

9,725,930
3,647,332
1,393,339

$
$
$

9,773,143
3,595,228
1,347,763

$
$
$

9,820,586
3,543,867
1,303,677

$
$
$

9,868,258
3,493,241
1,261,034

$
$
$

9,916,163
3,443,337
1,219,785

$
$
$

9,964,299
3,394,147
1,179,885

$
$
$

10,012,670
3,345,659
1,141,291

$
$
$

10,061,275
3,297,864
1,103,959

$
$
$

10,110,116
3,250,751
1,067,848

3,783,946

3,729,890

3,676,606

3,624,083

3,572,310

3,521,277

3,470,973

3,421,388

3,372,511

3,324,332

3,276,842

3,230,030

3,183,886

$
$

787,195
79,467

$
$

814,747
78,332

$
$

843,263
77,212

$
$

872,777
76,109

$
$

903,325
75,022

$
$

934,941
73,950

$
$

967,664
72,894

$
$

1,001,532
71,853

$
$

1,036,586
70,826

$
$

1,072,866
69,814

$
$

1,110,417
68,817

$
$

1,149,281
67,834

$
$

1,189,506
66,865

Blower Options LCC Analysis 9-11-12

Turbo Blowers (51+2) In a Building


Turbo Blowers NX700-C080
Based on Neuros
Capital cost
# of BNR basins

10

Unit

Quantity

Unit Price

Building Material
Building Labor
Building Equipment
Total

1
1
1

Building Square Footage:


Total Building Cost:
Blower Room Square Footage:
Efficiency
Efficiency

51,250
251
41,000
6
7

Unit

Quantity

Turbo Blower
Building Material and Labor
Major Interior Piping
Exterior Piping
Total

$4,992,419
$5,502,153
$676,228

SF
$/SF
SF
cfm/SF
cfm/SF

entire building
blower room only

Unit Price

53
51,250
1
1

Total Price
(Including
Markup)
$5,978,421
$6,162,412
$728,636
$12,869,469

$215,550
$251
$9,956,349
$747,240

Total Price
(Including
Markups)
$15,993,810
$12,869,469
$9,956,349
$747,240

Labor Cost
$923,976
$2,883,970
$254,822

1. Vendor quote: $180,000 Budget cost for equipment, delivery, and start-up; unit $ includes contractor markup
2. Building costs from HDR Cost Estimator
3. Cost Markups: 19.75% for Blowers and building; additional 40% for Blowers; 12% for labor
Annual Energy Cost
Power cost, $/kWh =

0.09

# of Blowers

HP of Blower
29

Note:
1. Continuous operation 24/7

350

kW per Blower
261

Annual Power cost


($/yr)
8760
$7,277,177

Operation, hrs

Total Installation
Cost, $
$16,917,786
$12,869,469
$12,840,319
$1,002,062
$43,629,636

Annual Operational Cost


Labor Cost, $/hr =

93

# of Blowers
29

Time/Blower (min)
10

Frequency
Everyday

Total Daily Cost


Total Annual Cost
$450
$164,068

Annual Maintenance/Replacement Cost

Required Maintenance
Annual Maintenance
Overhaul

Cost/blower
$5,389
$108,000

Total Cost
$156,274
$3,132,000

Frequency
Annually
Every 20 years

Notes:
1. Vendor -quoted maintenance costs 2.5% of initial capital cost per year without the warranty expansion; mostly filter replacement
Risk of Failure Cost:
No risk was assumed to be associated with Turbo blowers

Alternative 4 - Turbo Blowers (24+1) In Buildings on the Basins


Quantifiable Base and Annual Costs

Item and Description

Reference

Units

Quantity

Cost/Unit

Total Cost

Vendor Quote

Blowers

25

646,051

16,151,275

Building

HDR Cost Estimator

Buildings

13

231,740

3,012,619

Exterior Piping

B&C Cost Estimator

Building

194,181

194,181

Sub Total Capital Costs $

19,358,075

Total Costs with net and soft cost markups $

55,751,256

Base Costs (unescalated)


GE Turboblowers

Annual Operational Costs (chemical, energy, operational oversight, etc.)


Energy Cost, 812 HP

Vendor Quote HP

Oversight

Estimate

kWh

90,560,427

0.09

8,150,438

Hours

852

93

79,205

Total Annual Operation $

8,229,643

Annual Maintenance Costs (Note: Enter non-recurring costs on LCC worksheet.)


Annual Maintenance

Vendor Estimate

Blower

14

11,197

156,753

Total Annual Maintenance $

156,753

Annual Risk Costs (Note: Enter non-recurring costs on LCC worksheet.)

Blower Options LCC Analysis 9-11-12

Page 21 of 33

Total Annual Risk $

9/21/2012

Alternative 3 - Turbo Blowers (24+1) In Buildings on the Basins


Quantifiable Non-Recurring Costs
Starting Year
No. of Years

2020
60
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

Year
2020
Capital Costs (including soft costs and contractor costs)
Capital Costs (including contingency)
$
55,751,256

Year

2021

2022

2023

2024

2025

2026

2027

2028

2029

2030

2031

2032

2033

2034

2035

2036

2037

2038

2039

2040

2041

2042

$ 15,286,474
$
291,167
$
-

$ 15,821,500
$
301,357
$
-

$ 16,375,253
$
311,905
$
-

$ 16,948,387
$
322,822
$
-

$ 17,541,580
$
334,120
$
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$ 7,485,717
$
$
$
$
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

Recurring Costs - Operation, Maintenance and Risk (from worksheet)


Annual Operation
$
8,229,643 $ 8,517,681 $
8,815,800 $
9,124,353
Annual Maintenance
$
156,753 $
162,239 $
167,917 $
173,795
Annual Risk
$
- $
- $
- $
Non-Recurring Costs
Enter description, then enter the cost(s) under the appropriate year(s).
Overhaul
$
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
Projected Inflation Rate

$
$
$

9,443,705
179,877
-

$
$
$

9,774,235
186,173
-

$
$
$

10,116,333
192,689
-

$
$
$

10,470,405
199,433
-

$
$
$

10,836,869
206,413
-

$
$
$

11,216,159
213,638
-

$
$
$

11,608,725
221,115
-

$
$
$

12,015,030
228,854
-

$
$
$

12,435,556
236,864
-

$
$
$

12,870,801
245,154
-

$
$
$

13,321,279
253,735
-

$
$
$

13,787,524
262,616
-

$
$
$

14,270,087
271,807
-

$
$
$

14,769,540
281,320
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

3.5%

Annual Expense (including inflation)

64,137,652

8,679,920

8,983,717

9,298,147

9,623,583

9,960,408

10,309,022

10,669,838

11,043,282

11,429,797

11,829,840

12,243,884

12,672,420

13,115,955

13,575,014

14,050,139

14,541,894

15,050,860

$ 15,577,640

$ 16,122,858

$ 24,172,875

$ 17,271,208

$ 17,875,701

Life Cycle Cost


Projected Discount Rate
3%
5%
7%

$
$
$

64,137,652
64,137,652
64,137,652

$
$
$

8,427,107
8,266,591
8,112,075

$
$
$

8,468,015
8,148,496
7,846,727

$
$
$

8,509,122
8,032,089
7,590,058

$
$
$

8,550,428
7,917,345
7,341,785

$
$
$

8,591,935
7,804,240
7,101,633

$
$
$

8,633,644
7,692,751
6,869,337

$
$
$

8,675,555
7,582,855
6,644,639

$
$
$

8,717,669
7,474,528
6,427,291

$
$
$

8,759,988
7,367,749
6,217,052

$
$
$

8,802,512
7,262,496
6,013,691

$
$
$

8,845,243
7,158,746
5,816,981

$
$
$

8,888,181
7,056,478
5,626,706

$
$
$

8,931,327
6,955,671
5,442,655

$
$
$

8,974,683
6,856,304
5,264,624

$
$
$

9,018,250
6,758,357
5,092,417

$
$
$

9,062,028
6,661,809
4,925,843

$
$
$

9,106,018
6,566,640
4,764,717

$ 9,150,222
$ 6,472,831
$ 4,608,862

$ 9,194,640
$ 6,380,362
$ 4,458,105

$ 13,383,935
$ 9,110,502
$ 6,246,730

$ 9,284,125
$ 6,199,368
$ 4,171,223

$ 9,329,194
$ 6,110,806
$ 4,034,781

Total Life Cycle Cost


3% Discount Rate
5% Discount Rate
7% Discount Rate

$
$
$

646,960,853
400,144,133
280,207,878

Annualized Operations
Life Cycle Cost
Net Present Value
Annualized Payments

$
$

8,229,643
333,110,944
$13,353,958

8,112,077

7,996,190

7,881,959

7,769,360

7,658,369

7,548,963

7,441,121

7,334,819

7,230,036

7,126,750

7,024,939

6,924,583

6,825,660

6,728,151

6,632,035

6,537,291

6,443,901

$ 6,351,846

$ 6,261,105

$ 6,171,661

$ 6,083,494

$ 5,996,587

Annualized Maintenance and Risk


Annual Expense (including inflation)
Life Cycle cost (5% discount)
Net Present Value (5% discount)
Annualized Payments

$
$
$

156,753
156,753
11,281,934
$452,277

$
$

162,239
154,513

$
$

167,917
152,306

$
$

173,795
150,130

$
$

179,877
147,986

$
$

186,173
145,871

$
$

192,689
143,788

$
$

199,433
141,734

$
$

206,413
139,709

$
$

213,638
137,713

$
$

221,115
135,746

$
$

228,854
133,806

$
$

236,864
131,895

$
$

245,154
130,011

$
$

253,735
128,153

$
$

262,616
126,323

$
$

271,807
124,518

$
$

281,320
122,739

$
$

$
$

$ 7,797,622
$ 2,938,842

$
$

$
$

Blower Options LCC Analysis 9-11-12

291,167
120,986

301,357
119,257

322,822
115,874

334,120
114,219

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

2043

2044

2045

2046

2047

2048

2049

2050

2051

2052

2053

2054

2055

2056

2057

2058

2059

2060

2061

2062

2063

2064

2065

2066

2067

2068

2069

2070

2071

$ 18,155,536
$
345,815
$
-

$ 18,790,979
$
357,918
$
-

$ 19,448,664
$
370,445
$
-

$ 20,129,367
$
383,411
$
-

$ 20,833,895
$
396,830
$
-

$ 21,563,081
$
410,719
$
-

$
$
$

22,317,789
425,094
-

$ 23,098,911
$
439,973
$
-

$ 23,907,373
$
455,372
$
-

$ 24,744,131
$
471,310
$
-

$ 25,610,176
$
487,806
$
-

$ 26,506,532
$
504,879
$
-

$ 27,434,261
$
522,549
$
-

$ 28,394,460
$
540,839
$
-

$ 29,388,266
$
559,768
$
-

$ 30,416,855
$
579,360
$
-

$ 31,481,445
$
599,638
$
-

$
$
$

32,583,296
620,625
-

$ 33,723,711
$
642,347
$
-

$ 34,904,041
$
664,829
$
-

$ 36,125,682
$
688,098
$
-

$ 37,390,081
$
712,181
$
-

$ 38,698,734
$
737,108
$
-

$ 40,053,190
$
762,906
$
-

$ 41,455,052
$
789,608
$
-

$ 42,905,978
$
817,244
$
-

$ 44,407,688
$
845,848
$
-

$ 45,961,957
$
875,453
$
-

$ 47,570,625
$
906,093
$
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

14,894,996
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$ 18,501,350

$ 19,148,897

$ 19,819,109

$ 20,512,778

$ 21,230,725

$ 21,973,800

22,742,883

$ 23,538,884

$ 24,362,745

$ 25,215,441

$ 26,097,981

$ 27,011,411

$ 27,956,810

$ 28,935,299

$ 29,948,034

$ 30,996,215

$ 32,081,083

48,098,917

$ 34,366,058

$ 35,568,870

$ 36,813,780

$ 38,102,263

$ 39,435,842

$ 40,816,096

$ 42,244,660

$ 43,723,223

$ 45,253,536

$ 46,837,409

$ 48,476,719

$ 9,374,481
$ 6,023,509
$ 3,902,802

$ 9,419,989
$ 5,937,459
$ 3,775,140

$ 9,465,717
$ 5,852,638
$ 3,651,654

$ 9,511,667
$ 5,769,029
$ 3,532,208

$ 9,557,840
$ 5,686,614
$ 3,416,668

$ 9,604,237
$ 5,605,377
$ 3,304,908

$
$
$

9,650,860
5,525,300
3,196,804

$ 9,697,709
$ 5,446,367
$ 3,092,235

$ 9,744,785
$ 5,368,562
$ 2,991,087

$ 9,792,090
$ 5,291,868
$ 2,893,248

$ 9,839,624
$ 5,216,270
$ 2,798,609

$ 9,887,389
$ 5,141,752
$ 2,707,066

$ 9,935,386
$ 5,068,298
$ 2,618,517

$ 9,983,616
$ 4,995,894
$ 2,532,865

$ 10,032,080
$ 4,924,524
$ 2,450,014

$ 10,080,780
$ 4,854,174
$ 2,369,873

$ 10,129,716
$ 4,784,828
$ 2,292,354

$
$
$

14,745,052
6,832,243
3,212,064

$ 10,228,301
$ 4,649,095
$ 2,144,840

$ 10,277,953
$ 4,582,680
$ 2,074,681

$ 10,327,846
$ 4,517,213
$ 2,006,818

$ 10,377,981
$ 4,452,681
$ 1,941,174

$ 10,428,360
$ 4,389,072
$ 1,877,678

$ 10,478,983
$ 4,326,370
$ 1,816,259

$ 10,529,852
$ 4,264,565
$ 1,756,848

$ 10,580,967
$ 4,203,643
$ 1,699,381

$ 10,632,331
$ 4,143,591
$ 1,643,794

$ 10,683,945
$ 4,084,397
$ 1,590,025

$ 10,735,808
$ 4,026,048
$ 1,538,015

$ 5,910,921

$ 5,826,480

$ 5,743,244

$ 5,661,198

$ 5,580,324

$ 5,500,605

5,422,025

$ 5,344,567

$ 5,268,216

$ 5,192,956

$ 5,118,771

$ 5,045,646

$ 4,973,565

$ 4,902,514

$ 4,832,478

$ 4,763,443

$ 4,695,394

4,628,316

$ 4,562,198

$ 4,497,023

$ 4,432,780

$ 4,369,455

$ 4,307,034

$ 4,245,505

$ 4,184,855

$ 4,125,071

$ 4,066,142

$ 4,008,054

$ 3,950,796

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

425,094
103,275

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

15,515,621
2,203,927

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

345,815
112,587

357,918
110,979

370,445
109,393

383,411
107,831

396,830
106,290

410,719
104,772

439,973
101,800

455,372
100,345

471,310
98,912

487,806
97,499

504,879
96,106

522,549
94,733

540,839
93,380

559,768
92,046

Blower Options LCC Analysis 9-11-12

579,360
90,731

599,638
89,435

642,347
86,898

664,829
85,656

688,098
84,433

712,181
83,226

737,108
82,038

762,906
80,866

789,608
79,710

817,244
78,572

845,848
77,449

875,453
76,343

906,093
75,252

53

54

55

56

57

58

59

60

2072

2073

2074

2075

2076

2077

2078

2079

$ 49,235,597
$
937,807
$
-

$ 50,958,843
$
970,630
$
-

$ 52,742,402
$ 1,004,602
$
-

$ 54,588,386
$ 1,039,763
$
-

$ 56,498,980
$ 1,076,155
$
-

$ 58,476,444
$ 1,113,820
$
-

$ 60,523,120
$ 1,152,804
$
-

$ 62,641,429
$ 1,193,152
$
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$ 50,173,404

$ 51,929,473

$ 53,747,004

$ 55,628,150

$ 57,575,135

$ 59,590,265

$ 61,675,924

$ 63,834,581

$ 10,787,924
$ 3,968,533
$ 1,487,706

$ 10,840,293
$ 3,911,840
$ 1,439,043

$ 10,892,915
$ 3,855,956
$ 1,391,971

$ 10,945,794
$ 3,800,871
$ 1,346,439

$ 10,998,929
$ 3,746,573
$ 1,302,397

$ 11,052,321
$ 3,693,051
$ 1,259,795

$ 11,105,973
$ 3,640,293
$ 1,218,587

$ 11,159,886
$ 3,588,289
$ 1,178,727

$ 3,894,356

$ 3,838,722

$ 3,783,884

$ 3,729,828

$ 3,676,545

$ 3,624,023

$ 3,572,251

$ 3,521,219

$
$

$
$

$ 1,004,602
$
72,073

$ 1,039,763
$
71,043

$ 1,076,155
$
70,028

$ 1,113,820
$
69,028

$ 1,152,804
$
68,042

$ 1,193,152
$
67,070

937,807
74,177

970,630
73,117

Blower Options LCC Analysis 9-11-12

Turbo Blowers (24+1) In Buildings on the Basins


Based on Neuros Price
Capital cost

Unit

Quantity

Unit Price

Building Material
Building Labor
Building Equipment
Total

1
1
1

Building Square Footage:


Total Building Cost:
Efficiency

$126,728
$68,681
$2,840

Total Price
(Including
Markup)
$151,757
$76,923
$3,060
$231,740

600 SF
386 $/SF
42 cfm/SF

Unit

Quantity

GE Turboblowers
Buildings
Exterior Piping
Total

Unit Price, $
25
13
13

$447,865
$231,740
$11,017

Total Price
Total Installed
Total Labor Cost, $
(Including
Cost, $
Markups)
$15,675,275
$476,000
$16,151,275
$3,012,619
$3,012,619
$143,221
$50,960
$194,181
$19,358,075

Note:
1. Vendor quote: $374,000 Budget cost for equipment, delivery, and start-up; unit $ includes contractor markup
2. Cost Markups: 19.75% for Blowers and building; additional 40% for Blowers; 12% for labor
3. Building costs from HDR Cost Estimator
Annual Energy Cost
# of BNR Basins =
Power cost, $/kWh =

10
0.09

# of Blowers

HP of Blower
14

kW per Blower
812

606

Annual Power cost


($/yr)
8760
$8,150,438

Operation, hrs

Note:
1. Assume continuous operation 24/7
Annual Operational Cost
Labor Cost, $/hr =

93

# of Blowers
14

Time/Blower (min)
10

Frequency
Everyday

Total Cost Daily


Total Annual Cost
$217
$79,205

Annual Maintenance/Replacement Cost

Required Maintenance
Annual Maintenance
Overhaul

Cost/blower
$11,197
$268,719

Total Cost
$156,753
$3,762,066

Frequency
(years)
Annually
Every 20 years

Notes:
1. Vendor -quoted maintenance costs 2.5% of initial capital cost per year without the warranty expansion; mostly filter replacement
Risk of Failure Cost:
No risk was assumed to be associated with turbo blowers

**Note regarding labor cost: 1 hour of maintenance mechanic requires 1.4 hours of controls person and 0.7 hours of electrician; therefore, maintenance hours are
multiplied by 3.1 hours.

Alternative 5 - Turbo Blowers (24+1) In A Single Building


Quantifiable Base and Annual Costs

Item and Description

Reference

Units

Quantity

Cost/Unit

Total Cost

Vendor Quote

Blowers

25

646,051

16,151,275

Building

HDR Cost Estimator

Buildings

3,074,487

3,074,487

Exterior Piping

B&C Cost Estimator

Building

1,002,062

1,002,062

Major Interior Piping

HDR Cost Estimator

Building

10,364,688

10,364,688

Sub Total Capital Costs $

30,592,513

Total Costs with net and soft cost markups $

88,106,438

Base Costs (unescalated)


GE Turboblowers

Annual Operational Costs (chemical, energy, operational oversight, etc.)


Energy Cost, 812 HP

Vendor Quote HP

Oversight

Estimate

kWh

90,560,427

0.09

8,150,438

Hours

852

93

79,205

Total Annual Operation $

8,229,643

Annual Maintenance Costs (Note: Enter non-recurring costs on LCC worksheet.)


Annual Maintenance

Vendor Estimate

Blower

14

11,197

156,753

Total Annual Maintenance $

156,753

Annual Risk Costs (Note: Enter non-recurring costs on LCC worksheet.)

Blower Options LCC Analysis 9-11-12

Page 27 of 33

Total Annual Risk $

9/21/2012

Alternative 5 - Turbo Blowers (24+1) In A Single Building


Quantifiable Non-Recurring Costs
Starting Year
No. of Years

2020
60
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

Year
2020
Capital Costs (including soft costs and contractor costs)
Capital Costs (including contingency)
$
88,106,438

Year

2021

2022

2023

2024

2025

2026

2027

2028

2029

2030

2031

2032

2033

2034

2035

2036

2037

2038

2039

2040

2041

2042

$ 15,286,474
$
291,167
$
-

$ 15,821,500
$
301,357
$
-

$ 16,375,253
$
311,905
$
-

$ 16,948,387
$
322,822
$
-

$ 17,541,580
$
334,120
$
-

$
$
$
$
$

$ 7,232,577
$
$
$
$
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

Recurring Costs - Operation, Maintenance and Risk (from worksheet)


Annual Operation
$
8,229,643 $ 8,517,681 $
8,815,800 $
9,124,353
Annual Maintenance
$
156,753 $
162,239 $
167,917 $
173,795
Annual Risk
$
- $
- $
- $
Non-Recurring Costs
Enter description, then enter the cost(s) under the appropriate year(s).
Overhaul
$
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
$
- $
- $
- $
Projected Inflation Rate

$
$
$

9,443,705
179,877
-

$
$
$

9,774,235
186,173
-

$
$
$

10,116,333
192,689
-

$
$
$

10,470,405
199,433
-

$
$
$

10,836,869
206,413
-

$
$
$

11,216,159
213,638
-

$
$
$

11,608,725
221,115
-

$
$
$

12,015,030
228,854
-

$
$
$

12,435,556
236,864
-

$
$
$

12,870,801
245,154
-

$
$
$

13,321,279
253,735
-

$
$
$

13,787,524
262,616
-

$
$
$

14,270,087
271,807
-

$
$
$

14,769,540
281,320
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

3.5%

Annual Expense (including inflation)

96,492,834

8,679,920

8,983,717

9,298,147

9,623,583

9,960,408

10,309,022

10,669,838

11,043,282

11,429,797

11,829,840

12,243,884

12,672,420

13,115,955

13,575,014

14,050,139

14,541,894

15,050,860

$ 15,577,640

$ 23,355,435

$ 16,687,158

$ 17,271,208

$ 17,875,701

Life Cycle Cost


Projected Discount Rate
3%
5%
7%

$
$
$

96,492,834
96,492,834
96,492,834

$
$
$

8,427,107
8,266,591
8,112,075

$
$
$

8,468,015
8,148,496
7,846,727

$
$
$

8,509,122
8,032,089
7,590,058

$
$
$

8,550,428
7,917,345
7,341,785

$
$
$

8,591,935
7,804,240
7,101,633

$
$
$

8,633,644
7,692,751
6,869,337

$
$
$

8,675,555
7,582,855
6,644,639

$
$
$

8,717,669
7,474,528
6,427,291

$
$
$

8,759,988
7,367,749
6,217,052

$
$
$

8,802,512
7,262,496
6,013,691

$
$
$

8,845,243
7,158,746
5,816,981

$
$
$

8,888,181
7,056,478
5,626,706

$
$
$

8,931,327
6,955,671
5,442,655

$
$
$

8,974,683
6,856,304
5,264,624

$
$
$

9,018,250
6,758,357
5,092,417

$
$
$

9,062,028
6,661,809
4,925,843

$
$
$

9,106,018
6,566,640
4,764,717

$ 9,150,222
$ 6,472,831
$ 4,608,862

$ 13,319,278
$ 9,242,539
$ 6,457,972

$ 9,239,275
$ 6,289,214
$ 4,312,279

$ 9,284,125
$ 6,199,368
$ 4,171,223

$ 9,329,194
$ 6,110,806
$ 4,034,781

Total Life Cycle Cost


3% Discount Rate
5% Discount Rate
7% Discount Rate

$
$
$

679,273,954
432,570,869
312,662,113

Annualized Operations
Life Cycle Cost
Net Present Value
Annualized Payments

$
$

8,229,643
333,110,944
$13,353,958

8,112,077

7,996,190

7,881,959

7,769,360

7,658,369

7,548,963

7,441,121

7,334,819

7,230,036

7,126,750

7,024,939

6,924,583

6,825,660

6,728,151

6,632,035

6,537,291

6,443,901

$ 6,351,846

$ 6,261,105

$ 6,171,661

$ 6,083,494

$ 5,996,587

Annualized Maintenance and Risk


Annual Expense (including inflation)
Life Cycle cost (5% discount)
Net Present Value (5% discount)
Annualized Payments

$
$
$

156,753
156,753
11,353,486
$455,146

$
$

162,239
154,513

$
$

167,917
152,306

$
$

173,795
150,130

$
$

179,877
147,986

$
$

186,173
145,871

$
$

192,689
143,788

$
$

199,433
141,734

$
$

206,413
139,709

$
$

213,638
137,713

$
$

221,115
135,746

$
$

228,854
133,806

$
$

236,864
131,895

$
$

245,154
130,011

$
$

253,735
128,153

$
$

262,616
126,323

$
$

271,807
124,518

$
$

281,320
122,739

$
$

$ 7,533,934
$ 2,981,434

$
$

$
$

$
$

Blower Options LCC Analysis 9-11-12

291,167
120,986

311,905
117,554

322,822
115,874

334,120
114,219

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

2043

2044

2045

2046

2047

2048

2049

2050

2051

2052

2053

2054

2055

2056

2057

2058

2059

2060

2061

2062

2063

2064

2065

2066

2067

2068

2069

2070

2071

$ 18,155,536
$
345,815
$
-

$ 18,790,979
$
357,918
$
-

$ 19,448,664
$
370,445
$
-

$ 20,129,367
$
383,411
$
-

$ 20,833,895
$
396,830
$
-

$ 21,563,081
$
410,719
$
-

$
$
$

22,317,789
425,094
-

$ 23,098,911
$
439,973
$
-

$ 23,907,373
$
455,372
$
-

$ 24,744,131
$
471,310
$
-

$ 25,610,176
$
487,806
$
-

$ 26,506,532
$
504,879
$
-

$ 27,434,261
$
522,549
$
-

$ 28,394,460
$
540,839
$
-

$ 29,388,266
$
559,768
$
-

$ 30,416,855
$
579,360
$
-

$ 31,481,445
$
599,638
$
-

$ 32,583,296
$
620,625
$
-

$ 33,723,711
$
642,347
$
-

$ 34,904,041
$
664,829
$
-

$ 36,125,682
$
688,098
$
-

$ 37,390,081
$
712,181
$
-

$ 38,698,734
$
737,108
$
-

$ 40,053,190
$
762,906
$
-

$ 41,455,052
$
789,608
$
-

$ 42,905,978
$
817,244
$
-

$ 44,407,688
$
845,848
$
-

$ 45,961,957
$
875,453
$
-

$ 47,570,625
$
906,093
$
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$ 14,391,301
$
$
$
$
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$ 18,501,350

$ 19,148,897

$ 19,819,109

$ 20,512,778

$ 21,230,725

$ 21,973,800

22,742,883

$ 23,538,884

$ 24,362,745

$ 25,215,441

$ 26,097,981

$ 27,011,411

$ 27,956,810

$ 28,935,299

$ 29,948,034

$ 30,996,215

$ 46,472,384

$ 33,203,921

$ 34,366,058

$ 35,568,870

$ 36,813,780

$ 38,102,263

$ 39,435,842

$ 40,816,096

$ 42,244,660

$ 43,723,223

$ 45,253,536

$ 46,837,409

$ 48,476,719

$ 9,374,481
$ 6,023,509
$ 3,902,802

$ 9,419,989
$ 5,937,459
$ 3,775,140

$ 9,465,717
$ 5,852,638
$ 3,651,654

$ 9,511,667
$ 5,769,029
$ 3,532,208

$ 9,557,840
$ 5,686,614
$ 3,416,668

$ 9,604,237
$ 5,605,377
$ 3,304,908

$
$
$

9,650,860
5,525,300
3,196,804

$ 9,697,709
$ 5,446,367
$ 3,092,235

$ 9,744,785
$ 5,368,562
$ 2,991,087

$ 9,792,090
$ 5,291,868
$ 2,893,248

$ 9,839,624
$ 5,216,270
$ 2,798,609

$ 9,887,389
$ 5,141,752
$ 2,707,066

$ 9,935,386
$ 5,068,298
$ 2,618,517

$ 9,983,616
$ 4,995,894
$ 2,532,865

$ 10,032,080
$ 4,924,524
$ 2,450,014

$ 10,080,780
$ 4,854,174
$ 2,369,873

$ 14,673,820
$ 6,931,262
$ 3,320,685

$ 10,178,889
$ 4,716,474
$ 2,217,370

$ 10,228,301
$ 4,649,095
$ 2,144,840

$ 10,277,953
$ 4,582,680
$ 2,074,681

$ 10,327,846
$ 4,517,213
$ 2,006,818

$ 10,377,981
$ 4,452,681
$ 1,941,174

$ 10,428,360
$ 4,389,072
$ 1,877,678

$ 10,478,983
$ 4,326,370
$ 1,816,259

$ 10,529,852
$ 4,264,565
$ 1,756,848

$ 10,580,967
$ 4,203,643
$ 1,699,381

$ 10,632,331
$ 4,143,591
$ 1,643,794

$ 10,683,945
$ 4,084,397
$ 1,590,025

$ 10,735,808
$ 4,026,048
$ 1,538,015

$ 5,910,921

$ 5,826,480

$ 5,743,244

$ 5,661,198

$ 5,580,324

$ 5,500,605

5,422,025

$ 5,344,567

$ 5,268,216

$ 5,192,956

$ 5,118,771

$ 5,045,646

$ 4,973,565

$ 4,902,514

$ 4,832,478

$ 4,763,443

$ 4,695,394

$ 4,628,316

$ 4,562,198

$ 4,497,023

$ 4,432,780

$ 4,369,455

$ 4,307,034

$ 4,245,505

$ 4,184,855

$ 4,125,071

$ 4,066,142

$ 4,008,054

$ 3,950,796

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

425,094
103,275

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$ 14,990,938
$ 2,235,868

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

$
$

345,815
112,587

357,918
110,979

370,445
109,393

383,411
107,831

396,830
106,290

410,719
104,772

439,973
101,800

455,372
100,345

471,310
98,912

487,806
97,499

504,879
96,106

522,549
94,733

540,839
93,380

559,768
92,046

Blower Options LCC Analysis 9-11-12

579,360
90,731

620,625
88,157

642,347
86,898

664,829
85,656

688,098
84,433

712,181
83,226

737,108
82,038

762,906
80,866

789,608
79,710

817,244
78,572

845,848
77,449

875,453
76,343

906,093
75,252

53

54

55

56

57

58

59

60

2072

2073

2074

2075

2076

2077

2078

2079

$ 49,235,597
$
937,807
$
-

$ 50,958,843
$
970,630
$
-

$ 52,742,402
$ 1,004,602
$
-

$ 54,588,386
$ 1,039,763
$
-

$ 56,498,980
$ 1,076,155
$
-

$ 58,476,444
$ 1,113,820
$
-

$ 60,523,120
$ 1,152,804
$
-

$ 62,641,429
$ 1,193,152
$
-

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

$ 50,173,404

$ 51,929,473

$ 53,747,004

$ 55,628,150

$ 57,575,135

$ 59,590,265

$ 61,675,924

$ 63,834,581

$ 10,787,924
$ 3,968,533
$ 1,487,706

$ 10,840,293
$ 3,911,840
$ 1,439,043

$ 10,892,915
$ 3,855,956
$ 1,391,971

$ 10,945,794
$ 3,800,871
$ 1,346,439

$ 10,998,929
$ 3,746,573
$ 1,302,397

$ 11,052,321
$ 3,693,051
$ 1,259,795

$ 11,105,973
$ 3,640,293
$ 1,218,587

$ 11,159,886
$ 3,588,289
$ 1,178,727

$ 3,894,356

$ 3,838,722

$ 3,783,884

$ 3,729,828

$ 3,676,545

$ 3,624,023

$ 3,572,251

$ 3,521,219

$
$

$
$

$ 1,004,602
$
72,073

$ 1,039,763
$
71,043

$ 1,076,155
$
70,028

$ 1,113,820
$
69,028

$ 1,152,804
$
68,042

$ 1,193,152
$
67,070

937,807
74,177

970,630
73,117

Blower Options LCC Analysis 9-11-12

Turbo Blowers (24+1) In A Single Building


Based on Neuros Price
Capital cost
Building Square Footage:
Total Building Cost:
Efficiency

15,000 SF
205 $/SF (from 5+1 building)
2 cfm/SF

Unit

Quantity

GE Turboblowers
Buildings
Major Interior Piping
Exterior Piping
Total

Units

25
15,000
1
1

Unit Price, $

EA
SF
LS
LS

$447,865
$205
$8,345,910
$747,240

Total Material Cost,


(Including Markups)
$15,675,275
$3,074,487
$8,345,910
$747,240

Note:
1. Vendor quote: $374,000 Budget cost for equipment, delivery, and start-up; unit $ includes contractor markup
2. Cost Markups: 19.75% for Blowers and building; additional 40% for Blowers; 12% for labor
3. Building costs from HDR Cost Estimator
Annual Energy Cost
# of BNR Basins =
Power cost, $/kWh =

10
0.09

# of Blowers

HP of Blower
14

kW per Blower
812

606

Annual Power cost


($/yr)
8760
$8,150,438

Operation, hrs

Note:
1. Assume continuous operation 24/7
Annual Operational Cost
Labor Cost, $/hr =

93

# of Blowers
14

Time/Blower (min)
10

Frequency
Everyday

Total Cost Daily


Total Annual Cost
$217
$79,205

Total Labor
Cost, $
$476,000
$2,018,779
$254,822

Total Installed
Cost, $
$16,151,275
$3,074,487
$10,364,688
$1,002,062
$30,592,513

317

Annual Maintenance/Replacement Cost

Required Maintenance
Annual Maintenance
Overhaul

Cost/blower
$11,197
$268,719

Total Cost
$156,753
$3,762,066

Frequency
(years)
Annually
Every 20 years

Notes:
Risk of Failure Cost:
No risk was assumed to be associated with turbo blowers

**Note regarding labor cost: 1 hour of maintenance mechanic requires 1.4 hours of controls person and 0.7 hours of electrician; therefore, maintenance hours are multiplied by 3.1 hours.

Alternative #1 (5+1)
Building Size:
Building Cost:

30,625 SF
205 $/SF

Alternative #2 (3+1)
Building Size:
Building Cost:

30,625 SF
205 $/SF

Alternative #3 (51+2)
Building Size:
Building Cost:

51,250 SF
251 $/SF

Alternative #4 (Basin Buildings)


Blower Building Size:
Operations/Maint Size:
Building Cost:
Total Building Area

600
1,500
386
9300

SF
SF
$/SF
SF

Alternative #5 (Turbo in Single Building)


Building Size:
Building Cost:

15000 SF
205 $/SF

Business Case Evaluation


BNR Waste Activated Sludge
Alternatives

Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant

Sacramento Regional County Sanitation District

PRELIMINARY
FOR REVIEW ONLY

September 2012

Waste Activated Sludge (WAS) Alternatives

Table of Contents
1.0 Executive Summary .............................................................................................................................. 1
1.1 Alternatives .........................................................................................................................................................1
1.2 Recommendation ................................................................................................................................................2

2.0 Problem Statement................................................................................................................................ 2


3.0 Process Information .............................................................................................................................. 2
4.0 Design Criteria ...................................................................................................................................... 3
4.1 Design Flows ......................................................................................................................................................3
4.2 Pump Criteria ......................................................................................................................................................4
4.3 Pump Station Criteria..........................................................................................................................................5
4.4 Additional Criteria ..............................................................................................................................................5

5.0 Analysis .................................................................................................................................................. 6


5.1 Site Constraints ...................................................................................................................................................6
5.1.1 Classifying Selector Dimensions ................................................................................................................6
5.1.2 Operation and Controls of the Classifying Selector ....................................................................................6
5.1.3 Operation and Controls of Flows ................................................................................................................6
5.2 Failure Modes .....................................................................................................................................................6
5.2.1 Consequence of Failure ...............................................................................................................................7
5.2.2 Functional Requirements.............................................................................................................................7

6.0 Alternatives Development .................................................................................................................... 7


6.1 Alternative 1: Piping Directly to Existing WAS Pumps via RAS Channel ........................................................7
6.2 Alternative 2: Pipe through North Tunnel ..........................................................................................................8
6.3 Alternative 3: Gravity Pipe Flow to North RAS Channel ...................................................................................8
6.4 Alternative 4: New WAS Pump Station with Screw Centrifugal Pumps............................................................8
6.5 Alternative 5: New WAS Pump Station with Progressive Cavity Pumps ..........................................................9
6.6 Alternative 6: New WAS Pump Station with Double Disc Pumps .....................................................................9
6.7 Alternative 7: New WAS Pump Station with Non-Clog End Suction Centrifugal Pumps ............................... 10
6.8 Summary of Alternatives .................................................................................................................................. 11

7.0 Viable Alternatives.............................................................................................................................. 11


8.0 Advantages, Disadvantages, and Risks ............................................................................................. 13
9.0 Lifecycle Cost Analysis ....................................................................................................................... 14
9.1 Assumptions ..................................................................................................................................................... 14
9.2 Capital Costs ..................................................................................................................................................... 14
9.3 Operations Costs ............................................................................................................................................... 14
9.4 Maintenance Costs ............................................................................................................................................ 14
9.5 Risks Costs........................................................................................................................................................ 16
9.6 Life Cycle Cost Results .................................................................................................................................... 16

10.0 Recommendation............................................................................................................................... 17

Sacramento Regional County Sanitation District


Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant
Z:\05. BNR\B. Planning\BCE05 - WAS Pumping Assessment (E)\WAS BCE 9-17-12.docx

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September 21, 2012

Waste Activated Sludge (WAS) Alternatives

Figures
Figure 5-1. Screw Centrifugal Pump Installation ..........................................................................................................9
Figure 5-2. Double Disc Pump Installation and Pump Cross Section ......................................................................... 10

Tables
Table 1-1. Summary of Life Cycle Costs ......................................................................................................................2
Table 4-1. Design Flow Criteria ....................................................................................................................................4
Table 6-1. Pumping Station Alternatives ..................................................................................................................... 11
Table 7-1. Summary of Eliminated Alternatives ......................................................................................................... 11
Table 8-1. Advantages and Disadvantages and Risks.................................................................................................. 13
Table 9-1. Maintenance ............................................................................................................................................... 16
Table 9-2. Summary of Life Cycle Costs .................................................................................................................... 16

Sacramento Regional County Sanitation District


Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant
Z:\05. BNR\B. Planning\BCE05 - WAS Pumping Assessment (E)\WAS BCE 9-17-12.docx

ii
September 21, 2012

Waste Activated Sludge (WAS) Alternatives

1.0 Executive Summary


The purpose of this BCE is to list possible Waste Activated Sludge (WAS) conveyance
alternatives from the new Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) process to the existing
Dissolved Air Floatation Tanks (DAFTs) and Gravity Belt Thickeners (GBTs). The alternatives
will be evaluated and the preferred alternative will be developed in greater detail.

1.1 Alternatives
Seven viable WAS conveyance alternatives are considered. The first three involve reusing the
existing WAS pumps and the last four consider a new WAS pump station.
Alternative 1 utilizes direct piping from the new classifying selectors to the existing WAS
pumps in the North and South Mezzanines by routing the pipes through the North Return
Activated Sludge (RAS) Tunnel. This alternative has a long suction line that will reduce flow
rate and efficiency due to higher TDH.
Alternative 2 utilizes direct piping from the classifying selectors to the existing WAS pumps in
the North and South Mezzanines by routing the pipes through the North Tunnel. This
alternative has a lower cost and is more efficient than Alternative 1; however, some reduction
in flow rate and efficiency due to higher TDH will still occur.
Alternative 3 utilizes the North RAS Channel as an open channel. This alternative involves
piping from the classifying selectors to the east end of the North RAS Channel. The WAS
would flow westward in the open channel to the existing classifying selector pump in the North
Mezzanine.
Alternatives 4 through 7 involve building a new WAS pump station inside the BNR tunnels and
adjacent to the RAS reaeration tank at the classifying selectors. These alternatives are the
preferred alternatives because they reduce congestion around the Carbonaceous Oxidation (CO)
tanks while minimizing maintenance and operation costs. The preferred alternatives had the
following features:

Alternative 4 features four (three duty and one standby) screw centrifugal pumps.

Alternative 5 is similar to Alternative 4, featuring four (three duty and one standby)
progressive cavity pumps.

Alternative 6 is similar to Alternative 4, and features seven (six duty and one standby)
double disc pumps.

Alternative 7 is similar to Alternative 4, and features two (one duty and one standby)
non-clog end suction centrifugal pumps.

Sacramento Regional County Sanitation District


Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant
Z:\05. BNR\B. Planning\BCE05 - WAS Pumping Assessment (E)\WAS BCE 9-17-12.docx

1
September 21, 2012

Waste Activated Sludge (WAS) Alternatives

1.2 Recommendation
This BCE provides a summary of cost, operations, and maintenance considerations for the four
preferred alternatives. Annual operating costs for the progressive cavity pump and double disc
pumps (Alternatives 5 and 6) are higher because of the lower wire-to-water efficiency
associated with these positive displacement pumps. Annual maintenance, non-recurring
maintenance and risk costs are significantly higher with progressive cavity pumps and double
disc pumps. These costs significantly impact the results of the life cycle cost present worth.
Because of the low capital cost, operation cost, maintenance cost, risk concerns, and total life
cycle cost, Alternative 7 (non-clog end suction centrifugal) is recommended.
Table 1-1contains a summary of the capital, annual, and present value (life cycle) costs for the
four alternatives.
Table 1-1. Summary of Life Cycle Costs

Alternative

Pumping Station

Capital
Cost

Annual
Operation

Annual
Maintenance,
Non-Recurring,
Risk Costs

60 Year
Life-Cycle Cost
at 5% Discount
Rate

Screw Centrifugal

$1,49 Mil

$51,700

$27,500

$4.27 Mil

Progressive Cavity Pump

$3.88 Mil

$74,300

$99,600

$9.37 Mil

Double Disc

$3.32 Mil

$91,100

$125,900

$10.15 Mil

$1.21 Mil

$52,100

$23,100

$3.90 Mil

Non-Clog End Suction


Centrifugal
Note: Values are rounded.

2.0 Problem Statement


The existing WAS pumps cannot be relocated because the flow and head conditions do not
match the existing conditions and the pumps were not designed to convey flow from the new
RAS reaeration basin at the BNR to the existing thickening facilities. Therefore new pumps are
needed at the new BNR facility to match the flow and head design criteria.

3.0 Process Information


The existing WAS pumps are located at the CO tanks on the North and South Mezzanine
Tunnels. There are seven pumps total: four 1,500-gpm pumps and one 2,500-gpm pump in the
South Mezzanine and two abandoned 2,000-gpm pumps in the North Mezzanine. The North
Mezzanine pumps were abandoned due to an inability to adequately control WAS pumped to
the solids handling processes.
WAS is removed from the North and South RAS Channels upstream of the mixing point with
the primary effluent. There are two removal methods: WAS can flow into a classifying selector
sump adjacent to the RAS Channels and piped to the pumps (normal operation) or it can be
removed directly by an intake located in both RAS Channels then to the pumps via pipe. Scum
is removed from the Secondary Sedimentation Basins (SSBs) and Mixed Liquor Channels and

Sacramento Regional County Sanitation District


Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant
Z:\05. BNR\B. Planning\BCE0