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You are on page 1of 4

Navier-Stokes Equations

Consider an infinite flat plate y = 0 subject to oscillations with velocity Uw cos !t in the x-direction.

The fluid in the half-space y > 0 is Newtonian, homogeneous, and incompressible. Assume that body

forces are negligible, that the pressure is uniform and constant, and that the flow driven by the plate is

unidirectional along x.

(a) Write down the equation and boundary conditions satisfied by vx (y, t) (x-component of the velocity

field).

(b) Assume that the solution can be written

vx (y, t) = Re[U (y)ei!t ],

(5.1)

where Re denotes the real part. Find an equation and boundary conditions for U (y), and solve that equation. Infer the solution for vx (y, t).

(c) Sketch the velocity profile at t = 0. What is the characteristic thickness

moving next to the wall?

A Newtonian incompressible fluid with constant density and kinematic viscosity is placed between

two parallel infinite flat plates separated by a distance h. Initially, both plates are at rest. At t = 0, the

bottom plate (at y = 0) starts to translate with a constant velocity U = U ex . Assume that the flow is

unidirectional in the x-direction, that body forces can be neglected, and that the pressure is constant and

uniform everywhere in the fluid.

(a) Determine the velocity field u = u(y, t)ex between the two plates.

(b) Sketch the velocity profile for different values of the parameter 2 t/h2 . What flow do you recover

when 2 t/h2 ! 1?

Problem 5.3. Circular Couette flow

Consider the steady flow of a Newtonian fluid between two infinite concentric cylinders of radii Ri (inner)

and Ro (outer) that are rotating around their common axis at angular velocities !i and !o . The density

and viscosity of the fluid are both constant and uniform. In cylindrical coordinates (r, , z), assume

that the flow is uniform in the z- and -directions, and that its direction is azimuthal in the (r, ) plane:

u = u (r)e .

(a) Write down the Navier-Stokes equations and boundary conditions for this problem using cylindrical

coordinates. Simplify as much as you can using the stated assumptions.

(b) Solve for the velocity profile u (r), and determine all the integration constants. Sketch the velocity

profile.

(c) Determine the pressure p(r) up to an additive integration constant.

Problem 5.4. Flow down an inclined plane

An incompressible liquid (constant density and viscosity ) is flowing under the influence of gravity g

17

(seeplane

figure).

Assume

the

flow

is the

steady,

unidirectional

along

x, and

uniform thickn

inalon

the

down a very long

at that

an angle

to

horizontal,

forming

asteady,

film

of

constant

! inclined

(see

figure).

Assume

that

the

flow

unidirectional

atmosphere

atmosphere

downdown

a very

long

plane

inclined

at an

angle

angle

toishthe

forming

a

a very

long

plane

inclined

at

an

horizontal,

tonthe

fo

y p

n horizontal,

= vthe

,isand

that

the

pressure

only

depends

on

y:

p

=

p(y).

v =!

vv

(y)e

and

the

pressure

only

depends

on

y:

=

p(y).

!

(see figure). Assume

flowxthat

steady,

unidirectional

along

x,

and

uniform

in

the

x

and

z

direc

y

xthat

x ,(y)e

v Assume

= vthat

and

that

theispressure

only

depends

on

y:

p unifo

=x,p(a

!

Assume

the

is

steady,

unidirectional

along

x,

and

! (see figure).

x (y)e

x ,flow

(seeliquid

figure).

that

the

flow

steady,

unidirectional

along

"

!y: p = p(y).

v = vx (y)ex , and that thev pressure

only

depends

onpressure

nonly depends

nthe pressure

= vx=

(y)e

, and

on yny:=p0on

= p(y).

vxx(y)e

and

that

only depends

y: p = p(y).

y the

y x ,that

v(y)

y

v(y)

a

!

n

y

x

n

!

n

atmosphere

y

y !

!

liquid

!

y =yh= h

liquid

!

atmosphere

atmosphere

g liquid

g

atmosp

!

!

!

v(y)v(y)

n

atmosphere

!

!

!

atmosphere

atmosphere

!liquid liquid!

x

!

!

xh h

liquid

!

!

v(y)

!

!

!

liquid

!

!

18

5 liquid

Navier-Stokes

Equations

liquid

v(y) v(y)

g

!

x

v(y)

x

"

!

v(y)

!! "

v(y)x v(y) y =y0= 0

h

y=h

down a very long plane inclined

at an angle to the horizontal,x forming a film of constant

thickness

h g ! !g

x

x !

!

= h isatmosphere

!

y=h

!

(see figure). Assume that they flow

steady,

unidirectional

along

x,

and

uniform

in

the

x

and

z

directions:

g

atmosphere

g

g

!

v = vx (y)ex , and that the pressure

only

depends on y: p = p(y). !

h

liquid

!!

h!

!

liquid

!

!

!

x

! ! !

!h

!

nn

!

!

!

!

!

y

! "! "

atmosphere

v(y)

!

atmosphere

"

v(y)

" ! "y!=!0 " y

!

!

liquid

! ! x

y =!0

(a) Justifying

the momentum equation, projected

g every step in the derivation, show that

liquid

!along the

g

atmosphere

atmosphere

n

y directions,

leads

to

the

two

equations

!

h

!

!

n

atmosphere

atmosphere

h

atmosphereatmosphere

liquid liquid

!

!

v(y)

y=h

v(y)

2

!

liquidy = h

!!

n

liquid

!!

n liquidliquid

g d! vx

!

!

n n g sin n + g 2 = 0,

n

v(y)

v(y)

h h dy

x

v(y)

v(y)

v(y) x

g

v(y)

g

y = h dp

y

g g

g y

g gcos y+= h = 0.

h

h h

dy

(a) Justifying yevery

in the

that the momentum equation, projected al

h derivation, show

h

= hystep

=

h

h

x show

(a)

Justifying

every

step

in

the

derivation,

that the momentum equation, projected along

y two

= hy equations

x

directions,

leads

to

the

=

h

y=

h

to the

y directions,

=y hy

(b) Knowing

that the leads

pressure

the

interfacey between

the liquid and the atmosphere is given b

attwo

equations

x

y

=

0

x pxa , solve

constantxatmospheric pressure

for

p(y).

d2 2 vx

x

g

sin

y

(a)

Justifying

every

d

vx2 =step

xgviscous

dytensor)

y

(a)

Justifying

step

inisthe

derivation,

show that

the

sin +stress

every

=to0,the

(c) The viscous

traction t =yny (where

is the

zero

at the interface

betwee

y

2

y

directions,

leads

(a) Justifying every step in the derivation, show

that the momentum

equation,

projected

xtwo

andequations

dyalong

(a) Justifying

every

step

in

the

derivation,

show

that

the

momentum

equation,

projec

dp

yyevery

directions,

leads

to

thethe

two

equations

(a)

Justifying

every

step

in

the

derivation,

show

that

the

momentum

equation,

liquid(a)and

the

atmosphere.

Using

this

fact,

derive

a

boundary

condition

for

the

velocity

v

(y)

at

y

(a)

Justifying

every

step

in

the

derivation,

show

that

the

momentum

equatio

x

(a)

Justifying

step

in

the

derivation,

show

that

the

momentum

Justifying every

step in the

derivation,

show

that

the momentum

g cos

+dp = 0.equation, projected along the

y directions, leads to theWhat

two equations

y directions,

leads

to

the

twothe

equations

is

the

boundary

condition

at

y

=

0?

y

directions,

leads

to

two

equations

y

directions,

leads

to

the

two

equations

dy

d

y

directions,

leads

to

the

two

equations

(a)

Justifying

every

step

in

the

derivation,

show

that

the

mom

g

cos

+

=

0.

y directions, leads to the two equations

g sin +d2vx

dy

2

2

y

directions,

leads

to

the

two

equations

+ 2d

(d) Solve for the velocity vxd(y).

vx Sketch the velocity profile.

d vx d2 vd2 vx gd2sin

vx

dy

g sin that

+ the 2pressure

= 0, at the interfaced2g

(5.2)

x the atmosphere

(b) Knowing

between

the

liquid

and

+sin

sin

=sin

0,

vxsin g

g

=

0,

2

g

= 0, is

=

0,

dy

2

dy

(e) Calculate

the

volumetric

flow

rate

Q

(per

unit

length

in

the

z

direction),

defined

as

g

sin

=

0,

2

2

2

dy

(b)

Knowing

that

the

pressure

at

the

interface

between

the

liquid

and

the

atmosphere

is

g

cos

+

dp

dy

dy

constant atmospheric pressure pa , solve for p(y).

d vx+gi

dy 2

g

cos

dp

dp

g

sin

=

0

dp

constant atmospheric

pressure

p

,

solve

for

p(y).

Z

dp

a

2

dy

dp

g costraction

+ t==0.n (where his the viscous

(5.3)

+cos

=

0.

dpg cosstress

(c) The viscous

is=

zero

at the=dy

interfac

gtensor)

cos

g

+cos

=+0.

0.

0.

g

+

dy

dy

g

cos

+

=

0.

dy

Q =fact,

vthe

dy.

dyvelocity

x (y)

dyat

(c) The

traction t =Using

n (where

isderive

viscous

stress

is

zero

the

interface

liquid

andviscous

the atmosphere.

this

a boundary

condition

for

vbx

dy

dpbetw

(b)

Knowing

that

the tensor)

pressure

theatthe

interface

0

g cos

+

=

0

Knowing

that

the pressure

at the

interface

between

liquid

atmosphere.

Using

fact,

derive

a

boundary

condition

for

the

velocity

v

(y)

What

is and

the the

boundary

condition

at this

y =(b)

0?

x

constant

atmospheric

pressure

pa , solve

for

p(y).

dy

(b) Knowing that the pressure at the interface

between

the

liquid

and constant

the

atmosphere

is at

given

by

the

(b) Knowing

that

the

pressure

atpressure

theatmospheric

interface

between

the

liquid

and

the

atmosph

(b)

Knowing

that

the

at

the

interface

between

the

liquid

and

the

(b)

Knowing

that

the

pressure

the

interface

between

the

liquid

pressure

pa , solve

for p(y).

What

is the

condition

y =pressure

0?thebetween

Knowing

that

the

at thethe

interface

between

the liquid

and

the at

Problem

6.5.

Wind-driven

flow

inside

aSketch

lake

Knowing

thatboundary

the(b)

pressure

theat

interface

liquid

and

the

atmosphere

is given

Solve

the

velocity

vxat(y).

velocity

profile.

constant

atmospheric

pressure

pa ,p(y).

solve

p(y).

constant atmospheric pressure(b)

pa(d)

, solve

forfor

p(y).

constant

atmospheric

pressure

p(c)

solve

for

viscous

traction

t for

= n

(where

is

thex-dire

visco

constant

atmospheric

pressure

p

solve

p(y).

a , The

a , for

Consider

a

large

lake,

over

which

wind

is

blowing

and

exerts

a

constant

shear

stress

S

in

the

constant

atmospheric

pressure

p

,

solve

for

p(y).

constant

atmospheric

pressure

p

,

solve

for

p(y).

a

(c)

The

viscous

traction

t = at

n

(where

isbetween

the viscous

(d)Calculate

Solve forthe

thevolumetric

velocity vxa(y).

Sketch

the

velocity

profile.

(b)

Knowing

that

the

pressure

the

interface

the

liquid

and

the

atmosphere.

Using

this

fact,

derive

azer

bl

(e)

flow

rate

Q

(per

unit

length

in

the

z

direction),

defined

as

(c)

The

viscous

traction

tand

=

(where

is the

viscous

stress

tensor)

is

viscous

traction

t=

n

(where

=is

the steady

viscous

stress

tensor)

isderive

zero

atain

the

in

(c) The viscous traction t(see

= n

(where

is(c)

theThe

viscous

tensor)

isis

zero

at

then

between

figure

below).

The

goal

ofstress

this

problem

totraction

determine

the

flow

established

the

(c)

The

viscous

tinterface

n

(where

the

is field

the

viscous

stress

tenso

liquid

the

atmosphere.

Using

this

fact,

boun

(c)

The

viscous

traction

t

=

n

(where

is

the

viscous

stress

tensor)

is

zero

a

(c) The

viscous

traction

t

=

n

(where

is

the

viscous

stress

tensor)

is

zero

at

the

interface

betwe

constant

atmospheric

pressure

pdirection),

for

p(y).

What

is

boundary

condition

ydefined

=boundary

0?condition

a , solve

(e) Calculate

theaand

volumetric

flow

rate

Q

(per

unit

the

zyfact,

liquid

and

atmosphere.

Using

this

fact,

derive

aatboundary

for

liquid

the

atmosphere.

Using

this

fact,

athis

boundary

condition

forasThe

the condi

veloc

liquid

and

the

atmosphere.

Using

derive

a0?

liquid and the atmosphere.

this

fact, derive

boundary

condition

for

the

vxin

(y)

at

=

h.

by Using

the wind.

Assume

that

the

lake

has

athe

constant

depth

hthe

before

the

wind

starts

wind

Zlength

0

What

isavelocity

the

boundary

condition

y =blowing.

hderive

liquid

and

the

atmosphere.

Using

this

fact,

derive

a

boundary

condition

for

th

liquid and the atmosphere.

Using

this

fact,

derive

boundary

condition

for

the

velocity

v

(y)

at

y

x

is theiscondition

boundary

condition

at vythe=

What

the(c)

boundary

at

y=

0?v(where

boundary

at

ySolve

=

The

viscous

traction

t0?=

n

is thethe

viscous

stress

What is the boundary condition at y = 0? What is theWhat

(d)

velocity

velocity

p

Z0?yfor

Q

=condition

x (y). Sketch

hthe

is the at

boundary

at

= xvelocity

0?(y) dy.vx (y).

What is the boundaryWhat

condition

y = 0? condition

(d) Solve

for

Sketch the velocity profi

0

liquid

and

the

atmosphere.

Using

this

fact,

derive

a

boundary

(d)

Solve

for

the

velocity

v

(y).

Sketch

the

velocity

profile.

x

Q

=

v

(y)

dy.

(d)

Solve

for

the

velocity

v

(y).

Sketch

the

velocity

profile.

(d) Solveprofile.

for the velocity vx (y).(e)Sketch

thexvelocity

profile. flow rate Q (per unit leng

xthe volumetric

(d) Solve for the velocity vx (y). Sketch the velocity

Calculate

(d) Solve for the velocity

vx (y).

the

velocity

profile.

(d) Solve

forSketch

the velocity

vCalculate

(y).boundary

Sketch

the

velocity

profile.

(e)

flow

(per unit length

0 the volumetric

What

isxlake

the

condition

at

ylength

=rate

0? Q

Problem

6.5.

Wind-driven

flow

inside

a

(e)

Calculate

the

volumetric

flow

rate

Q

(per

unit

in

the zin

direction),

(e)

Calculate

the

volumetric

flow

rate

Q

(per

unit

length

the Zz dir

(e)

Calculate

thethe

volumetric

flowdefined

rate Q as

(per unit length

in

the

z direction),

defined

as

(e) Calculate the volumetric flow

rate

Q

(per

unit

length

in

z

direction),

(e) Consider

Calculate

volumetric

flowwhich

rate

Q

(per

unit

length

in

z vdirection),

defined

Z hS inhdet

(e)

Calculate

the volumetric

flow

ratevelocity

Qthe

(per

unit

inthe

the

zasdirection),

large

lake,

over

wind

is

blowing

and

exerts

a length

constant

shear

stress

(d) Solve

for the

Sketch

velocity

profile.

Problemathe

6.5.

Wind-driven

flow

inside

a lake

x (y).

Z

Z

Q

=

v

h

Z

h

Z The goal of this problem

h the steady flow

(see

figure abelow).

determine

field

establish

Q =S

vthe

Z his to and

Consider

largehlake,

over which wind

is blowing

exerts

aQflow

constant

shear

stress

inin

Z=hrate

0x (yx

v

(y)

dy.

x

Q

=

v

(y)

dy.

(e)

Calculate

the

volumetric

Q

(per

unit

length

the

x

0

Q = h0 before

vx (y)

dy.

Q=

vxThe

(y)

dy.

(5.4)

by(see

thefigure

wind.

Assume

thatgoal

theof

lake

constant

depth

the

wind

starts

blowing.

below).

thishas

problem

is vtox (y)

determine

the

steady

flow

Qa =

dy. Q

0 field established

v0flow

dy.

x (y)

0 =

0

Problem

6.5. Wind-driven

inside

a

lake

Z

0

0the

h

by the wind. AssumeProblem

that the 6.5.

lake has Problem

a constant6.5.

depth

h0 before

starts

blowing.

The

Wind-driven

flowwind

inside

a lake

flow

inside

a lake

ProblemWind-driven

6.5.flow

Wind-driven

flow

inside

a lake

Consider

a lake

large

lake,

over

which wind

is blowing

an

Problem

6.5.

Wind-driven

inside

a

Q

=

v

(y)

dy.

Problem 5.5. HydrodynamicProblem

slip

Consider

a

large

lake,

over

which

wind

is

blowing

and

ex

x

6.5. Wind-driven

flow

inside

lake

Consider

aWind-driven

large

lake,

over

which

wind

iswind

blowing

andthis

exerts

constant

she

Problem

6.5.

flow

inside

a lake

Consider

aalarge

lake,

over

which

is blowing

andaexerts

atocons

(see

figure

below).

The

goal

of

problem

isstress

det

0

Consider

a

large

lake,

over

which

wind

is

blowing

and

exerts

a

constant

shear

S

Experiments in microfluidic devices

have

shown

that

the

no-slip

boundary

condition

can

sometimes

be

in(see

figure

below).

The

goal

of

this

problem

is

to

determ

Consider a large lake,

over

which

wind

isbelow).

blowing

and

exerts

athis

constant

shear

stress

Sconstant

insteady

thethe

x-dir

(see

figure

below).

The

goal

ofgoal

thisAssume

is to

determine

the

flow

(see

figure

The

ofproblem

problem

is to

determine

ste

Consider

a large

lake,

over

which

wind

isto

blowing

and

exerts

a aconstant

shear

by

the

wind.

that

the

lake

has

dep

(see

figure

below).

The

goal

of

this

problem

is

determine

the

steady

flow

field

est

accurate, especially when the (see

channel

walls

are made

hydrophobic

surfaces.

more

accurate

boundary

by

the

Assume

the

lake

has

a constant

depth

before

wind

figure

below).

The of

goal

of

this

isthat

toA

determine

the

steady

flow

field

established

in th

th

Problem

6.5.

Wind-driven

inside

ahdepth

lake

0the

bywind.

the problem

wind.

Assume

that

the

lake

has

constant

h0 the

before

figure

below).

goal

of

this

problem

isflow

toahdetermine

steady

flow

fis

by the(see

wind.

Assume

thata The

the lake

has

a constant

depth

the

wind

starts

blow

0 before

condition in this case is the following:

by the wind. Assume

that

the

lake

has

constant

depth

h

before

the

wind

starts

blowing.

The

win

0 a constant

largehas

lake,

over which

wind

blowing

exerts

by the wind. AssumeConsider

that thealake

depth

h0isbefore

theand

wind

sta

vt = b n rvt

at the wall,

(5.5)

by the wind. Assume that the lake has a constant depth h0 bef

where vt is the tangential component of the velocity vector, n is a unit normal vector pointing into the

fluid, and b is a given constant.

(a) What are the dimensions of b?

(b) Consider the pressure-driven flow of an incompressible homogeneous Newtonian fluid in a cylindrical microchannel of radius a (cylindrical Poiseuille flow). Solve for the velocity vx (r) in cylindrical

coordinates, using the boundary condition (5.5).

< 0 a uniform3

and removing it6 through

the other,

cr

when the 1plates

<0

Navier-Stokes

Equations

of the plates, and y-direction

aligned

gH 3 to the 2p

Q = normal

3

(x, y, z) with originwhere

on the

centerplane

of

: the entrance

Q = gH

(6.27)

(1 ) t

8

=

0 /gH. say

component

u

constant,

U3

. Show

that

y is

:

(1 <)02 1 +

when of

< the

1velocity

when

1y-direction

plates,

and

aligned

normal

to

the

plate

3

2

3

gH

Q=

Problem

6.11. Flow in a (6.27)

channe

where

2 the

component

uy0 /gH.

is constant,

say(pU0 . porous

Show

that

:

(1 )2 1 +velocity

when

< 1 =An

pL )H

incompressible Newtonian

fluid of1 de

3

2

ux (y) =

where = 0 /gH.

Problem length

6.11. Flow

in a porous

with

inje

L, separation

2Hchannel

L

L, 2and

infinite

Re

(pthe

pLof)H

1 plate

y

0 fluid

An incompressible

Newtonian

density

over

the

length

of

plates.

The

two

where

/gH.

0

Problem 6.11. Flow in a porous channel with injection/suction

ux (y)

= L, and infinite width.and

length

L,

separation

2H

Th

the

plates

and

removing

it

through

the

oth

L

Re

H

wheretwo

Reparallel

= U H/

is the19

crossflow Reynolds nu

5 An

Navier-Stokes

Equations

incompressible

Newtonian

fluid

density channel

and viscosity

flows beween

plates

of

over the length

the

plates.

The

plates

(x,flat

y,of

z)

with

origin

ontwo

thefor

centerplane

Problem

6.11. Flow

in of

a porous

with injection/suction

plates.

Sketch

the

axial

velocity

profile

Reareporou

1,ofR

length L, separation

2H

L,

and

infinite

width.

The

flow

is

induced

by

a

pressure

difference

(p

p

)

the

plates

and

removing

it

through

the

other,

unifor

0

L

of

the

plates,

and

y-direction

aligned

nor

An incompressible Newtonian fluid of density and viscosity

Re

flows

beween

two

parallel

flat plates

of anumb

where

=

U

H/

is

the

crossflow

Reynolds

(c)over

What

the value

v (a) ofThe

the velocity

at theporous:

wall? Sketch

the velocity

profile,

andy,

give

an origin

interpreta(x,

z)

with

on of

the centerplane

of)the say

entran

theislength

of the

injecting

of

the

same

fluid

through

one

velocity

component

u

is

constant,

U

y

length

L,xplates.

separationtwo

2H plates

L,are

and infiniteby

width.

Themore

flow

is

induced

by

a

pressure

difference

(p

p

Problem

6.12.

Pipevelocity

flow of two

immiscible

0 ReLliquids

plates.

Sketch

theplates,

axial

profile

for

ofCartesian

the

and y-direction

aligned

normal1,toRe

the

tion

the and

constant

b. it through the other, a uniform crossflow is generated.

thefor

plates

removing

Use

coordinates

over

the length

of the plates. The two plates are porous: by injecting

more

of

the

same

fluid

through

one

of

Consider

the incompressible

of two

velocity

component uy isflow

constant,

sayimmiscible

U . Show

(p0 thatp

(x, y, z) with origin

on theremoving

centerplane

of the entrance

to athe

plates, crossflow

x-direction

aligned

with

the

length

ux (y)

= pressu

plates

it through

the other,

uniform

generated.

Use

Cartesian

coordinates

Problem

Pipe

flow

of

two immiscible

liquids

dricalis6.12.

pipe

of

radius

R,

driven

by

a constant

Problem 5.6. the

Flow

in aand

porous channel

with injection/suction

L

2

of the plates,(x,

and

aligned

normal

to the plates.

crossflow

means

that the transverse

y, y-direction

z) with origin

centerplane

of the Uniform

entrance

the(see

plates,

aligned

the

length

(p

pL )H

1

thex-direction

incompressible

flow

of two

immiscible

0

figure

below).

1ofuwith

(with

viscosity

1 ) hom

occ

An incompressible

Newtonian

fluidonofthe

density

and viscosity

flowstoConsider

beween

two

parallel

flatLiquid

plates

x (y) =

of the plates,

and y-direction

aligned

normal

the

plates.

crossflow

means

that

the

transverse

velocity

component

uy is

say U .width.

Show

that

the

velocity

component

udifference

is

bydriven

=

U

H/

is theL

crossflow

ReR

drical

pipe0of

a constant

pressure

g

where

<xradius

given

<where

1R,

is(p

aRe

while

liqui

length

L, separation

2H

constant,

L, and infinite

The

flowaxial

istoinduced

by

aUniform

pressure

pLby

)parameter),

0 given

plates.

Sketch

the

axial

velocity

profile

fo

velocity component uy is constant, say U . Show that the (see

axial

velocity

component

u

is

given

by

x

figure

below).

Liquid

1 between

(with

that

the

interface

the twoReynolds

liquids

isnu

1 ) occupi

over the length of the plates. The two plates are porous:

by injectingRemoreRey/H

ofassume

the

same

fluid

one

oftheviscosity

where

Rethrough

= U H/

is

crossflow

(p0 pL )H 2 1 y

e where

e axisymmetric

0

<

<

1

is

a

given

parameter),

while

liquid

and

unidirectional

in

the

z

direction:

Problem

6.12.

Pipe

flow

of

two

immisci

plates.

Sketch

the

axial

velocity

profile

for

Re

1,2

the plates and removing it uthrough

the

other,

a

uniform

crossflow

is

generated.

Use

Cartesian

coordinates

2

Re

Rey/H

(6.28)

(y)

=

1

+

x

(p

pL )H 1 sinh

y Re e

e

0

Lthe=entrance

Re

H

Consider

the incompressible

flow of

assume

the interface

between

the two(6.28)

liquids

istwo

alsoi

1 + that

(x, y, z) with origin on the centerplaneuof

to the plates, x-direction

aligned

with

the

length

x (y)

Problem

6.12. Pipe

of twoR,

L

Re H

sinh

Re drical

pipeflow

of radius

driven

byzliquids

a cons

v1the

(x)zimmiscible

=direction:

v1 (r)e

and

axisymmetric

and

in

of the plates, and y-direction aligned normal to the plates. Uniform crossflow

means

thatunidirectional

theincompressible

transverse

Consider

the

flow

of

two

immiscible

where Re = U H/ is the crossflow Reynolds number, assuming that there is no slip(see

at the

porous

figure

below). Liquid 1 (with viscos

velocity component

u

is

constant,

say

U

.

Show

that

the

axial

velocity

component

u

is

given

by

drical

pipe

of

radius

R,

driven

by

a

constant

pressu

y

x

where

Re velocity

= U H/

is the

Reynolds

porous

whereis0no

< slip

< 1atisthe

a given

parameter),

plates. Sketch

the axial

profile

for crossflow

Re 1, Re

1, andnumber,

Re 1.assuming that there

vthe

= v1 (r)e

below).that

Liquid

1 (with

viscosity

1 ) two

oc

1 (x)

z and

plates. Sketch the axial velocity profilefor Re 1, Re 1, and Re(see figure

1. assume

interface

between

the

2

Re

Rey/H

where 0 <

< 1 is a given

parameter), while

liqu

(p

p

)H

1

y

e

e

0

L

axisymmetric

and

unidirectional

in

the

Problem 6.12. Pipe flow

two

liquids

uxof

(y)

= immiscible

1+

(5.6)between the two liquids zisd

assume that the interface

Problem 6.12.

Pipe

flow L

of two immiscible

liquids

Re

H

sinh

Re

Consider the incompressible flow of two immiscible homogeneous Newtonian viscous

liquids and

in aunidirectional

cylinaxisymmetric

z vdirection:

Consider the incompressible flow of two immiscible homogeneous Newtonian

viscous

liquids ininathe

cylin1 (x) = v1

drical pipe of

radius

R,

driven

by

a

constant

pressure

gradient

dp/dz

=

G

along

the

axis

of

the

pipe

pipe

R, driven

by a number,

constantassuming

pressure gradient

= Gatalong

the

axis v

of (x)

the=pipe

where Re = drical

U H/

is of

theradius

crossflow

Reynolds

that theredp/dz

is no slip

the porous

v1 (r)ez an

1

(see figure below).

Liquid

1 (with

viscosity

1 )viscosity

occupies the) occupies

center of the

the pipe

r <

R(1

figure

below).

Liquid

(with

center(0of<the

pipe

(0 <),r < R(1 ),

1

plates. Sketch(see

the axial

velocity

profile

for1 Re

1, Re 1,and

Re

1.

where 0 < where

< 1 is

liquid 2while

(withliquid

viscosity

2 ) viscosity

occupies the

We periphery. We

0 a<given

< parameter),

1 is a givenwhile

parameter),

2 (with

2 )periphery.

occupies the

assume

that

the

interface

between

the

two

liquids

is

also

cylindrical,

and

that

the

flow

in

both

liquids

thatofthe

between

the two liquids is also cylindrical, and that the flow inis both liquids is

Problem 5.7. assume

Pipe flow

twointerface

immiscible

liquids

axisymmetric

and

unidirectional

in

the

z

direction:

axisymmetric and

in the homogeneous

z direction: Newtonian viscous liquids in a cylinConsider the incompressible

flowunidirectional

of two immiscible

drical pipe of radius R, driven by a constant pressure gradient dp/dz = G along the axis of the pipe

v1 (x)

= v1 (r)e

v2the

(x)

=

v2 (r)e

. pipe

v1(x)

= v1 (r)e

and

v2zthe

(x)

= v2(0

(r)e

(6.29)

z and

z center

(see figure below). Liquid 1 (with

viscosity

of

<z .r < R(1 (6.29)

"),

1 ) occupies

where 0 < " < 1 is a given parameter), while liquid 2 (with viscosity 2 ) occupies the periphery. We

assume that the interface between the two liquids is also cylindrical, and thatliquid

the flow

in both liquid

liquids2 is

1

axisymmetric and unidirectional in the z direction:

view of a cross-section

24

view of a cross-section

v1 (x) = v1 (r)ez

liquid 1

liquid 1

liquid 2

and

1

v2 (x) = v2 (r)ezliquid

. liquid

1

liquid 2

liquid

liquid 12 (5.7)

liquid 2

liquid 2

liquidliquid

2 1

z

view

of

a

cross-section

R

z

liquid

R 1

liquid

1

z

liquid

2

liquid 2 liquid 1 view of aR(1-e)

cross-section

R

liquid

2

R(1-e)

view of a cross-section

R(1 view

") of a zcross-section

z

R

z

R(1 ")

R

R

R(1 ") R(1 ")

liquid 1

liquid 2

liquid 1

view of a cross-section

liquid 2

z

view of a cross-section

z

(a) Starting fromRthe incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, write down the differential equations satR(1

")Integrate these equations to show that the velocity in each liquid can be written

isfiedRby v1 (r) and

v2 (r).

as R(1 ")

G 2

G 2

v1 (r) =

r + A1 ln r + B1 , v2 (r) =

r + A2 ln r + B2 .

(5.8)

41

42

(c) At the interface between the two liquids r = R(1 "), both the fluid velocity and shear stress must

be continuous:

1

2

v1 (r) = v2 (r), and rz

(r) = rz

(r) at r = R(1 ").

(5.9)

20

5 Navier-Stokes Equations

Using these two conditions and the boundary condition of (b), solve for the four integration constants A1 ,

B1 , A2 , and B2 .

(d) Assuming that the liquid layer on the periphery of the pipe is very thin (" 1), show by neglecting

terms of order "2 that the velocity fields v1 (r) and v2 (r) can be expressed as

G

1

G 2

2

2

2

v1 (r) =

r

R

2R "

1 , v2 (r) =

(r

R2 ).

(5.10)

41

2

42

(e) Sketch the velocity profile qualitatively in the cases where 1 > 2 and 2 > 1 . In which case does

the presence of the thin liquid layer on the pipe wall help to enhance the flow rate of liquid 1 in the center

of the pipe?

Problem 5.8. Flow of paint down a vertical wall

The surface of a large, flat, vertical wall is to be protected from the atmosphere by being covered with a

thin film of paint of uniform thickness H. When it is wet, the paint is a non-Newtonian fluid that can be

regarded as a Bingham fluid, for which the shear stress = xy in a parallel flow u = ux (y)ex (where

the x-axis points in the negative vertical direction and the y-axis points in the direction normal to the

wall) is related to the shear rate = dux /dy by

= + 0

=0

if > 0

(5.11)

if 0

(5.12)

where denotes the viscosity and 0 the yield stress. Because of gravity, there is a volumetric flow rate

Q of paint down the wall per unit width of the wall. Let g denote the magnitude of the gravitational

acceleration and the density of the paint. The boundary condition for the flow is no slip at the wall

(ux (0) = 0), and zero shear stress at the free surface ( (H) = 0). Assume that the pressure is constant

and uniform.

(a) Assuming steady flow, show using the momentum conservation equation that the shear stress (y)

satisfies

d

+ g = 0.

(5.13)

dy

Solve for (y) and sketch it.

(b) Treating the cases 0 gH and 0 < gH separately, solve for the velocity profile ux (y) across the

paint film. Sketch the velocity profile in each case.

(c) Show that the volumetric flow rate is given by

8

when 1

<0

Q = gH 3

2

:

(1 ) 1 +

when < 1

3

2

where = 0 /gH.

(5.14)

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