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Analysis of Mechanisms

(Graphical Methods)

Hareesha N G

Asst. Professor

Dept of Aeronautical Engg

Dayananda Sagar College of Engg

hareeshang@gmail.com

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Syllabus

UNIT 3: Velocity and Acceleration Analysis of Mechanisms

(Graphical Methods)

Velocity and acceleration analysis of Four Bar mechanism,

slider crank mechanism and Simple Mechanisms by vector

polygons:

Relative velocity and acceleration of particles in a common link

Relative velocity and accelerations of coincident Particles on

separate links.

Coriolis component of acceleration

Angular velocity and angular acceleration of links, velocity of

rubbing.

07 Hours

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Lines

velocity of two bodies moving along parallel lines and inclined

lines, as shown in Fig.

Consider two bodies A and B moving along parallel lines in the

same direction with absolute velocities vA and vB such that vA >

vB , as shown in Fig. (a). The relative velocity of A with respect to B

is .

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in Fig. 2 (a). The relative velocity of A with respect to B may be

obtained by the law of parallelogram of velocities or triangle law

of velocities.

Take any fixed point o and draw vector oa to represent vA in

magnitude and direction to some suitable scale.

Similarly, draw vector ob to represent vB in magnitude and

direction to the same scale. Then vector ba represents the relative

velocity of A with respect to B as shown in Fig. 2 (b). In the similar

way as discussed above, the relative velocity of A with respect to

B,

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Motion of a link

Consider two points A and B on a

rigid link AB as shown in Fig.

Let one of the extremities (B) of

the link move relative to A, in a

clockwise direction.

Since the distance from A to B

remains the same, therefore

there can be no relative motion

between A and B, along the line

AB.

It is thus obvious, that the relative motion of B with

respect to A must be perpendicular to AB.

Hence velocity of any point on a link with respect to

another point on the same link is always

perpendicular to the line joining these points on the

configuration (or space) diagram.

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Method

The relative velocity method is based upon the relative velocity of the

various points of the link.

Consider two points A and B on a link as shown in Fig. 4 (a).

Let the absolute velocity of the point A i.e. vA is known in magnitude and

direction and the absolute velocity of the point B i.e. vB is known in

direction only.

Then the velocity of B may be determined by drawing the velocity

diagram as shown in Fig. 4 (b). The velocity diagram is drawn as follows :

b

VBA

VB

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VA

a

6

c

VBA

VB

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VA

a

7

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Let the point B moves with respect to A, with an angular velocity of

rad/s and let rad/s2 be the angular acceleration of the link AB.

Acceleration of a particle whose velocity changes both in magnitude

and direction at any instant has the following two components :

1. The centripetal or radial component, which is perpendicular to

the velocity of the particle at the given instant.

2. The tangential component, which is parallel to the velocity of the

particle at the given instant.

Thus for a link AB, the velocity of point B with respect to A (i.e. v BA) is

perpendicular to the link AB as shown in Fig. 8.1 (a). Since the point B

moves with respect to A with an angular velocity of rad/s, therefore

centripetal or radial component of the acceleration of B with respect to A,

acts perpendicular to the velocity vBA,

In other words, it acts parallel to

Hareesha N G, Dept of Aero Engg,

the 5/28/16

link AB.

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Consider two points A and B on the rigid link, as shown in Fig. (a).

Let the acceleration of the point A i.e. aA is known in magnitude

and direction and the direction of path of B is given.

The acceleration of the point B is determined in magnitude and

direction by drawing the acceleration diagram as discussed below.

1. From any point o', draw vector o'a' parallel to the direction of

absolute acceleration at point A i.e. aA , to some suitable scale, as

shown in Fig.(b).

o'

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a'

11

2.

the following two components:

(i) Radial component of the acceleration of B with respect to A

i.e. arBA, and

(ii) Tangential component of the acceleration B with respect to

A i.e. atBA

These two components are mutually perpendicular.

3. Draw vector a'x parallel to the link AB (because radial component

of the acceleration of B with respect to A will pass through AB),

such that

o'

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a'

12

5. By joining the points a' and b' we may determine the total

acceleration of B with respect to A i.e. aBA. The vector a' b' is

known as acceleration image of the link AB.

6. The angular acceleration of the link AB

b'

is obtained by dividing the tangential

aBA

components of the acceleration of B

aB

t

with respect to A (a BA ) to the length

of the link.

o'

a'

Mathematically, angular acceleration of the

atBA

arBA

link AB,

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x13

1.

shown in Fig. (a).

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1. Draw vector ob perpendicular to BO, to some suitable scale, to

represent the velocity of B with respect to O or simply velocity of

B i.e. vBO or vB, such that vector ob = vBO = vB = 4.713 m/s

2. From point b, draw vector ba perpendicular to BA to represent the

velocity of A with respect to B i.e. vAB , and from point o draw

vector oa parallel to the motion of A (which is along AO) to

represent the velocity of A i.e. vA. The vectors ba and oa intersect

at a.

3. By measurement, we find that velocity of A with respect to B,

b

vB

o

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vAB

vA

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15

4.

rod AB, divide the vector ba at d in the same ratio as D divides

AB, in the space diagram.

In other words, bd / ba = BD/BA

Note: Since D is the midpoint of AB, therefore d is also midpoint of

vector ba.

5. Join od. Now the vector od represents the velocity of the midpoint

D of the connecting rod i.e. vD.

By measurement, we find that vD = vector od = 4.1 m/s

b

vB

vD

o

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vA

d

vAB

a

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16

We know that the radial component of the acceleration of B with

respect to O or the acceleration of B,

and the radial component of the acceleration of A with respect to

B,

with constant angular velocity has no tangential

component of acceleration.

2) When a point moves along a straight line,

it has no centripetal or radial component of the

acceleration.

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r.p.m. anticlockwise and gives motion to the sliding blocks B and D.

The dimensions of the various links are OA = 300 mm; AB = 1200

mm; BC = 450 mm and CD = 450 mm. For the given configuration,

determine : 1. velocities of sliding at B and D, 2. angular velocity of

CD, 3. linear acceleration of D and 4. angular acceleration of CD.

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to move on a horizontal path. The crank OA is rotating in the

counter-clockwise direction at a Speed of 180 r.p.m. increasing at

the rate of 50 rad/s2 . The dimensions of the various links are as

follows: OA = 180 mm ; CB = 240 mm ; AB = 360 mm ; and BD =

540 mm. For the given configuration, find 1. Velocity of slider D and

angular velocity of BD, and 2. Acceleration of slider D and angular

acceleration of BD.

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First of all, draw the space diagram to some suitable scale, as

shown in Fig. (a).

discussed below:

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