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# CSE 4th semester (5 years) Questions of NU

Algorithm Design
1. Define computer algorithm. What are the characteristics of an algorithm that must be met?
(2012)
2. With example define computational procedure. How can you analyze and test an algorithm?
(2012)
3. How program performance can be evaluated? Explain with example. (2012)
4. Let two matrix A and B; where A be an M*P and B be a P*N matrix. Write an algorithm for
matrix multiplication. Find out its time complexity. (2012)
5. What is growth function? With example, briefly explain each type of it. (2012)
6. Depict the general philosophy of D and C method. Write down the control abstraction of D and
C. (2012)
7. Show that the following recurrence relation has the growth function of O(n log)
8. Write the recursive and iterative process of binary search algorithm. (2012)
9. Consider the following adjacency matrix. Construct a shortest path using all-pair shortest path
algorithm:
10. What is binary search tree? Mention the properties of binary search tree. (2012)
11. What is Hamilton cycle? Give one example. Let G= (V, E) is an undirected graph with four
vertices. Draw the state space tree for coloring all the four nodes using only tree colors. (2012)
12. Show that first 10 steps of 15 puzzle problem using DFS where the problem state is given below:
1
2
3
4
5
6
8
9
10
7
11
13
14
15
12
13. What is Knapsack problem? Consider a Knapsack problem to find out the optimal solution where
14. What is dynamic programming? Write the general procedure of dynamic programming. (2012)
15. Consider the following multistage graph. Using backward reasoning find the shortest path from
S to T. (2012)
16. Discuss the complexity analysis of the following algorithm:
(2012)
a. Merge sort.
b. Selection sort.
c. Binary search.
17. What is state-space tree? What is the manner in which the state-space tree for a back-tracking
algorithm in constructed? (2012)
18. What is n-queen problem? Draw the solution for the 4-queens problem? (2012)
19. What is an optimal solution and feasible solution? In which situations a search path can be
terminated in a branch and bound algorithm? (2012)

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20. What is the travelling salesman problem? Consider the following directed graph for travelling
salesman problem. You are asked to find the minimum cost tour using dynamic algorithm
approach:
21. Define implicit and explicit constraint with example. (2012)
22. Define the following terms:
a. Tree edge.
b. Back edge.
c. Cross edge.
23. Explain the subset sum problem and discuss the possible solutions strategies using backtracking.
(2012)
24. Briefly explain the BFS algorithm with example. (2012)
25. What are the criterias an algorithm must satisfy? Describe them. (2011)
26. What is pseudocode? Write ten convention of pseudocode. (2011)
27. Explain time complexity of an algorithm. (2011)
28. Define Big oh, Big theta and Big omega. (2011)
29. What are the general plans for divide-and-conquer algorithms? (2011)
30. Write the algorithms for finding the maximum and minimum and explain it. (2011)
31. What are the difference between quicksort and mergesort? Mention the algorithm used to
partition an array for quicksort. (2011)
32. What is the improvement that can be applied to sequential search if the list is sorted? (2011)
33. What is the Greedy Choice Property? What are the steps required to develop a Greedy
algorithm? (2011)
34. Define minimum cost spanning tree. Draw the minimum cost spanning following graph using
Prims algorithm:(2011)

35. What do you mean by feasible solution and optimal solution? (2011)

36.
(2011)
37. Explain multistage graph corresponding to backward approach with a suitable example. (2011)
38. Describe the steps to find out all pairs shortest path. (2011)
39. What do you mean by optimal binary search tree? Give an example to demonstrate two possible
binary search trees. (2011)

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40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.

## Write down pseudocode for breadth first search. (2011)

Draw depth first search (DFS) spanning tree and Breadth first search (BFS) spanning tree. (2011)
What is reachability problem? (2011)
Prove that if G is a connected undirected graph with n vertices and n-1 edges, then G is a tree.
(2011)
What do you mean by backtracking? What are the factors that influence the efficiency of the
backtracking algorithm? (2011)
What is state-space tree? What is the manner in which the state-space tree for a backtracking
algorithm is constructed? (2011)
What is n-queens problem? Explain the solution for the 8-queen problem? (2011)
What is the use of Dijkstras algorithm? Write the dijkstras algorithm for single sources shortest
path problem. (2011)
What is an algorithm? Write down the characteristics of an algorithm. (2010)
What do you mean by complexity of an Algorithm? Find the average case complexity of
quicksort algorithm. (2010)
What is randomized algorithm? Write down the advantage and disadvantages of randomized
algorithm. (2010)
Compare the performance between recursive and iterative MAX-MIN algorithm. (2010)
Write the control abstraction for divide and conquer. (2010)
Show the merging steps for the following two sub-arrays in ascending order: (2010)

54.
(2010)
55. Which application are not suitable for Quick sort and why? (2010)
56. Define minimum cost spanning tree. And draw the minimum cost spanning tree for the
following graph using Kruskal algorithm:
(2010)

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57. Do you think that there are similarities between Breadth First Search (BFS), Prims algorithm
and Diskstra algorithm? (2010)
58. Consider the following directed graph for travelling salesman problem (TSP). you are asked to
find the minimum cost tour using dynamic algorithm approach:
(2010)

59.
60.
61.
62.
63.
64.

## Write short note on 15 puzzle problem. (2010)]

Differentiate backtracking and Bunch and Bound. (2010)
Write the similarity among LC search of BFS and DFS. (2010)
Show at least two solutions for 8 queen problem. (2010)
Explain implicit explicit constraints with example. (2010)
What do you mean by dynamic programming? What is the difference between optimal solution
and feasible solution? (2010)
65. Consider the following multistage graph. Using forward and backward reasoning find the
shortest path from S to T:
(2010)

66.
67.
68.
69.
70.
71.
72.
73.
74.
75.
76.

With suitable example briefly explain the Depth first search algorithm. (2010)
What are the steps required to solve a Greedy problem? (2010)
Why asymtotic notation is used? (2010)
Write an algorithm for n-queen problem. (2010)
What is graph coloring and why it is used? (2010)
Describe sum of subset problem. (2010)
List the important properties of Greedy method. What are different types of problems can be
solved using Greedy method? (2010)
What is an algorithm? What are the criteria an algorithm must satisfy? (2009)
What do you mean by algorithm validation? Explain how to validate an algorithm. (2009)
What are the ways to describe an algorithm? Write down the pseudocode structures for looping
and conditional statements. (2009)
Explain time space complexity of an algorithm. (2009)

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77. What is big O and omega notation? Explain the growth rate of n log n, n^2 and 2^n functions
with n. (2009)
78. Write an algorithm to create an n*n magic square for the case in which n is odd. What is the
value of its time complexity? (2009)
79. Write recursive function to add n numbers of an array with count statements. Write the
recurrence relation for the value of count and solve it. (2009)
80. What is divide and conquer method? (2009)
81. Write down an algorithm for binary search. (2009)
82. Simulate the steps that the binary search algorithm goes through for 14 entries: (2009)
-15, -6, 0, 7, 9, 23, 50, 81, 99, 113, 230, 231, 142, 151.

83.
(2009)
84. Explain Hoares method of partitioning with suitable example. (2009)
85. What is Knapsack problem? (2009)

86.
(2009)
87. Simulate Kruskals algorithm for the following graph:-

(2009)

## 88. What is the time complexity of this algorithm? (2009)

89. Briefly describe about multistage graph. (2009)
90. What is all-pair shortest path problem? (2009)

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(2009)

## 92. Write an algorithm to determine the all-pair shortest paths. (2009)

93. What is optimal binary search tree? (2009)

94.
95.
96.
97.
98.

(2009)
Write down BFS algorithm. (2009)
Write down recursive backtracking algorithm for sum of subsets problem. (2009)
What is an algorithm? Write down the characteristics of an algorithm. (2008)
Why do we need to analyze algorithms? (2008)

99. What do you mean by time complexity? Calculate the time complexity of the following
algorithm:
(2008)

100.
101.
102.
103.

(2008)
What do you mean by performance measurement? (2008)
Show that the average case complexity of quick sort technique is O (n log n). (2008)
Write down the control abstractions for the divide-and-conquer strategy. (2008)

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104.
(2008)
105.
Write down the algorithm for finding the minimum and maximum number from a
number list using divide and conquer method. (2008)
106.
Define the spanning tree. Describe Prims algorithm that finding minimum cost spanning
tree with suitable example. (2008)
107.
Write down the difference between Greedy method and Dynamic programming. (2008)
108.
Differentiate between optimal solution and feasible solution. (2008)
109.
Write down the algorithm for greedy strategies for the Knapsack problem. (2008)
110.
What are the difference between breadth search and bin search? (2008)
111.
Write down the advantages and disadvantages of BFS and DFS traversal algorithm.
(2008)
112.
Discuss the optimal binary search trees problems. (2008)
113.
Consider the following directed graph and the edge lengths are given by matrix. Find the
optimal tour.
(2008)

114.
115.
116.
117.
118.
119.
120.

Define binary tree and skewed binary tree with an example. (2008)
Discuss the different traversal techniques of binary tree. (2008)
Prove that, BFS (Breadth First Search) visits all vertices reachable from V. (2008)
Write down the principal of optimality. (2008)
Differentiate backtracking and branch-bound method. (2008)
Discuss the 8queens problem. (2008)
Write down the algorithm for all pair shortest path. (2008)

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Chapter-1
Database Introduc on
1. Dene database and database management system (DBMS). Write down the
system. (2008,2010,2011)

2. What is Data abstrac on? Explain in brief dierent level in data abstrac on.
(2008,2010,2011)

## 3. Explain func onal component of database management system. (2008, 2011)

4. What do you mean by Database Administrator. The responsibili es/func on of a

5. What do you mean by rela onal database. Write down the advantages of
rela onal database. (2009)

6. Dene DDL and DML. What are the Dierence between procedural and nonprocedural DML.(2009)

## 7. Briey describe 3- er architecture of database management system. (2009)

8. Briey explain various opera on of rela onal database management system.
(2010)

9. What is an E-R diagram? construct an E-R diagram for a car insurance company.
Consider each customer owns a number of cars and each car is associated with a
number of recorded accident.(2008)

10.
11.
12.

## What do you mean by physical and logical data independence. (2011)

What is data model? Describe relational Data Model with example.(2008)

## What do you mean by instances and database schema. Dierence

between instances and database schema.

13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
8

## Explain dierent types of database language with example.

Explain transac on management.
Write some applica on of database system.
Explain storage management.
Dierence between DDL and DML.
Dierence between physical level and logical level.

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19.
20.
21.
22.

## Dierence between le processing and DBMS.

Describe dierent types of database system user.

models.

23.
24.

## Briey describe the two- er architecture of database management

system.

Chapter-2
En ty-Rela onship Model
1. Explain the en ty rela onship model.
2. Define entity, super key, attributes, candidate key and primary key with
appropriate example.(2008)

## 3. What do you mean by Entity, Entity set and Attributes? (2009)

4. What is mapping cardinalities? Describe various mapping cardinalities. (2009)
5. What do you mean by simple, single-Valued, Multivalued, Null and Derived
attributes?

6. Differentiate among super key, primary key, candidate key with example.
(2010)

## 7. Define foreign key. Why it is used.

8. What are the component of an E-R diagram?
9. Explain strong entity set & weak entity set. (2010) Explain difference between
strong entity set and weak entity set.

## 10. Explain Specialization and Generalization. What are the difference

between Specialization and Generalization.

## 11. Explain aggregation. Why it is used in E-R modeling.

12. What do you mean by Attribute Inheritance.
13. Define degree and tuple.
9

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Chapter-3
Relational Model
1. Consider the following Relational database where the primary keys are
underlined. Give an expression in the relational algebra to express each of the
following queries :
Employee (person-name, street, city);
Works (person-name, company-name, salary);
Company (company-name, manager-name);
Manager (person-name, manager-name);

i.
ii.

iii.
iv.

Find the names of all employees who do not work for First Bank
Corporation.
Find the names, street address, and cities of residence of all
employees who work for First Bank Corporation and earn more
than \$50,000 per annum.
Find the name of all employees who earn more than every
employee of Small Bank Corporation.
Find the name of all employees who live in the same city as the
company for which they work. (2008,2011)

2. Consider the following Relational database where the primary keys are
underlined. Give an expression in the relational algebra to express each of the
following queries :
Employee (person-name, street, city);
Works (person-name, company-name, salary);
Company (company-name, manager-name);
Manager (person-name, manager-name);
i.
ii.
iii.

10

Find the names of all employees who work for Trust Bank.
Find the name of all employee who live in the same city and same
street as Rana
Find the names, city of all employee who works for Trust bank and
earn more than \$5000.

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v.

List the employee names and their salary by manager name. (2009)

3. Consider the following Relational database where the primary keys are
underlined. Give an expression in the relational algebra to express each of the
following queries :
Works (loan-number, person-name, amount);
Borrower (account-number, loan-number);
Account (account-number, branch-name, balance);
Depositor (customer-name, account-number);
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

Find all customer of bank who have an account but not a loan.
Find the names of all customer who lives on the same street and in
the same city as Smith.
Find the names of all branches with customer who have an account
in the bank who live in Dhaka.
Delete all of Smith account records. (2010)

## 4. Explain the outer-join operation in Relational database with an example. Why

itisnecessary. (2010,2011)

cardinality?

## 6. Define relational algebra.

7. Determine the differences between tuple relational calculus and domain
relational calculus.

## 8. Write down the rules of relational model.

9. Explain the tuple relational calculus and domain relational calculus.
10.
What are the fundamental operations of relational algebra? Briefly
explain them.

11.

valid?

12.
13.

be valid?

14.
15.
11

## Explain the different aggregate functions of relational algebra.

Explain Deletion, Insertion and Updating operation.
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Chapter-4
SQL
1. Explain dierent parts of SQL.
2. Explain the basic structure of SQL.
3. Dene the rename opera on.
4. Explain the string opera ons.
5. Explain the set opera ons and aggregate func ons.
6. Dene views.
7. Explain the modica on of database using SQL.
8. Explain the data deni on language in SQL.
9. Explain domain types in SQL.
10.
Dene dierent schema deni ons in SQL.
11.
Dierence between rela on and rea on schema.
12.
Consider the following database where primary keys are underlined. Give
an expression in SQL for each of the following queries:
Branch(branch-name, branch-city, assets)
customer(customer-name, customer-street, customer city)
loan(loan-number, branch-name, amount)
Borrower(customer-name, loan-number)
account(account-number, branch-name, balance)
depositor(customer-name, account-number)
I. Find the average account balance at each branch.
II. Find the number of depositors for each branch.
III. Find the largest account balance in the bank.
IV. Find the total loan amounts. (2008,2011)

12

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13.

Consider the following database where primary keys are underlined. Give
an expression in SQL for each of the following queries:
Branch(branch-name, branch-city, assets)
customer(customer-name, customer-street, customer city)
loan(loan-number, branch-name, amount)
Borrower(customer-name, loan-number)
account(account-number, branch-name, balance)
depositor(customer-name, account-number)
i. Find all customer who have an account but no loan at bank.
ii. Find the number of depositors for each branch.
iii. Pay 5% interest on account whose balance is greater than the
average.
iv. Find the total loan amounts. (2009)

14.

Consider the following database where primary keys are underlined. Give
an expression in SQL for each of the following queries:
Lives (person-name, street, city)
Works (person-name, company-name, salary)
Located in (company-name, city)
Manages (person-name, manager-name)
I.
II.
III.

## Modify the database so that karim now lives in Dhaka.

Inserts the records in lives relation (Rahim,North,Dhaka)
Delete all tuples in the works relation for employees of Small Bank
Corporation.
Find those companies who have an average salary of more than \$30,000. (2010)

13

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Chapter-6
Intermediate SQL
1.

What dou you mean by transac on? Show and explainthe state diagram of
a transac on. (2008,2010)

2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.

## Dene local transac on and global transac on. (2010)

Explain consistency, atomicity and durability.
Explain the concurrent execu on with an example comparing with serial
execu on of transac ons.
Dene serializability. Explain the conict and view serializability.
Explain the cascadeless schedules and recoverable schedules.

Chapter-7
Integrity Constraints And Relational
Database Design
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

14

## What do you mean by Domain Constraints?

What are Assertions?
What do you mean by Triggers?
What do you mean by Functional Dependency?(2009,2010,2011) Explain
full and partial functional dependencies with example. (2008)
Explain the ways of using functional dependences.
Write down the rules of Functional Dependency.
What dou you mean by normalization? Explain different forms of Normal
Form. (2011)
Explain Boyee-Code Normal Form(BCNF) with example.(2008)
Explain multivalued dependency (MVD).
Explain not null constraint, unique constraint.

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11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

## Describe referen al integrity.

What do you mean by transitive dependency?
Explain superkey in terms of functional dependency.
Explain trivial and nontrivial dependencies.
Explain join dependencies.
Show that join dependency is not equivalent to multi-valued dependency.
Normalize with explanation the following table into 1NF, 2NF and 3NF :PROJECT (Proj-ID, Proj-Name, Pro-Mgr-ID, Emp-ID, Emp-name, Emp-Dept,
Emp-Hrly-rate, Total-Hrs) (2008,2010)

18.

Normalize with explanation the following table into 1NF, 2NF and 3NF :Emp-proj (SSN, Pnumber, hours, Ename, Pname, Ddate Address, Pnumber,
Plocation, Dnames, DMGss) (2009)

19.
20.

## Explain the difference between BCNF and 3NF.(2009)

Consider the following set of functional dependencies on schema (A,B,C):A - BC
B - C
A - B
AB- C
Calculate the canonical cover for F. (2009)

21.
22.

## Describe the Armstrongs rules. (2010)

Compute the closure of the following set F of Functional dependencies for
relation schema: (2010,2011)
R = (A, B, C, D, E, F)
A - BC
CD - E
B - D
E - A

23.
24.

15

## Explain the desirable properties of decomposition. (2011)

What do you mean by lossless and lossy decompositions? Give examples.
(2008)

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Chapter-12
Indexing and Hashing
1. What is indexing and hashing?
2. Why indexing is used in database?
3. Define primary and secondary indices.
4. What are the difference between primary and secondary index?(2011)
5. Explain the types of indices.
6. Explain why dense indices are preferable.
7. Write short notes on B+ -Tree index files.
8. Write short notes on Hash file organization.
9. Difference between B Tree and B+ -tree indexing.(2009)
10. Define multilevel indexing. When it is preferable to use a multilevel index rather
than a single-level index? Explain. (2010, 2011)
11. What are the limitation of order indexing over direct indexing technique? (2009)
12. What are the dierence between dense and spares indexing. (2009)

16

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## Computer Organization and Architecture

1. What is Computer Architecture? Why we need to learn Computer Architecture? (2012)
2. Discuss the main functional units of a digital computer. (2012)
3. What is instruction? Explain the processing steps of an instruction of CPU. (2012)
4. Draw the expanded structure of ISA computer and describe its function. (2012)
5. Define memory. Differentiate between SRAM and DRAM. (2012)
6. Define Flip Flop. Design a 4-bit carry look-ahead adder and mention its work. (2012)
7. How can we measure the cost and performance of a memory? (2012)
8. Define flash memory, cache memory and virtual memory. (2012)
9. What are the characteristics of a good instruction format? (2012)
10. What do you mean by addressing mode? Discuss about immediate, indexed, relative
and base register addressing modes. (2012)
11. What is instruction cycle? Discuss the instruction cycle state diagram with interrupts.
(2012)
12. Draw and explain the high performance bus structure. (2012)
13. What do you mean by twos complement? Describe with an example. (2012)
14. Draw the flow chart for unsigned binary division. (2012)
15. Draw the Block diagram of the AM 2901 bit slice processor. (2012)
16. Briefly describe two level subroutine nesting. (2012)
17. What is the key principle behind systolic array processor? (2012)
18. Describe the methods used to handle branches in a pipeline instruction execution unit.
(2012)
19. Draw the internal structure of the CPU. (2012)
20. Classify and explain the parallel processing computers M.S Flynns. (2012)
21. Write short notes on:
a. Direct Memory Access (DMA). (2012)
b. Digital Signal Processor. (2012)
c. Parallel Processing. (2012)
d. Data Flow Computing. (2012)
e. Data Registers. (2012)
f. Memory Organization. (2012)
22. What is Computer Architecture? Discuss the structure of the IBM system/360 with
proper block diagram. (2011)
23. Describe the characteristics of RISC and CISC processor. (2011)
25. What is instruction set? Discuss briefly. (2011)
26. What is cache memory? Define write-through and write-back policy. (2011)
27. What do you mean by associative memory? Write down the advantages and drawbacks of
associative memory. (2011)

17

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28. What is system bus? Briefly discuss the elements of bus design. (2011)
29. Explain the function of high performance bus structure. (2011)
30. What do you mean by pipeline processing? Mention the advantages of pipeline processing.
(2011)

## 31. Describe ALU with proper diagram. (2011)

32. Explain Booths algorithm for twos complement multiplication. (2011)
33. What is register? Draw the Register Organization of Pentium-2 processor. (2011)
34. Define micro-operation. Classify micro-operation. Write down the steps for characterization of
control unit. (2011)
35. What is control signal? Draw the mode of control unit and describe the different types of control
signals. (2011)
36. Write down the function of DMA controller to transfer data between CPU and I/O devices.
(2011)

## 37. Define interface. Describe the significance of I/O interface. (2011)

38. What is memory? Discuss various memory units that have very different performance and cost.
(2011)

## 39. Discuss computer system organized around a PCI bus. (2011)

40. Describe the attached and SIMD array processor. (2011)
41. Define interrupt. Explain various interrupts with examples. (2011)
42. What is vector processing? Calculate the inner products of matrix multiplication by using vector
processing. (2011)
43. Add the following two floating point numbers by arithmetic pipeline processing:a. X=0.9504*10^3.
b. Y=0.8200*10^2.
44. Discuss between Computer Architecture and Organization. (2010)
45. What are the difference between RISC and CISC processor? (2010)

(2011)

46. Draw the expanded structure of ISA computer and describe its functions. (2010)
47. Define memory. Draw the 4*4 RAM using 1K*4 chips. (2010)
48. What is memory mapping? Describe the direct and set associative mapping. (2010)
49. The access time of a cache memory is 50ns and that of the main memory is 500ns. It is
estimated that 90% of the main memory request are for READ and the remaining are for WRITE.
The hit ratio for read access only is 0.8 and write-through policy is used.
a. Determine the average access time considering only the read cycles.
b. What is average time if the write requests are also taken into consideration.
(2010)
50. Define micro operations. Explain the sequence of events of fetch cycle by micro-operation.
(2010)
51. What is pipelining? What are the criteria of pipelining? Define the arithmetic pipelining for
floating point numbers. (2010)

## 52. Explain Huffman encoding technique OP-code encoding. (2010)

53. Show the connection between the processor and the main memory and explain the basic
operations. (2010)

18

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54. What is I/O module? List the main function. How a external device connected to the CPU
through the I/O module? (2010)
55. What do you mean by interrupt? State the steps for interrupt service routine. (2010)
56. Explain the function of a CPU using e flowchart. (2010)

## 57. Write the function of a CPU. (2010)

58. Elaborate the concept of a simple accumulator based CPU with necessary diagram. (2010)
59. What are the different types of instruction? (2010)
(2010)
61. Define micro-instructions. Difference between horizontal and vertical micro-instructions. (2010)

62. What are the functions of ALU? Describe the organization of floating point ALU. (2010)
63. What is parallel processing? What are the advantages and disadvantages of parallel processing?
(2010)

## 64. What do you understand by fetch execution cycle? (2010)

65. Draw the block diagram of IAS computer architecture and mention the function of the register.
(2009)

66. Describe the hardware and software approaches of programming briefly. (2009)
67. Define interrupt. What are the different classes of interrupts? (2009)
68. In the interrupt cycle, the processor checks to see if any interrupts have accurred. What does
the processor do if an interrupt is pending? What are the two approaches to deal with multiple
interrupts? (2009)
69. What are the types of transfers the interconnection structure must support? (2009)
70. What is system bus? What are the operations of the bus if one module wishes to transfer data
to/from another module? (2009)
71. Describe the high-performance bus architecture briefly. (2009)
72. Describe the various types of data transfer the bus supports. (2009)

73. Explain with the block diagram of hardware for addition and subtraction. (2009)
74. Explain Booths algorithm twos complement multiplication. (2009)
75. Give an algorithm for the unsigned binary division and draw its flowchart. (2009)
76. How can you design a cache memory (look aside and look through) system? Describe with
necessary diagram. (2009)
77. Discuss the characteristics of a main memory. Briefly explain the organization of ROM. (2009)

## 78. Explain memory hierarchy. (2009)

79. Differentiate between SRAM and DRAM. (2009)
80. What is instruction pipelining? Describe the logic needed for pipelining to account for branches
and interrupts using a six-range CPU instruction pipeline. (2009)

81. Name the various approaches for dealing with conditional branches. Describe branch
prediction approaches briefly. (2009)
82. If the last operation performed on a computer with an 8-bit word was an addition in
which the two operands were2 and 3, what would be the value of following flags?
(2009)

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a. Carry.
b. Zero.
c. Overflow.
d. Sign.
e. Even parity.

Half-carry.
83. Elaborate the concept of the small accumulator based CPU with necessary diagram.
(2009)
84. What do you mean by instruction cycle and fault tolerance? What is the difference
between RISC and CISC processor? (2009)
85. Give the Flynns classification of parallel architectures and discuss the characteristics of
each class. (2009)
86. Differentiate between computer architecture and computer organization. (2008)
87. Draw the expanded structure of the IAS computer and mention the function of the
registers. (2008)
88. Diagrammatically show the instruction cycle with interrupt. (2008)
89. What do you mean by instruction? Describe different types of instruction. (2008)
90. What are the factors of consideration in designing computer bus? (2008)
91. What is computer bus? Briefly explain the different types of bus architecture. (2008)
92. Define the terms: Seek time and Access time. (2008)
93. Explain Huffman encoding technique for op-code encoding. (2008)
94. Design a 4-bit carry-lookahead adder and mention how it works. How many gates delays
will require in 4-bit ripple carry adder to get the sum? (2008)
95. Show the step-by-step multiplication of (-9) and (-13) using Booth algorithm. (2008)
96. Mr. Smith want a micro-computer system which has the ability to execute one
instruction and op-code and address fields of the instruction code can accessed
simultaneously. Which type of processor (RISC or CISC) he should use and why? (2008)
97. What do you mean by memory-mapped I/O? Write two difference between program
controlled I/O and Interrupt. (2008)
98. What is bus arbitration in DMA? Three devices A, B and C having identity numbers 3, 4
and 6 respectively, are requesting the use of the single system bus. How it will be solved
in distributed arbitration process? (2008)
99. Define the followings:a. Micro-operation. (2008)
b. Hardware control unit. (2008)
c. Micro program control unit. (2008)
100.
What are the advantages of Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC). Explain
briefly the characteristics of Reduced Instruction Set Architecture (RISC). (2008)
101.
Sketch triple modular redundancy (TMR). (2008)
f.

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DATA COMMUNICATION
1. Define Data Communication. Briefly explain the simplified model of data
communication. (2012)
2. What are the differences between half-duplex and full-duplex transmission models?
(2012)
3. Explain the functions of transport layer and network layer of OSI reference model.
(2012)
(2012)
5. What is transmission impairments? Explain the types of transmission impairments.
(2012)
6. What do you mean by Nyquist bandwidth and Shannon capacity rate? (2012)
7. What are the bit rate and band rate? A signal os carrying four bits in each signal
element. If 1000 signal elements are sent per second, find the bit rate and band rate.
(2012)
8. Sketch the signal waveforms of NRZ-L, NRZ-I and Manchester encoding scheme for
101100111. (2012)
9. What is multiplexing? Explain synchronous time division multiplexing techniques. (2012)
10. Which of the three multiplexing techniques are common for fiber optic link? Explain the
reason. (2012)
11. Two channels, one with a bit rate of 150kbs and another with a bit rate of 140kbs are to
the multiplexed using pulse stuffing TDM with no synchronous bits. Answer the
following questions:a. What is the size of a frame in bits?
b. What is the frame rate?
c. What is the duration of a frame?
d. What is the data rate?
(2012)
12. What is VSAT? Discuss VSAT communication system with configuration. (2012)
13. Describe ASK, FSK, and PSK with figure. (2012)
14. Write down the digital signal encoding format. (2012)
15. Explain error detection process. (2012)
16. Describe the model of frame transmission for flow control. (2012)
17. Describe the adaptive routing strategies in the packet switch network. (2012)
18. What are the steps of sliding window flow control? Describe. (2012)
19. Write short notes:a. TCP/IP. (2012)
b. Channel capacity. (2012)
c. Wireless transmission. (2012)

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d. CRC. (2012)
e. Digital switch. (2012)
f. Packet Switching Networks. (2012)
20. Define Standard. State and explain the characteristics of data communication system.
(2011)
21. What is protocol? What are the key elements of protocol? (2011)
22. Describe TCP/IP model. (2011)
23. Briefly discuss about the Nyquist bandwidth and Shanon capacity formula. (2011)
24. Define the terms frequency spectrum and bandwidth of a signal. (2011)
25. What types of impairments are common in data communication? Describe different
types of noise. (2011)
26. Using Shannons formula estimates the channel capacity of a voice grade telephone line
having S/N ratio of 30dB and land width 3400Hz. (2011)
27. Name the common guide transmission media and give the physical description
application areas and transmission characteristics of any of them. (2011)
28. Depict and describe VSAT communication system and explain it. (2011)
29. Why scrambling techniques is used for digital to digital encoding? Depict and describe
B8ZS or HDB3. (2011)
30. Distinguish between Am, FM and PM. (2011)
31. Describe CRC technique for error detection. (2011)
32. Describe the procedure of dial up operation using the interface of EIA-232 interface.
(2011)
33. What is multiplexing? Describe synchronous time division multiplexing with figure.
(2011)
34. What is packet switching? Mention the advantages of packet Switching over circuit
switching. (2011)
35. Describe asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) with respect to switching mode, Packet
size, ATM cells. (2011)
36. State necessity of Frame Relay in communication network. (2011)
37. With diagram, explain frequency division multiplexing (FDM). (2011)
38. Distinguish between synchronous statistical TDM. (2011)
39. With diagram describe the architecture of a three stage space division switch. (2011)
40. Describe the advantage and disadvantages of Optical fiber and twisted pair cable in
brief. (2011)
41. Describe propagation of light through optical fiber. (2011)
42. Write short note with necessary diagram:
a. QPSK.
b. HDLC. (2011)
c. Null Modem. (2011)
d. Cellular system. (2011)

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## e. Channel capacity. (2011)

43. What is the fundamental purpose of Data Communication? (2010)
44. Describe simplified Data Communication Model with block diagram. (2010)
45. Define Guided an unguided Media. (2010)
46. What are the activities of each layer in The OSI Layers. (2010)
47. Explain the basic principles of ASK and FSK. (2010)
48. What is constellation diagram? Show the constellation diagram of QPSK. (2010)
49. What do you mean by line coding and block coding? Encode the bit stream 10110101 by
Manchester and differential Manchester encoding techniques. (2010)
50. What are bit rate and baud rate? A signal is carrying four bits in each signal element. If
1000 signal elements are sent per second, find the bit rate and baud rate. (2010)
51. What is multiplexing? Explain how FDM combines multiple signals into one. (2010)
52. Discuss synchronous TDM with diagram. Distinguish between multilevel TDM and
multiple slot TDM. (2010)
53. With a net diagram explain the interleaving technique. (2010)
54. Describe the Setup Request phase of a Virtual Circuit Network (VCN). (2010)
55. Construct the Hamming code for the bit sequence 10011101. (2010)
56. Assuming even parity, find the parity bit for each of the following unit:a. 1001011. (2010)
b. 1110111. (2010)
57. Given a remainder of 111, a data unit of 10110011 and a divisor of 1001, find whether
there is an error or not in the data unit. (2010)
58. What is crossbar switch? What is its major limitation? Explain how a multistage switch
overcomes the limitations of the crossbar switch. (2010)
59. Explain satellite transmission with VSAT configuration. (2010)
60. What are the important applications of satellite? (2010)
61. What is the base of pulse code modulation? Why delta modulation is used? (2010)
62. Data exchange over a transmission line can be classified as full duplex and half duplex.
Compare this two ways of transmission. (2010)
63. What is flow control? Describe the process of stop and wait control with necessary
diagram. (2010)
64. Explain the operation of stop and wait ARQ error control method in case of lost and
damages frames. (2010)
65. What is sliding window? What is the purpose of it? A sliding window protocol uses a
window of size 15. How many bits are needed to define the sequence number? (2010)
66. What is ISDN? Discuss different types of channels used in ISDN. (2010)
67. Illustrate a communication model in simplified form. (2008)
68. Briefly describe major communication task that involved in data communication. (2008)
69. Distinguish between LAN and WAN. (2008)

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70. What do you mean by network protocol? Compare TCP/IP protocol suite and OSI
reference model. (2008)
71. Define the term frequency, spectrum and bandwidth of a signal. (2008)
72. What are major transmission impairments? Explain. Write down about thermal noise.
(2008)
73. Using Shannons formula, estimate the channel capacity of a voice grade telephone line
having S/N ratio of 30dB and bandwidth 3400Hz. (2008)
74. Name the common guided transmission media and give the physical description,
application areas and transmission characteristics of one of them. (2008)
75. Write down the advantage of packet switching over a circuit switching. (2008)
76. Distinguish between datagram and virtual circuit with diagram. (2008)
77. Write short notes on any two of the following:a. Microwave transmission. (2008)
b. Time Division Switch. (2008)
c. Cellular System. (2008)
d. Amplitude Modulation (AM). (2008)
78. What are three popular ARQ mechanisms for error control in data communications?
(2008)
79. How does ARQ correct an error? (2008)
80. How does Go-Back-N ARQ differ from Selective Repeat ARQ? (2008)
81. Write down the types of HDLC frames and give a brief description of each. (2008)
82. Write down about basic characteristics of HDLC protocol. Briefly explain its frame
format. (2008)
83. With figure explain FDM. Distinguish between Synchronous and Statistical TDM. (2008)
84. Explain CRC technique for error detection. (2008)
85. Describe with diagram the advantages and multistage stage division switch with
diagram. (2008)
86. Why is FM superior to AM? (2008)
87. Compare the FM bandwidth with the AM bandwidth. (2008)
88. What are the advantages of QAM over ASK and PSK. (2008)
89. Given a bandwidth of 5000Hz for an 8-PSK signal. Calculate the band rate and bit rate.
(2008)

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ECONOMICS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

## State the definition of economics. (2012)

The scope of economics is very large-Is it true? Describe. (2012)
Distinguish between Microeconomics and Macroeconomics. (2012)
What are the basic problems of an economic organization? Explain. (2012)
Describe the concept of Production Possibility Frontier (PPF) with example. (2012, 2011)
Describe about aggregate demand and aggregate supply. (2012)
Discuss about the circular flow of income. (2012)
What is market? Describe different characteristics of a perfectly competitive market.
(2012)
9. What are the determinants of Investment? (2012)
10. Define personal income and disposable income. (2012)
11. What is marginal efficiency of capital? Why MEC curve slope downward? (2012)
12. Distinguish between MPC and MPS. (2012)
13. Describe about the concept of multiplier and accelator. (2012)
14. Distinguish between GDP and GNP. (2012)
15. What are the problems of national income accounting? (2012)
16. What is elasticity? Describe different types of price elasticity. (2012, 2011)
17. Explain the law of diminishing marginal utility with exceptions. (2012)
18. Describe the two measurement method of utility. (2012)
19. Define production function with input-output relationship. (2012)
20. What is least cost rule? In which situation a producer will shut down under perfectly
competitive market? (2012)
21. What is market? Describe the classification of market. (2012)
22. Explain the equilibrium situation of a firm under monopoly market. (2012)
23. Explain how income and employment determined under Keynesian model. (2012)
24. What happens if we move from the equilibrium position of income and employment
determination? (2012)
25. Define inflationary gap and deflationary gap. (2012)
26. Explain Simon Kuznetss Puzzle. (2012)
27. Economics is a science of choice-Discuss. (2011)
28. Distinguish between Positive and Normative economics. (2011)
29. What is the law of demand? Why does demand curve slope downward? (2011)
30. At the equilibrium point. Demand=Supply.-explain. (2011)
31. What are the effect on price and quantity if the demand and supply curve shift? (2011)
32. What is utility? Draw a utility curve from a hypothetical utility schedule. (2011)
33. What is production function? Describe the law of diminishing returns of production.
(2011)

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35. Describe the relation between total cost (TC) and marginal cost (MC). (2011)
36. Describe opportunity cost with example. (2011)
37. Describe the short run and long run equilibrium condition of a firm. (2011)
38. Define the profit maximizing condition of a firm in a perfect competitive market. (2011)
39. What is market? Describe different features of a market. (2011)
40. Distinguish between monopoly market and perfect competitive market. (2011)
41. Define different objectives of macroeconomics. (2011)
42. Describe the subject matters of macroeconomics. (2011)
43. Explain aggregate demand and aggregate supply. (2011)
44. Why does MEC curve slope down? (2011)
45. Distinguish between real GDP and nominal GDP. (2011)
46. Explain the concept of MPC and MPS. (2011)
47. What do you mean by employment? (2011)
48. Consumption and investment are complementary during deflation but competitive at
full employment.-Discuss. (2011)
49. What are the differences between multiplier and accelerator? (2011)
50. Define Economics. Describe the major branches of economics. (2010)
51. What is demand? Draw a demand curve from a demand schedule. (2010)
52. What are the fundamental problems of economic organization? How these problems
can be solved? (2010)
53. Is Economics a science or an Arts? Explain. (2010)
54. What is the law of supply? Why supply curve is upward slope? Explain. (2010)
55. What is elasticity? Narrate about different types of elasticity. (2010)
56. How can you reach the equilibrium point in a perfectly competitive market? (2010)
57. Distinguish between total and marginal utility. (2010)
58. What is the least cost rule? In which situation a producer will shut down its production
under a competitive market? (2010)
59. How technological change can affect the production function? (2010)
60. Illustrate the law of diminishing marginal utility with exceptions. (2010)
61. Briefly discuss about the determinants of investment. (2010)
62. What is market? Describe the classification of market. (2010)
63. What is inflation? What are the objectives of macroeconomics. (2010)
a. GDP deflator. (2010)
b. National income. (2010)
c. MPC. (2010)
d. CPI. (2010)
e. Disposable income. (2010)
65. Distinguish between fiscal policy and monetary policy. (2010)
66. Describe the interaction in between aggregate demand and aggregate supply. (2010)

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## 67. Describe different method of national income accounting. (2010)

68. Why total cost fall as you increase the number of production? (2010)
69. What is Production Possibility Frontier? (2010)
70. Describe different determinants of Demand. What are the exceptions of law of
Demand? (2010)
71. Describe about Total cost (TC), Variable cost (VC), marginal cost (MC) with example.
(2010)
72. Distinguish between competition and monopoly market. (2010)
73. Distinguish between micro and macro economics. (2009)
74. What is elasticity of Demand? Explain different types of price elasticity of demand.
(2009)
75. What are the determinants of Supply? (2009)
76. Illustrate the law of diminishing marginal utility with exceptions. (2009)
77. Explain the determination of market equilibrium through interrelation between demand
and supply. (2009)
78. Discuss the different types of returns to scale. (2009)
79. Discuss the concept of circular flow of national income under simple two sector
economy. (2009)
80. What is Consumer Price Index (CPI) and the GDP Deflator? (2009)
81. Explain the features of short run and long run consumption function. (2009)
82. What do you mean by perfect competition market and profit maximization? (2009)
83. Discuss the characteristics of perfect competition market. (2009)
84. Describe the market equilibrium. (2009)
85. What is marginal propensity of consumer? (2009)
86. Prove that: (2009)
a. APC+APS=1.
b. MPC+MPS=1
87. Graphically explain the concept of circular flow of national income in simple two sector
economy. (2009)
88. Define accelerator. (2009)
89. What are the differences between multiplier and accelerator? (2009)
90. Why does MPC curve slope downward? (2009)
91. Explain the Microeconomics. (2008)
92. What is demand in economics? State the law of demand. (2008)
93. Define Total utility and Marginal utility. (2008)
94. Explain consumers behavior. (2008)
95. What are the fundamental problems facing an economy? (2008)
96. How these problems can be solved? (2008)
97. Define production function with input-output relationship. (2008)
98. Define monopoly market with their characteristics. (2008)

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99. Explain the process of price and output determination under a monopoly market. (2008)
100.
Explain macroeconomics. (2008)
101.
Define aggregate demand and aggregate supply. (2008)
102.
What is Gross National Product and Net National Product? (2008)
103.
Explain Production method and Income method for computing national income.
(2008)
104.
Explain consumption function. (2008)
105.
What is Investment Multiplier? (2008)
106.
Explain how Income and Employment is determined under the Keynesian Model.
(2008)
107.
What happens if we move from the equilibrium position of Income
determination? (2008)
108.
What are the determinants of Investment? (2008)

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