© All Rights Reserved

5 views

© All Rights Reserved

- Garland AUC2008
- Carl T. Herakovich-A Concise Introduction to Elastic Solids_ an Overview of the Mechanics of Elastic Materials and Structures-Springer (2017)
- Navier Stokes Equation
- Models.sme.Thick Plate
- ZhangThesis
- Free
- Stress Concentration in Plates With Reinforced Cutouts arumugam Anna University, Chennai, India
- Introduction to Concrete Design Eurocodes
- Notes
- Www.bridge.t.u-tokyo.ac.Jp Apss Lectures Prof.johnson July16 APSS2010
- Livro - The Theory of Elasticty Por Filoneko-Borodich
- Machanics of Solids
- Anastasia Doikou- A note on the boundary spin s XXZ chain
- Eigenvalues.pdf
- 1-s2.0-S1359431114007789-main.pdf
- tech write project 2
- DME1
- Stress
- Indonesian Math Contes for University Student Local Selection
- dimi

You are on page 1of 17

types are considered:

1) Body forces . Which are generally forces per unit volume. For

gravitational forces, these depend on the mass distribution within

the body. These are generally non-contact forces.

2) Surface forces . These are forces per unit area acting along

surfaces of elemental volumes and are contact forces with adjacent

parts of the body. These forces give rise to the concept of traction

on external and internal surfaces. The traction on an external

surface of the body is related to the applied force by

where

the point P.

centered on

Units of traction and stress are in force/area. In cgs, the units of stress

are dyne/cm2. In SI, the units of stress are 1 Newton/m2 = 1 Pascal (1 Pascal =

10 dyne/cm2). Other units are

1 bar = 106 dyne/cm2 = 105 Pascals

1 bar = 1.0133 Atmospheres

1 kilobar = 15,000 lb/in2

body. Consider a bar under tension

, results in tractions

on the ends.

Now, cut the bar and apply forces on the two sides of the cut so that the

shape of either section of bar remains unchanged. Equilibrium requires

that

. Thus,

the arbitrary internal surface that we have constructed.

In 3-D, consider a cut of area

applied to the side with normal

at a point P. Let

on

be the force

Again,

Thus, as in the case for the bar, the tractions on either side of the cut are of the

same magnitude, but opposite in sign.

If we made cuts in other directions, say with normals and , we

would obtain different values for the internal traction at P. Note that for a

fluid, the pressure is related to the traction by

for any . But in a

solid, the magnitude and direction of the traction depends on the orientation of

the surface element

.

Ex) Consider the walls of a house.

P,

will be non-zero and large.

. But, at point

at a given point depending on the orientation of the small surface. But,

Cauchy proved, that in fact all the various tractions at P can be derived from a

set of six numbers collectively grouped as the stress tensor.

Stress Tensor

The idea is instead of defining tractions on arbitrarily oriented planes

at point P, we define tractions on the coordinate planes

where

where and

are unit vectors in the x1 and x2 directions. The vectors are

oriented in the conventional positive directions. Thus,

would be

positive if they stretch the material. Also, on the opposite faces

in which

are tensional or compressive stresses

are shear stresses

, where i is normal to coordinate

plane in which the traction acts and j indicates the component of the traction

vector.

Cauchy showed that the stresses on any plane through an internal point

P can be written as a linear combination of the elements of the stress

tensor. This is a fundamental theorem of solid mechanics. Consider the

triangle in 2D (tetrahedron in 3-D)

is

.

Now we must find the condition of equilibrium of the

triangle. Balancing forces in the x1 and x2 directions gives

In the x1 direction:

In the x2 direction:

or

From geometry

We then find

Thus, the knowledge of the stress tensor

stress around the point P.

In order to prevent the body from spinning, we also require that the net

torque be zero. Evaluating the torque for a reference point at the center of the

square, we get

where

is a force and

tensor is symmetrical, where

with

,

, and

. Thus, only six numbers are

needed to completely describe the state of stress of an internal point P in a

body.

It is important to separate between the isotropic and deviatoric part of

the stress tensor . We define

minus sign is used to require P to be positive when it is compressive. The

stress elements themselves are positive in tension. We rewrite

or in index notation

where

as

. For a hydrostatic increase of

stress with depth due to a uniform overburden, then

acceleration of gravity. As an example, the hydrostatic pressure at a depth of

10 km underneath a thickness of rock with an average density of 3000

kilograms/m3 is

P = (3000 kilograms/m3) (10 x 103 m) (9.8 m/s2)

= 2.94 x 108 Pascals ~ 294 MPa

= 2.94 kbars

At an average thickness of the crust of 30 km, the hydrostatic pressure would

be on the order of 1 GPa or 10 kbars.

related to the components in the original system by a coordinate rotation

matrix . For example, the components of the vector

coordinate systems, can be written

above, in two

where the components of are the direction cosines between the old and new

coordinate axes. The rotation matrix is,

As an example, if

Let

, then

, then

since these are orthogonal

matrices. Now assume a general relationship between two vectors and

and

can be written

or

Thus,

with

. This general relationship has the same form in any rotated

coordinate system with the coefficients depending on the orientation of the

coordinate system.

Now, consider the traction vector on an internal plane with normal

Since

or

with

Now, we choose so that

is a diagonal matrix. In this special

coordinate system, all the shear stresses are zero and the normal stresses are

called the principle stresses acting with respect to the three rotated coordinate

axes. Let

where

axes. Then,

or for each

can be written as

, then

of

, the determinant

to solve for . Next solve for the eigenvectors and make sure to adjust

to unit length. Standard computer software, such as Matlab, can be used to

find the principle stresses

(i = 1,3).

. Since these are positive

for tensional stresses, provides the maximum compressive stress. There

are no shear or tangential stresses act on these new coordinate faces, only

normal stresses.

In the 2-D case, it is useful to derive these relations in detail

Let

and

where

. Then,

as

If we let

to be

Since

If

, then,

stress. Thus,

2D. From

, we find that

on planes with normal 45o from the maximum compressive stress direction.

This gives rise to the simplest theory of faulting where shear failure

occurs on planes of maximum shear stress with normals at 45 o from the axis

of maximum compressional stress.

If rocks possess a cohesive strength and internal friction, the angle will

generally be different from 45o. In 3D, different regimes of faulting can be

inferred depending on the orientations of the principle stress directions

For example, normal faulting, thrust faulting, and strike-slip faulting

result when the principle stress directions are oriented as below.

then,

Thus,

Then

and

These must then be normalized to unit length to get

formulas

and

stress have been developed based on orientations of earthquake faulting and in

situ stress measurements. One technique for finding this is from breakout

zones in boreholes which align with the principle stress directions and are

often consistent over regional distances.

A solid body is in static equilibrium when the resultant force and moment on each axis

is equal to zero. This can be expressed by the equilibrium equations. In this article we

will prove the equilibrium equations by calculating the resultant force and moment on

each axis. A more elegant solution may be derived by using Gausss theorem and

Cauchys formula. This approach may be found in international bibliography.

Consider a solid body in static equilibrium that neither moves nor rotates. Surface and

body forces act on this body. We cut an infinitesimal parallelepiped inside the body and

we analyze the forces that act on it as shown in Fig. 1. We will assume that the stress

field is continuous and differentiable inside the whole body.

The stress components on each side is a function of the position since we have a non

uniform but continuous stress field. For example on side 4 the normal stress

is

. On the opposite side 2 the normal stress

is

. By taking under consideration Taylors theorem we may write:

(1)

The higher order terms have been neglected because they are relatively small. We

follow the same procedure for all the components as shown if Fig. 1.

Equilibrium of the body demand that the resultant forces must vanish. By summing up

the forces with direction parallel to axis

we get:

(2)

where

,

and

are the dimensions of the parallelepiped and

component of the body force parallel to . By dividing with

we get:

is the

(3)

Similarly we can obtain the equations for the other two directions. The final set of

equilibrium equations is:

(4)

By using index notation we may write the three equilibrium equations in compact form:

(5)

The resultant moment on each axis must also vanish. By taking under consideration all

the forces that contribute to moment about axis

we may write:

(6)

by dividing with

derive:

and

we

(7)

Following the same procedure for the other two axes lead to the conclusion that the

stress tensor is symmetric:

(8)

It should be noted that the above symmetry holds true only if no external body

moments proportional to volume exist. Else, the stress tensor should be considered

asymmetric. However, for the majority of Rock Mechanics problems the stress tensor is

symmetric.

For the case of two dimensional problems, equilibrium equations simplify as follows:

(9)

Example

Consider a solid body which is subject to the following stresses:

(10)

Calculate the body forces in order to achieve static equilibrium.

Solution

The resultant force on each axis must vanish. By using equations (4) we get:

(11)

(12)

(13)

Suggested Bibliography

Y.C. Fung. A First Course in Continuum Mechanics. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs,

New Jersey, 3rd ed., 1994.

L.E. Malvern. Introduction to the Mechanics of a Continuous Medium. Prentice Hall,

Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1969.

J.N. Reddy. An Introduction to Continuum Mechanics. Cambridge University Press,

Cambridge, 2008.

- Garland AUC2008Uploaded byklomps_jr
- Carl T. Herakovich-A Concise Introduction to Elastic Solids_ an Overview of the Mechanics of Elastic Materials and Structures-Springer (2017)Uploaded byManuelPérez
- Navier Stokes EquationUploaded byAbhishek Ghosh
- Models.sme.Thick PlateUploaded byMenthor555
- FreeUploaded byGaurav Kumar Singh
- ZhangThesisUploaded byDebabrata Podder
- Stress Concentration in Plates With Reinforced Cutouts arumugam Anna University, Chennai, IndiaUploaded bydeviprasadh.a
- Introduction to Concrete Design EurocodesUploaded byhero
- NotesUploaded byMayank Kumar
- Www.bridge.t.u-tokyo.ac.Jp Apss Lectures Prof.johnson July16 APSS2010Uploaded bymaudgeesjedirkje
- Livro - The Theory of Elasticty Por Filoneko-BorodichUploaded byAndré
- Machanics of SolidsUploaded byKishlaya Kashyap
- Anastasia Doikou- A note on the boundary spin s XXZ chainUploaded byPo48HSD
- Eigenvalues.pdfUploaded bycaleb castillo
- 1-s2.0-S1359431114007789-main.pdfUploaded byByron
- tech write project 2Uploaded byapi-287128098
- DME1Uploaded byGanesh Ram
- StressUploaded byhendro
- Indonesian Math Contes for University Student Local SelectionUploaded bysiregarfamily
- dimiUploaded byMabelus Burger
- A-184 - 96Uploaded byJosé Ramón Gutierrez
- 4597-AAB-SC-09 R0v1 33Uploaded bydanieldumapit
- 9231_w12_qp_13Uploaded byChristopher Barrett
- 1.pdfUploaded bytkaj15
- kumar2016.pdfUploaded byhoudafrea
- Analysis of StressUploaded byarijit-nandi-7153
- 1-s2.0-004579499400528B-mainUploaded byDimvoulg Civil
- Gate 2016 PaperUploaded byAnju Sunil
- Traub Algebraic Theory of Matrix PolynomialsUploaded bytennajrox
- IV b.tech II Sem i Mid Exam Qp _pad (24!01!2019)Uploaded bysubhansamuels

- Product oUploaded byIsabel Krizel Sánchez
- AtaUploaded byIsabel Krizel Sánchez
- Second ViscosityUploaded byIsabel Krizel Sánchez
- FrettingUploaded byIsabel Krizel Sánchez
- University of PanamaUploaded byIsabel Krizel Sánchez
- Asignacion#2 Isabel Sanchez 8-872-2437 1aa241Uploaded byIsabel Krizel Sánchez
- MachUploaded byIsabel Krizel Sánchez
- Aeronautica 2016Uploaded byIsabel Krizel Sánchez
- A350XWBUploaded byIsabel Krizel Sánchez
- Mechanics of composite _UTPUploaded byIsabel Krizel Sánchez
- Airfoil STOLUploaded byIsabel Krizel Sánchez
- Patrol Flying ReportUploaded byIsabel Krizel Sánchez
- Aerolineas DetacadasUploaded byIsabel Krizel Sánchez
- Bear HawkUploaded byIsabel Krizel Sánchez
- Aluminum 2024Uploaded byIsabel Krizel Sánchez
- Mechanics of Materials and composite_ UTP.docxUploaded byIsabel Krizel Sánchez
- A350XWB.docxUploaded byIsabel Krizel Sánchez
- httpsUploaded byIsabel Krizel Sánchez
- vuello2Uploaded byIsabel Krizel Sánchez
- PlettDawsonUploaded byRaghu
- LinksUploaded byisa_kriz
- Solar Energy Paper. 2015 PublishedUploaded byIsabel Krizel Sánchez

- MYP GlossaryUploaded byLennoxMeldrum
- Sintesis Non Hidrotermal MCM 41(1)Uploaded byVerawatySiLaban
- 13-AndreaPapini.pdfUploaded byCharles Callahan
- NERA Economic Consulting Research Associate Winter Recruiting DayUploaded bymnigam64
- PERFORM Toolkit 3 1 Release Notes 1.0 OnlinePDFUploaded byJose Hugo
- Menu_635641019064208796_PG 2015 Information Brochure - 08 April 2015Uploaded byAnirwan Bhargav
- 07_chapter2.pdfUploaded byBalaKrishna
- Agard Cp 586Uploaded byrachid
- Electromagnetic Simulation of a Switched Reluctance MotorUploaded byyoner1971
- Salesforce Useful Validation FormulasUploaded byDiwaker
- Descargar Libro Basic Identity by Index BookUploaded byAnwyl
- 45_1_non_pmtrc_tsts_sngl_smplUploaded bytarek moahmoud khalifa
- EHDF BrochureUploaded byStacey White
- PLC HandbookUploaded byBoky
- Gilogic_GT-C Manual EnUploaded byVICTORSJ
- DRAFT BREF Energy Efficiency Techniques EnUploaded byradanpetrica
- 3 Corrosion Principles - PptUploaded byIshan Ratnakar
- zabala sett scaffold considerationUploaded byapi-342190690
- 17 Time ComplexityUploaded byCường Phạm Hùng
- Early Detection of Disease in Bitter gourd Leafs at Flowering StageUploaded byAnonymous vQrJlEN
- ATC106 SI AlignmentsUploaded byMEGA_ONE
- 121333111 Metal RollingUploaded byNDTInstructor
- 07a30201 Electrical Machines iUploaded byandhracolleges
- ijtra140708.1Uploaded byAkshay Kumar Pandey
- Jposta. Barbara Lpg Plant Safety AuditUploaded byМарк Артём Лимот Апалла
- Ielts Writing Answer Key Maximiser StandardUploaded byAbd Elkarim AbuSalim
- Bjtc 3043 Individual Assignment (Kansai International Airport)Uploaded byTruffle Lu'lu
- Elements of Urban DesignUploaded byTanveer Ahmed
- Satyan L. Devadoss and Stefan Forcey- Marked Tubes and the Graph MultiplihedronUploaded bySwertyy