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**Chapter Two (Deductive Reasoning)
**

CONTENTS Using Deductive Reasoning 2-1 If-Then Statements; Converses 2-2 Properties from Algebra 2-3 Proving Theorems Theorems about Angles and Perpendicular Lines 2-4 Special Pairs of Angles 2-5 Perpendicular Lines 2-6 Planning a Proof

This particular set of notes is from Geometry, published by McDougal Littell. All credit is to be given to the authors and publishers of said book. The study guide made from the book contains definitions, diagrams, and notes taken directly from the book.

(IfChapter Two, Section One (If-Then Statements; Converses) Your friend says, “If it rains after school, then I will give you a ride home.” These are examples of if-then statements which are also called conditional ifstatements, conditional conditionals. statements or simply conditionals To represent an if-then statement symbolically, let p represent the hypothesis and hypothesis, let q represent the conclusion. Then we have the basic form of an if-then statement conclusion shown below: If p, then q.

p : hypothesis

q : conclusion

The converse of a conditional is formed by interchanging the hypothesis and the converse conclusion. Statement: If p, then q Converse: If q, then p A statement and its converse say different things. In fact, some true statements have false converses. An if-then statement is false if an example can be found for which the hypothesis is true and the conclusion is false. Such an example is called a counterexample. counterexample It takes only one counterexample to disprove a statement. Conditional statements are not always written with the “if” clause first.

General Form

If p, then q. p implies q. p only if q. q if p.

Example

If x2 = 25, then x < 10. x2 = 25 implies x < 10. x2 = 25 only if x < 10. x < 10 if x2 = 25.

IB GEOMETRY BIBLE – Chapter Two

2

If a conditional and its converse are both true they can be combined into a single statement by using the words “if and only if.” A statement that contains the words “if and only if” is called a biconditional Its basic form is shown below. biconditional. p if and only q. Two, Chapter Two, Section Two (Properties from Algebra) Since the length of a segment is a real number and the measure of an angle is a real number, the facts about real numbers and equality that you learned in algebra can be used in your study of geometry. The properties of equality that will be used most often are listed below.

Properties of Equality

Addition Property Subtraction Subtraction Property Multiplication Property Division Property Substitution Property Reflexive Property Symmetric Property Transitive Property If a = b and c = d, then a + c = b + d. If a = b and c = d, then a - c = b - d. If a = b, then ca = cb. If a = b, and c ≠ 0, then a/c = b/c. If a = b, then either a or b may be substituted for the other in any equation (or inequality).

a = a. If a = b, then b = a. If a = b and b = c, then a = c.

Properties of Congruence

Reflexive Property Symmetric Property Transitive Property DE If DE If ∠D If DE If ∠D DE ∠D ∠D DE. ∠D. JK, then DE ∠F, then ∠D JK. ∠F. FG, then FG ∠E, then ∠E FG and FG ∠E and ∠E

The properties of equality and other properties from algebra, such as the Distributive Property, Property, a (b + c) = ab + ac, can be used to justify your steps when you solve an equation.

IB GEOMETRY BIBLE – Chapter Two Chapter Two, Section Three (Proving Theorems) Theorem 2-1: Midpoint Theorem If M is the midpoint of AB, then AM = ½AB and MB = ½AB. Given: M is the midpoint of AB. Prove: AM = ½AB; MB = ½AB A

3

•

•M

•B

Proof: Statements 1. M is the midpoint of AB. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. AM MB, or AM = MB AM + MB = AB AM + AM = AB, or 2AM = AB AM = ½AB MB = ½AB

Reasons 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Given Definition of midpoint Segment Addition Postulate Substitution Prop. (Steps 2 and 3) Division Property of Equality Substitution Property (Steps 2 and 5)

Theorem 2-2: Angle Bisector Theorem If BX is the bisector of ∠ABC, then m∠ABX = ½m∠ABC and m∠XBC = ½m∠ABC. Given: BX is the bisector of ∠ABC. Prove: m∠ABX = ½m∠ABC; m∠XBC = ½m∠ABC

•A

B

•X •C

Two-column proofs are examples of deductive reasoning Proving statements by reasoning. reasoning from postulates, definitions, theorems, and given information is deductive reasoning. The kinds of reasons you can use to justify statements in a proof are listed below. Reasons Used in Proofs Given information Definitions Postulates (These include properties from algebra.) Theorems that have already been proved

IB GEOMETRY BIBLE – Chapter Two

4

(Special Angles) Chapter Two, Section Four (Special Pairs of Angles) Complementary angles are two angles whose measures have the sum 90. Each angle is the complement of the other. R X 60°

•

50° 50° 40° 40°

•W •Z

30° 30° S ∠R and ∠T are complementary. T Y

∠XYW is a complement of ∠WYZ.

Supplementary angles are two angles whose measures have the sum 180. Each angle is a supplement of the other.

•G

50° 50° A ∠A and ∠B are supplementary. 130° 130° B (180 – x )°

•D

x°

E

•F

4

∠DEG is a supplement of ∠GEF.

Vertical angles are two angles such that the sides of one angle are opposite rays to the sides of the other angle. When two lines intersect, they form two pairs of vertical angles. ∠1 and ∠3 are vertical angles. ∠2 and ∠4 are vertical angles.

1 2 3

IB GEOMETRY BIBLE – Chapter Two Theorem 2-3: Vertical Angles Congruence Theorem Vertical angles are congruent. Given: ∠1 and ∠2 are vertical angles. Prove: ∠1 ∠2 1 3 2

5

Proof: Statements 1. m∠1 + m∠3 = 180; m∠2 + m∠3 = 180 2. m∠1 + m∠3 = m∠2 + m∠3 m∠3 = m∠3 3. 4. m∠1 = m∠2, or ∠1 ∠2

Reasons 1. Angle Addition Postulate 2. Substitution Prop. 3. Reflexive Prop. 4. Subtraction Prop. of Equality

Chapter Chapter Two, Section Five (Perpendicular Lines) Perpendicular lines are two lines that intersect to form right angles (90° angle). Because lines that form one right angle always form four right angles, you can conclude that two lines are perpendicular, by definition, once you know that any one of the angles they form is a right angle. The definition of perpendicular lines can be used in the two ways shown below. 1. If JK is perpendicular to MN (written JK ⊥ MN), then each of the numbered angles is a right angle (a 90° angle). 2. If any one of the numbered angles is a right angle (a 90° angle), then JK ⊥ MN. The word perpendicular is also used for intersecting rays and segments. For example, if JK ⊥ MN in the diagram, then JK ⊥ MN and the sides of ∠2 are perpendicular. Theorem 2-4 If two lines are perpendicular, then they form congruent adjacent angles. Theorem 2-5 If two lines form congruent adjacent angles, then the lines are perpendicular.

•M

J

•

2 1 3 4

•

K

•N

IB GEOMETRY BIBLE – Chapter Two Theorem 2-6 If the exterior sides of two adjacent acute angles are perpendicular, then the angles are complementary A B Given: OA ⊥ OC Prove: ∠AOB and ∠BOC are complementary angles. O C

6

•

•

•

Chapter Two, Section Six (Planning a Proof) A proof of a theorem consists of five parts: 1. Statement of the theorem 2. A diagram that illustrates the given information 3. A list, in terms of the figure, of what is given 4. A list, in terms of the figure, of what you are to prove 5. A series of statements and reasons that lead from the given information to the statement that is to be proved Theorem 2-7: Congruent Supplements Theorem If two angles are supplements of congruent angles (or of the same angle), then the two angles are congruent. Given: ∠1 and ∠2 are supplementary; ∠3 and ∠4 are supplementary; ∠2 Prove: ∠1 ∠4 ∠3 3 4 1 2

Proof: Proof Statements 1. ∠1 and ∠2 are supplementary; ∠3 and ∠4 are supplementary; 2. m∠1 + m∠2 = 180; m∠3 + m∠4 = 180 3. m∠1 + m∠2 = m∠3 + m∠4 4. ∠2 ∠4, or m∠2 = m∠4 ∠3 5. m∠1 = m∠3, or ∠1

Reasons 1. Given 2. Def. of supplementary angles 3. Substitution Property 4. Given 5. Subtraction Property of Equality

Theorem 2-8: Congruent Complements Theorem If two angle are complements of congruent angles (or of the same angle), then the two angles are congruent.

IB GEOMETRY BIBLE – Chapter Two

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Chapter Summary

1. If p, then q is a conditional statement. p is the hypothesis and q is the conclusion. If q, then p is the converse. The statement p if and only q is a biconditional that means both the conditional and its converse are true. 2. Properties of algebra can be used to reach conclusions in geometry. Properties of congruence are related to some of the properties of equality. 3. Deductive reasoning is a process of proving conclusions. Given information, definitions, postulates, and previously proved theorems are the four kinds of reasons that can be used to justify statements in a proof. 4. When m∠A + m∠B = 90, ∠A and ∠B are complementary. When m∠C + m∠D = 180, m∠C and ∠D are supplementary. Complements (or supplements) of the same angle or of congruent angles are congruent. 5. Vertical angles are congruent. 6. Perpendicular lines are two lines that form right angles (90° angles). If two lines are perpendicular, then they form congruent adjacent angles. If two lines form congruent adjacent angles, then the lines are perpendicular. 7. If the exterior sides of two adjacent acute angles are perpendicular, then the angles are complementary. 8. The proof of a theorem consists of five parts, listed on page 6.

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