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EARTHQUAKE

An earthquake is manifested as ground shaking caused by


the sudden release of energy in the Earths crust. This energy
may originate from different sources, such as dislocations of
the crust, volcanic eruptions, or even by man-made
explosions.

SOURCE

INTENSITY

Intensity is a non-instrumental measure of damage to structures, ground


surface effects, e.g. fractures, cracks, landslides and human reactions to
earthquake shaking.
It is a descriptive method which has been traditionally used to establish
earthquake size.
It is a subjective damage evaluation measurement because of its
qualitative nature, related to population, density, familiarity with earthquake
and type of constructions.

MAGNITUDE
Magnitude is a quantitative measure of earthquake size
and fault dimensions.
It is therefore an instrumental, quantitative and objective
scale.
It can be used to quantify the amount of energy released
during fault ruptures.
Magnitude is proportional to the logarithm of seismic
energy.
The difference between two units of magnitude is a factor
of 1000 on energy release.

PACIFIC RING OF FIRE


The Pacific Ring of Fire(or just the Ring of Fire) is an area
where large number of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions
occur in the basin of the Pacific Ocean. In a 40,000 km
(25, 000 mi) horseshoe shape, it is associated with a
nearly continuous series of oceanic trenches, volcanic
arcs, and volcanic belts and/or plate movements.
The Ring of Fire has 452 volcanoes and is home to over
75% of the worlds active and dormant volcanoes. It is
sometimes called the circum-Pacific belt or the circumPacific seismic belt.
About 90% of the worlds earthquakes and 89% of the
Worlds largest earthquakes occur along the Ring of Fire.

COUNTRIES:
1. Chile
2. Mexico
3. United States
4. Canada
5. Russia
6. Japan
7. Philippines
8. New Zealand
9. Antarctica

CENTER OF MASS (CM)


- Centroid (Varignons Theorem)

CENTER OF RIGIDITY (CR)


- Neutral axis
- Center of the building strength
- Point of Rotation
Diapham roof/slab
PLANTED
COLUMN

Allowable Stress up to proportional stress


E = Eh + Ev
F = ma
where: a = acceleration due to ground
shaking
m = weight of structure

Simplified Design Base Shear

V=

W = total weight
A = numerical coeff. representative of the
inherent overstrength and global ductility

Vertical distance

Fx =

= weight per storey

MOMENT RESISTING FRAME SYSTEM


R = 8.5 ductile

Beam

Slab

BEARING WALL SYSTEM


R = 4.5 non-ductile

Rewall

Slab

Code Specified Design Level


Reinforcement

Static Force Procedure


Static Design Base Shear

Reinforcement

V=

2.5

0.11 Ca IW

0.8
W

I.

Method A
= ( )3/4

Ct = 0.035 for steel moment frames


= 0.030 for concrete moment frames
= 0.035 for eccentric moment frames
= 0.02 for all other buildings

hn

hn

ENGLISH
SYSTEM

hn

hn

n = no. of storey

II. Method B
= 2

2
=1
( =1 )

Ft = 0 when T 0.7 sec,


Ft = 0.7TV 0.25V, when T > 0.7 sec.

Reyleighs Formula

Example.
Location: Cubao, Q.C.
Occupancy: Hospital
Structure: SMRF Concrete Special Moment
resiting Force system
Soil Profile: Guadalupe Tuff - C
Seismic Source type A

Deck
4th
3rd
2nd
GF

3m
3m
3m
3m
3m

100T
150T
150T
200T

Static Force Procedure


V=

2.5

0.11 Ca Iw
0.8

Seismic Zone 4

Importance factor, I =1.15

Cv= 0.56Nv
Nv=1.6(5km)
Cv= (0.56)(1.6) = 0.896
Ca= 0.4Na
Nv=1.2(5km)
Cv= (0.4)(1.2) = 0.48

W, Total weight = 600T


R= 0.85
T= Ct(hn)3/4
hn=12, Ct = 0.0731
T= 0.731(12)3/4
0.471sec < 0.7sec ; Ft=0

Wihi

Fx

950 (38.4)
1800(34.8)
1800(31.2)
1800(27.6)

78.487
134.771
120.829
106.887

Earthquake Static Method


Determine the seismic forces for the structure distributed on the floors.
3.0m
The office building is built of special moment resisting
3.0m
concrete frame. It is located 10km from the WVF. It sits on a
3.0m
type SC soil.
3.0m
3.0m
3.0m
3.0m
4.5m
4.5m
4.5m
6m

RD
11F
10F
9F
8F
7F
6F

1550
1860
1860
1860
1860
1860
1860

kN
kN
kN
kN
kN
kN
kN

5F

2240 kN

4F

2240 kN

3F

2240 kN

2F

3680 kN

Earthquake Static Method


Determine the seismic forces for the structure distributed on the floors.
I 1.00

Z 0.40
Seismic Source Type = A

N a 1.0
N v 1.2
Ca 0.40
Cv 0.672

3.0m
3.0m
3.0m
3.0m
3.0m
3.0m
3.0m
4.5m
4.5m
4.5m
6m

RD
11F
10F
9F
8F
7F
6F

1550
1860
1860
1860
1860
1860
1860

kN
kN
kN
kN
kN
kN
kN

5F

2240 kN

4F

2240 kN

3F

2240 kN

2F

3680 kN

Earthquake Static Method


Determine the seismic forces for the structure distributed on the floors.
CI
V v W
RT
W 23110kN

3.0m
3.0m
3.0m
3.0m
3.0m
3.0m
3.0m
4.5m
4.5m

CI
(0.672)(1.0)
V v W
23110
RT
(8.5)T

4.5m
6m

RD
11F
10F
9F
8F
7F
6F

1550
1860
1860
1860
1860
1860
1860

kN
kN
kN
kN
kN
kN
kN

5F

2240 kN

4F

2240 kN

3F

2240 kN

2F

3680 kN

Portal Method
Description
Approximate method of getting distribution of
forces from lateral loads
Named so as the method assumes every bay of
the frame as one portal
More reliable for short buildings

Portal Method
Assumptions
Horizontal reactions of interior columns are twice
the reactions of exterior columns
There is a point of inflection at midheight of the
columns and midspan of the beams

Portal Method
Determine the member forces for the frame subjected to lateral loads.
80kN

3m
50kN

4m

6m

6m

6m

80kN

50kN

80kN

50kN

Cantilever Method
Description
Approximate method of getting distribution of
forces from lateral loads
Named so as the building is assumed to act as a
cantilever
More reliable for tall buildings

Cantilever Method
Assumptions
The axial force of each column is proportional to
the horizontal distance of the column from the
centroidal axis of the columns
There is a point of inflection at midheight of the
columns and midspan of the beams

Cantilever Method
Determine the member forces for the frame subjected to lateral loads.
80kN
5m
A1=500x500

60kN

A2=600X600
5m
A3=400X300

60kN
6m
A1
6m

A2

A3

6m

80kN

60kN

60kN

80kN

60kN

60kN