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Resonance Pre-foundation Career Care Programmes

(PCCP) Division

WORKSHOP TAPASYA
SHEET
CHEMISTRY
COURSE : NTSE (STAGE-I)
CLASS-X

Subject : Chemistry

NTSE STAGE-I

S. No.

Topics

Page No.

1.

Structure of Atom

1 - 12

2.

Acids, Bases and Salts

13 - 23

3.

Periodic Table

24-38

4.

Mole Concept

39-57

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STRUCTURE OF ATOM
DALTONS ATOMIC THEORY

ELECTRON
Electrons are the fundamental particles of all
substances.

In 1808 John Dalton proposed atomic theory of


matter, assuming atoms are ultimate indivisible
particles of matter based on the law of conservation
of mass and law of definite proportion.

(a) Cathode Rays - Discovery of Electron :


The nature and existence of electron was established
by experiments on conduction of electricity through
gases.

The important points of Daltons theory are (i) Elements consist of small indivisible particles
called atoms and atoms take part in chemical
reactions.
(ii) Atoms of same element are alike in all respect.
(iii) Atoms of different elements are different in all
respect.
(iv) Atoms cannot be created or destroyed.
(v) Atoms combine in a fixed, small, whole number to
form compound atoms called molecules.

Note :
The term Element was coined by Lavoisier.
(a) Merits :
(i) Daltons theory explains the law of conservation of
mass (point iv) and law of constant proportion (point v).
(ii) Atoms of elements take part in chemical reaction
this is true till today.

Note :
In 1859, Julius Plucker started the study of conduction
of electricity through gases at low pressure in a
discharge tube.
A number of interesting things happen when a high
voltage (say, 10,000 V) is applied across the
electrodes of the discharge tube, and the pressure of
the gas inside the tube is lowered.
(i) When the pressure of the gas in the discharge
tube is at atmospheric pressure and a high voltage
is applied across the electrodes, nothing noticeable
happens. But as we lower the pressure and increase
the voltage, sparking or irregular streaks of light are
seen in the tube. This is called positive column.
(ii) As the pressure of gas is reduced further, the length
of the positive column reduces, a fine glow can be
seen at the cathode. The dark space or gap left
between the cathode and the positive column is
called the Faradays dark space.

(iii) Atoms combine in whole numbers to form


molecules (point v).
(b) Demerits :
(i) The atom is no longer supposed to be indivisible.
The atom is not a simple particle but a complex one.
(ii) He could not explain that why do atoms of same
element combined with each other.
(iii) Atoms of the same element may not necessarily
be identical in all aspects.
There are a number of elements whose atoms
possess different masses. All these atoms of the
same element with same atomic number but different
mass number are called isotopes.
e.g. 1H1, 1H2, 1H3 are the three isotopes of hydrogen.
(iv) Atoms of different elements may not necessarily
be different in all aspects. There are a number of
elements whose atoms possess same mass
number. All these elements with different atomic
number but same mass number are called isobars.
e.g. 20Ca40 and 18Ar40 are isobars of each other.

PAGE # 1

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(iii) They consist of negatively charged particles. When


the cathode rays pass through an electric field, they
bent towards the positive plate of the electric field.
This indicates that cathode rays are negatively
charged.

(iii) When the pressure of gas is reduced to about 1


mm of Hg, the cathode glow moves away from the
cathode, creating a dark space between cathode and
the cathode glow. This dark space is called Crookes
dark space.
(iv) The Crookes dark space expands with further fall
in pressure at 0.1 mm of Hg. The positive column
gets split into a number of bands called striations.
(v) At pressure 0.01 mm of Hg or less, the striations
move towards the anode and vanish finally. At this
stage the glass tubes begins to glow at the end
opposite to the cathode. This phenomenon is called
fluorescence.

(iv) Cathode rays can affect the photographic plate.

Thus, some sort of invisible rays travel from the


negative electrode to the positive electrode. Since the
negative electrode is called cathode, these rays were
called cathode rays. The colour of glow depends upon
the nature of the glass used. For soda glass the

(v) The nature of cathode rays is independent of the


nature of gas used in discharge tube or material of
cathode.
(vi) Cathode rays are deflected in the magnetic field
also.

fluorescence is of yellowish green colour.

(b) Properties of cathode rays :


(i) Cathode rays travel in a straight line at a high
velocity and generate normally from the surface of
the cathode. If an opaque object is placed in the path
of cathode rays its shadow falls on opposite side of
the cathode. It shows that cathode rays travel in
straight lines.
To vacuum
pump

N
High
voltage

Shadow

(viii) When cathode rays fall on materials having high


atomic mass, new type of penetrating rays of very
small wavelength are emitted which are called X rays.

Thus, investigations on cathode rays showed that


these consisted of negatively charged particles.

Anode

Deflection of
cathode rays
in magnetic field

(vii) If cathode rays are focused on a thin metal foil,


the metal foil gets heated up to incandescence.

Cathode

Object
High
voltage

Note :
Cathode rays travel with very high velocities ranging
from 109 to 1011 cm per second.

Note :
The negatively charged particles of cathode rays were
called negatrons by Thomson. The name negatron
was changed to electron by Stoney.

(ii) They are a beam of minute material particles having


definite mass and velocity. When a light paddle wheel
is placed in the path of the cathode rays, the blades
of the paddle wheel begin to rotate. This also proves
that cathode rays have mechanical energy.

(c) Characteristics of electron :


(i) Electrons are sub - atomic particles which
constitute cathode rays.
(ii) In 1897, J.J.Thomson determined the charge to
mass (e/m) ratio of electron by studying the deflections
of cathode rays in electric and magnetic fields. The
value of e/m has been found to be 1.7588 108
coulombs/g. The e/m for electrons from different
gases was found to be the same. This indicates that
atoms of all kinds have the same kind of negatively
charged particles. Thus electrons are the common
constituents of all atoms.

Note :
A cathode ray tube is used to measure the charge to
mass ratio of the electrons.

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(iii) Charge on the electron :


The charge (e) on an electron was determined by
Robert Millikan in 1909. Millikan found the charge on
oil drops to be -1.6 10-19 C or its multiples. So, the
charge on an electron is to be -1.6 10-19 coulombs / unit.

(iv) Mass of an electron :

named positive rays by J.J.Thomson.

By Thomsons experiment e/m = 1.76 1011 C/kg


By Millikans experiment e = 1.6 10-19 C

(b) Characteristics of Anode Rays :

19

So mass of electron (m) =

Mass of an electron in amu

1.6 10
1.76 1011

(i) Anode rays travel in straight lines.


(ii) These rays rotate the light paddle wheel placed in
their path. This shows that anode rays are made up
of material particles.

= 9.1096 10-31 kg
= 0.000549

(v) Mass of electron in comparison to that of


hydrogen :
Mass of hydrogen = 1.008 amu
= 1.008 1.66 10-24 g ( since 1 amu = 1.66 10-24 g )
= 1.673 10-24 g

(iii) Anode rays are deflected by magnetic or electric


field. In the electric field they get deflected towards
negatively charged plate. This indicates that these
rays are positively charged.
(iv) The anode rays affect photographic plate.

24

Note :
Anode rays are called canal rays because they pass
through the canals or holes of the cathode. These
rays are also called anode rays since they originate
from the anode side. Anode rays are produced from a
positively charged electrode, therefore these were

1.6 73 10
Mass of hydrogen atom
=
= 1837
Mass of electron
9.1096 10 28

(v) The nature of anode rays depend upon the type of


gas used.

Note :

(c) Discovery of Proton :

1
Thus, the mass of an electron is
times the
1837

J.J.Thomson in 1906, found that particles obtained


in the discharge tube containing hydrogen have e/m
value as 9.579 10 4 coulomb/g. This was the
maximum value of e/m observed for any positive
particle. It was thus assumed that the positive
particles given by hydrogen represent fundamental
particle of positive charge. This particle was named
proton.

mass of a hydrogen atom.

PROTON
(a) Anode Rays (Canal rays) :
It has been established that electron is a negatively
charged particle and present in all the atoms. As an
atom is electrically neutral, there must be some
positively charged particles present in the atom to
neutralize the negative charges of the electrons. It
has been confirmed by experiments. Scientist
Goldstein in 1886 discovered the existence of a new
type of rays in the discharge tube. He carried out the
experiment in discharge tube containing perforated
cathode. It was observed that when high potential
difference was applied between the electrodes, not
only cathode rays were produced but also a new type
of rays were produced simultaneously from anode,
moving from anode towards cathode and passed
through the holes of cathode.

Anode rays

+
H e

H (Proton)

Note :
The name proton was given by Rutherford in 1911.
(d) Characteristics of Proton :
(i) A proton is a sub - atomic particle which constitute
anode rays produced when hydrogen is taken in the
discharge tube.
(ii) Charge of a proton :
Proton is a positively charged particle. The charge on
a proton is equal but opposite to that on an electron.
Thus, the charge on a proton is +1.602 10 19
coulombs/ unit.

Fluorescence

(iii) Mass of a proton :


Anode

High voltage source

The mass of a proton is equal to the mass of a


Perforated cathode

hydrogen atom.
m p = 1.0073 amu
= 1.673 10-24 g
= 1.673 10-27 kg

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(ii) About 99.0% of the -particles passed undeflected


through the gold foil and caused illumination of zinc
sulphide screen.

(iv) Mass of proton relative to mass of electron :

1.673 10 24 g
Mass of a proton
=
= 1837
Mass of an electron
9.110 28 g

(iii) Very few -particles underwent small and large


deflections after passing through the gold foil.
(iv) A very few (about 1 in 20,000) were deflected
backward on their path at an angle of 180.

Thus, the mass of a proton is 1837 times larger than


the mass of an electron.
(v) Charge to mass ratio for a proton : The e/m of
particles constituting the anode rays is different for
different gases.

1.602 10 19
e
of proton =
= 9.579 104 C/g
1.673 10 24
m
THOMSON MODEL OF AN ATOM
J.J. Thomson (1898) tried to explain the structure of
atom. He proposed that an atom consists of a sphere
of positive electricity in which electrons are embedded
like plum in pudding or seeds evenly distributed in
red spongy mass in case of a watermelon. The radius
of the sphere is of the order 108 cm.

Rutherford was able to explain these observations


as follows:
(i) Since a large number of -particles pass through
the atom undeflected, hence, there must be large
empty space within the atom.
(ii) As some of the -particles got deflected, therefore,
there must be something massive and positively
charged structure present in the atom.
(iii) The number of -particles which get deflected is
very small, therefore, the whole positive charge in the
atom is concentrated in a very small space.

(a) Merits :
(i) Thomsons model could explain the electrical
neutrality of an atom.

(iv) Some of the -particles retracted their path i.e.


came almost straight back towards the sources as a
result of their direct collisions with the heavy mass.

(ii) Thomsons model could explain why only


negatively charged particles are emitted when a metal
is heated as he considered the positive charge to be
immovable by assuming it to be spread over the total
volume of the atom.
(iii) He could explain the formation of ions and ionic
compounds.
(b) Demerits :
This model could not satisfy the facts proposed by
Rutherford through his alpha particle scattering
experiment and hence was discarded.

RUTHERFORD MODEL OF AN ATOM

(a) Rutherfords Alpha Particle Scattering


Experiment (1909) :
Ernest Rutherford and his coworkers performed
numerous experiments in which - particles emitted
from a radioactive element such as polonium were
allowed to strike thin sheets of metals such as gold or
platinum.
(i) A beam of -particles (He2+) was obtained by placing
polonium in a lead box and letting the alpha particles
come out of a pinhole in the lead box. This beam of rays was directed against a thin gold foil (0.0004 cm).
A circular screen coated with zinc sulphide was placed
on the other side of the foil.

Note :
- particles are made up of two protons and two
neutrons and are Helium (He) nuclei.
(b) Rutherford Nuclear Model of Atom (1911) :
Rutherford proposed a new picture of the structure of
atom.
Main features of this model are as follows(i) The atom of an element consists of a small
positively charged Nucleus which is situated at the
centre of the atom and which carries almost the entire
mass of the atom.
(ii) The electrons are distributed in the empty space
of the atom around the nucleus in different concentric
circular paths (orbits).
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(iii) The number of electrons in the orbits is equal to


the number of positive charges (protons) in the
nucleus.

When the electron moves from inner to outer orbit by


absorbing definite amount of energy, the new state of
the electron is said to be excited state.

(iv) Volume of nucleus is very small as compared to


the volume of atom.

(v) Negatively charged electrons revolves around the


nucleus in circular path. The force of attraction
between the nucleus and the electron is equal to
centrifugal force of the moving electron.
Force of attraction towards nucleus = Centrifugal force

(v) Most of the space in the atom is empty.

Note :
Rutherfords model is also called Planetary model.

(vi) Out of infinite number of possible circular orbits


around the nucleus, the electron can revolve only in
those orbits whose angular momentum is an integral

(c) Defects in Rutherfords Model :


(i) Rutherford did not specify the number of electrons
in each orbit.

multiple of

(ii) According to electromagnetic theory, if a charged


particle (like electron) is accelerated around another
charged particle (like protons in nucleus) then there
would be continuous loss of energy due to continuous
emission of radiations. This loss of energy would
slow down the speed of electron and eventually the
electron would fall into the nucleus. But such a
collapse does not occur. Rutherfords model could
not explain this theory.
(iii) If the electron loses energy continuously, the
observed spectrum should be continuous but the
actual observed spectrum consists of well defined
lines of definite frequencies. Hence the loss of energy
is not continuous in an atom.

h
h
, i.e. mvr = n
2
2

where :
m = mass of the electron
v = velocity of electron
r = radius of the orbit, and
n =1,2,3 ---- number of the orbit.
The angular momentum can have values such as

h 2h 3h
,
,
, but it cannot have a fractional value.
2 2 2
Thus, the angular momentum is quantized. The
specified circular orbits (quantized) are called
stationary orbits.

RADII OF VARIOUS ORBITS


Radii of various orbits can be given by formula.

BOHR MODEL OF AN ATOM (1913)


To overcome the objections to Rutherfords model
and to explain the hydrogen spectrum, Bohr proposed
a quantum mechanical model of the atom.
The important postulates on which Bohrs model is
based are the following (i) The atom has a nucleus where all the protons are
present. The size of the nucleus is very small. It is
present at the centre of the atom.
(ii) Each stationary orbit is associated with a definite
amount of energy. The greater is distance of the orbit
from the nucleus, more shall be the energy associated
with it. These orbits are also called energy levels and
are numbered as 1, 2, 3, 4 ------or K, L, M, N ---- from
nucleus to outwards.
(iii) By the time, the electron remains in any one of the
allowed stationary orbits, it does not lose energy.
Such a state is called ground or normal state.
(iv) The emission or absorption of energy in the form
of radiation can only occur when an electron jumps
from one stationary orbit to another.
E = Efinal - Einitial = h
Where h is Plancks constant (h = 6.625 1034 Js)
Energy is absorbed when the electron jumps from
lower to higher orbit and is emitted when it moves
from higher to lower orbit.

r=

n 2h 2
2

4 mkZe 2

Note :
Greater is the value of n larger is the size of atom.
On the other hand, greater is the value of Z smaller
is the size of the atom.
For hydrogen atom, Z = 1; so r =

n 2h 2
4 2mke 2

Now putting the values of h, , m, e and k.


r=

n 2 (6.625 10 34 ) 2
2

4 (3.14 ) (9.1 10 31 ) (9 10 9 ) (1.6 10 19 )2

= 0.529 n2 1010 m = 0.529 n2


= 0.529 108 n2 cm
Thus, radius of 1st orbit
= 0.529 108 12 = 0.529 108 cm
= 0.529 1010 m = 0.529
Radius of 2nd orbit
= 0.529 108 22 = 2.11 108 cm
= 2.11 1010 m = 2.11
Radius of 3rd orbit
= 0.529 108 32 = 4.76 108 cm
= 4.76 1010 m = 4.76
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NEUTRONS

Energy of an electron in Bohrs orbit can be given


by the formula :
2 2 Z 2 K 2 me
n 2h 2

E=

For hydrogen atom, Z = 1


So,

In 1932, James Chadwick bombarded the element


beryllium with - particles. He observed the emission
of a radiation with the following properties (i) The radiation was highly penetrating.
(ii) The radiation remained unaffected in the electric
or magnetic field i.e. the radiation was neutral.
(iii) The particle constituting the radiation had the same
mass as that of the proton. These neutral particles
were called neutrons.

2 2k 2me 4
n 2h 2

Putting the values of , k, m, e and h.


2 (3.14)2 (9 10 9 )2 (9.1 10 31 ) (1.6 10 19 )4

E=

=
=

n 2 (6.625 10 34 )2

21.79 10 19
n
13.6
n2

J per atom

eV per atom (1 J = 6.2419 1018 eV)

9
4 Be

4
2 He

12
6C

(Beryllium) ( particle)

1
0n

(Carbon)

(Neutron)

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ELECTRON,


PROTON AND NEUTRON
Property

Electron

Proton

Neutron

Symbol

Note :

The negative sign indicates that the electron is under


attraction towards nucleus, i.e. it is bound to the
nucleus.
The electron has minimum energy in the first orbit
and its energy increases as n increases, i.e., it
becomes less negative. The electron can have a
maximum energy value of zero when n = . The zero
energy means that the electron is no longer bound to
the nucleus , i.e. , it is not under the force of attraction
towards nucleus.

Nature

Negatively charged Positively charged

Neutral

Relative
charge

-1

+1

Absolute
charge

1.602 10-19 C

+1.602 10-19 C

Relative
mass

1
18 37

1.6725 10-24 g

1.6748 10-24 g

Absolute
mass

9.109 10-28 g

ATOMIC STRUCTURE
VELOCITY OF AN ELECTRON IN BOHR'S ORBIT
Velocity of an electron in Bohrs orbit can be given by
the formula :

Z
v=
n

2e 2

Substituting the values of h, , e.


v=

2 3.14 ( 4.8 10 10 )2
Z

6.625 10 27
n

v=

Z
2.188 108 cm/sec ----------- (iii)
n

An atom consists of two parts (a) Nucleus


(b) Extra - nuclear region
(a) Nucleus :
Nucleus is situated at the centre of an atom. All the
protons & neutrons are situated in the nucleus,
therefore, the entire mass of an atom is almost
concentrated in the nucleus. The overall charge of
nucleus is positive due to the presence of positively
charged protons (neutrons have no charge). The
protons & neutrons are collectively called nucleons.
Note :

2.188 10 8
v=
cm/sec (For hydrogen , Z = 1)
n

The radius of the nucleus of an atom is of the order of


1013 cm and its density is of the order of 1014 g/cm3.

v1 = 2.188 108 cm/sec

(b) Extra Nuclear Region :

v2 =

1
2.188 108 cm/sec = 1.094 108 cm/sec
2

v3 =

1
2.188 108 cm/sec = 0.7293 108 cm/sec
3

Here v1, v2 and v3 are the velocities of electron in first,


second and third Bohr orbit in hydrogen.

In extra nuclear part or in the region outside the


nucleus, electrons are present which revolve around
the nucleus in orbits of fixed energies. These orbits
are called energy levels. These energy levels are
designated as K, L, M, N & so on.
(i) The maximum number of electrons that can be
accommodated in a shell is given by the formula
2n2.(n = shell number i.e. 1,2,3 -------)
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n
1
2
3
4

max. no.of electrons


2
8
18
32

u cl e

us

First energy level


Second energy level
Third energy level
Fourth energy level

2n2
2
2(1)
2
2(2)
2
2(3)
2
2(4)

Shell
K
L
M
N

K L M N

Electron shells

Maximum number of
electrons which can be
accommodated in the
various shells

8 18 32

X
s- orbital
(2) p - orbitals : The p-subshell contains three
orbitals which have dumb-bell shape and a directional
character. The three p-orbitals are designated as px,
py & pz which are oriented in the perpendicular axis
(x,y,z). The maximum number of electrons which can
be accommodated in the p subshell is 6 (2 electrons
in each of three orbitals).
z

(ii) Each energy level is further divided into subshells


designated as s,p,d,f .
1st shell (K) contains 1 subshell (s)
2nd shell (L) contains 2 subshells (s,p)
3rd shell (M) contains 3 subshells (s,p,d)
4th shell (N) contains 4 subshells (s,p,d,f).

px

pz

py

(3) d - orbitals : The d-subshells contains 5 orbitals which


are double dumb-bell in shape. These orbitals are
designated as dxz, dxy, dyz, d x 2 y 2 , d 2 . The d-subshell
z

can accommodate a maximum of 10 electrons.


z

(A) An orbital may be defined as

dxz

dxy

(B)The maximum capacity of each orbital is that of two


electrons.

(iii) Shells are divided into sub-shells, sub shells


further contain orbitals.

A region in the three - dimensional space around the


nucleus where the probability of finding the electron is
maximum.

dyz

Note :
The maximum number of orbitals that can be present
in a shell is given by the formula n2.

y
dx y
2

(C) Types of orbitals :


(1) s-orbitals : The s-subshell contains just one orbital
which is non-directional & spherically symmetrical in
shape. The maximum number of electrons which can
be accommodated in s-orbital is 2.
(iv) Differences between orbit and orbital :
S.No.

Orbit

dz2

(4) f-orbitals : The f-subshell contains 7 orbitals which


are complex in structure.The f-subshell can
accommodate a maximum of 14 electrons.

Note :
Letters s, p, d & f have originated from the words
sharp, principal, diffused & fundamental respectively.
Orbital

It is a region in three dimensional space


around the nucleus where the probability
of finding electron is maximum.
s,p and d-orbitals are spherical, dumb-bell
and double dumb-bell in shape respectively.
It represents that an electron can move around
nucleus along three dimensional space (x,y and z
axis).

It is well defined circular path around the


nucleus in which the electron revolves.

It is circular in shape.

It represents that an electron moves


around the nucleus in one plane.

It represents that position as well as


momentum of an electron can be known
simultaneously with certainty. It is against
Heisenberg's uncertainty principle.

It represents that position as well as momentum


of an electron cannot be known simultaneously
with certainty. It is in accordance with Heisenberg's
uncertainty principle.

The maximum number of electrons in an


2
orbit is 2n where 'n' is the number of the
orbit.

The maximum number of electrons in an orbital is


two.

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(iii) It represents the sub-shell present in shell.


= 0 represents s sub shell.
= 1 represents p sub shell.
= 2 represents d sub shell.
= 3 represents f sub shell.

Note :
Heisenbergs uncertainty principle - It is impossible
to determine exactly and simultaneously both the
position and momentum (or velocity) of an electron
or of any other moving particle.

(iv) Number of sub-shell in a shell = Principal quantum


number of shell.

QUANTUM NUMBERS
To describe the position and energy of electron in an
atom, four numbers are required, which are known
as quantum numbers.
Four quantum numbers are :
(a) Principal quantum number
(b) Azimuthal quantum number
(c) Magnetic quantum number
(d) Spin quantum number

(v) Maximum value of is always less than the value


of n. So 1p, 1f, 2d, 2f, 3f subshells are not possible.
s will start from 1s
p will start from 2p
d will start from 3d
f will start from 4f
(vi) Relative energy of various sub-shell in a shell are
as follows s<p<d<f

(a) Principal Quantum Number :

(vii) Subshells having equal values but with different n


values have similar shapes but their sizes increases
as the value of n increases. 2s-subshell is greater in
size than 1s- subshell. Similarly 2p, 3p, 4p subshells
have similar shapes but their sizes increase in
order 2p < 3p < 4p.

(i) It is denoted by n.
(ii) It represents the name, size and energy of the
orbit or shell to which the electron belongs.
(iii) Higher is the value of n , greater is the distance
of the shell from the nucleus.
r1 < r2 < r3 < r4 < r5 < ---(iv) Higher is the value of n, greater is the magnitude
of energy.
E1 < E2 < E3 < E4 < E5 ---(v) Maximum number of electrons in a shell is given
by 2n2.
Shell
Max. number of electrons
First (n =1)
2 12 = 2
Second (n = 2)
2 22 = 8
Third ( n = 3)
2 32 = 18
Fourth ( n = 4)
2 42 = 32
(vi) Angular momentum can also be calculated using
principal quantum number.

Note :
Azimuthal quantum number was given by
Sommerfeld.
(c) Magnetic quantum number :
(i) It is denoted by m.
(ii) It represents the orbitals present in sub-shell. An
orbital can be defined as :

(vii) Value of n is from 1 to

Region in the three - dimensional space around the


nucleus where the probability of finding an electron is
maximum.

(viii) Every shell is given a specific alphabetic name.


First shell (n = 1) is known as K shell.
Second shell (n = 2) is known as L shell.
Third shell (n = 3) is known as M shell and so on.
Note :
Principal quantum number was given by Bohr.
(b) Azimuthal Quantum Number :
(i) It is represented by .

nh
2

mvr

(viii) Maximum no. of electrons present in a subshell


= 2 (2 +1)
Subshell
Max. electrons
s ( = 0)
2 (2 0 +1) = 2
p ( = 1)
2 (2 1 +1) = 6
d ( = 2)
2 (2 2 +1) = 10
f ( = 3)
2 (2 3 +1) = 14

Note :
Azimuthal quantum number is also called angular
quantum number, subsidiary quantum number or
secondary quantum number.
(ii) For a given value of n values of are from 0 to n
1
Value of n
Values of
1 (1st shell)
0
2 (2nd shell)
0,1
3 (3rd shell)
0,1,2
4 (4th shell)
0,1,2,3

(iii) For a given value of , values of m are from


through 0 to +.

m
0
0
1
1, 0, +1
2
2, 1, 0, +1, +2
3
3, 2, 1, 0, +1, +2, +3
(iv) Maximum number of orbitals in a sub-shell
= (2+1)
Sub shell
Orbitals
s ( = 0)
(2 0 +1) = 1
p ( = 1)
(2 1 +1) = 3
d ( = 2)
(2 2 +1) = 5
f ( = 3)
(2 3 +1) = 7
(v) Maximum number of orbitals in a shell = n2
Shell
Max. orbitals
First (n = 1)
12 = 1
Second (n = 2)
22 = 4
Third (n = 3)
32 = 9
Fourth (n = 4)
42 = 16
PAGE # 8

8
8

(vi) It represents the orientation of orbital in three


dimensional space.
When l = 0, m = 0, i.e. one value implies that s
subshell has only one space orientation and hence,
it can be arranged in space only in one way along x,y
or z axis. Thus, s orbital has a symmetrical spherical
shape.
Y
Z

(d) Spin Quantum Number :


(i) It is denoted by s.
(ii) It represents the direction of spin of electron around
its own axis.
(iii) Clockwise spin is represented by +1/2 or and
anticlockwise by 1/2 or .

(iv) Maximum two electrons with opposite spin can


be placed in an orbital.

s- orbital
When = 1,m has three values 1, 0, +1 . It implies
that p subshell of any energy shell has three space
orientations, i.e. three orbitals. Each p-orbital has
dumb-bell shape. Each one is disposed
symmetrically along one of the three axis. p orbitals
have directional character.
orbital
m
z

Pz
0

Px
1
z

(i) The arrangement of the electrons in different shells


is known as the electronic configuration of the
element.

x
y

px

(ii) Each of the orbits can accommodate a fixed number


of electrons. Maximum number of electrons in an orbit
is equal to 2n2, where n is the number of the orbit.

pz

py

When = 2 m has five values 2, 1, 0, +1, +2. It


implies that d-subshell of any energy shell has five
orientations, i.e. five orbitals. All the five orbitals are
not identical in shape. Four of the d-orbitals
dxy, dyz, dzx, d

x 2 y2

(iii) Electrons are filled in the increasing order of energy,


i.e. K < L < M < N ......

contain four lobes while fifth orbital

(iv) In the outermost shell of any atom, the maximum


possible number of electrons is 8, except in the first
shell which can have at the most 2 electrons.

2
z

d consists of only two lobes.


z

x
dyz

dxz

dxy
z

y
2

dx y

Note :
Spin quantum number was given by Gold Schmidt.

ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION OF AN ATOM

Py
1

x
y

(v) Electrons with same spin are called spin parallel


and those with opposite spin are called spin paired.

Note :
If the outermost shell has its full quota of 8 electrons
it is said to be an octet. If the first shell has its full
quota of 2 electrons, it is said to be duplet.
The pictorial representation of Bohrs model of
hydrogen, helium, carbon, sodium and calcium atoms
having 1, 2, 6, 11 and 20 electrons respectively are
shown in the figure where the centre of the circle
represents the nucleus.

dz

There are seven f-orbitals designated as

, fx ( x2 y2 ), fy ( x2 y2 ), fz( x2 y2 ), and fxyz .


Their shapes are complicated ones.

f
f
yz2 , xz2 , z3

(vii) Characteristics of orbitals :


(A) All orbitals of a subshell possess same energy
i.e., they are degenerate.
(B) All orbitals of the same shell differ in the direction
of their space orientation.
(C) Total number of orbitals in a shell is equal to n2.

Note :
Magnetic quantum number was given by Zeeman.

PAGE # 9

9
9

(a) Significance of Electronic Configuration :

(c) Hunds Rule of Maximum Multiplicity :


According to this rule :
no electron pairing takes place in the orbitals with
equivalent energy until each orbital in the given
subshell contains one electron & the spins of all
unpaired electrons are parallel i.e. in the same
direction.

The electronic configuration of an atom plays an


important role in determining the chemical behaviour
of an element.
(i) When the atoms of an element have completely
filled outermost shell, the element will be chemically
unreactive. For example the noble gases (He, Ne, Ar,
Kr, Xe and Rn) have completely filled outermost shell
i.e. contains 8 electrons (except helium which has
two valence electrons) in outermost shell.
(ii) When the atom of an element has less than 8
electrons in its outermost shell, the element will be
reactive.

ORDER OF FILLING OF ELECTRONS IN SUBSHELLS

Electronic configuration of some elements Atom ic


Sym bol of
Nam e of
num ber the elem ent the elem ent

Electronic
configuration

Hydrogen

1s 1

He

Helium

1s

Li

Lithium

1s , 2s

Be

Beryllium

Boron

2
2

1s , 2s

1s , 2s , 2p

Carbon

1s , 2s , 2p 2

There are different rules governing the filling of


subshells. They are described briefly as follows -

Nitrogen

1s 2, 2s 2 , 2p 3

Oxygen

1s 2, 2s 2 , 2p 4

Fluorine

1s 2, 2s 2 , 2p 5

(a) Aufbau Principle :


The filling of subshells in atoms is based on their
energies. Electrons first occupy the subshell with
lowest energy and progressively fill the other
subshells in increasing order of energy.
Note :

10

Ne

Neon

1s 2, 2s 2 , 2p 6

11

Na

Sodium

1s , 2s , 2p ,3s

12

Mg

Magnes ium

1s , 2s , 2p ,3s

The subshell with lowest energy is filled first.


The order of energy of different subshells of an atom is 1s < 2s < 2p < 3s < 3p < 4s < 3d < 4p < 5s < 4d < 5p
< 6s < 4f < 5d < 6p < 7s < 5f < 6d < 7p.
The number present before the subshells like 1,2,3
------ represents the number of the shell i.e. n.
The order of filling of different sub-shells is
represented diagrammatically as follows :

1s
2s

2p

3s

3p

3d

4s

4p

4d

4f

5s

5p

5d

5f

6s

6p

6d

7s

7p

13

Al

Alum inium

1s , 2s , 2p ,3s ,3p

14

Si

Silicon

1s , 2s , 2p ,3s ,3p

Phos phorus 1s , 2s , 2p ,3s ,3p 3

15

16

Sulphur

1s 2, 2s 2 , 2p 6 ,3s 2 ,3p 4

17

Cl

Chlorine

1s 2, 2s 2 , 2p 6 ,3s 2 ,3p 5

18

Ar

Argon

1s 2, 2s 2 , 2p 6 ,3s 2 ,3p 6

19

Potas s ium

1s 2, 2s 2 , 2p 6 ,3s 2 ,3p 6, , 4s 1

20

Ca

Calcium

1s , 2s , 2p ,3s ,3p , 4s

21

Sc

Scandium

6,

6,

2
2

6,

6,

6,

1s , 2s , 2p ,3s ,3p 3d , 4s

22

Ti

Titanium

1s , 2s , 2p ,3s ,3p 3d , 4s

23

Vanadium

1s , 2s , 2p ,3s ,3p 3d , 4s

1s , 2s , 2p ,3s ,3p 3d , 4s 1

24

Cr

C hrom ium

25

Mn

Manganes e 1s 2, 2s 2 , 2p 6 ,3s 2 ,3p 6, 3d 5, 4s 2

26

Fe

Iron

1s 2, 2s 2 , 2p 6 ,3s 2 ,3p 6, 3d 6, 4s 2

27

Co

Cobalt

1s 2, 2s 2 , 2p 6 ,3s 2 ,3p 6, 3d 7, 4s 2

28

Ni

Nickel

1s 2, 2s 2 , 2p 6 ,3s 2 ,3p 6, 3d 8, 4s 2

29

Cu

Copper

1s , 2s , 2p ,3s ,3p 3d , 4s

30

Zn

Zinc

1s , 2s , 2p ,3s ,3p 3d , 4s

6,

10

6,

10

VALENCE SHELL AND VALENCE ELECTRONS


The outermost shell of an atom is known as the
valence shell. The electrons present in the valence
shell of an atom are known as valence electrons.
The remainder of the atom i.e. the nucleus and other
electrons is called the core of the atom. Electrons
present in the core of an atom are known as core
electrons.
e.g.
The electronic configuration of the sodium (Na) atom
is :Na (11)
K
L
M
2
8
1
Thus, valence electron in Na atom = 1 and core
electrons in Na atom = 2 + 8 = 10

(b) Paulis Exclusion Principle :


According to Paulis exclusion principle an orbital
cannot accommodate more than two electrons. If
there are two electrons in an orbital they must have
opposite spins.

(a) Significance of Valence Electrons :


(i) The valence electrons of an atom are responsible
for, and take part in, chemical changes.
(ii) The valence electrons in an atom determine the
mode of chemical combination.

10
10

PAGE # 10

(iii) The valence electrons determine the combining


capacity or the valency of the atom. The number of
electrons in an atom that actually take part in bond
formation is known as the valency of the element.
e.g. In the carbon atom, there are four valence
electrons.
C(6)
K L
2 4
The carbon atom is capable of forming four bonds.
Hence, the valency of carbon is four.

VALENCY
Valency of an element is the combining capacity of
the atoms of the element with atoms of the same or
different elements. The combining capacity of the
atoms was explained in terms of their tendency to
attain a fully filled outermost shell (stable octet or
duplet)

(iv) If the outermost shell of an atom is completely


filled, its valency is zero.
The outermost shells of helium, neon, argon, krypton
etc. are completely filled. Hence the valency of these
elements is zero.

Valency of an element is determined by the number


of valence electrons in an atom of the element.
The valency of an element = number of valence
electrons (if the number of valence electrons is1 to 4)
The valency of an element = 8 number of valence
electrons. (if the number of valence electrons is 4 to 8)

(v) Elements having the same number of valence


electrons in their atoms possess similar chemical
properties.
e.g. All alkali metals have one valence electron in
their atoms. Hence, their chemical properties are
similar.

ISOTOPES

(vi) Elements having different number of valence


electrons in their atoms show different chemical
properties.
e.g. Let us consider the electronic configuration of
alkali metals and halogens. Alkali metal atoms have
single valence electron whereas halogen atoms have
seven valence electrons. It is observed that the
chemical properties of the alkali metals are entirely
different from those of halogens.
(vii) The number of the valence shell in the atom of an
element determines the period number of the
element in the periodic table.
e.g. Sodium (Na) :
Valence shell number = 3.
period number = 3
Calcium (Ca)
Valence shell number = 4
period number = 4
(viii) Elements with 1, 2 or 3 valence electrons in their
atoms are metals.

The isotopes of an element have the same atomic


number but different atomic masses.

Note :
Whether the atom while combining with other atoms
can form ionic or covalent bonds is determined by
the number of valence electrons present in the atom.

Note :
The term isotope was given by Margaret Todd.
The difference in their masses is due to the presence
of different number of neutrons.
e.g. Isotopes of hydrogen :
Hydrogen
isotopes

Note :
Hydrogen and helium are exceptions to this rule.
Hydrogen and helium atoms have 1 and 2 valence
electrons respectively, but they are non-metals.
(ix) Elements with 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8 valence electrons in
their atoms are non metals.
e.g. carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) are non
metals.
C = 2,4
6
N = 2,5
7
O = 2,6
8

Note :
The number of electrons gained, lost or contributed
for sharing by an atom of the element gives us directly
the combining capacity or valency of the element.

Pr ot iu m
1
1H

De u t e r iu m
2
1H

T r itium
3
1H

1. Atomic number

2. No. of protons

3. No. of electrons

4. Mass number

5. No. of neutrons

Isotopes of oxygen :

Oxygen isotopes

16
8O

17
8O

18
8O

1. Atomic number

2. No. of protons

3. No. of electrons

4. Mass number

16

17

18

5. No. of neutrons

10

Note :
All the isotopes of an element have identical chemical
properties.

11
11

PAGE # 11

(a) Characteristics of Isotopes :

ISOBARS
(i) The physical properties of the isotopes of an
element are different. This is due to the fact that
isotopes have different numbers of neutrons in their
nuclei. Hence mass, density and other physical
properties of the isotopes of an element are different.

The atoms of different elements with different atomic


numbers, which have same mass number are called
isobars.
e.g.

(ii) All the isotopes of an element contain the same


number of electrons. So, they have the same
electronic configuration with the same number of
valence electrons. Since the chemical properties of
an element are determined by the number of valence
electrons in its atom, all the isotopes of an element
have identical chemical properties.

35
17 Cl

and

37
17 Cl

with abundance of 75%

are isobars.
40
18

40
20

Ar

Ca

18

20

2. Mass number

40

40

3. No. of electrons

18

20

4. No. of protons

18

20

5. No. of neutrons

22

20

2, 8, 8

2, 8, 8, 2

6. Electronic configuration

Note
Isobars contain different number of electrons,
protons and neutrons.

ISOTONES
Isotones may be defined as the atoms of different
elements containing same number of neutrons.
e.g.

75
25
= 35
+ 37
100
100
2625
925
+
100
100

40
20 Ca

1. Atomic number

and 25% respectively. Thus the average mass of a


chlorine atom will be 75% of 35 and 25% of 37, which
is 35.5 u.
So, Average atomic mass of chlorine

and

are isobars.

Isobars

of Elements :

two isotopes

14
7N

and

40
18 Ar

(b) Reason for the Fractional Atomic Masses

The atomic masses of many elements are in fraction


and not whole number. The fractional atomic masses
of elements are due to the existence of their isotopes
having different masses.
e.g.
The atomic mass of chlorine is 35.5 u. Chlorine has

14
6C

13
6C

and

30
31
14 Si , 15 P

14
7N

and

(Both contain 7 neutrons)

32
16 S

(All three contain 16 neutrons)

ISOELECTRONIC

= 26.25 + 9.25
= 35.5 u.
Thus, the average atomic mass of chlorine is 35.5 u.

Ion or atom or molecule which have the same number


of electrons are called as isoelectronic species.

(c) Applications of Radioactive Isotopes :

e.g.

(i) In agriculture : Certain elements such as boron,


cobalt, copper, manganese, zinc and molybdenum
are necessary in very minute quantities for plant
nutrition. By radioactive isotopes we can identify the
presence and requirement of these element in the
nutrition of plants.

No. of electrons

17Cl

18

18 Ar

19 K

18

18

20 Ca

18

(ii) In industry : Isotopes are used for coating on the


arm of clock to see in dark. To identify the cracks in
metal casting.
(iii) In medicine :Thyroid, bone diseases, brain
tumors and cancer are controlled or destroyed with
24
32
the help of radioactive isotope 11
Na, 131
53 , 15P etc.

(iv) Determination of the mechanism of chemical


reaction by replacing an atom or molecule by its
isotopes.
(v) In carbon dating : Will and Libby (1960) developed
the technique of radiocarbon to determine the age of
plant, fossil and archeological sample.

Note :
Isotopes (Like Uranium-238) are used in Nuclear
reactor to produce energy and power.

12
12

PAGE # 12

ACIDS, BASES AND SALTS


(a) Classification of Acids :

ACIDS
Substances with sour taste are regarded as acids.
Lemon juice, vinegar, grape fruit juice and spoilt milk
etc. taste sour since they are acidic. Many substances
can be identified as acids based on their taste but
some of the acids like sulphuric acid have very strong
action on the skin which means that they are corrosive
in nature. In such cases it would be according to
modern definition An acid may be defined as a substance which
releases one or more H+ ions in aqueous solution.
Acids are mostly obtained from natural sources.

(i) Classification of acids on the basis of their


Source
On the basis of their source, acids can be classified
in two categories :
(A) Organic acids
(B) Inorganic acids
(A) Organic acids
The acids which are usually obtained from
organisms are known as organic acids. Oxalic acid
[(COOH)2], acetic acid (CH3COOH) etc. are very
common examples of organic acids. Some other
organic acids with their natural sources are given in
the following Table.

Some Organic Acids with Their Natural Sources

S.No. Organic acid

Natural sources

S.No. Organic acid Natural sources

Acetic acid

Micro-organism

Oleic acid

Olive oil

Citric acid

Citrus fruits (like


orange and lemon)

Stearic acid

Fats

Butyric acid

Rancid butter

Amino acid

Proteins

Formic acid

Sting of bees and ants

10

Uric acid

Urine

Lactic acid

Sour milk

11

Tartaric acid

Tamarind

Malic acid

Apples

12

Oxalic acid

Tomatoes

It may be noted that all organic acids contain carbon


as one of their constituting elements. These are weak
acids and, therefore, do not ionise completely in their
aqueous solutions. Since these acids do not ionise
completely in their aqueous solutions, therefore, their
solutions contains both ions as well as
undissociated molecules. For example, formic acids
aqueous solution contains H3O+, HCOO as well as
undissociated HCOOH molecules.
HCOOH + H2O
H3O+
+
HCOO
Formic acid
Hydronium ion Formate ion
(B) Inorganic Acids.
The acids which are usually obtained from minerals
are known as inorganic acids. Since the acids are
obtained from minerals, therefore, these acids are
also called mineral acids. Some common examples
of inorganic acids are : Hydrochloric acid (HCl),
Sulphuric acid (H2SO4), Nitric acid (HNO3) etc.
It may be pointed out that except carbonic acid
(H2CO3), these acids do not contain carbon. Acids
like HCl, H2SO4 and HNO3 are strong acids which
ionise completely in their aqueous solutions and,
therefore, their aqueous solutions do not contain any
undissociated molecules.

(ii) Classification of acids on the basis of their


Basicity :
The basicity of an acid is defined as the number of
hydronium ions [H3O+ (aq.)] that can be produced by
the complete ionisation of one molecule of that acid
in aqueous solution.
For example, basicity of HCl, H2SO4, H3PO4 is 1, 2
and 3 respectively because one molecule of these
acids, on ionisation, produces 1, 2 and 3 hydronium
ions in aqueous solution respectively.
It may be pointed out here that the basicity of an acid
is determined by number of hydronium ions produced
per molecule of an acid on ionisation and not the
number of hydrogen atoms present in one molecule
of an acid. For example, basicity of acetic acid
(CH3COOH) is 1 because one molecule of acetic acid,
on ionisation in aqueous solution, produces one
hydronium ion although one molecule of acetic acid
contains four hydrogen atoms.
CH3COOH
Acetic acid

+ H2O

H3O+ + CH3COO
Hydronium ion Acetate ion

On the basis of basicity, the acids can be classified


as under :

PAGE # 13

(A) Monobasic Acids :


When one molecule of an acid on complete ionisation
produces one hydronium ion (H 3 O + ) in aqueous
solution, the acid is said to be a monobasic acid.

(C) Tribasic Acids :


When one molecule of an acid on complete ionisation
produces three hydronium ions (H3O+) in aqueous
solution, the acid is said to be a tribasic acid.
An example of tribasic acids is Phosphoric acid
(H3PO4).

Examples of Monobasic Acids.


Some examples of monobasic acids are :
(i) Hydrochloric acid (HCl)
(ii) Hydrobromic acid (HBr)
(iii) Nitric acid (HNO3)
(iv) Acetic acid (CH3COOH)
(v) Formic acid (HCOOH)

(D) Tetrabasic Acids :


When one molecule of an acid on complete ionisation
produces four hydronium ions (H3 O+) in aqueous
solution, the acid is said to be a tetrabasic acid.
An example of tetrabasic acids is silicic acid (H4SiO4).

Characteristics of Monobasic Acids.


Two important characteristics of monobasic acids
are :

(iii) Classification of acids on the basis of their


strength :
We know that acids ionise in the aqueous solution to
produce hydronium ions. So, the strength of an acid
depends upon the degree of ionisation, usually
denoted by the letter alpha ().
Degree of ionisation of an acid ()

(i) A monobasic acid ionises in one step in aqueous


solution. For example,
HCl + H2O
H3O+ + Cl
(Single step ionisation)
(ii) A monobasic acid forms only single salt or a normal
salt. For example,
HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O
Sodium chloride
(Normal salt)

(B) Dibasic Acids :


When one molecule of an acid on complete ionisation
produces two hydronium ions (H 3 O +) in aqueous
solution, the acid is said to be a dibasic acid.
Examples of Dibasic Acids :
Some examples of dibasic acids are :
(i) Sulphuric acid (H2SO4)
(ii) Sulphurous acid (H2SO3)
(iii) Carbonic acid (H2CO3)
(iv) Oxalic acid [(COOH)2]
(v) Hydrofluoric acid (HF)
Characteristics of Dibasic Acids :
Two important characteristics of dibasic acids are :
(i) A dibasic acid ionises in two steps in aqueous
solution. For example, sulphuric acid which is a dibasic
acid ionises to produce bisulphate ion (HSO4) in the
first step which further ionises to produce sulphate ion
(SO42) in the second step.
H2SO4 + H2O
H3O+ + HSO4
Sulphuric acid

HSO4 + H2O

Bisulphate ion

H3O+ + SO42
Sulphate ion

(ii) Because of the presence of two replaceable


hydrogen ions, a dibasic acid forms two series of salts
i.e., an acid salt and a normal salt. For example, H2SO4
reacts with NaOH to form NaHSO4 (an acid salt) and
Na2SO4 (a normal salt)
NaOH + H2SO4 NaHSO4 + H2O
Sodium hydrogen
sulphate
(An acid salt)

2NaOH + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + 2H2O


Sodium sulphate
(Normal salt)

Number of molecules of the acid undergoing ionisation


100
Total number of acid molecules

More the degree of ionisation () of an acid, more stronger


it will be. Generally, if the degree of ionisation () for an
acid is greater than 30%, it is considered to be a strong
acid. If it is less than 30%,it is considered to be a weak
acid.
On the basis of degree of ionisation, the acids can be
classified as under:
(A) Strong Acids :
The acids which undergo almost complete ionisation
in a dilute aqueous solution, thereby producing a high
concentration of hydronium ions (H3O+) are known as
strong acids.
Examples of strong acids :
Some examples of strong acids are :
(i) Hydrochloric acid (HCl)
(ii) Sulphuric acid (H2SO4)
(iii) Nitric acid (HNO3)
All these three mineral acids are considered to be
strong acids because they ionise almost completely
in their dilute aqueous solutions.
(B) Weak Acids :
The acids which undergo partial or incomplete
ionisation in a dilute aqueous solution, thereby
producing a low concentration of hydronium ions
(H3O+) are known as weak acids.
Examples of weak acids :
Some examples of weak acids are :
(i) Acetic acid (CH3COOH)
(ii) Formic acid (HCOOH)
(iii) Oxalic acid [(COOH)2]
(iv) Carbonic acid (H2CO3)
(v) Sulphurous acid (H2SO3)
(vi) Hydrogen sulphide (H2S)
(vii) Hydrocyanic acid (HCN)
The aqueous solution of weak acids contain both ions
as well as undissociated molecules.

PAGE # 14

It must be mentioned here that concentration of an


acid simply tells the amount of water in the acid. It may
not be confused with strength of an acid, which is a
measure of concentration of hydronium ion it produces
in aqueous solution.

(iv) Classification on the basis of Concentration of


the Acid :
By the term concentration, we mean the amount of
water present in the given sample of acid solution in
water.

A concentrated acid may not necessarily be a strong


acid while a dilute acid may not necessarily be a weak
acid. A strong acid will remain strong even if it is dilute
because it produces a large concentration of hydronium
ions in aqueous solution. On the other hand, a weak
acid will remain weak even when concentrated
because it will produce lesser concentration of
hydronium ions in aqueous solution.

(A) Concentrated Acid :


The sample of an acid which contains very small or no
amount of water is called a concentrated acid.
(B) Dilute Acid :
The sample of an acid which contains far more amount
of water than its own mass is known as a dilute acid

CHEMICAL FORMULAE, TYPES AND USES OF SOME COMMON ACIDS


Name

Type

Chemical Formula

Where found or used

Carbonic acid

Mineral acid

H2CO3

In soft drinks and lends fizz.

Nitric acid

Mineral acid

HNO3

Used in the manufacture of explosives (TNT,


Nitroglycerine) and fertilizers (Ammonium nitrate,
Calcium nitrate, Purification of Au, Ag)

HCl

In purification of common salt, in textile industry


as bleaching agent, to make aqua regia, in
stomach as gastric juice, used in tanning industry
Commonly used in car batteries, in
the manufacture of fertilizers (Ammonium
sulphate, super phosphate) detergents etc, in
paints, plastics, drugs, in manufacture of artificial
silk, in petroleum refining.

Hydrochloric acid Mineral acid

Sulphuric acid

Mineral acid

H2SO4

Phosphoric acid

Mineral acid

H3PO4

Formic acid

Organic acid

HCOOH

Acetic acid

Organic acid

CH3COOH

Used in antirust paints and in fertilizers.


Found in the stings of ants and bees, used in
tanning leather, in medicines for treating gout.
Found in vinegar, used as solvent in the
manufacture of dyes and perfumes.
Responsible for souring of milk in curd.

Lactic acid

Organic acid

CH3CH(OH)COOH

Benzoic acid

Organic acid

C6H5COOH

Used as a food preservative.

Citric acid

Organic acid

C6H8O7

Present in lemons, oranges and citrus fruits.

Tartaric acid

Organic acid

C4H6O6

Present in tamarind.

(b) Chemical Properties of Acids :


(i) Action with metals :
Dilute acids like dilute HCl and dilute H2SO4 react with
certain active metals to evolve hydrogen gas.
2Na(s) + 2HCl (dilute) 2NaCl(aq) + H2(g)

(ii) Action with metal oxides :


Acids react with metal oxides to form salt and water.
These reactions are mostly carried out upon heating.
e.g.
ZnO(s) + 2HCl (aq) ZnCl2(aq) + H2O()

Mg(s) + H2SO4 (dilute) MgSO4(aq) + H2(g)

MgO(s) + H2SO4(aq) MgSO4(aq) + H2O()

Metals which can displace hydrogen from dilute acids


are known as active metals. e.g. Na, K, Zn, Fe, Ca, Mg
etc.

CuO(s) + 2HCl(aq.) CuCl2(aq) + H2O()


(Black)
(Bluish green)

Zn(s) + H2SO4 (dilute) ZnSO4(aq) + H2(g)


The active metals which lie above hydrogen in the
activity series are electropositive and more reactive in
nature. Their atoms lose electrons to form positive ions
and these electrons are accepted by H+ ions of the
acid. As a result, H2 is evolved.
e.g.
Zn(s) Zn2+ (aq) + 2e
2H+(aq) + SO42 (aq) + 2e H2(g) + SO42(aq)
Zn(s) + 2H+(aq) Zn++(aq) + H2(g)

(iii) Action with metal carbonates and metal


bicarbonates : Both metal carbonates and bicarbonates
react with acids to evolve CO2 gas and form salts.
e.g.
CaCO3(s)+ 2HCl(aq) CaCl2(aq) + H2O() + CO2(g)
Calcium
Calcium
carbonate
chloride
2NaHCO3(s) + H2SO4(aq) Na2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(aq) + 2CO2(g)

Sodium
bicarbonate

Sodium
sulphate

(iv) Action with bases :


Acids react with bases to give salt and water.
HCl (aq) + NaOH(aq) NaCl + H2O
PAGE # 15

(a) Alkalies :

BASE
Substances with bitter taste and soapy touch are
regarded as bases. Since many bases like sodium
hydroxide and potassium hydroxide have corrosive
action on the skin and can even harm the body, so
according to the modern definition A base may be defined as a substance capable of
releasing one or more OH ions in aqueous solution.
Name

1.

2.

Commercial Name

Some bases like sodium hydroxide and potassium


hydroxide are water soluble. These are known as
alkalies. Therefore water soluble bases are known as
alkalies eg. KOH, NaOH.
Bases like Cu(OH)2, Fe(OH)3 and Al(OH)3 these are
not alkalies.
A list of a few typical bases along with their chemical
formulae and uses is given below-

Chemical
Formula
NaOH

Uses
In manufacture of soap, paper, pulp, rayon,
refining of petroleum etc.
In alkaline storage batteries, manufacture of
soap, absorbing CO2 gas etc.

Sodium hydroxide

Caustic soda

Potassium hydroxide

Caustic potash

Calcium hydroxide

Slaked lime

Ca(OH)2

In manufacture of bleaching powder,


softening of hard water etc.

Magnesium hydroxide

Milk of magnesia

Mg(OH)2

As an antacid to remove acidity from stomach.

KOH

Aluminium hydroxide

Al(OH)3

As foaming agent in fire extinguishers.

Ammonium hydroxide

NH4OH

In removing grease stains from clothes and in


cleaning window panes.

(b) Chemical Properties :

Experiment :

Action with metals :


Metals like zinc, tin and aluminium react with strong
alkalies like NaOH (caustic soda), KOH (caustic
potash) to evolve hydrogen gas.

In a glass beaker, take a dilute solution of hydrochloric

Zn(s) + 2NaOH(aq) Na2ZnO2(aq) + H2(g)


Sodium zincate

on the current and bulb will start glowing. This shows

Sn(s) + 2NaOH(aq) Na2SnO2(aq) + H2(g)


Sodium stannite

solution. As the current is carried by the movement of

2Al(s)+ 2NaOH + 2H2O 2NaAlO2(aq) + 3H2(g)


Sodium meta
aluminate

give H+ and Cl ions. Current will also be in a position

Action with non-metallic oxides :


Acids react with metal oxides, but bases react with
oxides of non-metals to form salt and water.
e.g.
2NaOH(aq) + CO2(g) Na2CO3(aq) + H2O()
Ca(OH)2(s) + SO2(g) CaSO3(s) + H2O()

solutions containing NaOH or KOH will also be

Ca(OH)2(s) + CO2(g) CaCO3(s)

acid (HCl). Fix two small nails of iron in a rubber cork in


the beaker as shown in the figure. Connect the nails to
the terminals of a 6 volt battery through a bulb. Switch
that the electric current has passed through the acid
ions, this shows that in solution HCl has ionised to
to pass if the beaker contains in it dilute H2SO4 (H+ ions
are released in aqueous solution). Similarly, aqueous
conducting due to release of OH ions.
Battery

Bulb in
circuit
Switch

+ H2O()

CONDUCTING NATURE OF ACID


AND BASE SOLUTIONS
Acids are the substances which contain one or more
hydrogen atoms in their molecules which they can
release in water as H+ ions. Similarly, bases are the
substances which contain one or more hydroxyl groups
in their molecules which they can release in water as
OH ions . Since the ions are the carrier of charge
therefore, the aqueous solutions of both acids and
bases are conductors of electricity.

Dilute HCl
Iron Nails
Rubber cork
Bulb will not glow if glucose (C6H12O6) or ethyl alcohol
(C2H5OH) solution is kept in the beaker. This means
that both of them will not give any ions in solution.

PAGE # 16

THEORIES OF ACIDS AND BASES


(a) Arrhenius Theory :
This concept was given in 1884 .
Acids
Sour in taste.
Change Colours of indicators
e.g. litmus turns from blue to
red, phenolphthalein remains
colourless.
Show electrolytic conductivity
in aqueous solution.
Acidic properties disappear
when react with bases
(Neutralization)
Acids decompose carbonate
salts.

Bases
Bitter in taste.
Change colours of indicators e.g.
litmus turns from red to blue
phenolphthalein turns from
colourless to pink.
Show electrolytic conductivity in
aqueous solution
Basic properties disappear when
react with acids (Neutralization)
No decomposition of carbonate
salts by bases

ROLE OF WATER IN THE IONISATION


OF ACIDS AND BASES
Substances can act as acids and bases only in the
presence of water (in aqueous solution). In dry state
which is also called anhydrous state, these characters
cannot be shown. Actually, water helps in the ionisation
of acid or base by separating the ions. This is also
known as dissociation and is explained on the basis
of a theory called Arrhenius theory of acids and bases.
In the dry state, hydrochloric acid is known as hydrogen
chloride gas i.e. HCl(g). It is not in the position to give
any H+ ions. Therefore, the acidic character is not
shown. Now, let us pass the gas through water taken
in a beaker with the help of glass pipe. H2O molecules
are of polar nature which means that they have partial
negative charge () on oxygen atom and partial positive
charge (+) on hydrogen atoms. They will try to form a
sort of envelope around the hydrogen atoms as well
as chlorine atoms present in the acid and thus help in
their separation as ions. These ions are said to be
hydrated ions.
HCl(g) + H2O H3O+ + Cl(aq)
(Hydrated ions)
The electrical current is carried through these ions.
The same applies to other acids as well as bases.
Thus we conclude that (i) acids can release H+ ions only in aqueous solution.
(ii) base can release OH ions only in aqueous solution.
(iii) hydration helps in the release of ions from acids
and bases.

DILUTION OF ACIDS AND BASES


Acids and bases are mostly water soluble and can be
diluted by adding the required amount of water. With
the addition of water the amount of acid or base per
unit volume decrease and dilution occurs. The process
is generally exothermic in nature. When a concentrated
acid like sulphuric acid or nitric acid is to be diluted
with water, acid should be added dropwise to water
taken in the container with constant stirring.

According to this theory all substances which give H+


ions when dissolved in water are called acids, while
those which ionise in water to give OH ions are called
bases.
The main points of this theory are (i) An acid or base when dissolved in water, splits into
ions. This is known as ionisation.
(ii) Upon dilution, the ions get separated from each other.
This is known as dissociation of ions.
(iii) The fraction of the acid or base which dissociates
into ions is called its degree of dissociation and is
denoted by alpha which can be calculated by the
following formula :
=

No. of molecules dissociate d at equilibriu m


total no. of molecules

(iv) The degree of dissociation depends upon the nature


of acid or base. Strong acids and bases are highly
dissociated, while weak acids and bases are
dissociated to lesser extent.
(v) The electric current is carried by the movement of
ions. Greater the ionic mobility more will be the
conductivity of the acid or base.
(vi) The H+ ions do not exist as such and exist in
combination with molecules of H 2O as H 3O + ions
(known as hydronium ion).
H+ + H2O

H3O+

HCl + H2O

H3O+ + Cl

e.g.
HA + H2O
Acid

H3O+ + A
2H3O+ + SO42

H2SO4 + 2H2O
Acid
BOH
Base

Water

NaOH
Base
NH4OH
Base

Water

Water

B+ + OH
Na+ + OH
NH4+ + OH

(A) Limitations of Arrhenius theory :


It is applicable only to aqueous solutions. For the
acidic or basic properties, the presence of water is
absolutely necessary.
The concept does not explain the acidic or basic
properties of acids or bases in non - aqueous solvents.
It fails to explain the basic nature of compounds like
NH3, Na 2CO3 etc., which do not have OH in their
molecules to furnish OH ions.
It fails to explain the acidic nature of non - protic
compounds like SO2, P2O5, CO2, NO2 etc., which do not
have hydrogen in their molecules to furnish H+ ions.
It fails to explain the acidic nature of certain salts like
AlCl3 etc., in aqueous solutions.
PAGE # 17

(c) Lewis theory :

(b) Acid Base Concept of Bronsted and


Lowry :
This theory was given by Bronsted, a Danish chemist
and Lowry, an English chemist independently in 1923.
According to it, an acid is a substance, molecule or ion
which has a tendency to release the proton
(protogenic) and similarly a base has a tendency to
accept the proton (protophilic).

The theory was given by G.N. Lewis in 1938. According


to it, an acid is a species which can accept a pair of
electrons, while the base is one which can donate a
pair of electrons.

e.g.

e.g.
(i) FeCl3 and AlCl3 are Lewis acids, because the central
atoms have only six electrons after sharing and need
two more electrons.

HCl + H2O
H3O+ + Cl
In this reaction, HCl acts as an acid because it donates
a proton to the water molecule. Water, on the other
hand, behaves as a base by accepting a proton.

(ii) NH3 is a Lewis base as it has a pair of electrons


which can be easily donated.
Lewis acids :- CH3+, H+, BF3, AlCl3, FeCl3 etc.
Lewis base :- NH3, H2O, ROR, R OH, CN, OH
etc.

Note :
Bronsted and Lowry theory is also known as proton
donor and proton acceptor theory.
Other examples :
(i) CH3COOH + H2O
H3O+ + CH3COO
(ii) NH4+ + H2O

H3O+ + NH3

(iii) NH3 + H2O

NH4+ + OH

(i) Characteristics of species which can act as Lewis


acids :
(A) Molecules in which the central atom has
incomplete octet : Lewis acids are electron deficient
molecules such as BF3, AlCl3, GaCl3 etc.
H3N + AlCl3

In the reactions (i) and (ii) water is acting as a base,


while in reaction (iii) it is acting as an acid.Thus water
can donate as well as accept H+ and hence can act as
both acid and base.

Note :
It is also known as electron pair donor and electron
pair acceptor theory.

[H3N

AlCl3]

(B) Molecules in which the central atom has empty


d-orbitals : The central atom of the halides such as
TiCl4, SnCl4, PCl3, PF5, SF4, TeCl4. etc., have vacant dorbitals. These can, therefore, accept an electron pair
and act as Lewis acids.

Note :
The species like H2O, NH3, CH3COOH which can act
as both acid and base are called amphiprotic.
Moreover according to theory, an acid on losing a
proton becomes a base, called conjugate base, while
the base by accepting proton changes to acid called
conjugate acid.

(C) Simple cations : All cations are expected to act as


Lewis acid, since they are electron deficient in nature.

(D) Molecules having a multiple bond between


atoms of dissimilar electronegativity : Typical
examples of molecules belonging to this class of
Lewis acids are CO2, SO2 and SO3.
(ii) Characteristics of species which can act as Lewis
bases :

Here CH3COO ion is conjugate base of CH3COOH,


while H3O+ ion is conjugate acid of H2O.

(A) Neutral species having at least one lone pair of


electrons : For example, ammonia amines, alcohols
etc, act as Lewis bases as they contain a pair of
electrons.

(i) Merits :
(A) Besides water any other solvent, which has the
tendency to accept or lose a proton may decide the
acidic or basic behaviour of the dissolved substance.

(B) Negatively charged species or simple anions :


For example chloride (Cl), cyanide (CN), hydroxide
(OH) ions etc. act as Lewis bases.

(B) This theory states that the terms acid and base are
comparative. A substance may act as an acid in one
solvent, while as a base in another solvent.

(C) Multiple bonded compounds : The compounds


such as CO, NO, ethylene, acetylene etc. can act as
Lewis bases.

e.g. Acetic acid acts as an acid in water while as a


base in HF.

(ii) Demerits :
(A) Many acid - base reactions proceed without H+
transfer.
e.g. SO2 + SO3

SO2+ + SO42-

Note :
It may be noted that all Bronsted bases are also Lewis
bases, but all Lewis acids are not Bronsted acids.
(iii) Limitations of Lewis theory :
(A) Lewis theory fails to explain the relative strength of
acids and bases.
PAGE # 18

e.g .

INDICATORS

HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq)

An indicator indicates the nature of a particular solution


whether acidic, basic or neutral. Apart from this, indicator
also represents the change in nature of the solution
from acidic to basic and vice versa. Indicators are
basically coloured organic substances extracted from
different plants. A few common acid base indicators are-

(a) Litmus :
Litmus is a purple dye which is extracted from lichen
a plant belonging to variety Thallophyta. It can also be
applied on paper in the form of strips and is available
as blue and red strips. A blue litmus strip, when dipped
in an acid solution acquires red colour. Similarly a red
strip when dipped in a base solution becomes blue.

Strong
acid

Strong
base

HNO3 (aq) + KOH (aq)


Strong
acid

NaCl (aq) + H2O () + 57.1 KJ

KNO3 (aq) + H2O () + 57.1 KJ

Strong
base

Strong acids and strong bases are completely ionised


of their own in the solution. No energy is needed for
their ionisation. Since the cation of base and anion of
acid on both sides of the equation cancel out
completely, the heat evolved is given by the following
reaction H+ (aq) + OH (aq) H2O () + 57.1 KJ

APPLICATIONS OF NEUTRALISATION
(b) Phenolphthalein :
It is also an organic dye and acidic in nature. In neutral
or acidic solution, it remains colourless while in the
basic solution, the colour of indicator changes to pink.
(c) Methyl Orange :
Methyl orange is an orange or yellow coloured dye and
basic in nature. In the acidic medium the colour of
indicator becomes red and in the basic or neutral
medium, its colour remains unchanged.
(d) Red Cabbage Juice :
It is purple in colour in neutral medium and turns red
or pink in the acidic medium. In the basic or alkaline
medium, its colour changes to green.
(e) Turmeric Juice :
It is yellow in colour and remains as such in the neutral
and acidic medium. In the basic medium its colour
becomes reddish or deep brown.

Note :
Litmus is obtained from LICHEN plant.

NEUTRALISATION
It may be defined as a reaction between acid and
base present in aqueous solution to form salt and
water.
HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O()
Basically neutralisation is the combination between

H+ ions of the acid with OH ions of the base to form H2O.


e.g.

(i) People particularly of old age suffer from acidity


problems in the stomach which is caused mainly due
to release of excessive gastric juices containing HCl.
The acidity is neutralised by antacid tablets which
contain sodium hydrogen carbonate (baking soda),
magnesium hydroxide etc.
(ii) The stings of bees and ants contain formic acid. Its
corrosive and poisonous effect can be neutralised by
rubbing soap which contains NaOH (an alkali).
(iii) The stings of wasps contain an alkali and its
poisonous effect can be neutralised by an acid like
acetic acid (present in vinegar).
(iv) Farmers generally neutralize the effect of acidity in
the soil caused by acid rain by adding slaked lime
(Calcium hydroxide) to the soil.

According to Arrhenius theory, an acid releases H+ ion


in aqueous solution. The concentration of these ions
is expressed by enclosing H+ in square bracket i.e. as
[H+]. Thus, greater the [H+] ions, stronger will be the
acid. However, according to pH scale, lesser the pH
value, stronger will be the acid. From the above
discussion, we can conclude that pH value and H+ ion
concentration are inversely proportional to each other.
The relation between them can also be expressed as-

pH = log [H+] = log

H+(aq) + Cl (aq) + Na+(aq) + OH (aq) Na+(aq) + Cl(aq) + H2O()

H+(aq) + OH(aq) H2O()


Neutralisation reaction involving an acid and base is
of exothermic nature. Heat is evolved in all
neutralisation reactions. If both acid and base are
strong, the value of heat energy evolved remains same
irrespective of their nature.

So, negative logarithm of hydrogen ion concentration


is known as pH.
e.g.
Let the [H+] of an acid solution be 103 M. Its pH can be
calculated as pH = log [H+]
= log [103]
= () (3) log 10
= 3 ( log 10 = 1)
PAGE # 19

Note :
Just as the [H+] of a solution can be expressed in terms
of pH value, the [OH] can be expressed as pOH.
Mathematically , pOH = log [OH] = log

(a) Classification of Salts :


(i) It is based on their Mode of Formation :
(A) Normal Salts :

The salts which are obtained by complete replacement


of the ionisable hydrogen atoms of an acid by a metallic
or an ammonium ion are known as normal salts. For
example, normal salts NaCl and Na2SO4 are formed
by the complete replacement of ionisable hydrogen
atoms of HCl and H2SO4 respectively

[OH ]

Moreover, pH + pOH = 14.


Thus, if pH value of solution is known, its pOH value
can be calculated.

Note :
There are some solutions which have definite pH i.e.,
their pH do not change on dilution or on standing for
long. Such solutions are called buffer solutions.

HCl

H2SO4 +

Ex.1 Calculate the concentration of H3O+ ions and OH ions


in (a) 0.01 M solution of HCl (b) 0.01 M solution of
NaOH at 298 K, assuming that HCl and NaOH are
completely ionized under the given conditions.
Sol. (a) HCl(aq) + H2O(l)

H3

O+(aq)

Cl (aq)

Since HCl is completely ionized


[H3O+] = [HCl] = 0.01 M
or 1 10 2 mol L 1

[K w ]

[OH] =

[H3 O ]

1 10 14
1 10 2

1 10 12 mol L1

(b) NaOH(aq) Na+(aq) + OH(aq)


Since NaOH is completely ionized
[OH] = [NaOH] = 0.01 M
or 1 102 mol L1

1 10 14
+
[H3O ] =
=
[OH ]
1 10 2
Kw

= 1 10

12

mol L .
1

Ex-2 Calculate the concentration of H3O+ ions and pH in


0.005 M solution of Ba(OH)2 at 298 K, assuming that
Ba(OH) 2 is completely ionized under the given
conditions.
Sol. Ba(OH)2(aq) Ba2+(aq) + 2OH(aq)
Since Ba(OH)2 is completely ionized and on ionization
its one molecule gives two OH ions.
[OH] = 2[Ba(OH)2 ]
= 2 0.005 = 0.01 mol L1
= 1 102 mol L1
[H3O+] =

Kw

[OH ]

1 10 14
1 10 2

= 1 1012 mol L1
pH = 12

SALTS
A substance formed by neutralization of an acid
with a base is called a salt.
e.g.
Ca(OH)2(aq)+ H2SO4(aq) CaSO4(aq) + 2H2O()

NaOH

NaCl + H2O
Sodium chloride
(Normal salt)

2NaOH Na2SO4 + 2H2O


Sodium sulphate
(Normal salt)

Some of the salts are given below in the table.


Som e Exam ples of Norm al Salts w ith their Parent Acids :
S.No.

Parent Acid

Norm al Salts

Hydrochloric acid NaCl, KCl, MgCl 2, AlCl 3, ZnCl 2,


(HCl)
CaCl 2 and NH 4Cl.

Nitric acid
(HNO3)

NaNO3, KNO 3, Mg(NO3)2,Al(NO 3)3,

Sulphuric acid
(H 2SO4)

Na 2SO4 , K 2SO 4, MgSO 4, Al 2(SO 4)3,

Acetic acid
(CH 3COOH)

CH 3COONa, CH 3COOK, (CH 3COO)2Ca,

Carbonic acid
(H 2CO 3)

Na 2CO 3, K 2CO 3, MgCO 3, ZnCO 3,

Sulphurous acid
(H 2SO3)

Na 2SO3, K 2SO3, MgSO 3, ZnSO3,

Phos phoric acid


(H 3PO4)

Na 3PO4, K 3PO4, Mg 3(PO 4) 2,

Zn(NO 3) 2, Ca(NO3)2.
ZnSO 4, CaSO 4.
(CH 3COO) 2 Pb, CH 3COONH 4.
CaCO3, (NH 4)2CO 3.
CaSO 3, (NH 4)2 SO 3.
Zn 3(PO 4)2, Ca 3(PO 4) 2, (NH 4)3PO 4.

(B) Acid Salts : The salts which are obtained by the


partial replacement of ionisable hydrogen atoms of a
polybasic acid by a metal or an ammonium ion are
known as acid salts.
These are usually formed when insufficient amount of
the base is taken for the neutralisation of the acid. For
example, when insufficient amount of NaOH is taken
to neutralise H2SO4, we get an acid salt NaHSO4.
H2SO4 + NaOH NaHSO4
+
H2O
(Insufficient amount) Sodium hydrogensulphate
(Acid salt)

In this case, only one hydrogen atom out of two has


been replaced by sodium atom. Since there is one
more hydrogen atom in NaHSO 4 which can be
replaced, therefore, it further reacts with another
molecule of NaOH to produce Na 2SO4 which is a
normal salt.
NaHSO4

Sodium
hydrogensulphate
(Acid salt)

+ NaOH Na2SO4

Sodium
sulphate
(Normal salt)

H2O

Acid salts ionise in aqueous solution to produce


hydronium ions (H3O+), therefore, they exhibit all the
properties of acids.

Cu(OH)2(aq) + 2HNO3(aq) Cu(NO3)2(aq) + 2H2O()


NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O()
PAGE # 20

Some other examples of acid salts are given in Table.


SOME ACID SALTS WITH THEIR PARENT ACIDS
S.No. Parent Acid
1

Sulphuric acid
(H2SO4)

Acid Salts
NaHSO4, KHSO4,
Ca(HSO4)2

Carbonic acid
(H2CO3)

NaHCO3, KHCO3,
Ca(HCO3)2, Mg(HCO3)2

Sulphurous acid
(H2SO3)

NaHSO3, KHSO3,
Ca(HSO3)2, Mg(HSO3)2

Phosphoric acid
(H3PO4)

NaH2PO4, Na2HPO4, KH2PO4,


K2HPO4, Ca(H2PO4)2, CaHPO4

(C) Basic Salts : The salts which are formed by partial


replacement of hydroxyl (OH) groups of a di-or a
triacidic base by an acid radical are known as basic
salts.
These are usually formed when an insufficient amount
of acid is taken for the neutralisation of the base. For
example, when insufficient amount of HCl is added to
Lead hydroxide, Basic lead chloride [Pb(OH)Cl] is
formed
Pb(OH)2 + HCl Pb (OH)Cl + H2O
Lead hydroxide
Basic Lead chloride
(Diacidic base)
(Basic salt)
Basic salts, for example, Pb(OH)Cl further reacts with
HCl to form normal salts
Pb (OH) Cl + HCl
Basic Lead Chloride
(Basic salts)

PbCl2 + H2O
Lead chloride
(Normal salt)

Ca(OCI)Cl is also a mixed salt containing two acid


radicals OCI and Cl.
Some other important examples of mixed salts are :
Sodium potassium sulphate (NaKSO4) (containing two
basic radicals), Disodium potassium phosphate
(Na2KPO4) (containing two basic radicals).
(ii) Classification of salt solutions based on pH
values :
Salts are formed by the reaction between acids
and bases. Depending upon the nature of the acids
and bases or upon the pH values, the salt solutions
are of three types.
(A) Neutral salt solutions : Salt solutions of strong
acids and strong bases are neutral and have pH equal
to 7. They do not change the colour of litmus solution.
e.g. NaCl, KCl, NaNO3, Na2SO4 etc.
(B) Acidic salt solutions : Salt solutions of strong acids and weak bases are of acidic nature and have pH
less than 7. They change the colour of blue litmus
solution to red.
e.g. (NH4)2SO4, NH4Cl etc.
In both these salts, the base NH4OH is weak while the
acids H2SO4 and HCl are strong.
(C) Basic salt solutions : Salt solutions of strong bases
and weak acids are of basic nature and have pH more
than 7. They change the colour of red litmus solution to
blue.
e.g. Na2CO3, K3PO4 etc.
In both the salts, bases NaOH and KOH are strong
while the acids H2CO3 and H3PO4 are weak.

Some Important Chemical Compounds :

Some other important examples of basic salts are :


(i) Basic copper chloride, Cu(OH)Cl.
(ii) Basic copper nitrate, Cu(OH)NO3
(iii) Basic lead nitrate, Pb(OH)NO3.
(D) Double Salts : The salts which are obtained by the
crystallisation of two simple salts from a mixture of
their saturated solutions are known as double salts.
For example, a double salt potash alum [K 2 SO 4 .
Al2(SO4)3. 24H2O] is prepared by mixing saturated
solutions of two simple salts, K2SO4 and Al2(SO4)3 and
crystallization of the mixture.
K2SO4 + Al2(SO4)3+ 24H2O

Potassium
sulphate

Crystallisation

K2SO4. Al2(SO4)3. 24 H2O


Potash alum
(Double salt)

Some other examples of double salts are :


(i) Mohrs Salt, FeSO4 .(NH4)2SO4. 6H2O,
(ii) Dolomite, CaCO3. MgCO3,
(iii) Carnallite, KCl. MgCl2.6H2O
(E) Mixed Salts : The salts which contain more than
one type of acidic or basic radicals are called mixed
salts. For example, Sodium potassium carbonate
(NaKCO3) is a mixed salt containing two basic radicals
sodium and potassium. Similarly, calcium oxy chloride,

Common name : Table Salt


Chemical name : Sodium chloride
Chemical formula : NaCl
Sodium chloride (NaCl) also called common salt or
table salt is the most essential part of our diet. Chemically it is formed by the reaction between solutions of
sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. Sea water is
the major source of sodium chloride where it is present
in dissolved form along with other soluble salts such
as chlorides and sulphates of calcium and magnesium. It is separated by some suitable methods. Deposits of the salts are found in different parts of the
world and is known as rock salt. When pure, it is a
white crystalline solid, however, it is often brown due to
the presence of impurities.
Uses :
(i) Essential for life : Sodium chloride is quite essential for life. Biologically, it has a number of functions to
perform such as in muscle contraction, in conduction
of nerve impulse in the nervous system and is also
converted in hydrochloric acid which helps in the digestion of food in the stomach. When we sweat, there
is loss of sodium chloride along with water. It leads to
muscle cramps. Its loss has to be compensated suitably by giving certain salt preparations to the patient.
Electrol powder is an important substitute of common
salt.
PAGE # 21

(ii) Raw material for chemicals : Sodium chloride is


also a very useful raw material for different chemicals.
A few out of these are hydrochloric acid (HCl), washing
soda (Na2CO3.10H2O), baking soda (NaHCO3) etc.
Upon electrolysis of a solution of the common salt
(brine), sodium hydroxide, chlorine and hydrogen are
obtained.
Electrolysis of aqueous solution of NaCl :
Electrolys is
2NaCl(aq)

2NaOH(aq) + Cl2(g)+ H2 (g)

Reaction takes place as follows NaCl Na+ + Cl


2Cl Cl2 (g) + 2e (anode reaction)
2H2O + 2e H2 + 2OH (cathode reaction)

(b) Uses :
(i) It is used as cleansing agent for domestic purposes.
(ii) It is used in softening of hard water and controlling
the pH of water.
(iii) It is used in the manufacture of glass.
(iv) Due to its detergent properties, it is used as a constituent of several dry soap powders.
(v) It also finds use in photography, textile and paper
industries etc.
(vi) It is used in the manufacture of borax (Na2B4O7. 10H2O).

BAKING SODA

Na+ + OH NaOH
(iii) In leather industries : It is used in leather industry
for the leather tanning.

Baking soda is sodium hydrogen carbonate or sodium


bicarbonate (NaHCO3).
(a) Preparation :

(iv) In severe cold, rock salt is spread on icy roads to


melt ice.
(v) It is also used as a fertilizer for sugar beet.

CAUSTIC SODA
Chemical name : Sodium hydroxide
Chemical formula : NaOH
Preparation : Sodium hydroxide is prepared by
electrolysing a concentrated solution of sodium chloride.
This process is done in Castner - Kellner cell.
+

2NaCl 2Na + 2Cl


2Cl

Cl2 + 2e

2Na + 2Hg + 2e 2NaHg


+

Sodium amalgam
2NaHg + 2H2O 2NaOH + H2 + 2Hg
Uses :
(i) It is used in soaps, detergents, paper and silk
industries.
(ii) It is used in refining of petroleum.
(iii) It is used as a laboratory reagent.
(iv) It is used in dye industry.
(v) It is used in concentration of bauxite ore.

WASHING SODA
Chemical name : Sodium carbonate decahydrate
Chemical formula : Na2CO3.10H2O

It is obtained as an intermediate product in the preparation of sodium carbonate by Solvay process. In this
process, a saturated solution of sodium chloride in
water is saturated with ammonia and then carbon dioxide gas is passed into the solution. Sodium chloride is converted into sodium bicarbonate which, being less soluble, separates out from the solution.
2NH3 (g) + H2O () + CO2 (g) (NH4)2CO3(aq)
(NH4)2CO3(aq)+2NaCl(aq) Na2CO3 (aq) + 2NH4Cl (aq)
Na2CO3 (aq) + H2O () + CO2 (g) 2NaHCO3 (s)
(b) Properties :
(i) It is a white, crystalline substance that forms an
alkaline solution with water. The aqueous solution of
sodium bicarbonate does not change the colour of
methyl orange but gives pink colour with
phenolphthalein.
(Phenolphthalein and methyl orange are dyes used
as acid-base indicators.)
(ii) When heated above 543 K, it is converted into
sodium carbonate.

2NaHCO3 (s) Na2CO3 (s) + CO2 (g) + H2O ()


(c) Uses :
(i) It is used in the manufacture of baking powder. Baking powder is a mixture of potassium hydrogen
tartarate and sodium bicarbonate. During the preparation of bread the evolution of carbon dioxide causes
bread to rise (swell).

Recrystallization of sodium carbonate :


Sodium carbonate is recrystallized by dissolving in
water to get washing soda.
(ii) It is largely used in the treatment of acid spillage
and in medicine as soda bicarb, which acts as an
antacid.
(iii) It is an important chemical in the textile, tanning,
paper and ceramic industries.
PAGE # 22

(iv) It is also used in a particular type of fire extinguisher.


The following diagram shows a fire extinguisher that
uses NaHCO3 and H2SO4 to produce CO2 gas. The
extinguisher consists of a conical metallic container
(A) with a nozzle (Z) at one end. A strong solution of
NaHCO3 is kept in the container. A glass ampoule (P)
containing H2SO4 is attached to a knob (K) and placed
inside the NaHCO3 solution. The ampoule can be broken by hitting the knob. As soon as the acid comes in
contact with the NaHCO3 solution, CO2 gas is formed.
When enough pressure in built up inside the container,
CO2 gas rushes out through the nozzle (Z). Since CO2
does not support combustion, a small fire can be put
out by pointing the nozzle towards the fire. The gas is
produced according to the following reaction.
2NaHCO3 (aq) + H2SO4 (aq) Na2SO4 (aq) +
2H2O() + 2CO2(g)
CO
2

(Z)

NaHCO3

(A)

(P)

H2SO4

Knob (K)

Soda-Acid Fire Extinguisher

PLASTER OF PARIS
(a) Preparation :
It is prepared by heating gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) at about
373 K in large steel pots with mechanical stirrer, or in
a revolving furnace.
2(CaSO 4.2H2O)
Gypsum

373 K

or CaSO4.2H2O

(CaSO 4)2.H2O + 3H2O


Plaster of Paris
CaSO4.

1
H O + 3 H2O
2 2
2

The temperature is carefully controlled, as at higher


temperature gypsum is fully dehydrated. The properties of dehydrated gypsum are completely different from
those of Plaster of Paris.
(b) Properties :
(i) Action with water : When it is dissolved in water, it gets
crystallized and forms gypsum.

(c) Uses :
When finely powdered Plaster of Paris is mixed with
water and made into a paste, it quickly sets into a hard
mass. In the process, its volume also increases
slightly. These properties find a number of uses. Addition of water turns Plaster of Paris back into gypsum.
(i) It is used in the laboratories for sealing gaps where
air tight arrangement is required.
(ii) It is used for making toys, cosmetics and casts of
statues.
(iii) It is used as a cast for setting broken bones.
(iv) It also finds use in making moulds in pottery.
(v) It is used for making surfaces smooth and for making designs on walls and ceilings.

BLEACHING POWDER
Bleaching powder is commercially called chloride of
lime or chlorinated lime. It is principally calcium oxychloride having the following formula :

Bleaching powder is prepared by passing chlorine over


slaked lime at 313 K.
Ca(OH)2 (aq) + Cl2 (g)
Slaked lime

313 K

Ca(OCl)Cl (s) + H2 O (g)


Bleaching
powder

Actually bleaching powder is not a compound but a


mixture of compounds :
CaOCl2.4H2O, CaCl2.Ca(OH)2.H2O
(a) Uses :
(i) It is commonly used as a bleaching agent in paper
and textile industries.
(ii) It is also used for disinfecting water to make it free
from germs.
(iii) It is used to prepare chloroform.
(iv) It is also used to make wool shrink-proof.

HYDRATED SALTS - SALTS CONTAINING


WATER OF CRYSTALLISATION:
Certain salts contain definite amount of some water
molecules loosely attached to their own molecules.
These are known as hydrated salts and are of crystalline nature. The molecules of water present are known
as water of crystallisation.
In coloured crystalline and hydrated salts, the
molecules of water of crystallisation also account for
their characteristic colours. Thus, upon heating of hydrated salt, its colour changes since molecules of
water of crystallisation are removed and the salt becomes anhydrous.
For example, take a few crystals of blue vitriol i.e. hydrated copper sulphate in a dry test tube or boiling
tube. Heat the tube from below. The salt will change to
a white anhydrous powder and water droplet will appear on the walls of the tube. Cool the tube and add a
few drops of water again. The white anhydrous powder will again acquire blue colour.

+
5H2O
CuSO4. 5H2O CuSO4
Copper sulphate
Copper sulphate
(Hydrated)
(Anhydrous)

PAGE # 23

PERIODIC TABLE
(ii) Limitations of Dobereiners Classification :

DEFINITION
A periodic table may be defined as the table giving
the arrangement of all the known elements according
to their properties so that elements with similar
properties fall within the same vertical column and
elements with dissimilar properties are separated.

(A) Atomic mass of the three elements of some triads


are almost same.
e.g. Fe, Co, Ni
(B) It was restricted to few elements, therefore
discarded.
(c) Newlands Law of Octaves :

EARLY ATTEMPTS TO CLASSIFY ELEMENTS


(a) Metals and Non-Metals :
Among the earlier classifications, Lavoisier classified
the elements as metals and non-metals. However,
this classification proved to be inadequate. In 1803,
John Dalton published a table of relative atomic
weights (now called atomic masses). This formed
an important basis of classification of elements.
(b) Dobereiners Triads:

In 1866, an English chemist, John Newlands,


proposed a new system of grouping elements with
similar properties. He tried to correlate the properties
of elements with their atomic masses. He arranged
the then known elements in the order of increasing
atomic masses. He started with the element having
the lowest atomic mass (hydrogen) and ended at
thorium which was the 56th element. He observed
that every eighth element had properties similar to
that of the first.

(i) In 1817, J.W. Dobereiner a German Chemist gave


this arrangement of elements.

Newlands called this relation as a law of octaves


due to the similarity with the musical scale.

(A) He arranged elements with similar properties in


the groups of three called triads.

(i) Newlands arrangement of elements into Octaves:

(B) According to Dobereiner the atomic mass of the


central element was merely the arithmetic mean of
atomic masses of the other two elements.
e.g.

Elements of
the triad
Symbol Atomic mass
Lithium

Li

Sodium

Na

23

Potassium

39

Atomic mass of sodium =

Atomi c mass of lithium Atomic mass of potassium


2
=

7 39
2

= 23

Some examples of triads are given in the table :

Notes of
Music

Elements

sa (do)

re (re)

ga (mi)

ma (fa)

Li

Be

pa (so) dha (la) ni (ti)


C

Na

Mg

Al

Si

Cl

Ca

Cr

Ti

Mn

Fe

Co and Ni

Cu

Zn

In

As

Se

Br

Rb

Sr

Ce and La

Zr

(ii) Limitations of law of octaves : The law of octaves


has the following limitations :
(A) The law of octaves was found to be applicable
only upto calcium. It was not applicable to elements
of higher atomic masses.
(B) Position of hydrogen along with fluorine and
chlorine was not justified on the basis of chemical
properties.
(C) Newlands placed two elements in the same
slot to fit elements in the table. He also placed some
unlike elements under the same slot. For example,
cobalt and nickel are placed in the same slot and in
the column of fluorine, chlorine and bromine. But
cobalt and nickel have properties quite different from
fluorine, chlorine and bromine. Similarly, iron which
has resemblances with cobalt and nickel in its
properties has been placed far away from these
elements.
Thus, it was realized that Newlands law of octaves
worked well only with lighter elements. Therefore,
this classification was rejected.

24
24

PAGE # 24

(d) Lother Meyers Classification :


In 1869, Lother Meyer studied the physical properties
like volume, melting point, boiling point etc. of different
elements.
He plotted a graph between atomic masses against
their respective atomic volumes for a number of
elements. He found the following observations (i) Elements with similar properties occupied
similar positions on the curve.
(ii) Alkali metals (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs etc.) having larger
atomic volumes occupied the crests .
(iii) Transition elements (V, Fe, Co, Cu etc.) occupied
the troughs.
(iv) The halogens (F, Cl, Br, etc.) occupied the
ascending portions of the curve before the inert
gases.
(v) Alkaline earth metals (Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba etc.)
occupied positions at about the mid points of
descending portions of the curve.

Cs

Atomic Volume (cm per mole of atoms)

70

60
Rb

50
K

40

Li
30
20
10

Sr

Ba

Na

I
Br

Ca

Cl

Mg
Be VFe Co Zn

Cu

0
20

40

60 80

100 120

140

Atomic mass

Change of Atomic Volume with Atomic Mass.

Drawback of Lother Meyers classification : This


was a hypothetical classification and it was difficult to
remember the positions of different elements.
(e) Mendeleevs Periodic Table :
The major credit for a systematic classification of
elements goes to Mendeleev. He tried to group the
elements on the basis of some fundamental property
of the atoms. When Mendeleev started his work, only
63 elements were known. He examined the
relationship between atomic masses of the elements
and their physical and chemical properties.
Among chemical properties, Mendeleev concentrated
mainly on the compound formed by elements with
oxygen and hydrogen. He selected these two
elements because these are very reactive and formed
compound with most of the elements known at that
time. The formulae of the compounds formed with
these elements (i.e. oxides and hydrides) were
regarded as one of the basic properties of an element
for its classification.

(i) Mendeleevs periodic law : This law states that


the physical and chemical properties of the elements
are the periodic function of their atomic masses.
This means that when the elements are arranged in
the order of their increasing atomic masses, the
elements with similar properties recur at regular
intervals. Such orderly recurring properties in a cyclic
fashion are said to be occurring periodically. This is
responsible for the name periodic law or periodic
table.
(ii) Merits of Mendeleevs periodic table : Mendeleevs
periodic table was one of the greatest achievements in
the development of chemistry. Some of the important
contributions of his periodic table are given below :
(A) Systematic study of elements : He arranged
known elements in order of their increasing atomic
masses considering the fact that elements with
similar properties should fall in the same vertical
column.
(B) Correction of atomic masses : The Mendeleevs
periodic table could predict errors in the atomic
masses of elements based on their positions in the
table. Therefore atomic masses of certain elements
were corrected. For example, atomic mass of
beryllium was corrected from 13.5 to 9. Similarly, with
the help of this table, atomic masses of indium, gold,
platinum etc. were corrected.
(C) Mendeleev predicted the properties of those
missing elements from the known properties of the
other elements in the same group. Eka-boron, eka aluminium and eka -silicon names were given for
scandium , gallium and germanium (not discovered
at the time of Mendeleev ).
(D) Position of noble gases : Noble gases like helium
(He), neon (Ne) and argon (Ar) were mentioned in
many studies. However, these gases were discovered
very late because they are very inert and are present
in extremely low concentrations. One of the
achievements of Mendeleevs periodic table was that
when these gases were discovered, they could be
placed in a new group without disturbing the existing
order.
(iii) Limitations of Mendeleevs periodic table :
Inspite of many advantages, the Mendeleevs periodic
table has certain defects also. Some of these are
given below (A) Position of hydrogen : Position of hydrogen in
the periodic table is uncertain. It has been placed in
1A group with alkali metals, but certain properties of
hydrogen resemble those of halogens. So, it may be
placed in the group of halogens as well.

25
25

PAGE # 25

(B) Position of isotopes : Isotopes are the atoms of


the same element having different atomic masses.
Therefore, according to Mendeleevs classification
these should be placed at different places depending
upon their atomic masses. For example, hydrogen
isotopes with atomic masses 1, 2 and 3 should be
placed at three places. However, isotopes have not
been given separate places in the periodic table
because of their similar properties.

The positions of cobalt and nickel are not in proper


order. Cobalt (at. mass = 58.9) is placed before nickel
( at. mass = 58.7).
Tellurium (at. mass = 127.6) is placed before
iodine (at. mass = 126.9).

(D) Some similar elements are separated, in the


periodic table. For example copper (Cu) and mercury
(Hg). On the other hand, some dissimilar elements
have been placed together in the same group.
e.g. Copper (Cu), silver (Ag) and gold (Au) have been
placed in group 1 along with alkali metals. Similarly,
manganese (Mn) is placed in the group of halogens.

(C) Anomalous pairs of elements : In certain pairs


of elements, the increasing order of atomic masses
was not obeyed. In these, Mendeleev placed
elements according to similarities in their properties
and not in increasing order of their atomic masses.

For example :
The atomic mass of argon is 39.9 and that of

(E) Cause of periodicity : Mendeleev could not


explain the cause of periodicity among the elements.

Z r = 90

51

potassium 39.1. But argon is placed before


potassium in the periodic table.

26
26

PAGE # 26

(e) Long Form of Periodic Table :

MODERN PERIODIC TABLE

(i) The long form of periodic table is based upon


Modern periodic law. Long form of periodic table is
the contribution of Range, Werner, Bohr and Bury.

(a) Introduction :
In 1913, an English physicist, Henry Moseley showed

(ii) This table is also referred to as Bohrs table since


it follows Bohrs scheme of the arrangement of
elements into four types based on electronic
configuration of elements.

that the physical and chemical properties of the atoms


of the elements are determined by their atomic
number & not by their atomic masses. Consequently,
the periodic law was modified.
(b) Modern Periodic
Periodic Law) :

Law

(iii) Long form of periodic table consists of horizontal


rows (periods) and vertical columns (groups).

(Moseleys

(f) Description of Periods :


(i) A horizontal row of periodic table is called a period.

Physical and chemical properties of an element are

(ii) There are seven periods numbered as 1, 2 , 3 , 4,


5, 6 and 7.

the periodic function of its atomic number.The


atomic number gives us the number of protons in

(iii ) Each period consists of a series of elements


having the same outermost shell.

the nucleus of an atom and this number increases


by one in going from one element to the next.

(iv) Each period starts with an alkali metal having


outermost shell electronic configuration ns1.

Elements, when arranged in the order of increasing


atomic number Z, lead us to the classification known

(v) Each period ends with a noble gas with outermost


shell electronic configuration ns2 np6 except helium
having outermost electronic configuration 1s2.

as the Modern Periodic Table. Prediction of properties


of elements could be made with more precision when
elements were arranged on the basis of increasing
atomic number.

(vi) Each period starts with the filling of a new energy


level.

(c) Periodicity :

(A) 1st period : This period is called very short period


because this period contains only 2 elements H and
He.

The repetition of elements with similar properties after


certain regular intervals, when the elements are
arranged in order of increasing atomic number, is

(B) 2nd and 3rd periods : These periods are called


short periods because these periods contain 8
elements. 2nd period starts from 3Li to 10Ne and 3rd
period starts from 11Na to 18Ar.

called periodicity.
(d) Cause of Periodicity :

(C) 4th and 5th periods : These periods are called


long periods because these periods contain 18
elements. 4th period starts from 19K to 36Kr and 5th
period starts from 37Rb to 54Xe.

The periodic repetition of the properties of the


elements is due to the recurrence of similar valence
shell (outermost shell) electronic configuration after
certain regular intervals.

(D) 6th period : This period is called very long period.


This period contains 32 elements. Out of the 32
elements 14 elements belong to Lanthanoid series
(58Ce to 71Lu). 6th period starts from 55Cs to 86Rn.

e.g. Alkali metals have similar electronic configuration


(ns1) and therefore, have similar properties.
Alkali Metals

Atomic
number

Element

Symbol

Electronic
configuration

Lithium

Li

2,1

11

Sodium

Na

2,8,1

(E) 7th period : This period is called as incomplete


period. It contains 25 elements. Out of the 25
elements 14 elements belong to Actinoid series (90Th
to 103Lr). 7th period starts from 87Fr to 111Rg.

Note : Modern periodic table consists of seven periods


and eighteen groups.
Periods

19

Potassium

2,8,8,1

st

(1 ) n = 1
nd

37

Rubidium

Rb

2,8,18,8,1

55

Caesium

Cs

2,8,18,18,8,1

87

Francium

Fr

2,8,18,32,18,8,1

(2 ) n = 2
rd

(3 ) n = 3
(4 th ) n = 4
(5 th) n = 5
th

(6 ) n = 6
th

(7 ) n = 7

No. of
Elements

Called as

2
8
8
18
18
32
25

Very short period


Short period
Short period
Long period
Long period
Very long period
Incomplete period

27
27

PAGE # 27

(ii) Position of isotopes : Isotopes are atoms of the


same element having different atomic masses, but
same atomic number. All the isotopes of an element
will be given different positions, if atomic mass is
taken as a basis. This shall disturb the symmetry of
the table. In modern table, one position is fixed for
one atomic number and since all the isotopes of an
element have the same atomic number, these are
assigned only one position.

Different elements belonging to a particular period


have different electronic configurations and have
different number of valence electrons. That is why
elements belonging to a particular period have
different properties.
(g) Description of Groups :
(i) A vertical column of elements in the periodic table
is called a group.

(iii) Elements with similar properties were placed


together and elements with dissimilar properties were
separated in modern periodic table.

(ii) There are eighteen groups numbered as 1, 2 , 3,


4, 5, ------------ 13, 14, 15, 16,17,18.

(iii) A group consists of a series of elements having


similar valence shell electronic configuration and
hence exhibit similar properties.

(iv) Cause of periodicity : Modern periodic table


explains the cause of periodicity among the elements.

e.g. Li, Na, K belong to the same group and have 1


electron in their valence shell.

Following are the demerits of modern periodic table -

(iv) The group 18 is also known as zero group because


the valency of the elements of this group is zero.

uncertain in the periodic table.

Note : The elements of 18th or zero group are called


noble gases.

(ii) Position of lanthanides and actinides : The


positions of lanthanides and actinides were also
uncertain in the periodic table.

(v) The elements present in groups 1,2,13 to 17 are


called normal or representative elements.

(i) Demerits of Modern Periodic Table :

(i) Position of hydrogen : Position of hydrogen was

CLASSIFICATION OF THE ELEMENTS

(vi) Elements of group 1 and 2 are called alkali metals


and alkaline earth metals respectively.

It is based on the type of subshells which receives


the differentiating electron (i.e. last electron).

(vii) Elements present in group 17 are called


halogens.

(a) s- Block Elements :

Note : Elements present in a period have different


properties, while elements present in a group have
similar properties.

Note : Modern periodic table is based on atomic

W hen last electron enters the s- orbital of the


outermost (nth) shell, the elements of this class are
called s- block elements.
Characteristics :
(i) Group 1 & 2 elements constitute the s - block.
(ii) General electronic configuration is ns12 .

number, not on atomic mass.

(iii) s - block elements lie on the extreme left of the


periodic table.

(h) Merits of Modern Periodic Table :


(i) Anomalous pairs : The original periodic law based
on atomic masses is violated in case of four pairs of
elements in order to give them positions on the basis
of properties. The elements having higher atomic
masses have been assigned position before the
elements having lower atomic masses at four places
as shown below -

(iv) This block includes metals only, except H.

Note : The total number of elements in s-block is 13


(including hydrogen).
(b) p-Block Elements :
When differentiating electron enters the p - orbital of
the nth orbit, elements of this class are called p - block
elements.

(a)
Ar

(b)
K

Co Ni

(c)
Te

(d)
I

Characteristics :
(i) Elements of group 13 to 18 constitute the p - block.

Th Pa

(ii) General electronic configuration is ns2np1-6 .

At. Mass

40 39 60 59 128 127 232 231

At. No.

18 19 27 28 52 53 90 91

The discrepancy disappears, if the elements are


arranged in order of increasing atomic numbers.

(iii) p - block elements lie on the extreme right of the


periodic table.
(iv) This block includes some metals, all non-metals
and metalloids.

Note : The total number of elements in p-block is 31.

28
28

PAGE # 28

(c) d - Block Elements:

(i) All f - block elements belong to 3rd group.

When differentiating electron enters the (n1)d orbital,


then elements of this class are called d - block
elements.

(ii) General electronic configuration is (n 2)f 1 14


(n 1)d0-1 ns2.
(iii) f-block elements are present in two separate
rows below the periodic table.

Characteristics :
(i) Elements of group 3 to 12 constitute the d - block.

(iv) All f-block elements are metals only.

(ii) General electronic configuration is (n 1)d110 ns0- 2.

The elements of f- block have been classified into


two series :

(iii) d - block elements lie in the centre of the periodic


table.

(A) Lanthanides : 14 elements present after element


lanthanum (57La) are called lanthanides.1 st inner
transition series of metals or 4f - series, contains 14
elements i.e. 58Ce to 71Lu .

(iv) All the d - block elements are metals and most of


them form coloured complexes or ions.

Note : The total number of elements in d-block is 39.


(d) f - block elements :
When last electron enters into f - orbital of (n 2)th
shell, elements of this class are called f - block
elements.

Characteristics :

(B) Actinides : 14 elements present after element


actinium (89Ac) are called actinides. 2nd inner transition
series of metals or 5f- series, also contains 14 elements
i.e. 90Th to 103Lr.

Note : The total number of elements in f-block is 28.

Note : Zn, Cd and Hg are d-block elements , but not


transition elements, because they do not contain
partially filled d-orbitals.

Division of the periodic table into various blocks :

Different Types of Elements :


(i) Noble gases : The elements belonging to group
18 are called noble gases or aerogenous. They are
also known as inert gases because their outermost
orbitals are completely filled. Helium (He) is an
exception. It has only two electrons which are present
in s-orbital.
(ii) Representative elements : Elements in which
atoms have all shells complete except outermost shell

(iv) Inner transition elements :- They contain three


incomplete outermost shell and were also referred
to as rare earth elements, since their oxides were
rare in earlier days.
(v) Diagonal relationship : Some elements of 2nd
and 3 rd period show diagonal relationship among
them. They represent the same properties of two
periods. This relation is known as diagonal relation.

which is incomplete. Except 18th group, all s - block


and p - block elements are collectively called normal
or representative elements.
(iii) Transition elements : Those elements which
have partially filled d - orbitals in neutral state or in
any stable oxidation state are called transition
elements.

(vi) Transuranium elements : The elements with


atomic number greater than 92 (Z > 92) are known as
transuranium elements.

29
29

PAGE # 29

PAGE # 30

30
30

Li

Hydrogen 2
6.941 4

Mg

87.62

Sr

85.468 38

Rb

Calcium

4
Ti

Cr

Mn

54.938 26

7 VIIB

51.996 25

6 VIB

50.942 24

5 VB

47.867 23

IVB

B
Boron

Fe

55.845 27

9
10
Co

58.933 28

VIIIB

Ni

58.963 29

11

12

Cu

63.546 30

IB
Zn

65.39

IIB

Ra

Radium

(226)

Barium

Fr

88

Ba

Francium

Caesium
87 (223)

Cs

18.998 10

17 VIIA
15.999 9

16 VIA
8

Ne

20.180

Helium

He

4.0026

18 VIIIA
2

Si

Ga

Ge

Aluminium Silicon
31 69.723 32 72.64

Al

33

As

Se

78.96

Sulphur
74.922 34

Phosphorus

Ar

Br

Kr

Argon
Chlorine
35 79.904 36 83.80

Cl

Oxygen
Fluorine
Boron
Nitrogen
Carbon
Neon
13 26.982 14 28.086 15 30.974 16 32.065 17 35.453 18 39.948

14.007

15 VA

12.011 7

14 IVA

10.811 6

13 IIIA
5

pBlock Elements

Zr

Nb
Mo

Tc
Ru

Rh

Pd

Ag

Cd

In

Sn

Ac

Rf
Rutherfordium

ACTINOIDES

LANTHANOIDES

Actinium

104 (261)

Hafnium

(227)

Lanthanum

89

Hf

La

Sg

Rhenium

Bh

Nd

Protactinium

Hs

Ds

110 (281)

Platinum

Pt

Rg

Gold
111 (272)

Au

Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium

Mt

109 (268)

Iridium

Ir

Mercury

Hg

Thallium

Ti

Lead

Pb

83

(145)

Neptunium

Np

(237)

Promethium

Pm

(244)

Pu
Plutonium

94

(243)

Am
Americium

95

(247)

Cm
Curium

96

(247)

Bk
Berkelium

97

(251)

Cf
Californium

98

(252)

Es
Einsteinium

99

Er

Fermium

Fm

100 (257)

Te

Mendelevium

Md

101 (258)

Thulium

Tm

(210)

At

86

Nobelium

No

102 (259)

Ytterbium

Yb

Xe

Lu

174.97

Radon

Rn

(222)

Xenon

Lawrencium

Lr

103 (262)

Lutetium

173.04 71

Astatine

85

I
Iodine

168.93 70

Polonium

Po

(209)

Tellurium

197.26 69

Bismuth

Erbium

164.93 68

Ho
Holmium

162.50 67

Dy
Dysprosium

158.93 66

Tb
Terbium

157.25 65

Gd
Gadolinium

151.96 64

Eu
Europium

150.36 63

Sm
Samarium

62

208.98 84

Bi

Inner - Transition Metals (f-Block Elements)

Hassium

238.03 93

U
Uranium

231.04 92

Pa

Osmium

Os
108 (277)

144.24 61

Bohrium

Praseodymium Neodymium

Pr

Re
107 (264)

140.91 60

Seaborgium

232.04 91

Th
Thorium

90

Tungsten

W
106 (266)

140.12 59

Ce
Cerium

58

Dubnium

Db

105 (262)

Tantalum

Ta

Antimony

Sb

Iron
Selenium
Scandium
Titanium
Vanadium
Chromium Manganese
Copper
Zinc
Gallium Germanium
Arsenic
Bromine
Cobalt
Nickel
Krypton
39 88.906 40 91.224 41 92.906 42 95.94 43 (98)
44 101.07 45 102.91 46 106.42 47 107.87 48 112.41 49 114.82 50
118.71 51 121.76 52
127.60 53
126.90 54
131.29

Sc

44.956 22

IIIB

IIIA
10.811

Element name

13

Transition Metals (d Block Elements)

Symbol

Atomic number

Group IUPAC

Zirconium
Niobium
Yttrium
Rhodium
Palladium
Cadmium
Strontium
Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium
Silver
Indium
Tin
Rubidium
55 132.91 56 137.33 57 138.91 72 178.49 73 180.95 74 183.84 75 186.21 76 190.23 77 192.22 78 195.08 79 196.97 80 200.59 81 204.38 82 207.2

37

Potassium

Ca

Magnesium 3
Sodium
19 39.098 20 40.078 21

Na

Be

9.0122

IIA

Beryllium
Lithium
11 22.990 12 24.305

1.0079

Period 1

IA

Elements

Group

sBlock

Relative atomic mass

PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS

(c) Melting and Boiling Points :

PERIODICITY IN PROPERTIES

The melting points of the elements exhibit some


periodicity with rise of atomic number. It is observed
that elements with low values of atomic volumes have
high melting points, while elements with high values
of atomic volumes have low melting points. In general,
melting points of elements in any period at first
increase and become maximum somewhere in the
centre and thereafter begin to decrease. Values in
the table are in C.

(a) Atomic Volume :


Atomic volume increases in a group from top to
bottom. The increase is due to the increase in the
number of energy levels.
In a period from left to right, atomic volume varies
cyclically, i.e. it decreases at first for some elements,
becomes minimum in the middle and then increases.
The following two factors explain this trend (i) atomic radii decrease due to increase of nuclear
charge.
(ii) the number of valence electrons increases in a
period.

Period/
Group

As to accommodate all the valence electrons, the volume


increases. These two factors oppose each other. The
effect of first factor is more on the left hand side and that
of the second factor is more on the right hand side in the
periodic table . The volumes are in cm3.

2
3
4

Li

Be

13

14

Ne

11

15

17

Na Mg Al

Si

24

14

12

17

Cl

Ar

16

19

24

Ca Ga Ge As Se Br

Kr

46

26

33

10

12

13

16

16

23

Note : The maximum value of atomic volume (87


cm3) is observed in the case of francium.

Li Be
B
0.54 1.85 2.35

C
2.26

Na Mg
Al
0.97 1.74 2.70

Si
P
S
2.34 1.82 2.1

K Ca Ga
0.86 1.55 5.90

Ge As Se Br
5.32 5.77 4.19 3.19

Rb Sr
In
1.53 2.63 7.31

Sn Sb Te
I
7.27 6.70 6.25 4.94

Cs Ba
Tl
Pb
Bi Po At
1.90 3.62 11.85 11.34 9.81 9.14

Cl

Note : In solids, Iridium (Ir) has the highest density


(22.61 g/cc) and in liquids, mercury (Hg) has the
highest density (13.6 g/cc).

Li
Be
B
C
N
O
F
Ne
181 1287 2180 3727 210 219 220 249

Na
98

Mg
650

Al
660

Si
1420

P
44

S
119

Ar
Cl
101 189

1
2 AB = rcovalent
(of element X)

e.g. The internuclear distance between two hydrogen


atoms in H 2 molecule is 74 pm. Therefore, the
covalent radius of hydrogen atom is 37 pm.

Note : Covalent radius is generally used for


non - metals.
(ii) Vander Waals radius : It may be defined as half
of the internuclear distance between two adjacent
atoms of the same element belonging to two nearest
neighbouring molecules of the same substance.
X

(i) Covalent radius : It may be defined as one - half of


the distance between the centres of the nuclei of two
similar atoms bonded by a single covalent bond.

The density of the elements in solid state varies


periodically with their atomic numbers . At first, the
density increases gradually in a period and becomes
maximum somewhere for the central members and
then starts decreasing afterwards gradually. The value
of densities in the table are in g/cc.

(d) Atomic Radius :

(b) Density :

Period/
Group

Tungsten has the maximum melting point (3410C)


amongst metals and carbon has the maximum
melting point (3727C) amongst non-metal. Helium
has the minimum melting point (270C) amongst
all elements . The metals Cs (m.p. = 28.5C), Ga
(m.p. = 30C) and Hg (m.p. = 39C) are known in
liquid state at 30C.
The boiling points of the elements also show similar
trends, however, the regularities are not striking as
noted in the case of melting points.

Increases

Period/
Group

X
E

X
H

1 EH = r
vander Waals
2

31
31

PAGE # 31

Periodicity in atomic radii (covalent radii)

Characteristics :
(A) Covalent radius of the elements is shorter than
its Vander Waals radius.

Period/
Group

H
0.32

(B) The formation of covalent bond involves


overlapping of atomic orbitals, as a result of this, the

K
Ca Ga Ge As Se
Br
2.03 1.74 1.26 1.22 1.20 1.16 1.14

I
Rb Sr
In
Sn
Sb Te
2.16 1.91 1.44 1.41 1.40 1.36 1.33

Cs Ba
Tl
Pb
Bi
Po
2.35 1.98 1.48 1.47 1.46 1.46
Decreases

Atoms of zero group elements do not form chemical


bonds among themselves. Hence for them Vander
Waals radii are considered.

Element

He

Ne

Ar

Kr

Xe

The metallic radius of an atom is always larger

than its covalent radius.

1
CD = rcrystal
2
(of element X)

Na Mg
Al
Si
P
S
Cl
1.54 1.36 1.20 1.17 1.10 1.04 0.99

between two adjacent atoms in a metallic lattice.

(iii) Metallic radius (Crystal radius) : Metallic radius


may be defined as half of the internuclear distance

Li
Be
B
C
N
O
F
1.23 0.89 0.80 0.77 0.75 0.73 0.72

the non bonded atoms.


e.g. Vander Waals radius of helium is 1.20

internuclear distance between the covalently bonded


atoms is less than the internuclear distance between

Increases

Note : The order of different radius is - r Vander Waals > rMetallic


> rCovalent
(iv) Variation of atomic radii in a period : As we move
from left to right across a period, there is a regular
decrease in atomic radii of the representative
elements. This is due to the fact that number of energy
shells remains the same in a period, but nuclear
charge increases gradually as the atomic number
increases. This increases the force of attraction
towards nucleus which brings contraction in size.
This can also be explained on the basis of
effective nuclear charge which increases gradually
in a period i.e. electron cloud is attracted more strongly
towards nucleus as the effective nuclear charge
becomes more and more as we move in a period.
The increased force of attraction brings contraction
in size.
(v) Variation of atomic radii in a group : Atomic radii
in a group increase as the atomic number increases.
The increase in size is due to extra energy shells
which outweigh the effect of increased nuclear charge.
The following table illustrates the periodicity in atomic
radii (covalent radii) of representative elements. The
radii given in the table are in angstrom ().

Vander Waals
radii (in A )

1.20 1.60 1.91 2.00 2.20

The sudden increase in atomic radii in comparison


to the halogens (the elements of 7th group) in case
of inert gases, is due to the fact that, Vander Waals
radii are considered which always possess higher
values than covalent radii.
The decrease in the size of transition elements is
small since the differentiating electrons enter into
inner d levels. The additional electrons into (n1)d
levels effectively screen much of increased nuclear
charge on the outer ns electrons and therefore, size
remains almost constant.
However, in vertical columns of transition elements,
there is an increase in size from first member to
second member as expected, but from second
member to third member, there is very small change
in size and sometimes sizes are same. This is due
to Lanthanide contraction (in the lanthanide
elements differentiating electrons enter into 4f-levels).
Since these electrons do not effectively screen the
valence electrons from the increased nuclear charge,
the size gradually decreases. This decrease is termed
lanthanide contraction.
Conclusions
(i) The alkali metals which are present at the extreme
left of the periodic table have the largest size in a
period.
(ii) The halogens which are present at the extreme
right of the periodic table have the smallest size.

32
32

PAGE # 32

(iii) The size of the atoms of inert gases are, however,


larger than those of preceding halogens because in
inert gases van der Waals' radii are taken into
consideration.

(i) Characteristics :

(iv) In a group of transition elements, there is an


increase in size from first member to second member
as expected but from second member to third
member, there is very small change in size and
sometimes sizes are same. This is due to Lanthanide
contraction.

After removal of one electron, the atom changes into


monovalent positive ion.
M(g) + IE1 M+(g) + e

(iv) Ionic radius : It is the distance between the nucleus


and outermost shell of an ion or it is the distance
between the nucleus and the point where the nucleus
exerts its influence on the electron cloud.
(A) The radius of the cation is always smaller than
the atomic radius of its parent atom. This is due to
the fact that nuclear charge in the case of a cation is
acting on a lesser number of electrons and pulls them
closer.
(B) The radius of the anion is always larger than the
atomic radius of its parent atom. In an anion as
electron or electrons are added to the neutral atom,
the nuclear charge acts on more electrons so that
each electron is held less tightly and thereby the
electron cloud expands.
Comparative sizes of atoms and their cations
Atomic radii Corresponding
cations
Ionic radii ()
Atom (crystal, )
+
Li
Li
1.52
0.59
+
Na
Na
1.86
0.99
+
K
K
2.31
1.33
2+
Mg
Mg
1.60
0.65
2+
Ba
Ba
2.22
1.35
3+
Al
Al
1.43
0.50
2+
Pb
Pb
1.75
1.32

Conclusions
The radius of cation (positive ion) is always smaller
than that of the parent atom.
The radius of anion (negative ion) is always larger
than that of the parent atom.
The ionic radii in a particular group increase in
moving from top to bottom.
In a set of species having the same number of
electrons (isoelectronic), the size decreases as the
charge on the nucleus increases.
The size of the cations of the same element
decreases with the increase of positive charge.

(A) The energy required to remove the outermost


electron from an atom is called first ionisation energy
(IE)1.

(B) The minimum amount of energy required to


remove an electron from monovalent positive ion of
the element is known as second ionisation energy
(IE)2.
M+(g) + IE2 M2+(g) + e
(C) The first, second etc. ionisation energies are
collectively known as successive ionisation energies.
M2+(g) + IE3 M3+(g) + e
In general (IE)1 < (IE)2 < (IE)3 so on, because, as the
number of electrons decreases, the attraction
between the nucleus and the remaining electrons
increases considerably and hence subsequent
ionisation energies increase.
(D) Units : Ionisation energy is expressed either in
terms of electron volts per atom (eV/atom) or Kilojoules
per mole of atoms (KJ mol 1) or K cal mol 1.
1 eV/atom = 96.49 KJ/mol = 23.06 Kcal/mol = 1.602 1019
J/atom
(ii) Factors influencing ionisation energy :
(A) Size of the atom : Ionisation energy decreases with
increase in atomic size. As the distance between the
outermost electrons and the nucleus increases, the force
of attraction between the valence shell electrons and the
nucleus decreases. As a result, outermost electrons are
held less firmly and lesser amount of energy is required
to knock them out.
For example, ionisation energy decreases in a group
from top to bottom with increase in atomic size.
(B) Nuclear charge : The ionisation energy
increases with increase in the nuclear charge. This
is due to the fact that with increase in the nuclear
charge, the electrons of the outermost shell are more
firmly held by the nucleus and thus greater amount of
energy is required to pull out an electron from the atom.
For example, ionisation energy increases as we move
from left to right along a period due to increase in nuclear
charge.
(C) Shielding effect : The electrons in the inner shells
act as a screen or shield between the nucleus and
the electrons in the outermost shell. This is called
shielding effect or screening effect. Larger the number
of electrons in the inner shells, greater is the
screening effect and smaller the force of attraction
and thus ionisation energy decreases.

(e) Ionisation Energy (IE) :


Ionisation Energy (IE) of an element is defined as the
amount of energy required to remove an electron from
an isolated gaseous atom of that element resulting
in the formation of a positive ion.

These electrons
shield the outer
electrons from the
nucleus

This electron does


not feel the full inward pull
of the positive charge of
the nucleus

33
33

PAGE # 33

(D) Penetration effect of the electrons : The


ionisation energy increases as the penetration effect
of the electrons increases. It is a well known fact that
the electrons of the s-orbital have the maximum
probability of being found near the nucleus and this
probability goes on decreasing in case of p, d and f
orbitals of the same energy level.

(v) Conclusions :

Greater the penetration effect of electrons more firmly


the electrons will be held by the nucleus and thus
higher will be the ionisation energy of the atom.

(iii) The representative elements show a large range


of values of first ionisation enthalpies, metals having
low while non-metals have high values.

(i) In each period, alkali metals show lowest first


ionisation enthalpy. Caesium has the minimum value.
(ii) In each period, noble gases show highest first
ionisation enthalpy. Helium has the maximum value
of first jonisation enthalpy.

For example, ionisation energy of aluminium is


comparatively less than magnesium as outermost
electron is to be removed from p-orbital (having less
penetration effect) in aluminium, whereas in
magnesium it will be removed from s-orbital (having
larger penetration effect) of the same energy level.

(iv) Generally. ionisation enthalpies of transition


metals increase slowly as we move from left to right
in a period. The f-block elements also show only a
small variation in the values of first ionisation
enthalpies.

Note : With in the same energy level,the penetration


effect decreases in the order s > p > d > f

(f) Electron Affinity (EA) :

(E) Electronic Configuration : If an atom has exactly


half-filled or completely filled orbitals, then such an
arrangement has extra stability.The removal of an
electron from such an atom requires more energy
than expected. For example,

E1 of Be > E1 of B
1s 2 , 2s 2

Be (Z = 4) Completely filled
orbital (more stable)

Electron affinity is defined as the energy released in


the process of adding an electron to a neutral atom in
the gaseous state to form a negative ion.
X(g) + e X(g) + Energy (E.A.)
Cl(g) + e Cl (g) + 349 KJ/mol
The electron affinity of chlorine is 349 KJ/mol.
The addition of second electron to an anion is
opposed by electrostatic repulsion and hence the
energy has to be supplied for the addition of second
electron.
O(g) + e O (g) + Energy (EA -)

1s 2 , 2s 2 , 2 p1

B (Z = 5)
Partially filled
orbital (less stable )

O(g) + e O2 (g) Energy (EA-)


(EA -) is exothermic whereas, (EA-) is endothermic.

As noble gases have completely filled electronic


configurations, they have highest ionisation energies
in their respective periods.

(i) Units : Kilo joules per mole (KJ/mol) of atoms or


electron volts per atom (eV/atom).

(iii) Variation of ionisation energy in a period :

(A) Nuclear charge : Greater the magnitude of

In general, the value of ionisation energy increases


with increase in atomic number across a period. This
can be explained on the basis of the fact that on
moving across the period from left to right-

nuclear charge greater will be the attraction for the


incoming electron and as a result, larger will be the
value of electron affinity.

(A) nuclear charge increases regularly.


(B) addition of electrons occurs in the same shell.
(C) atomic size decreases.
(iv) Variation of ionisation energy in a group :
In general, the value of ionisation energy decreases
while moving from top to bottom in a group.This is
because (A) effective nuclear charge decreases regularly.
(B) addition of electrons occurs in a new shell.
(C) atomic size increases.

(ii) Factors affecting electron affinity:

Electron affinity Nuclear charge.


(B) Atomic size : Larger the size of an atom is, more
will be the distance between the nucleus and the
incoming electron and smaller will be the value of
electron affinity.

1
E.A.

Atomic size

(C) Electronic configuration : Stable the electronic


configuration of an atom lesser will be its tendency to
accept the electron and lower will be the value of its
electron affinity.

34
34

PAGE # 34

(iii) Variation of electron affinity in a period : On

the electron gain enthalpies of third period elements,

moving across the period the atomic size decreases

sulphur and chlorine, have more negative values than


corresponding elements oxygen and fluorine.

and nuclear charge increases. Both these factors


result into greater attraction for the incoming electron,

O 141 kJ mol
1
S 200 kJ mol

therefore electron affinity in general increases in a


period from left to right.

F
Cl

328 kJ mol
1
349 kJ mol

Similar trend is observed in nitrogen & phosphorous


(iv) Variation of electron affinity in a group : On

+31 kJ mol1

moving down a group, the atomic size as well as

74 kJ mol1

nuclear charge increase, but the effect of increase in


atomic size is much more pronounced than that of

(iii) In general, electron gain enthalpy becomes more

nuclear charge and thus, the incoming electron feels


less attraction consequently, electron affinity

and more negative from left to right in a period. This


is due to decrease in size and increase in nuclear

decreases on going down the group.

charge as the atomic number increases in a period.

(v) Some irregularities observed in general trend:

Both these factors favour the addition of an extra


electron due to higher force of attraction by the nucleus

(A) Halogens have the highest electron affinities in


their respective periods. This is due to the small size

for the incoming electron.

and high effective nuclear charge of halogens.


Halogens have seven electrons in their valence shell.

(iv) Electron gain enthalpies of some of the members

By accepting one more electron they can attain stable


electronic configuration of the nearest noble gas. Thus

are positive.

they have maximum tendency to accept an additional


electron.

This is because they have stable configurations.

of alkaline earth metals, noble gases and nitrogen

Alkaline earth metals have stable configurations due


to completely filled ns orbital while nitrogen has extra

(B) Due to stable electronic configuration of noble


gases electron affinities are zero.

stability due to half filled p-orbitals (1s2, 2s2, 2p3) i.e.,


symmetrical configuration. These atoms resist the

(C) Be, Mg, N and P also have exceptionally low


values of electron affinities due to their stable

addition of extra electron as they do not want to disturb


their stability.

electronic configurations.
Noble gases have ns2np6 configuration, i.e., no place
Be = 1s2, 2s2

N = 1s2, 2s2, 2p3

for incoming electron. In case the extra electron is to

Mg = 1s2, 2s2 , 2p6, 3s2 P = 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p3

be accommodated, it will occupy its position on a

Conclusion
(i) The electron gain enthalpies, in general, become

new principal shell, i.e., it will be weakly attracted

less negative in going down from top to bottom in a


group. This is due to increase in size on moving down

unstable. Helium has also stable 1s2 configuration

a group. This factor is predominant in comparison to

(v) Halogens have highest negative electron gain

other factor, i.e., increase in nuclear charge.

enthalpies.

towards nucleus. Such anion will be extremely


and cannot accommodate the incoming electron.

Following two factors are responsible for this:

Na
53
Cl
349

K
Rb
48 47
Br
I
325 295

Cs
1
46 KJ mol
At
270KJ mol1

Small atomic size and high nuclear charge of


halogens in a period.
Halogens have the general electronic configuration
of ns2 np5, i.e., one electron less than stable noble

(ii) The electron gain enthalpies of oxygen and fluorine,

gas (ns2 np6) configuration.

the members of the second period, have less


negative values than the elements sulphur and

Thus, halogens have very strong tendency to accept

chlorine of the third period. This is due to small size


of the atoms of oxygen and fluorine. As a result, there

enthalpies are, therefore, high.

is a strong inter-electronic repulsion when extra


electron is added to these atoms, i.e., electron density
is high and the addition of electron is not easy. Thus,

an additional electron and their electron gain

Importance of Electron Gain Enthalpy : Certain


properties of the elements can be predicted on the
basis of values of electron gain enthalpies.

35
35

PAGE # 35

(i) The elements having high negative values of


electron gain enthalpy are capable of accepting
electron easily. They form anions and thus form ionic
(electrovalent) compounds. These elements are
electronegative in nature.

(g) Electronegativity :
Electronegativity is a measure of the tendency of an
element to attract electrons towards itself in a
covalently bonded molecule .

(ii) The elements having high negative electron gain


enthalpies act as strong oxidising agents, for example,
F, CI, Br, O, S, etc.
On the basis of the general trend of ionisation
enthalpy and electron gain enthalpy, the following
properties can be predicted:

(i) Factors influencing electronegativity :


(A) The magnitude of electronegativity of an element
depends upon its ionisation potential & electron
affinity. Higher ionisation potential & electron affinity
values indicate higher electronegativity value.

(i) Metallic nature decreases in a period while nonmetallic nature increases. Metallic nature increases
in a group while non-metallic nature decreases. The
arrow () represents a group and () represents a
period.

(B) W ith increase in atomic size the distance


between nucleus and valence shell electrons
increases, therefore the force of attraction between
the nucleus and the valence shell electrons

Metallic

decreases and hence the electronegativity values


Metallic
(Electro + ve)

Decreases

also decrease.
(C) In higher oxidation state, the element has higher

Increases

magnitude of positive charge. Thus, due to more


positive charge on element, it has higher polarising

Non-metallic

power. Thus, with increase in the oxidation state of


Non-metallic (Electro-ve)

Increases

Decreases
(ii) Reducing nature decreases in a period while
oxidising nature increases. The reducing nature
increases in a group while oxidising nature
decreases.

element, its electronegativity also increases.

Note :
Polarising power is the power of an ion (cation) to
distort the other ion.
(D) With increase in nuclear charge, force of attraction

Reducing nature

between nucleus and the valence shell electrons

Decreases

Reducing
nature

increases and, therefore electronegativity value


;

Increases

(E) The electronegativity of the same element


increases as the s-character in the hybrid orbitals

Oxidising nature

increases.

Increases

Oxidising
nature

increases.

Decreases

Hybrid orbital

sp 3

sp 2

sp

s-character

25%

33%

50%

(iii) Stability of metal increases while activity of the


metal decreases in a period and in a group stability
decreases.
Stability of the metal

Electronegativity increases
(ii) Variation of Electronegativity in a group : On
moving down the group atomic number increases,

Stability of the metal

Increases

so nuclear charge also increases. Number of shells


also increases, so atomic radius increases.

Decreases

Therefore electronegativity decreases on moving


down the group.

Activity of the metal

(iii) Variation of Electronegativity in a period : While


Activity of the metal

Decreases
Increases

moving across a period left to right atomic number,


nuclear charge increases & atomic radius decreases.
Therefore electronegativity increases along a period.

36
36

PAGE # 36

Differences between Electron gain enthalpy and Electronegativity


S.No.

Electron gain enthalpy

It is the tendency of an isolated atom to


attract electron.

It can be measured experimentally.


Its units are electron volts per atom
or kilo joules per mole or kilo calories per
mole.
It is a constant quantity for a
particular element.

3
4

(h) Nature of Oxides :


In a period, the nature of the oxides varies from basic
to acidic.
Na2O MgO AI2O3
SiO2 P2O5 Cl2O7
Strongly Basic Amphoteric
Weakly Strongly
basic
acidic
acidic

P2 O3
P2 O4
P2 O5

Acidic nature
increases

Acidic nature
increases

N2 O3
NO2
N2 O5

Neutral
oxide

Acidic nature
increases

In a group, basic nature increases or acidic nature


decreases. Oxides of the metals are generally basic
and oxides of the nonnmetals are acidic. The oxides
of the metalloids are amphoteric. The oxides of AI,
Zn, Sn, As and Sb are amphoteric. We can summarise
that as the electronegativity of element increases,
acidic character of oxides increases. When an
element forms a number of oxides, the acidic nature
increases as the percentage of oxygen increases.
N2 O
NO

MnO
Mn2O3
MnO2
MnO3
Mn2O7

Basic
Basic
Neutral
Acidic
Acidic

CO, N2O, NO and H2O are neutral oxides. The oxides


CO2, N2O5, P2O3, P2O5, SO2, SO3, Cl2O7, etc., are called
acid anhydrides as these combine with water to form
oxy-acids.
CO2 H2CO3
P2O3 H3PO3
SO3 H2SO4
N2O5 HNO3
P2O5 H3PO4
Cl2O7 HClO4
N2O3 HNO2
SO2 H2SO3
(i) Nature of Oxy-Acids :
In a period, the strength of the oxy-acids formed by
non-metals increases from ieft to right.
II Period
III Period

It has no units but merely a number.


It has no units but merely a number.
Electronegativity of an element is not constant.
It depends on a number of factors such as
hybridised state. Oxidation state, etc. The
periodicity is regular in a period but not
so regular in groups.

Its periodicity is not regular in a


period or a group.

Electronegativity
It is the tendency of an atom in a combined
state, i.e., in a molecule to attract the shared
pair of electrons.
It is a relative number and cannot be
determined experimentally.

In a group, the strength of the oxy-acids of non-metals


decreases.
V group

strength decreases

VII group

strength decreases

If a non-metal forms a number of oxy-acids, the


strength increases with the increase of percentage
of oxygen.
Sulphur forms two oxy-acids H2SO3 and H2SO4.H2SO4
is stronger acid than H2SO3.
Chlorine forms a number of oxy-acids:

Greater is the oxidation state of central atom more


will be the acidic strength.
( j) Nature of Hydrides :
The nature of the hydrides changes from basic to
acidic in a period from left to right.
NH 3
H2O
HF
weak base neutral weak acid
PH3
very weak
base

H2 S
HCl
weak acid strong acid

In a group, the acidic nature of the hydrides of nonmetals increases. The reducing nature also increases
but stability decreases from top to bottom

strength increases
strength
increases

37
37

PAGE # 37

Anomalous behaviour of the elements of second


period :
It has been observed that in the case of representative
elements, the first element in each, i.e. lithium in the
first group, beryllium in the second group and boron
to fluorine in the group 13 to 17, differ in many respect
from the other member of their respective group. The
anomalous behaviour of the first member of each
group is attributed to following reasons :
(a) small atomic radius of the atom and ionic radius
of its ion.
(b) high electronegativity
(c) non-availability of d-orbitals in their valence shell.
(d) tendency to form multiple bonds by carbon,
nitrogen and oxygen
(e) high charge/radius ratio

38
38

PAGE # 38

MOLE CONCEPT
ATOMS

The symbol of Copper is Cu (from its Latin name


Cuprum)
It should be noted that in a "two letter" symbol, the
first letter is the "capital letter" but the second letter is
the small letter

All the matter is made up of atoms. An atom is the


smallest particle of an element that can take part in a
chemical reaction. Atoms of most of the elements
are very reactive and do not exist in the free state (as
single atom).They exist in combination with the atoms
of the same element or another element.
Atoms are very, very small in size. The size of an atom
is indicated by its radius which is called "atomic
radius" (radius of an atom). Atomic radius is
measured in "nanometres"(nm).
1 metre = 109 nanometre or 1nm = 10-9 m.
Atoms are so small that we cannot see them under
the most powerful optical microscope.

Symbol Derived from English Names

Note :
Hydrogen atom is the smallest atom of all , having an
atomic radius 0.037nm.
(a) Symbols of Elements :
A symbol is a short hand notation of an element which
can be represented by a sketch or letter etc.
Dalton was the first to use symbols to represent
elements in a short way but Dalton's symbols for
element were difficult to draw and inconvenient to
use, so Dalton's symbols are only of historical
importance. They are not used at all.

It was J.J. Berzelius who proposed the modern


system of representing en element.
The symbol of an element is the "first letter" or the
"first letter and another letter" of the English name or
the Latin name of the element.
e.g. The symbol of Hydrogen is H.
The symbol of Oxygen is O.
There are some elements whose names begin with
the same letter. For example, the names of elements
Carbon, Calcium, Chlorine and Copper all begin with
the letter C. In such cases, one of the elements is
given a "one letter "symbol but all other elements are
given a "first letter and another letter" symbol of the
English or Latin name of the element. This is to be
noted that "another letter" may or may not be the
"second letter" of the name. Thus,
The symbol of Carbon is C.
The symbol of Calcium is Ca.
The symbol of Chlorine is Cl.

English Name of
the Element
Hydrogen
Helium
Lithium
Boron
Carbon
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Fluorine
Neon
Magnesium
Aluminium
Silicon
Phosphorous
Sulphur
Chlorine
Argon
Calcium

Symbol
H
He
Li
B
C
N
O
F
Ne
Mg
Al
Si
P
S
Cl
Ar
Ca

Symbols Derived from Latin Names


English Name of
the Element

Symbol

Latin Name of
the Element

Sodium

Na

Natrium

Potassium

Kalium

(b) Significance of The Symbol of an


Element :
(i) Symbol represents name of the element.
(ii) Symbol represents one atom of the element.
(iii) Symbol also represents one mole of the element.
That is, symbol also represent 6.023 1023 atoms of
the element.
(iv) Symbol represent a definite mass of the element
i.e. atomic mass of the element.
Example :
(i) Symbol H represents hydrogen element.
(ii) Symbol H also represents one atom of hydrogen
element.
(iii) Symbol H also represents one mole of hydrogen
atom.
(iv) Symbol H also represents one gram hydrogen
atom.
PAGE # 39

IONS
An ion is a positively or negatively charged atom or
group of atoms.
Every atom contains equal number of electrons
(negatively charged) and protons (positively charged).
Both charges balance each other, hence atom is
electrically neutral.
(a) Cation :
If an atom has less electrons than a neutral atom,
then it gets positively charged and a positively
charged ion is known as cation.
e.g. Sodium ion (Na+), Magnesium ion (Mg2+) etc.
A cation bears that much units of positive charge as
there are the number of electrons lost by the neutral
atom to form that cation.
e.g. An aluminium atom loses 3 electrons to form
aluminium ion, so aluminium ion bears 3 units of
positive charge and it is represented as Al3+.
(b) Anion :
If an atom has more number of electrons than that of
neutral atom, then it gets negatively charged and a
negatively charged ion is known as anion.
e.g. Chloride ion (Cl), oxide ion (O2-) etc.

An anion bears that much units of negative charge as


there are the number of electrons gained by the
neutral atom to form that anion.
e.g. A nitrogen atom gains 3 electrons to form nitride
ion, so nitride ion bears 3 units of negative charge
and it is represented as N3-.
Note :
Size of a cation is always smaller and anion is always
greater than that of the corresponding neutral atom.
(c) Monoatomic ions and polyatomic ions :
(i) Monoatomic ions : Those ions which are formed
from single atoms are called monoatomic ions or
simple ions.
e.g. Na+, Mg2+ etc.
(ii) Polyatomic ions : Those ions which are formed
from group of atoms joined together are called
polyatomic ions or compound ions.
e.g. Ammonium ion (NH4+) , hydroxide ion (OH) etc.
which are formed by the joining of two types of atoms,
nitrogen and hydrogen in the first case and oxygen and
hydrogen in the second.
(d) Valency of ions :
The valency of an ion is same as the charge present
on the ion.
If an ion has 1 unit of positive charge, its valency is 1
and it is known as a monovalent cation. If an ion has
2 units of negative charge, its valency is 2 and it is
known as a divalent anion.

LIST OF COMMON ELECTROVALENT POSITIVE RADICALS

LIST OF COMMON ELECTROVALENT NEGATIVE RADICALS

Note :
Cation contains less no. of electrons and anion contains more no. of electrons than the no. of protons present in
them.

PAGE # 40

Example :

LAWS OF CHEMICAL COMBINATION

Water is a compound of hydrogen and oxygen. It can


be obtained from various sources (like river, sea, well
etc.) or even synthesized in the laboratory. From
whatever source we may get it, 9 parts by weight of
water is always found to contain 1 part by weight of
hydrogen and 8 parts by weight of oxygen. Thus, in
water, this proportion of hydrogen and oxygen always
remains constant.

The laws of chemical combination are the


experimental laws which led to the idea of
atoms being the smallest unit of matter. The laws of
chemical combination played a significant role in the
development of Daltons atomic theory of matter.
There are two important laws of chemical combination.
These are:

(i) Law of conservation of mass


(ii) Law of constant proportions
(a) Law of Conservation of Mass or Matter :

(c) Law of Multiple Proportions :

This law was given by Lavoisier in 1774 . According to


the law of conservation of mass, matter can neither
be created nor be destroyed in a chemical reaction.
Or
The law of conservation of mass means that in a
chemical reaction, the total mass of products is equal
to the total mass of the reactants. There is no change
in mass during a chemical reaction.
Suppose we carry out a chemical reaction between A
and B and if the products formed are C and D then,
A + B C + D
Suppose 'a' g of A and 'b' g of B react to produce 'c' g of
C and 'd' g of D. Then, according to the law of
conservation of mass, we have,
a+b = c+d
Example :
When Calcium Carbonate (CaCO 3) is heated, a
chemical reaction takes place to form Calcium Oxide
(CaO) and Carbon dioxide (CO2). It has been found
by experiments that if 100 grams of calcium carbonate
is decomposed completely, then 56 grams of Calcium
Oxide and 44 grams of Carbon dioxide are formed.

Note :
The converse of Law of definite proportions that when
same elements combine in the same proportion, the
same compound will be formed, is not always true.
According to it, when one element combines with the
other element to form two or more different compounds,
the mass of one element, which combines with a
constant mass of the other, bears a simple ratio to
one another.
Simple ratio means the ratio between small natural
numbers, such as 1 : 1, 1 : 2, 1 : 3
e.g.
Carbon and oxygen when combine, can form two
oxides that are CO (carbon monoxide), CO2 (carbon
dioxide).
In CO,12 g carbon combined with 16 g of oxygen.
In CO2,12 g carbon combined with 32 g of oxygen.
Thus, we can see the mass of oxygen which combine
with a constant mass of carbon (12 g) bear simple
ratio of 16 : 32 or 1 : 2

Note :
The law of multiple proportion was given by Dalton in
1808.

Sample Problem :
1.

Since the total mass of products (100g ) is equal to


the total mass of the reactants (100g), there is no
change in the mass during this chemical reaction.
The mass remains same or conserved.
(b) Law of Constant Proportions / Law of
Definite Proportions :
Proust, in 1779, analysed the chemical composition
(types of elements present and percentage of
elements present ) of a large number of compounds
and came to the conclusion that the proportion of
each element in a compound is constant (or fixed).
According to the law of constant proportions: A
chemical compound always consists of the same
elements combined together in the same proportion
by mass.

Note :
The chemical composition of a pure substance is
not dependent on the source from which it is obtained.

Carbon is found to form two oxides, which contain


42.8% and 27.27% of carbon respectively. Show that
these figures illustrate the law of multiple proportions.
Sol. % of carbon in first oxide = 42.8
% of oxygen in first oxide = 100 - 42.8 = 57.2
% of carbon in second oxide = 27.27
% of oxygen in second oxide = 100 - 27.27 = 72.73
For the first oxide Mass of oxygen in grams that combines with 42.8 g
of carbon = 57.2
Mass of oxygen that combines with 1 g of carbon =
57.2
1.34 g
42.8
For the second oxide Mass of oxygen in grams that combines with 27.27 g
of carbon = 72.73
Mass of oxygen that combines with 1 g of carbon =
72.73
2.68 g
27.27

Ratio between the masses of oxygen that combine


with a fixed mass (1 g) of carbon in the two oxides
= 1.34 : 2.68 or 1 : 2 which is a simple ratio. Hence,
this illustrates the law of multiple proportion.
PAGE # 41

(d) Law of Reciprocal Proportions :

(e) Gay Lussacs Law of Gaseous Volumes :


Gay Lussac found that there exists a definite
relationship among the volumes of the gaseous
reactants and their products. In 1808, he put forward
a generalization known as the Gay Lussacs Law of
combining volumes. This may be stated as follows :

According to this law the ratio of the weights of two


element A and B which combine separately with a
fixed weight of the third element C is either the same
or some simple multiple of the ratio of the weights in
which A and B combine directly with each other.
e.g.

When gases react together, they always do so in


volumes which bear a simple ratio to one another
and to the volumes of the product, if these are also
gases, provided all measurements of volumes are
done under similar conditions of temperature and
pressure.
e.g.
Combination between hydrogen and chlorine to form
hydrogen chloride gas. One volume of hydrogen and
one volume of chlorine always combine to form two
volumes of hydrochloric acid gas.

The elements C and O combine separately with the


third element H to form CH4 and H2O and they combine
directly with each other to form CO2.
4 H2
CH4

12
C
12

H2O

CO2

16
O
32

In CH4, 12 parts by weight of carbon combine with 4


parts by weight of hydrogen. In H2O, 2 parts by weight
of hydrogen combine with 16 parts by weight of
oxygen. Thus the weight of C and O which combine
with fixed weight of hydrogen (say 4 parts by weight)
are 12 and 32 i.e. they are in the ratio 12 : 32 or 3 : 8.
Now in CO2, 12 parts by weight of carbon combine
directly with 32 parts by weight of oxygen i.e. they
combine directly in the ratio 12 : 32 or 3 : 8 which is
the same as the first ratio.

H2 (g) + Cl2 (g) 2HCl (g)


1vol. 1 vol.
2 vol.
The ratio between the volume of the reactants and
the product in this reaction is simple, i.e., 1 : 1 : 2.
Hence it illustrates the Law of combining volumes.
(f) Avogadros Hypothesis :
This states that equal volumes of all gases under
similar conditions of temperature and pressure
contain equal number of molecules.
This hypothesis has been found to explain elegantly
all the gaseous reactions and is now widely
recognized as a law or a principle known as Avogadros
Law or Avogadros principle.
The reaction between hydrogen and chlorine can be
explained on the basis of Avogadros Law as follows :

Note :
The law of reciprocal proportion was put forward by
Ritcher in 1794.

2.

Sample Problem :
Ammonia contains 82.35% of nitrogen and 17.65%
of hydrogen. Water contains 88.90% of oxygen and
11.10% of hydrogen. Nitrogen trioxide contains
63.15% of oxygen and 36.85% of nitrogen. Show that
these data illustrate the law of reciprocal proportions.

Hydrogen + Chlorine

Sol

In NH3, 17.65 g of H combine with N = 82.35 g

1g of H combine with N =

82.35
17.65

88.90
11.10

1 vol.

2 vol.

n molecules.

n molecules.

2n molecules.(By Avogadro's Law)

1 molecules.
2

1 molecules.
2

1 molecules. (By dividing throughout by 2n)

1 Atom

1 Atom

1 Molecule

(By experiment)

(Applying Avogadro's hypothesis)

g = 4.67 g

In H2O, 11.10 g of H combine with O = 88.90 g

1 g H combine with O =

Hydrogen chloride gas

1 vol.

g = 8.01 g

Ratio of the weights of N and O which combine

It implies that one molecule of hydrogen chloride gas


is made up of 1 atom of hydrogen and 1 atom of
chlorine.
(i) Applications of Avogadros hypothesis :

with fixed weight (=1g) of H


= 4.67 : 8.01 = 1 : 1.72

(A) In the calculation of atomicity of elementary


gases.

In N2O3, ratio of weights of N and O which combine


with each other = 36.85 : 63.15 = 1 : 1.71

e.g.

Thus the two ratio are the same. Hence it illustrates


the law of reciprocal proportions.

2 volumes of hydrogen combine with 1 volume of


oxygen to form two volumes of water vapours.
Hydrogen + Oxygen Water vapours
2 vol.
1 vol.
2 vol.
PAGE # 42

Applying Avogadros hypothesis

GRAM-ATOMIC MASS

Hydrogen
+ Oxygen Water vapours
2 n molecules n molecules 2 n molecules

1
or 1 molecule
molecule
2

1 molecule

1
Thus1 molecule of water contains
molecule of
2

The atomic mass of an element expressed in grams


is called the Gram Atomic Mass of the element.
The number of gram -atoms
=

oxygen. But 1 molecule of water contains 1 atom of


oxygen. Hence.

1
molecule of oxygen = 1 atom of
2

e.g.
Calculate the gram atoms present in (i) 16g of oxygen

oxygen or 1 molecules of oxygen = 2 atoms of oxygen


i.e. atomicity of oxygen = 2.

and (ii) 64g of sulphur.

(B) To find the relationship between molecular mass


and vapour density of a gas.

(i) The atomic mass of oxygen = 16.

Density of gas
Vapour density (V.D.) = Density of hydrogen
=

Mass of a certain volume of the gas


Mass of the same volume of hydrogen at
the same temp. and pressure

Gram-Atomic Mass of oxygen (O) = 16 g.


No. of Gram-Atoms =

V.D. =

64
64
= Gram Atomic Mass of sulphur =
=2
32

Atomic
Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

Mass of n molecules of the gas


Mass of n molecules of hydrogen

Mass of 1 molecule of the gas


Mass of 1 molecule of hydrogen

Molecular mass of the gas


Molecular mass of hydrogen

Molecular mass
2
(since molecular mass of hydrogen is 2)
Hence, Molecular mass = 2 Vapour density
=

ATOMIC MASS UNIT


The atomic mass unit (amu) is equal to one-twelfth
(1/12) of the mass of an atom of carbon-12.The mass
of an atom of carbon-12 isotope was given the atomic
mass of 12 units, i.e. 12 amu or 12 u.
The atomic masses of all other elements are now
expressed in atomic mass units.

RELATIVE ATOMIC MASS


The atomic mass of an element is a relative quantity
and it is the mass of one atom of the element relative
to one -twelfth (1/12) of the mass of one carbon-12
atom. Thus, Relative atomic mass
=

Mass of one atom of the element


1
12

mass of one C 12 atom

[1/12 the mass of one C-12 atom = 1 amu, 1 amu =


1.66 1024 g = 1.66 1027 kg.]
Note :
One amu is also called one dalton (Da).

16
=1
16

(ii) The gram-atoms present in 64 grams of sulphur.

If n molecules are present in the given volume of a gas


and hydrogen under similar conditions of temperature
and pressure.

Mass of the element in grams


Gram Atomic mass of the element

Element
Symbol
Hydrogen
H
Helium
He
Lithium
Li
Beryllium
Be
Boron
B
Carbon
C
Nitrogen
N
Oxygen
O
Fluorine
F
Neon
Ne
Sodium
Na
Magnesium
Mg
Aluminium
Al
Silicon
Si
Phosphorus
P
Sulphur
S
Chlorine
Cl
Argon
Ar
Potassium
K
Calcium
Ca

Atomic
mass
1
4
7
9
11
12
14
16
19
20
23
24
27
28
31
32
35.5
40
39
40

RELATIVE MOLECULAR MASS


The relative molecular mass of a substance is the
mass of a molecule of the substance as compared
to one-twelfth of the mass of one carbon -12 atom
i.e.,
Relative molecular mass
=

Mass of one molecule of the substance


1
12

mass of one C 12 atom

The molecular mass of a molecule, thus, represents


the number of times it is heavier than 1/12 of the
mass of an atom of carbon-12 isotope.
PAGE # 43

GRAM MOLECULAR MASS

The molecular mass of a substance expressed in


grams is called the Gram Molecular Mass of the
substance . The number of gram molecules
Mass of the subs tance in grams

Gram molecular mass of the subs t ance

e.g.
(i) Molecular mass of hydrogen (H2) = 2u.

Gram Molecular Mass of hydrogen (H2) = 2 g .


(ii) Molecular mass of methane (CH4) = 16u

Gram Molecular Mass of methane (CH4) = 16 g.

EQUIVALENT MASS
(a) Definition :
Equivalent mass of an element is the mass of the
element which combine with or displaces 1.008 parts
by mass of hydrogen or 8 parts by mass of oxygen or
35.5 parts by mass of chlorine.
(b) Formulae of Equivalent Masses of different
substances :
(i) Equivalent mass of an element =
Atomic wt. of the element
Valency of the element
(ii) Eq. mass an acid =

Mol. wt. of the acid


Basicity of the acid

e.g. the number of gram molecules present in 64 g of


methane (CH4).

Basicity is the number of replaceable H+ ions from


one molecule of the acid.

64
64
= Gram molecular mass of CH =
= 4.
4
16

(iii) Eq. Mass of a base =

(a) Calculation of Molecular Mass :


The molecular mass of a substance is the sum of
the atomic masses of its constituent atoms present
in a molecule.
Ex.3 Calculate the molecular mass of water.
(Atomic masses : H = 1u, O = 16u).
Sol. The molecular formula of water is H2O.

Molecular mass of water = ( 2 atomic mass of H)


+ (1 atomic mass of O)
= 2 1 + 1 16 = 18
i.e., molecular mass of water = 18 amu.
Ex.4 Find out the molecular mass of sulphuric acid.
(Atomic mass : H = 1u, O = 16u, S = 32u).
Sol. The molecular formula of sulphuric acid is H2SO4.

Molecular mass of H2SO4


= (2 atomic mass of H) + ( 1 atomic mass of S)
+ ( 4 atomic mass of O)
= (2 1) + (1 32) + (416) = 2 + 32 + 64 = 98
i.e., Molecular mass of H2SO4= 98 amu.

FORMULA MASS
The term formula mass is used for ionic compounds
and others where discrete molecules do not exist,
e.g., sodium chloride, which is best represented as
(Na+Cl)n, but for reasons of simplicity as NaCl or
Na+Cl. Here, formula mass means the sum of the
masses of all the species in the formula.
Thus, the formula mass of sodium chloride = (atomic
mass of sodium) + (atomic mass of chlorine)
= 23 + 35.5
= 58.5 amu

Mol. wt. of the base


Acidity of the base

Acidity is the number of replaceable OH ions from


one molecule of the base
(iv) Eq. mass of a salt
=

Mol. wt. of the salt


Number of metal atoms valency of metal

(v) Eq. mass of an ion =

Formula wt. of the ion


Charge on the ion

(vi) Eq. mass of an oxidizing/reducing agent


=

Mol wt. or At. wt


No. of electrons lost or gained by one
molecule of the substance

Equivalent weight of some compounds are given in


the table :

S.No.

Compound

Equivalent
weight

HCl

36.5

H2SO4

49

HNO3

63

45
COOH

5
COOH

.2H2O

63

NaOH

40

KOH

56

CaCO3

50

NaCl

58.5

10

Na2CO3

53

PAGE # 44

SOME IMPORTANT RELATIONS AND FORMULAE


In Latin, mole means heap or collection or pile. A
mole of atoms is a collection of atoms whose total
mass is the number of grams equal to the atomic
mass in magnitude. Since an equal number of moles
of different elements contain an equal number of
atoms, it becomes convenient to express the
amounts of the elements in terms of moles. A mole
represents a definite number of particles, viz, atoms,
molecules, ions or electrons. This definite number is
called the Avogadro Number (now called the Avogadro
constant) which is equal to 6.023 1023.

(i) 1 mole of atoms = Gram Atomic mass = mass of


6.023 1023 atoms
(ii) 1 mole of molecules = Gram Molecular Mass
= 6.023 x 1023 molecules
(iii) Number of moles of atoms

(iv) Number of moles of molecules

A mole is defined as the amount of a substance that


contains as many atoms, molecules, ions, electrons
or other elementary particles as there are atoms in
exactly 12 g of carbon -12 (12C).

(a) Moles of Atoms :

(i) 1 mole atoms of any element occupy a mass which


is equal to the Gram Atomic Mass of that element.
e.g. 1 Mole of oxygen atoms weigh equal to Gram
Atomic Mass of oxygen, i.e. 16 grams.
(ii) The symbol of an element represents 6.023 x 1023
atoms (1 mole of atoms) of that element.
e.g : Symbol N represents 1 mole of nitrogen atoms
and 2N represents 2 moles of nitrogen atoms.
(b) Moles of Molecules :
(i) 1 mole molecules of any substance occupy a mass
which is equal to the Gram Molecular Mass of that
substance.

Mass of element in grams


Gram Atomic Mass of element

Mass of substance in grams


Gram Molecular Mass of substance

(v) Number of moles of molecules


No. of molecules of element

Avogadro number

NA

Ex.5 To calculate the number of moles in 16 grams of


Sulphur (Atomic mass of Sulphur = 32 u).
Sol. 1 mole of atoms = Gram Atomic Mass.
So, 1 mole of Sulphur atoms = Gram Atomic Mass of
Sulphur = 32 grams.
Now, 32 grams of Sulphur = 1 mole of Sulphur
So, 16 grams of Sulphur
= (1/32) x 16 = 0.5 moles
Thus, 16 grams of Sulphur constitute 0.5 mole of
Sulphur.
22.4 litre

e.g. : 1 mole of water (H2O) molecules weigh equal to


Gram Molecular Mass of water (H2O), i.e. 18 grams.

In term of
volume
23

(ii) The symbol of a compound represents 6.023 x


10 23 molecules (1 mole of molecules) of that
compound.

6.023 10
(NA) Atoms

23

1 Mole

e.g. : Symbol H 2O represents 1 mole of water


molecules and 2 H2O represents 2 moles of water
molecules.

Note :
The symbol H2O does not represent 1 mole of H2
molecules and 1 mole of O atoms. Instead, it
represents 2 moles of hydrogen atoms and 1 mole
of oxygen atoms.

Note :
The SI unit of the amount of a substance is Mole.
(c) Mole in Terms of Volume :
Volume occupied by 1 Gram Molecular Mass or 1
mole of a gas under standard conditions of
temperature and pressure (273 K and 1atm.
pressure) is called Gram Molecular Volume. Its value
is 22.4 litres for each gas.
Volume of 1 mole
= 22.4 litre (at STP)

Note :
The term mole was introduced by Ostwald in 1896.

6.023 10
(NA) molecules

In terms of
particles

In terms of
mass

1 gram atom
of element

1 gram molecule
of substance

1 gram formula
mass of substance

PROBLEMS BASED ON THE MOLE CONCEPT


Ex.6 Calculate the number of moles in 5.75 g of
sodium. (Atomic mass of sodium = 23 u)
Sol. Number of moles
Mass of the element in grams

Gram Atomic Mass of element

5.75
23

= 0.25 mole

or,
1 mole of sodium atoms = Gram Atomic mass of
sodium = 23g.
23 g of sodium = 1 mole of sodium.
5.75 g of sodium =

5.75
23

mole of sodium = 0.25 mole

PAGE # 45

Ex.7 What is the mass in grams of a single atom of


chlorine ? (Atomic mass of chlorine = 35.5u)
Sol. Mass of 6.022 1023 atoms of Cl = Gram Atomic
Mass of Cl = 35.5 g.

Mass of 1 atom of Cl =

35.5 g
6.022 10 23

= 5.9 1023 g.

Ex.8 The density of mercury is 13.6 g cm . How many


moles of mercury are there in 1 litre of the metal ?
(Atomic mass of Hg = 200 u).
3

Sol. Mass of mercury (Hg) in grams = Density


(g cm3) Volume (cm3)
= 13.6 g cm3 1000 cm3 = 13600 g.
Number of moles of mercury
Mass of mercury in grams
13600
= Gram Atomic Mass of mercury =
= 68
200

Ex.9 The mass of a single atom of an element M is


3.15 1023 g . What is its atomic mass ? What
could the element be ?
Sol. Gram Atomic Mass = mass of 6.022 1023 atoms
= mass of 1 atom 6.022 1023
= (3.15 1023g) 6.022 1023
= 3.15 6.022 g = 18.97 g.
Atomic Mass of the element = 18.97u
Thus, the element is most likely to be fluorine.
Ex.10 An atom of neon has a mass of 3.35 1023 g.
How many atoms of neon are there in 20 g of the
gas ?
Sol. Number of atoms
=

20
Total mass
=
= 5.97 1023
Mass of 1 atom
3.35 10 23

Ex.11 How many grams of sodium will have the same


number of atoms as atoms present in 6 g of
magnesium ?
(Atomic masses : Na = 23u ; Mg =24u)
Sol. Number of gram -atom of Mg
Mass of Mg in grams

= Gram Atomic Mass =


=
24
4

Gram Atoms of sodium should be =

1
4

1 Gram Atom of sodium = 23 g


1
4

gram atoms of sodium = 23

= 5.75 g

Ex.12 How many moles of Cr are there in 85g of Cr2S3 ?


(Atomic masses : Cr = 52 u , S =32 u)
Sol. Molecular mass of Cr2S3 = 2 52 + 3 32 = 104
+ 96 = 200 u.
200g of Cr2S3 contains = 104 g of Cr.

85 g of Cr2S3 contains =

104 85
200

Thus, number of moles of Cr =

g of Cr = 44.2g

44.2
52

Ex.13 What mass in grams is represented by


(a) 0.40 mol of CO2,
(b) 3.00 mol of NH3,
(c) 5.14 mol of H5IO6
(Atomic masses : C=12 u, O=16 u, N=14 u,
H=1 u and I = 127 u)
Sol. Weight in grams = number of moles molecular
mass.
Hence,
(a) mass of CO2 = 0.40 44 = 17.6 g
(b) mass of NH3 = 3.00 17 = 51.0 g
(c) mass of H5IO6 = 5.14 228 = 1171.92g
Ex.14 Calculate the volume in litres of 20 g of hydrogen
gas at STP.
Sol. Number of moles of hydrogen
Mass of hydrogen in grams

Gram Molecular Mass of hydrogen

20
= 10
2

Volume of hydrogen = number of moles Gram


Molecular Volume.
= 10 22.4 = 224 litres.
Ex.15 The molecular mass of H 2 SO 4 is 98 amu.
Calculate the number of moles of each element
in 294 g of H2SO4.
Sol. Number of moles of H2SO4 =

294
98

=3.

The formula H 2SO 4 indicates that 1 molecule of


H2SO4 contains 2 atoms of H, 1 atom of S and 4
atoms of O. Thus, 1 mole of H2SO4 will contain 2
moles of H,1 mole of S and 4 moles of O atoms
Therefore, in 3 moles of H2SO4 :
Number of moles of H = 2 3 = 6
Number of moles of S = 1 3 = 3
Number of moles of O = 4 3 = 12
Ex.16 Find the mass of oxygen contained in 1 kg of
potassium nitrate (KNO3).
Sol. Since 1 molecule of KNO 3 contains 3 atoms of
oxygen, 1 mol of KNO 3 contains 3 moles of
oxygen atoms.
Moles of oxygen atoms = 3 moles of KNO3
=3

1000

= 29.7
101
(Gram Molecular Mass of KNO3 = 101 g)
Mass of oxygen = Number of moles Atomic
mass
= 29.7 16 = 475.2 g
Ex.17 You are asked by your teacher to buy 10 moles of
distilled water from a shop where small bottles
each containing 20 g of such water are available.
How many bottles will you buy ?
Sol. Gram Molecular Mass of water (H2O) = 18 g
10 mol of distilled water = 18 10 = 180 g.
Because 20 g distilled water is contained in 1
bottle,
180 g

of distilled water is contained in =

= 0.85 .
bottles = 9 bottles.

Number of bottles to be bought = 9


PAGE # 46

180
20

Ex.18 6.022 1023 molecules of oxygen (O2) is equal to


how many moles ?
Sol. No. of moles =
No. of molecules of oxygen
Avogadro' s no. of molecules

6.023 10 23
6.023 10 23

(iii) If the simplest ratio is fractional, then values of


simplest ratio of each element is multiplied by
smallest integer to get the simplest whole number
for each of the element.

=1

(iv) To get the empirical formula, symbols of various


elements present are written side by side with their
respective whole number ratio as a subscript to the
lower right hand corner of the symbol.

PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION
The percentage composition of elements in a
compound is calculated from the molecular formula
of the compound.
The molecular mass of the compound is calculated
from the atomic masses of the various elements
present in the compound. The percentage by mass
of each element is then computed with the help of the
following relations.
Percentage mass of the element in the compound

(v) The molecular formula of a substance may be


determined from the empirical formula if the molecular
mass of the substance is known. The molecular
formula is always a simple multiple of empirical
formula and the value of simple multiple (n) is
obtained by dividing molecular mass with empirical
formula mass.
n

Total mass of the element

100

Molecular mass

Ex.19 What is the percentage of calcium in calcium


carbonate (CaCO3) ?
Sol. Molecular mass of CaCO 3 = 40 + 12 + 3 16
= 100 amu.
Mass of calcium in 1 mol of CaCO3 = 40g.

Percentage of calcium =

40 100
100

Ex-22.A compound of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen


contains these elements in the ratio of 9:1:3.5 respectively.
Calculate the empirical formula. If its molecular mass is
108, what is the molecular formula ?
Sol.

32 100
98

Element

Mass Atomic Relative Number


Ratio Mass
of Atoms

Carbon

12

Hydrogen

Nitrogen

3.5

14

= 40 %

Ex.20 What is the percentage of sulphur in sulphuric


acid (H2SO4) ?
Sol. Molecular mass of H2SO4 = 1 2 + 32 + 16 4 = 98
amu.

Percentage of sulphur =

Molecular Mass
Empirical Formula Mass

n=

18

= 11.11 %

Similarly,
percentage of oxygen =

16 100
18

= 88.88 %

The following steps are involved in determining the


empirical formula of a compound :
(i) The percentage composition of each element is
divided by its atomic mass. It gives atomic ratio of the
elements present in the compound.
(ii) The atomic ratio of each element is divided by the
minimum value of atomic ratio as to get the simplest
ratio of the atoms of elements present in the
compound.

1
1
1

14=4

3.5
0.25
14

0.25 4 = 1

Molecular Mass
108
2
Empirical Formula Mass = 54

Thus, molecular formula of the compound


= (Empirical formula)2

Sol. Molecular mass of water, H2O = 2 + 16 = 18 amu.


H2O has two atoms of hydrogen.
So, total mass of hydrogen in H2O = 2 amu.
2 100

0.754 = 3

Empirical ratio = C3H4N


Empirical formula mass = (3 12) + (4 1) + 14 = 54

= 32.65 %

Ex.21. W hat are the percentage compositions of


hydrogen and oxygen in water (H2O) ?
(Atomic masses : H = 1 u, O = 16 u)

Percentage of H =

9
0.75
12

Simplest
Ratio

= (C3H4N)2
= C6H8N2
Ex.23. A compound on analysis, was found to have the
following composition :
(i) Sodium = 14.31%, (ii) Sulphur = 9.97%, (iii) Oxygen
= 69.50%, (iv) Hydrogen = 6.22%. Calculate the
molecular formula of the compound assuming that
whole hydrogen in the compound is present as water
of crystallisation. Molecular mass of the compound
is 322.
Sol.

Element Percentage

Atomic
mass

Relative Number
of atoms

Simplest ratio

Sodium

14.31

23

14 .31

23

0.622

0.622
2
0.311

Sulphur

9.97

32

9 .97

32

0.311

0.311
1
0.311

Hydrogen

6.22

Oxygen

69.50

16

6 . 22
1
69. 50

16

6.22

6.22
20
0.311

4.34

4.34
14
0.311

PAGE # 47

The empirical formula = Na2SH20O14


Empirical formula mass
= (2 23) + 32 + (20 1) + (14 16)
= 322
Molecular mass
= 322
Molecular formula = Na2SH20O14
Whole of the hydrogen is present in the form of water
of crystallisation. Thus, 10 water molecules are
present in the molecule.
So, molecular formula = Na2SO4. 10H2O

CONCENTRATION OF SOLUTIONS

(d) Normality :
Normality of a solution is defined as the number of
gram equivalents of the solute dissolved per litre (dm3)
of given solution. It is denoted by N.
Mathematically,
Number of gram equivalent s of solute

N =

N=

Volume of the solution in litre


Weight of solute in gram / equivalent weight of solute
Volume of the solution in litre

N can be calculated from the strength as given below :


Strength in grams per litre

(a) Strength in g/L :

N=

The strength of a solution is defined as the amount of


the solute in grams present in one litre (or dm3) of the
solution, and hence is expressed in g/litre or g/dm3.

Equivalent mass of solute

Volume of solution in litre

(b) Molarity :
Molarity of a solution is defined as the number of
moles of the solute dissolved per litre (or dm3) of
solution. It is denoted by M. Mathematically,

S
E

If w gram of the solute is present in V cm3 of a given


solution.

Weight of solute in gram

Strength in g/L =

1000

N = Equivalent mass of the solute

e.g. A solution of sulphuric acid having 0.49 gram of


it dissolved in 250 cm 3 of solution will have its
normality,
w

N = Equivalent mass of the solute

Number of moles of solute

M=

Volume of the solution in litre

Mass of solute in gram/Gram Molecular Mass of solute


Volume of solution in litre

N=

0.49
49

1000

M=

1000

w
Molecular

mass

V
e.g. a solution of sulphuric acid having 4.9 grams of it
dissolved in 500 cm3 of solution will have its molarity,
w

M=

M=

= 0.04

Solution

Semi
normal

Normality

Deci
normal

1
2

Centi
normal

1
10

1
100

Molecular mass of solute

If w gram of the solute is present in V cm3 of a given


solution , then
M=

250

1000

(Eq. mass of sulphuric acid = 49).

M can be calculated from the strength as given below :


Strength in grams per litre

1000

Molecular mass

4.9
98

1000

500

= 0.1

(c) Formality :
In case of ionic compounds like NaCl, Na2CO3 etc.,
formality is used in place of molarity. The formality of
a solution is defined as the number of gram formula
masses of the solute dissolved per litre of the
solution. It is represented by the symbol F. The term
formula mass is used in place of molecular mass
because ionic compounds exist as ions and not as
molecules. Formula mass is the sum of the atomic
masses of the atoms in the formula of the compound.

Some Important Formulae :


(i) Milli equivalent of substance = N V
where , N normality of solution
V Volume of solution in mL
(ii) If weight of substance is given,
milli equivalent (NV) =

Where, W Weight of substance in gram


E Equivalent weight of substance
(iii) S = N E
S Strength in g/L
N Normality of solution
E Equivalent weight
(iv) Calculation of normality of mixture :
N
N
HCl is mixed with 50 ml of
H SO .
10
5 2 4
Find out the normality of the mixture.
Sol. Milli equivalent of HCl + milli equivalent H 2SO 4
= milli equivalent of mixture
{ where, V3 =V1 + V2 )
N1 V1 + N2 V2 = N3 V3

Ex.24 100 ml of

1
1

100 50 N3 150

10
5

Mass of solute in gram/Formula Mass of solute


Volume of solution in litre

w 1000
E

N3 =

20
150

2
15

= 0.133

PAGE # 48

Ex.25 100 ml of

HCl is mixed with 25 ml of

10
Find out the normality of the mixture.

N
5

NaOH.

Sol. Milli equivalent of HCl milli equivalent of NaOH


= milli equivalent of mixture
N1 V1 N2 V2 = N3 V3
{ where, V3 =V1 + V2 )
1
1

100 25 = N3 125

10
5

N3 =

1
25

Note :
1 milli equivalent of an acid neutralizes 1 milli
equivalent of a base.
(e) Molality :
Molality of a solution is defined as the number of
moles of the solute dissolved in 1000 grams of the
solvent. It is denoted by m.
Mathematically,

Number of moles of the solute


1000 m can
Weight of the solvent in gram
be calculated from the strength as given below :
m=

m=

Strength per 1000 gram of solvent


Molecular mass of solute

If w gram of the solute is dissolved in W gram of the


solvent then
w
1000
m=

Mol. mass of the solute


W

e.g. A solution of anhydrous sodium carbonate


(molecular mass = 106) having 1.325 grams of it,
dissolved in 250 gram of water will have its molality m=

1.325 1000

= 0.05
106 250

Ex.27 Find the molarity and molality of a 15% solution


of H2SO4 (density of H2SO4 solution = 1.02 g/cm3)
(Atomic mass : H = 1u, O = 16u , S = 32 u)
Sol. 15% solution of H2SO4 means 15g of H2SO4 are
present in 100g of the solution i.e.
Wt. of H2SO4 dissolved = 15 g
Weight of the solution = 100 g
Density of the solution = 1.02 g/cm3 (Given)
Calculation of molality :
Weight of solution = 100 g
Weight of H2SO4 = 15 g
Wt. of water (solvent) = 100 15 = 85 g
Molecular weight of H2SO4 = 98

15 g H2SO4 =

15
98

= 0.153 moles

Thus ,85 g of the solvent contain 0.153 moles .


1000 g of the solvent contain=

0.153
85

1000 = 1.8 mole

Hence ,the molality of H2SO4 solution = 1.8 m


Calculation of molarity :
15 g of H2SO4 = 0.153 moles
Wt. of solution

Vol. of solution =
=

100
1.02

Density of solution

= 98.04 cm3

This 98.04 cm3 of solution contain H2SO4 = 0.153


moles
1000 cm3 of solution contain H2SO4

0.153
=

98.04

1000 = 1.56 moles

Hence the molarity of H2SO4 solution = 1.56 M

Note :

(f) Mole Fraction :

Relationship Between Normality and Molarity of a


Solution :
Normality of an acid = Molarity Basicity
Normality of base = Molarity Acidity

The ratio between the moles of solute or solvent to


the total moles of solution is called mole fraction.

Ex.26 Calculate the molarity and normality of a solution


containing 0.4 g of NaOH dissolved in 500 cm3 of
solvent.
Sol. Weight of NaOH dissolved = 0.5 g
Volume of the solution = 500 cm3
(i) Calculation of molarity :
Molecular weight of NaOH = 23 + 16 + 1 = 40
Weight of solute/ molecular weight of solute
Volume of solution in litre
0.5/40

Molarity =
=

500/1000

= 0.025

Moles of solute
mole fraction of solute =

Moles of solution

n
nN

N
nN

w/m
=

w/m W/M

Moles of solvent
Mole fraction of solvent =

Moles of solution

W/M
=

w/m W/M

where,
n number of moles of solute
N number of moles of solvent

(ii) Calculation of normality :


Normality

m molecular weight of solute

Weight of solute/ equivalent weight of solute


=
Volume of solution in litre
0.5/40
=
= 0.025
500/1000

w weight of solute

M molecular weight of solvent


W weight of solvent

PAGE # 49

Ex.28 Find out the mole fraction of solute in 10% (by weight)
urea solution.
weight of solute (urea) = 10 g
weight of solution = 100 g
weight of solvent (water) = 100 10 = 90g

Moles of solution
10 / 60

w/m
w/m W/M

10 / 60 90 / 18

(c) The unknown amount of substance is calculated


using unitary method.

= 0.032

Note :
Sum of mole fraction of solute and solvent is always
equal to one.

STOICHIOMETRY
(a) Quantitative Relations in Chemical
Reactions :
Stoichiometry is the calculation of the quantities of
reactants and products involved in a chemical
reaction.
It is based on the chemical equation and on the
relationship between mass and moles.
N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g)
A chemical equation can be interpreted as follows 1 molecule N2 + 3 molecules H2 2 molecules
NH 3 (Molecular interpretation)
1 mol N2 + 3 mol H2 2 mol NH3
(Molar interpretation)
28 g N2 + 6 g H2 34 g NH3
(Mass interpretation)
1 volume N2 + 3 volume H2 2 volume NH3
(Volume interpretation)
Thus, calculations based on chemical equations are
divided into four types (ii) Calculations based on mass-mass relationship.
(iii) Calculations based on mass-volume relationship.
(iv) Calculations based on volume -volume
relationship.
(i) Calculations based on mole-mole relationship :
In such calculations, number of moles of reactants
are given and those of products are required.
Conversely, if number of moles of products are given,
then number of moles of reactants are required.
Ex.29 Oxygen is prepared by catalytic decomposition
of potassium chlorate (KClO 3). Decomposition
of potassium chlorate gives potassium chloride
(KCl) and oxygen (O2). How many moles and how
many grams of KClO 3 are required to produce
2.4 mole O2.
Sol. Decomposition of KClO3 takes place as,
2KClO3(s) 2KCl(s) + 3O2(g)
2 mole KClO3 3 mole O2
3 mole O2 formed by 2 mole KClO3

2.4 mole O 2 will be formed by 3 2.4

mole KClO3 = 1.6 mole KClO3


Mass of KClO3 = Number of moles molar mass
= 1.6 122.5 = 196 g

Ex.30 Calculate the mass of CaO that can be prepared


by heating 200 kg of limestone CaCO3 which is
95% pure.
Sol. Amount of pure CaCO 3 =

95
200 = 190 kg
100

= 190000 g
CaCO3(s) CaO(s) + CO2(g)
1 mole CaCO3 1 mole CaO
100 g CaCO3 56 g CaO
100 g CaCO3 give 56 g CaO

190000 g CaCO3 will give=

56
190000 g CaO
100

= 106400 g = 106.4 kg
Ex.31 Chlorine is prepared in the laboratory by treating
manganese dioxide (MnO 2 ) with aqueous
hydrochloric acid according to the reaction MnO2 + 4HCl MnCl2 + Cl2 + 2H2O
How many grams of HCl will react with 5 g MnO2 ?
Sol. 1 mole MnO2 reacts with 4 mole HCl
or 87 g MnO2 react with 146 g HCl

5 g MnO2 will react with =

146
5 g HCl = 8.39 g HCl
87

Ex.32 How many grams of oxygen are required to burn


completely 570 g of octane ?
Sol. Balanced equation

2C8H18 + 25O2
2 mole
2 114

(i) Calculations based on mole-mole relationship.

(a) Write down the balanced chemical equation.


(b) Write down theoretical amount of reactants and
products involved in the reaction.

Moles of solute
mole fraction of solute =

(ii) Calculations based on mass-mass relationship:


In making necessary calculation, following steps are
followed -

16CO2 + 18H2O

25 mole
25 32

First method : For burning 2 114 g of the octane,


oxygen required = 25 32 g
For burning 1 g of octane, oxygen required =

25 32
g
2 114

Thus, for burning 570 g of octane, oxygen required


=

25 32
570 g = 2000 g
2 114

Mole Method : Number of moles of octane in 570


grams

570
= 5.0
114
For burning 2.0 moles of octane, oxygen required
= 25 mol = 25 32 g
For burning 5 moles of octane, oxygen required
=

25 32
5.0 g = 2000 g
2 .0

Proportion Method : Let x g of oxygen be required for


burning 570 g of octane. It is known that 2 114 g of
the octane requires 25 32 g of oxygen; then, the
proportion.
x
25 32 g oxygen
=
570
g
oc
tan e
2 114 g oc tan e

x=

25 32 570
= 2000 g
2 114

PAGE # 50

Ex.33 How many kilograms of pure H 2SO 4 could be


obtained from 1 kg of iron pyrites (FeS2) according to
the following reactions ?
4FeS2 + 11O2 2Fe2O3 + 8SO2
2SO2 + O2 2SO3
SO3 + H2O H2SO4
Sol. Final balanced equation,
2Fe2O3 + 8H2SO4

4FeS2 + 15O2 + 8H2O


4 mole
4 120 g

8 mole
8 98 g

4 120 g of FeS2 yield H2SO4 = 8 98 g


1000 g of FeS2 will yield H2SO4 =

8 98
1000
4 120

= 1633.3 g
(iii) Calculations involving mass-volume relationship :
In such calculations masses of reactants are given
and volume of the product is required and vice-versa.
1 mole of a gas occupies 22.4 litre volume at STP.
Mass of a gas can be related to volume according to
the following gas equation PV = nRT
PV =

w
RT
m

NH3(g) + HCl(g)

1 mol
53.5 g

1 mol

53.5 g NH4Cl give 1 mole NH3


1
26.75 g NH4Cl will give
26.75 mole NH3
53.5
= 0.5 mole
PV = nRT
1 V = 0.5 0.0821 300
V = 12.315 litre

Cu

+ H2O

22.4 litre of hydrogen at STP reduce CuO = 79.5 g


2.80 litre of hydrogen at STP will reduce CuO
=

79.5
2.80 g = 9.93 g
22.4

CaCO3

CaO +

1 mol
100 g

CO2

1 mol
= 22.4 litre at STP

100 g of CaCO3 evolve carbon dioxide = 22.4 litre


20 g CaCO3 will evolve carbon dioxide
=

PV = nRT
1 V = 0.05 0.0821 300
V = 1.2315 litre
(iv) Calculations based on volume volume
relationship :
These calculations are based on two laws :
(i) Avogadros law
(ii) Gay-Lussacs Law
e.g.
N 2(g)

1 mol
1 22.4 L

22.4
20 = 4.48 litre
100

3H 2(g)
3 mol
3 22.4 L

2NH 3(g) (Avogadro's law)


2 mol
2 22.4 L

(under similar conditions of temperature and


pressure, equal moles of gases occupy equal
volumes)
+

3H2(g)
3 vol

2NH3(g) (Gay- Lussac's Law)


2 vol

(under similar conditions of temperature and


pressure, ratio of coefficients by mole is equal to ratio
of coefficient by volume).
Ex-38 One litre mixture of CO and CO2 is taken. This is
passed through a tube containing red hot charcoal.
The volume now becomes 1.6 litre. The volume are
measured under the same conditions. Find the
composition of mixture by volume.
Sol. Let there be x mL CO in the mixture , hence, there will
be (1000 x) mL CO2. The reaction of CO2 with red
hot charcoal may be given as -

2CO(g)
2 vol.
2(1000 x)

Total volume of the gas becomes = x + 2(1000 x)


x + 2000 2x = 1600
x = 400 mL
volume of CO = 400 mL and volume of CO2 = 600 mL
Ex-39 What volume of air containing 21% oxygen by volume
is required to completely burn 1kg of carbon containing
100% combustible substance ?
Sol. Combustion of carbon may be given as,

C(s) + O2(g)
1 mol
12 g

Ex-36 Calculate the volume of carbon dioxide at STP


evolved by strong heating of 20 g calcium carbonate.
Sol. The balanced equation is -

H2

1.2 g Mg will liberate hydrogen = 0.05 mole

1 vol.
(1000 x)

1 mol
22.4 litre at NTP

24 g of Mg liberate hydrogen = 1 mole

CO2(g) + C(s)

Ex-35 What quantity of copper (II) oxide will react with


2.80 litre of hydrogen at STP ?

H2

MgCl2

1 mol

1 vol

NH4Cl(s)

1 mol
79.5 g

Mg + 2HCl
24 g

N2(g)

Ex-34. What volume of NH3 can be obtained from 26.75 g


of NH4Cl at 27C and 1 atmosphere pressure.
Sol. The balanced equation is -

Sol. CuO +

Ex.37 Calculate the volume of hydrogen liberated at 27C


and 760 mm pressure by heating 1.2 g of magnesium
with excess of hydrochloric acid.
Sol. The balanced equation is

CO2(g)

1 mol
32 g

12 g carbon requires 1 mole O2 for complete


combustion
1
1000 mole O2 for
12
combustion, i.e. , 83.33 mole O2
Volume of O2 at STP = 83.33 22.4 litre
= 1866.66 litre
21 litre O2 is present in 100 litre air

1000 g carbon will require

100
1866.66 litre air
21
= 8888.88 litre or 8.89 103 litre

1866.66 litre O2 will be present in

PAGE # 51

Ex-40 An impure sample of calcium carbonate contains


80% pure calcium carbonate 25 g of the impure
sample reacted with excess of hydrochloric acid.
Calculate the volume of carbon dioxide at STP
obtained from this sample.
Sol. 100 g of impure calcium carbonate contains = 80 g
pure calcium carbonate
25 g of impure calcium carbonate sample will contain
=

80
25 = 20 g pure calcium carbonate
100

The desired equation is CaCO3 + 2HCl

CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O


22.4 litre
at STP

1 mol
100 g

100 g pure CaCO3 liberate = 22.4 litre CO2.


20 g pure CaCO3 liberate =

22.4
20
100

= 4.48 litre CO2

VOLUMETRIC CALCULATIONS
The quantitative analysis in chemistry is primarily
carried out by two methods, viz, volumetric analysis
and gravimetric analysis.In the first method the mass
of a chemical species is measured by measurement
of volume, whereas in the second method it is determined by taking the weight.
The strength of a solution in volumetric analysis is
generally expressed in terms of normality, i.e., number of equivalents per litre but since the volume in the
volumetric analysis is generally taken in millilitres
(mL), the normality is expressed by milliequivalents
per millilitre.

USEFUL FORMULAE FOR


VOLUMETRIC CALCULATIONS
(i) milliequivalents = normality volume in millilitres.
(ii) At the end point of titration, the two titrants, say 1
and 2, have the same number of milliequivalents,
i.e., N1V1 = N2V2, volume being in mL.
m.e.
.
1000
(iv) No. of equivalents for a gas =

(iii) No. of equivalents =

Volumeat STP
equivalent volume( vol. of 1eq. at STP)
(v) Strength in grams per litre = normality equivalent
weight.
(vi) (a) Normality = molarity factor relating mol. wt.
and eq. wt.
(b) No. of equivalents = no. of moles factor relat
ing mol. wt. and eq. wt.
Ex.41 Calculate the number of milli equivalent of H2SO4
present in 10 mL of N/2 H2SO4 solution.
1
Sol. Number of m.e. = normality volume in mL = 10 = 5.
2

Ex.42 Calculate the number of m.e. and equivalents of


NaOH present in 1 litre of N/10 NaOH solution.
Sol. Number of m.e. = normality volume in mL
=

1
1000 = 100
10

Number of equivalents =

no. of m.e.
100
=
= 0.10
1000
1000

Ex.43 Calculate number of m.e. of the acids present in


(i) 100 mL of 0.5 M oxalic acid solution.
(ii) 50 mL of 0.1 M sulphuric acid solution.
Sol. Normality = molarity basicity of acid
(i) Normality of oxalic acid = 0.5 2 = 1 N
m.e. of oxalic acid = normality vol. in mL = 1 100
= 100.
(ii) Normality of sulphuric acid = 0.1 2 = 0.2 N
m.e. of sulphuric acid
= 0.2 50 = 10
Ex.44 A 100 mL solution of KOH contains 10
milliequivalents of KOH. Calculate its strength in normality and grams/litre.
no. of m.e.
Sol. Normality = volume in mL

10
0 .1
100

strength of the solution = N/10


Again, strength in grams/litre = normality eq. wt.
=

1
56 = 5.6 gram/litre.
10

molecular wt. 56
eq. wt. of KOH

56
acidity
1

Ex.45 What is strength in gram/litre of a solution of H2SO4,


12 cc of which neutralises 15 cc of

N
NaOH
10

solution ?
Sol. m.e. of NaOH solution =

1
15 = 1.5
10

m.e. of 12 cc of H2SO4 = 1.5


1.5
12
Strength in grams/litre = normality eq. wt.

normality of H2SO4 =

1.5
49 grams/litre
12
= 6.125 grams/litre.

molecular wt. 98
eq. wt. of H2 SO 4

49
basicity
2

Ex.46 What weight of KMnO4 will be required to prepare


N
solution if eq. wt. of KMnO4 is 31.6 ?
10
Sol. Equivalent weight of KMnO4 = 31.6

250 mL of its

1
10
Volume of solution (V) = 250 ml

Normality of solution (N) =

NEV ; W = 1 31 .6 250 31 .6
0.79 g
10
1000
1000
40

PAGE # 52

Ex.47 100 mL of 0.6 N H2SO4 and 200 mL of 0.3 N HCl


were mixed together. What will be the normality of the
resulting solution ?
Sol. m.e. of H2SO4 solution = 0.6 100 = 60
m.e. of HCl solution = 0.3 200 = 60
m.e. of 300 mL (100 + 200) of acidic mixture
= 60 + 60 = 120.

m.e.
Normality of the resulting solution =
total vol.
120
2
=
=
N.
300
5
Ex.48 A sample of Na2CO3. H2O weighing 0.62 g is added
to 100 mL of 0.1 N H2SO4. Will the resulting solution
be acidic, basic or neutral ?

0.62
= 0.01
62
124

62
eq. wt. of Na 2 CO 3 .H2 O
2

Sol. Equivalents of Na2CO3. H2O =

m.e. of Na2CO3. H2O = 0.01 1000 = 10


m.e. of H2SO4 = 0.1 100 = 10
Since the m.e. of Na2CO3. H2O is equal to that of H2SO4,
the resulting solution will be neutral.

(B) Secondary titrants : These reagents cannot


accurately weighed and their solutions are to be
standardised before use. Sodium hydroxide,
potassium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, sulphuric
acid, iodine, potassium permanganate etc. are the
examples of secondary titrants.
(iii) Standard solution : The solution of exactly known
concentration of the titrant is called the standard
solution.
(iv) Titrate : The solution consisting the substance to
be estimated is termed unknown solution. The
substance is termed titrate.
(v) Equivalence point : The point at which the reagent
(titrant) and the substance (titrate) under investigation
are chemically equivalent is termed equivalence point
or end point.
(vi) Indicator : It is the auxiliary substance used for
physical (visual) detection of the completion of titration
or detection of end point is termed as indicator.
Indicators show change in colour or turbidity at the
stage of completion of titration.
(c) Concentraion representation of solution
(A) Strength of solution : Grams of solute dissolved
per litre of solution is called strength of solution'

(a) Introduction :
Volumetric analysis is a method of quantitative
analysis. It involves the measurement of the volume
of a known solution required to bring about the
completion of the reaction with a measured volume
of the unknown solution whose concentration or
strength is to be determined. By knowing the volume
of the known solution, the concentration of the solution
under investigation can be calculated. Volumetric
analysis is also termed as titrimetric analysis.
(b) Important terms used in volumetric
analysis :
(i) Titration : The process of addition of the known
solution from the burette to the measured volume of
solution of the substance to be estimated until the
reaction between the two is just complete, is termed
as titration. Thus, a titration involves two solutions:
(a) Unknown solution and (b) Known solution or standard solution.
(ii) Titrant : The reagent or substance whose solution is employed to estimate the concentration of unknown solution is termed titrant. There are two types
of reagents or titrants:
(A) Primary titrants : These reagents can be
accurately weighed and their solutions are not to be
standardised before use. Oxalic acid, potassium
dichromate, silver nitrate, copper sulphate, ferrous
ammonium sulphate, sodium thiosulphates etc., are
the examples of primary titrants.

(B) Parts Per Million (ppm) : Grams of solute


dissolved per 10 6 grams of solvent is called
concentration of solution in the unit of Parts Per Million
(ppm). This unit is used to represent hardness of
water and concentration of very dilute solutions.
(C) Percentage by mass : Grams of solute dissolved
per 100 grams of solution is called percentage by
mass.
(D) Percentage by volume : Millilitres of solute per
100 mL of solution is called percentage by volume.
For example, if 25 mL ethyl alcohol is diluted with
water to make 100 mL solution then the solution thus
obtained is 25% ethyl alcohol by volume.
(E) Mass by volume percentage :Grams of solute
present per 100 mL of solution is called percentage
mass by volume.
For example, let 25 g glucose is dissolved in water to
make 100 mL solution then the solution is 25% mass
by volume glucose.
(d) Classification of reactions involved in
volumetric analysis
(A) Neutralisation reactions
The reaction in which acids and bases react to form
salt called neutralisation.
e.g., HCI + NaOH NaCI + H2O
H+(acid) + OH(base) H2O (feebly ionised)
The titration based on neutralisation is called
acidimetry or alkalimetry.

PAGE # 53

(B) Oxidation-reduction reactions


The reactions involving simultaneous loss and gain
of electrons among the reacting species are called
oxidation reduction or redox reactions, e.g., let us
consider oxidation of ferrous sulphate (Fe2+ ion) by
potassium permanganate (MnO 4 ion) in acidic
medium.
MnO4 + 8H+ + 5e Mn2+ + 4H2O
(Gain of electrons or reduction)
5 [Fe2+ Fe3+ + e]
(Loss of electrons or oxidation)
______________________________________________________________
MnO4 + 5Fe2+ + 8H+ Mn2+ + 5Fe3+ + 4H2O
________________________________________________________________
In the above reaction, MnO4 acts as oxidising agent
and Fe2+ acts as reducing agent.
The titrations involving redox reactions are called redox
titrations. These titrations are also called according
to the reagent used in the titration, e.g., iodometric,
cerimetric, permanganometric and dichromometric
titrations
(C) Precipitation reactions :
A chemical reaction in which cations and anions
combine to form a compound of very low solubility (in
the form of residue or precipitate), is called
precipitation.
BaCl2 + Na2SO4 BaSO4 + 2NaCl
(white precipitate)
The titrations involving precipitation reactions are
called precipitation titrations.
(D) Complex formation reactions :
These are ion combination reactions in which a
soluble slightly dissociated complex ion or
compound is formed.
Complex compounds retain their identity in the
solution and have the properties of the constituent
ions and molecules.
e.g. CuSO4 + 4NH3 [Cu(NH3)4]SO4
(complex compound)
AgNO3 + 2KCN K[Ag(CN)2] + KNO3
(complex compound)
2CuSO4 + K4[Fe(CN)6] Cu2[Fe(CN)6] + 2K2SO4
(complex compound)
The titrations involving complex formation reactions
are called complexometric titrations.

The determination of concentration of bases by


titration with a standard acid is called acidimetry and
the determination of concentration of acid by titration
with a standard base is called alkalimetry.
The substances which give different colours with
acids and base are called acid base indicators. These
indicators are used in the visual detection of the
equivalence point in acid-base titrations.

The acid-base indicators are also called pH


indicators because their colour change according to
the pH of the solution.
In the selection of indicator for a titration, following
two informations are taken into consideration :
(i) pH range of indicator
(ii) pH change near the equivalence point in the
titration.
The indicator whose pH range is included in the pH
change of the solution near the equivalence point, is
taken as suitable indicator for the titration.
(i) Strong acid-strong base titration : In the titration
of HCl with NaOH, the equivalence point lies in the
pH change of 410. Thus, methyl orange, methyl red
and phenolphthalein will be suitable indicators.
(ii) Weak acid-strong base titration : In the titration
of CH3COOH with NaOH the equivalence point lies
between 7.5 and 10. Hence, phenolphthalein (8.3
10) will be the suitable indicator.
(iii) Weak base-strong acid titration : In the titration
of NH4OH (weak base) against HCl (strong acid) the
pH at equivalence point is about 6.5 and 4. Thus,
methyl orange (3.14.4) or methyl red (4.26.3) will
be suitable indicators.
(iv) Weak acid-weak base titration : In the titration of
a weak acid (CH3COOH) with weak base (NH4OH)
the pH at the equivalence point is about 7, i.e., lies
between 6.5 and 7.5 but no sharp change in pH is
observed in these titrations. Thus, no simple indicator can be employed for the detection of the equivalence point.
(v) Titration of a salt of a weak acid and a strong
base with strong acid:
H2CO3
+ 2NaOH Na2CO3 + 2H2O
Weak acid Strong base
Na 2CO3 when titrated with HCl, the following two
stages are involved :
Na2CO3 + HCl NaHCO3 + NaCl (First stage)
pH = 8.3, near equivalence point
NaHCO3 + HCl NaCl + H2CO3 (Second stage)
pH = 4, near equivalence point
For first stage, phenolphthalein and for second stage,
methyl orange will be the suitable indicator.

In this titration the following indicators are mainly used :


(i) Phenolphthalein (weak organic acid) : It shows
colour change in the pH range (8 10)
(ii) Methyl orange (weak organic base) : It shows
colour change in the pH range (3.1 4.4). Due to
lower pH range, it indicates complete neutralisation
of whole of the base.
PAGE # 54

Let for complete neutralisation of Na2CO3, NaHCO3 and NaOH, x,y and z mL of standard HCl are required. The
titration of the mixture may be carried by two methods as summarised below :

Volume of HCl
used with

Volume of HCl used

Mixture

Phenlphthalein
from
beginning

Methyl orange
from
beginning

Phenolphthalein
from
beginning

Methyl orange
after first end
point

1. NaOH
+ Na2CO3

z + (x/2)

(x + z)

z + x/2

x/2 (for remaining 50%


Na2CO3)

2. NaOH
+ NaHCO3

z+0

(z + y)

z+0

y (for remaining 100%


NaHCO3

3. Na2CO3
+ NaHCO3

(x/2) + 0

(x + y)

(x/2) + 0

x/2 + y (for remaining 50%


of Na2CO3 and 100%
NaHCO3 are indicated)

1. Ostwald's theory:
According to this theory
An indicator is a substance which is used to determine the end point in a titration. In acid-base titrations organic substances (weak acids or weak bases)
are generally used as indicators. They change their
colour within a certain pH range. The colour change
and the pH range of some common indicators are
tabulated below:
________________________________________
Indicator
pH range
Colour
change
________________________________________
Methyl orange
3.2 4.5
Red to orange
Methyl red
4.4 6.5
Red to yellow
Litmus
5.5 7.5
Red to blue
Phenol red
6.8 8.4
Yellow to red
Phenolphthalein
8.3 10.5 Colourless to pink
________________________________________
Theory of acid-base indicators : Two theories have
been proposed to explain the change of colour of
acid-base indicators with change in pH.

(a) The colour change is due to ionisation of the acidbase indicator. The unionised form has different
colour than the ionised form.
(b) The ionisation of the indicator is largely affected in
acids and bases as it is either a weak acid or a weak
base. In case, the indicator is a weak acid, its
ionisation is very much low in acids due to common
ions while it is fairly ionised in alkalies. Similarly if the
indicator is a weak base, its ionisation is large in
acids and low in alkalies due to common ions.
Considering two important indicators phenolphthalein (a weak acid) and methyl orange (a weak base),
Ostwald's theory can be illustrated as follows:
Phenolphthalein: It can be represented as HPh. It
ionises in solution to a small extent as:
H+ + Ph

HPh
Colourless

Pink

Applying law of mass action,


K=

[H ][Ph ]
[HPh]
PAGE # 55

The undissociated molecules of phenolphthalein are


colourless while ph ions are pink in colour. In presence of an acid, the ionisation of HPh is practically
negligible as the equilibrium shifts to left hand side
due to high concentration of H+ ions. Thus, the solution would remain colourless. On addition of alkali,
hydrogen ions are removed by OH ions in the form of
water molecules and the equilibrium shifts to right
hand side. Thus, the concentration of ph ions increases in solution and they impart pink colour to the
solution.

SOLUBILITY
The solubility of a solute in a solution is always
expressed with respect to the saturated solution.
(a) Definition :
The maximum amount of the solute which can be
dissolved in 100g (0.1kg) of the solvent to form a
saturated solution at a given temperature.
Suppose w gram of a solute is dissolved in W gram
of a solvent to make a saturated solution at a fixed
temperature and pressure. The solubility of the solute
will be given by -

Let us derive Hendetson's equation for an indicator


HIn + H2O

H3+O + In

'Acid form'

'Base form'

[In ][H3 O]
[HIn]

The solubility of a substance in liquids generally


increases with rise in temperature but hardly changes
with the change in pressure. The effect of temperature
depends upon the heat energy changes which
accompany the process.

[HIn]
[In ]

pH = log10 [H3+O] = log10 [KIn] log10

[HIn]
[In ]

pH = pKIn + log10

[In ]
(Henderson's equation for
[HIn]

indicator)
At equivalence point ;
[In] = [HIn] and pH = pKIn

Orange

Me+ +OH

(ii) Effect of temperature on exothermic dissolution


process : Few salts like lithium carbonate, sodium
carbonate monohydrate, cerium sulphate etc.
dissolve in water with the evolution of heat. This
means that the process is of exothermic nature. In
these salts the solubility in water decreases with rise
in temperature.

Red

Applying law of mass action,


K=

[Me ][OH ]
[MeOH]

In presence of an acid, OH ions are removed in the


form of water molecules and the above equilibrium
shifts to right hand side. Thus, sufficient Me+ ions are
produced which impart red colour to the solution. On
addition of alkali, the concentration of OH ions increases in the solution and the equilibrium shifts to
left hand side, i.e., the ionisation of MeOH is practically negligible. Thus, the solution acquires the colour
of unionised methyl orange molecules, i.e. orange.
This theory also explains the reason why phenolphthalein is not a suitable indicator for titrating a weak

base against strong acid. The OH ions furnished by


a weak base are not sufficient to shift the equilibrium
towards right hand side considerably, i.e., pH is not
reached to 8.3. Thus, the solution does not attain
pink colour. Similarly, it can be explained why methyl
orange is not a suitable indicator for the titration of
weak acid with strong base.

Note :
If heat energy is needed or absorbed in the process,
it is of endothermic nature. If heat energy is evolved
or released in the process, it is of exothermic nature.
(i) Effect of temperature on endothermic dissolution
process : Most of the salts like sodium chloride,
potassium chloride, sodium nitrate, ammonium
chloride etc. dissolve in water with the absorption of
heat. In all these salts the solubility increases with
rise in temperature. This means that sodium chloride
becomes more soluble in water upon heating.

Methyl orange : It is a very weak base and can be


represented as MeOH. It is ionised in solution to give
Me+ and OH ions.
MeOH

100

(b) Effect of Temperature and Pressure on


Solubility of a Solids :

KIn = Ionization constant of indicator


[H3+O] = KIn

Mass of the solvent

For example, the solubility of potassium chloride in


water at 20C and 1 atm. is 34.7 g per 100g of water.
This means that under normal conditions 100 g of
water at 20C and 1 atm. cannot dissolve more than
34.7g of KCl.

Conjugate acid-base pair

KIn =

Mass of the solute

100 =

Note :
1. While expressing the solubility, the solution must
be saturated but for expressing concentration (mass
percent or volume percent), the solution need not to
be saturated in nature.
2. While expressing solubility, mass of solvent is
considered but for expressing concentration the
mass or volume of the solution may be taken into
consideration.
(c) Ef fect of Temperature on the Solubility
of a Gas
(i) The solubility of a gas in a liquid decreases with
the rise in temperature.
(ii) The solubility of gases in liquids increases on
increasing the pressure and decreases on decreasing the pressure.
PAGE # 56

SAMPLE PROBLEMS
Ex.49 12 grams of potassium sulphate dissolves in
75 grams of water at 60C. What is the solubility
of potassium sulphate in water at that temperature ?
Sol. Solubility =

mass of solute
100
mass of solvent
=

12
75

100 = 16 g

Thus, the solubility of potassium sulphate in


water is 16 g at 60C.
Ex.50 4 g of a solute are dissolved in 40 g of water to
form a saturated solution at 25C. Calculate the
solubility of the solute.
Mass of solute

Sol. Solubility =

Mass of solvent

100

Mass of solute = 4 g
Mass of solvent = 40 g
Solubility =

4
100 = 10 g
40

Ex.51 (a) What mass of potassium chloride would be


needed to form a saturated solution in 50 g of
water at 298 K ? Given that solubility of the salt is
46g per 100g at this temperature.
(b) What will happen if this solution is cooled ?
Sol. (a) Mass of potassium chloride in 100 g of water
in saturated solution = 46 g
Mass of potassium chloride in 50 g of water in
saturated solution.
=

46
(50g) = 23 g
100

(b) When the solution is cooled, the solubility of


salt in water will decrease. This means, that upon
cooling, it will start separating from the solution
in crystalline form.

PAGE # 57