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This experiment is divided into two parts. First one is

about sampling theory and the second part is about Analog to
Digital conversion
The sampling theorem shows that a continuous-time bandlimited signal may be represented perfectly by its sample at
uniform intervals. In other words, the continuous-time signal
may be reconstructed perfectly from its samples; sampling at a
high enough rate is information-lossless
There is a simple pulse modulation technique called Pulse
Amplitude Modulation (PAM) which is proved to be more power
efficient than the PWM and consumes constant power for
individual pulses.
In PAM the amplitude of the individual pulses are varied
according to the amplitude of the modulating signals. The PAM
modulator and demodulator circuits simple compared to other
kind of modulation and demodulation techniques. There are two
kinds of PAM one in which the pulses have the same polarity
and the other in which the pulses can have both positive and
negative polarity according to the amplitude of the modulating
A sample and hold circuit is an analog device that
samples the voltage of a continuously varying analog signal
and holds its value at a constant level for a specified
minimum period of time. Sample and hold circuits and related
peak detectors are the elementary analog memory devices.
Aliasing is an effect that causes different signals to
become indistinguishable (when sampled. It also refers to the
reconstructed from samples is different from the original
continuous signal. Aliasing has the effect of producing sounds
of lower frequency from sounds that are higher in frequency
than the Nyquist frequency. Once aliasing has occurred, it is
absolutely impossible to distinguish a component generated by
aliasing from one that was actually present in the input
signal. This effect is one of the most common sources of
distortion in digitized waveforms
Analog-to-digital conversion is an electronic process in
which a continuously variable signal is changed, without
altering its essential content, into a multi-level signal. The
input to an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) consists of a
voltage that varies among a theoretically infinite number of
values. The output of the ADC, in contrast, has defined levels
or states.
For conversion into digital the sampled signal is
quantized. In this process each sample is compared to a

standard scale of discrete values and is given a binary number

representing its approximate amplitude
A message signal may originate from a digital or analog
source. If the message signal is analog in nature, then it has
to be converted into digital form before it can transmitted by
digital means. The process by which the continuous-time signal
is converted into a discretetime signal is called Sampling.
Sample and hold circuits are used in linear systems. In
some kinds of analog-to-digital converters, the input is
compared to a voltage generated internally from a digital-toanalog converter (DAC). The circuit tries a series of values
and stops converting once the voltages are equal, within some
defined error margin.
aliasing occurs when a signal to be sampled contains
energy at frequencies above the sampling Nyquist frequency
The simplest digital signals have only two states, and
are called binary. All whole numbers can be represented in
binary form as strings of ones and zeros.