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Topic 5: On the Wild Side

Suggest reasons why 95% of the light hitting the surface of a leaf is not
used by the chloroplasts. (2)*Reflection; *incorrect wavelength/colour/
frequency; *light doesnt hit the chloroplast/ chlorophyll, it is transmitted; *light
being in excess e.g. at max. photosynthesis so no more light can be used.

The light dependent reactions

The products of the light-dependent reactions that are used in
the light-independent reactions are reduced NADP and.... ATP
Oxygen is produced when water molecules are split in the process of
When light is absorbed by chlorophyll, it excites.electrons
Describe the structures in a chloroplast that are involved in the LD
reactions (3)
The LD reactions involve the *thylakoids that are
arranged into stacks of granum. *The grana are connected by lamellae. The
*thylakoid membrane contains electron carriers, proteins and *photosynthetic
pigments such as chlorophyll which are *arranged into
photosystems/quantasomes; the membrane also has *ATPase/ ATPase channels.
Explain how the energy from light is made available in ATP molecules
for the synthesis of organic materials. (6)
*The light dependent reactions occur in
the thylakoids *in the granum in *accessory pigments such as chlorophyll. The
process begins when *light energy raises the energy level of two electrons so
that they are excited, the electrons are then *released from the chlorophyll/
photosystem. They then travel down the *electron carrier chain, travelling to
each carrier molecule through a series of *oxidation and reduction (redox)
reactions, releasing energy/ *the electrons energy level falls. The energy
released is used to *synthesise ATP from ADP and an organic phosphate ion
*(phosphorylation); the *enzyme synthase/ synthetase is needed to make the
ATP. *Photolysis of water produces 2 electrons which are used to replace those
lost from the chlorophyll.
Explain how oxygen is produced during the light-dependent reactions of
photosynthesis. (2) Using *energy from light the *photolysis *of water occurs
that produces/releases oxygen

The light independent reactions/ The Calvin Cycle

RuBP combines with carbon dioxide in The light-independent reactions
of the Calvin cycle.
RUBISCO is the enzyme that catalyses carbon fixation.
Carbon fixation takes place in.. the stroma of a chloroplast.

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Explain why the light-independent stage cannot take place without the
light-dependent stage. (3) Because the *products of the light-dependent
stage are needed for/used in the light-independent stage/Calvin cycle. *Thee
products of the light-dependent stage are reduced NADP and ATP, *rNADP is used
in the reduction GP/carbon dioxide whilst *ATP is used as a source of energy.
Suggest why the development of plants depends on the rate of carbon
fixation. (3)
*Carbon fixation produces {GP / eq}, this *product is
converted to glucose/ starch/ eq. *The faster the C- Fixation the faster the
glucose/ starch production, as the *rate of growth of a plant is dependent on the
rate of C-Fixation, if this increases so will the *GPP of the crop/plant.
Suggest how GALP may be used to synthesise cellulose. (5)
*GALP is a 3C molecule that is used in the formation of
*glucose a 6C sugar. *This synthesis involves enzymes; to make cellulose
enzymes are also needed.
*Cellulose consists of -glucose molecules that are joined by *1-4 *glycosidic
bonds in *condensation reactions. *Cellulose is a polysaccharide (long chain
molecule) and is an *unbranched molecule; each cellulose chain is then joined
together in condensation reactions with 1-6 hydrogen bonds.
The rate of carbon fixation is higher at 25C than at 14C for each of the
six varieties of maize. Suggest an explanation for this. (2)
*Temperature change affects the kinetic energy/movement of molecules/particles
*therefore this effects number of collisions/enzyme-substrate complexes.

Global Warming:
Suggest one reason why some countries may decide to drain their
marshy peat lands for the production of biofuels. (1)
Producing Biofuels may increase the
*countrys income as they can *export more fuel and *import less fossil/biofuels;
the production of biofuels will also make *more jobs available to the general
public. *Biofuels are also renewable whereas *fossil fuels are finite. *Using
biofuels as an alternative to fossil fuels will help countries reach their carbon
targets. Using peat lands will also make sure that there is *no loss of farmland,
reducing ethical issues.
Suggest why the continued draining and clearance of peatlands may
contribute towards global warming even though they may be used to
produce biofuels. (5)
*The combustion of biofuels
releases carbon dioxide that has been recently removed from atmosphere
therefore *there is no (net) increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This is
a benefit as *carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas *that absorbs infra-red radiation
that has been reflected from the Earths surface, *it cannot escape into space,
therefore the *carbon dioxide will cause the mean surface temperature of the
Earth to increase. However, *clearing peat lands may release more carbon
dioxide as carbon was once trapped in peats thousands of years ago; this

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*causes a net gain of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The process of clearing
the peat lands will *involve machinery that releases carbon dioxide; the removal
of any peat plants will also *reduce photosynthesis and thus the amount of
carbon dioxide removed from the atmosphere
Suggest how scientists could use available data to predict future
climate change.(3)
Scientists could *extrapolate data *to use for
modelling/investigation of correlations to help* provide evidence for global
warming. *Using this data along with other sources will increase the predictions
Suggest why some scientists may not be convinced that data can be
used to predict future climate change. (3)
Because *there is not enough data to
*confirm its reliability (*may be place specific). The fact that there are *great
fluctuations in most climate change data suggest that there is no real trend (as
scattered) and thus *poor representation of raw data. *A scatter of results may
show poor reliability.
In addition the method of* estimating temperature from growth rings of trees is
questionable as *other environmental changes affecting the trees are not taken
into account.
Scientists have estimated that.. will reduce CO2 production.
Suggest why the may be supported by organisations that are
concerned about global warming. (5)
*The idea will result
in less carbon dioxide (or methane), *which are both greenhouse gases/ cause
the greenhouse effect *as they absorb/ trap heat/ infrared/ longer wavelengths
(of radiation) *reflected from the Earth. *A reduction in these gases (CO2) will
lead to a reduced greenhouse effect, *this means the Earths surface
temperature is less likely to rise and that there is a *reduced possibility of
climate change which can have effects such as the ice caps melting or crop
(If relevant) *methane has a greater greenhouse effect than carbon dioxide.
Suggest why some scientists do not agree that a reduction in the use of
fossil fuels will prevent further global warming. (6)
*It is clear that carbon dioxide is produced by
using fossil fuels, however there is *no (direct) evidence that increased carbon
dioxide concentrations leads to global warming. *Carbon dioxide is released from
other processes such as respiration and the *removal of carbon sinks increases
the concentration too, so reducing fossil fuels alone will not help. *Other
greenhouse gases also have a contribution, such as CFCs, water vapour and
methane that come from *other sources such as ruminant animals, paddy fields,
melting ice, clearance of peat land. *Natural cycles/events/ phenomena may also
be involved (in global warming) e.g. the suns solar cycle or volcanoes.

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*Evidence for this comes from the past and *this is not an indicator of future
events/ limitations of climatic models. *Scientists may also be biased in their
research depending on what country/ company employs them and their own selfinterest/promotion. *We do not yet have an alternative source of energy that has
no great problems associated with it (i.e. biofuels).
Explain how temperature has been maintained by the presence of
carbon dioxide and methane in the upper atmosphere. (3)
*Greenhouse gases such as carbon
dioxide and/or methane *absorb/trap heat/infrared/long wave radiation *which is
reflected/ (re)radiated from the Earths surface. *These gases prevent
heat/infrared/long wave radiation from escaping. *Thus resulting in temperatures
being maintained higher than they would otherwise be.
Suggest why temperatures below 0 C or above 40 C would be
unsuitable for most organisms. (2) *At 0C metabolism/ named example
stops/ is slow as *enzymes are inactive and cells are disrupted, this may be
*because of water freezing or lower kinetic energy of molecules in cells. *Above
40C enzymes denature/ change their 3D shape, this means that *fewer enzymesubstrate complexes are possible/ the active site has changed/ theres a change
in bonding.
Suggest how global warming may affect the distribution of species (3)
*Global warming will increase the temperature
(especially at the latitudes) *so that the temperature may become too high for
any of the current species. *This new temperature may be above the maximum
to be able to complete development/ above the lethal temperature limit.
*Species may also move north/ to cooler regions or they may have a *change to
their food source/predators/ competition.
Suggest why the lower and upper lethal temperatures limit the range of
latitudes inhabited by (different species of frog). (2)
*Temperature affects the survival/development/growth/metabolism/cell division
of animals and *the development/growth/metabolism/cell division is affected by
enzymes which are *affected by temperature. *And so as different frogs have
different enzymes the will be able to survive in different latitudes.
Explain why body temperature affects the rate of development of
animals. (3)
Because there is an *increase in the metabolic rate/enzyme activity as
temperature rises due to *molecules having an increase in kinetic energy as the
temperature rises; this means that there will be an *increase in the amount of
enzyme-substrate complexes/collisions. *At lower temperatures there is
inactivation of enzymes but at high temperatures there is denaturation of
enzymes. *Thus temperature affects cell differentiation/growth/division.

The carbon cycle

Describe the role of microorganisms in the recycling of carbon in the
carbon cycle. (3) Microorganisms would *help in the decomposition/
putrefaction/ decay of dead organisms/ faeces *by eating the organic material

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through the process of external digestion and then *respiration. *Respiration
releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere *for photosynthesis. *They also will
release methane in anaerobic conditions *which is then available as a fuel. *The
microorganisms themselves will also, one day, be eaten or decompose.

The difference between abiotic and biotic factors is that..biotic factors
involve organisms/living things whereas abiotic are physical/chemical/non-living
A species consists of.. individuals who can interbreed to produce fertile
Net primary productivity is..*the rate at which energy is incorporated into
biomass/ organic material in *producers/ plants, *as there may be losses due to
respiration (GPP- R).
The metabolic process that best describes the process that accounts for
most of the difference between GPP and NPP in plants is.. Respiration
Suggest two biotic factors that may influence NPP in grassland. (2)
*Grazing by consumers/herbivores/named herbivore;
*trampling; *shading by other plants/named plant; *competition from other
plants; *disease.
Suggest how other animal populations of a habitat may be affected by
changes in a lizard population. (2)
*Their prey may increase in number as *fewer are
eaten by the lizard. *Other carnivores may increase *because there is less
competition for food (from lizards), however the *lizards predator may
decrease/eat other prey/migrate.
Suggest why an increase in temperature may cause an increase in NPP.
*The rate of (bio)chemical/metabolic/photosynthetic
reactions increases due to an *increase in movement/kinetic energy of
enzyme/substrate/molecules; *thus increasing the reaction rate because of more
enzyme substrate interaction/ collisions.
What is the unit J m2 year1? Joules/ energy per metre squared per year/
unit time.
Explain what is meant by the term niche, using the sea anemone as an
example. (3)
*The role/ purpose/ interaction of *an organism/ sea
anemone/ species in a community; due to its *trophic level, i.e. if it is a *predator
or *prey or provides a *shelter/ home for some animals.
Suggest and explain why the anemones contract when exposed at low
tide. (3)
Contracting *reduces surface area (to volume) ratio, so
there is *less water loss and a smaller chance of dehydration/ drying out. This
will also *reduce its visibility (to predators) *and so provides protection from

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predators/carnivores. As there is no *need for the tentacles to be exposed
*energy will be conserved and not be wasted.
Suggest adaptations for bacteria living in a cows stomach. (3)
The cows stomach has a *low pH/ (hydrochloric) acid which
normally *destroys bacteria. The stomach may also have *low/no oxygen and *so
they will have to use anaerobic respiration. They will also have to be *resistant to
the stomachs enzymes, i.e. Protease, perhaps *by having a cell wall thats
resistant to digestion. *They will also need to be adapted to the cows body

Succession is.. The sequence of changes to a community/organism over a
period of time.
A climax community is..the final stage/sere/community of succession, it is
stable and has a dominant species
or a few co-dominant species.
Reproductively-isolated populations are..where *no (inter)breeding
between (the population) can take place *because of a (geographical/ physical)
barrier. Physical barriers include the populations having *different mating
behaviour, *incompatible genitalia and *each population having a discrete gene
pool, e.g. restricted gene flow, different mutation/alleles.
Describe what might happen if deflected succession stops (i.e. forest
clearing). (3)
*Taller (growing) plants could develop/ grow in the clear areas as they are no
longer eaten, but there will be *the loss of low-growing plants/ clear zones.
*Different animals/ species will appear as *secondary succession takes place
where a *climax community of the taller plants is reached.
Suggest why/ how a community changes over time. (5)
*Lichens and mosses enter as the pioneer community; *they are able to grow in
little/no soil and *will break up (rock) fragments, with their roots, to form
thin/shallow soil *which is able to retain some water/minerals. *Then short-rooted
plants enter, they out compete the pioneer plant, *these are able to grow in
shallow soil and in turn *will change the soil structure to enable trees/ shrubs to
grow, *these may also out-compete the other species by interspecific
competition for (a)biotic resources. *As the plants continue to lose leaves and
die/decay they will *increase the amount of organic matter/humus.
Why is a climax community stable? (4)
*A climax community is where (both) animals and plants are present/has many
species/has high biodiversity; *there will be interaction between these species
but they *will have reached a balanced equilibrium of species. *There may be a
(co)dominant plant or animal species present.
*This is stable as long as theres no change to the environment/human influence.

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Speciation and evolution

A gene mutation is.a change in DNA due to the
change/deletion/addition/duplication/substitution bases/nucleotides.
Genetic diversity in a species is..the variety of alleles in a gene pool
A gene pool is The total of all the alleles in a population.
Allele Frequency is. The proportion of one allele within a gene
Explain why there is likely to be a greater genetic diversity in a hybrid
plant than in two separate species. (2)
Because there are *different alleles in each of the
two populations as *each population/ species is adapted to living in different
environmental conditions. *This means that there will be different mutations in
each population. *In a hybrid the alleles of the two different species will mix and
hybrids will receive alleles from both species.
Suggest why scientists may classify organisms into sub-species rather
than two separate species. (2)
*If the organisms were allowed to interbreed
and could *produce fertile and viable offspring they could be considered as subspecies. *The hybrids/offspring can flower and produce viable seeds.
Suggest how the two sub-species develop from a single ancestral
population, use boar. (5)
First a *few ancestral boar reach the island/
habitat from their original environment, there are now two populations that have
*geographical separation perhaps by the sea or volcanic eruptions. *These
populations are unable to interbreed (reproductive isolation) and so the *gene
flow between the populations is restricted/ prevented. *There are only a small
number of boar, on the island (founder effect), for breeding resulting in a *limited
variety of alleles. *Mutations may then occur (*increasing diversity) that are
*acted on by different environmental conditions/ selection pressures that are
unique to the island (not found on mainland) ie food, habitat; the boar will *adapt
to best suit these by natural selection, *those with the mutation are more likely
to survive and reproduce. These mutations will *change the gene pool as they
arise and possibly become more common, so the two are now different,
*changing the allele frequency. *These changes will lead to phenotypic/
physiological/physical/ behavioural changes; as a result* allopatric speciation
may occur (can no longer interbreed)
Explain how the two different species of flower on an island may have
evolved from a single population of an ancestral species. (6)
*The original population was increasing in size and spreading into a wider
diversity of habitats where they were then *reproductively isolated, *i.e.diversity
in flowering times, causing a *restriction of gene flow *between extremes of the
population. Each habitat would have different environmental factors and so
different selection pressures. *Mutations may then have arisen (*causing a
change in the allele frequency) and *other plant features so that the *plants
adapted to a specific region, advantageous features/mutations would allow the

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plants to *survive and reproduce, passing on new genes and creating
*differences between gene pools.
Suggest how ecological isolation contributes to speciation. (2)
*There may be different conditions /environments in each region, i.e. a
temperature difference, so *there will be different selection pressures. The
geographical isolation will mean that the two populations are *reproductively
isolated from one another *causing a restricted gene flow/ separation of gene
Suggest how genetic mutation may lead to speciation (2)
*This will give arise to different alleles/ gene pool, leading to *new/different
phenotypes. This new *allele/gene may be advantageous, and so will be passed
onto offspring; it could also be *disadvantageous.
Suggest why interbreeding does not take place between different
populations of species. (3) These different species are reproductively
isolated, meaning that they may have different *breeding times/ seasons,
*courtship behaviour/rituals/displays/colour/songs. *Any offspring produced
between the species may be infertile or not viable.
Suggest how a distinct species evolves from another species. (5)
*Geographical isolation, e.g. a physical barrier between the
population occurs/allopatric speciation, this means there is *reproductive
isolation between the populations, *there is a restriction of gene flow between
but not within the populations. *This creates two habitats that will contain
different selection pressures *e.g. different food sources, or different habitats.
*Mutations will have occurred, if they were advantageous they would have
*helped the species to adapt to the conditions, *these alleles/genes would have
been passed onto the offspring. This would have caused *a change in the gene
pool e.g. increasing frequency of (mutation) alleles.
Suggest how the allele frequency for a plant eating mutation could
change as a forest develops. (4)
*There will be a change in frequency of
either allele e.g. mutant increases/normal decreases *due to the reproductive
success of the mutant/non-photosynthetic individuals. *As the trees develop the
pond will be more shaded this *(less light means) means less photosynthesis
possible. *The photosynthetic individuals die/nonphotosynthetic individuals
survive and *pass on the mutation/allele for using organic compounds, *thus
allowing more organic nutrients in pond.

AS related exam questions

Plant fibres that may be present in eaten material are: sclerenchyma
fibres, xylem vessels and cellulose fibre.
What plant tissue that would be the main source of the lignin in a
plant? Sclerenchyma/xylem.

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What material would be synthesised to form the cell wall of seedlings?
What tissue would form the vessels in a root, following differentiation?
hydrogen and glycosidic bonds are what would need to be broken to digest
Describe the chemical nature of cellulose. (3)
Cellulose is a *polysaccharide with an *unbranched/ straight chain.
The cellulose is made up of *B glucose joined by *1-4 glycosidic bonds between
the glucose molecules. Between each chain there are *intermolecular hydrogen
bonds to hold the structure together.
Suggest two advantages of growing crops of wheat in glasshouses with
artificial lighting rather than growing them in open fields. (2)
Because *crops can be grown out of
season/all year round; *plants photosynthesise 24 hours a day; *the crops will
receive less physical damage from weather/animals *as pest control is easier.
*You can also control other factors such as CO2, temperature, humidity and
water supply

Cell division
What is the correct sequence of stages in mitosis? Prophase, Metaphase,
Anaphase, Telophase
Transcription takes place in the nucleus

DNA and stuff

Triplet of bases that could not be found in mRNA is.Adenine
Thymine Guanine (etc)
The sequence of triplets on a section of DNA used to form a strand of
pre-mRNA is a. cistron
Explain why a molecule of DNA can be described as a double-stranded
polynucleotide. (3)
*It is double-stranded because it is made of two
strands *joined together by hydrogen bonds between (the nucleotides) bases. *It
is a polynucleotide as it is made of many nucleotides * linked together by
phosphodiester bonds.
Describe how the sequence of bases in a DNA molecule would be used
to form the primary structure of a protein. (5)
Polymer formed
from a single

DNA only

mRNA only

Both DNA and


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strand of
Pentose present in

Adenine, cytosine,
guanine and
thymine present
Nucleotides linked

*A sequence of bases that form the genetic code determines the amino acid
sequence, *one triplet of bases codes for an amino acid. *The DNA acts as a
template when *transcription occurs (i.e. DNA unzips, mRNA synthesised); *the
mRNA synthesised then moves from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where
*translation occurs (expand with ribosomes, codon-anticodon interaction). *tRNA
will carry an amino acid and *peptide bonds form between the amino acids on
different tRNA molecules; this I is the *sequence/ order of amino acids is the
primary structure of a protein.
How does mRNA form during transcription in the nucleus? (3)
First the *DNA strands unzip, *one side of the DNA strand
is the template strand that is used to from a mRNA strand *from free nucleotides.
The nucleotides join by *complementary base pairing, *joined together by
hydrogen bonds. *RNA- polymerase/ DNA Helicase are the enzymes involved in
these reactions.
Describe how free nucleotides are bonded together in the correct
sequence in pre-mRNA. (3) *The sequence of bases / nucleotides on DNA
determines sequence on (pre-)mRNA as the nucleotides can only with their
*complementary base pair e.g. AU / CG / GC / TA. *The bonds between the
nucleotides form in condensation reactions and produce *phosphodiester bonds.
*RNA-Polymerase is the enzyme that catalyses this reaction.
Explain the function of the codons at each end of a strand of mRNA,
during the process of translation. (2)
*The codons are either Start/ Stop codons;
*start codons are needed to begin polypeptide synthesis and the Stop /Nonsense
codon is needed to end polypeptide synthesis.
Suggest why the final triplet of nucleotides, on the strand of mRNA
involved in the synthesis of this sequence of amino acids, did not
correspond with any anticodon on tRNA. (2)
As it is the *stop
codon that is *used to end the sequencing/ further attachment of tRNA;
*signalling the release of the polypeptide/ ribosome.
Suggest why a variety of different protein structures could be formed
from the polypeptides synthesised using the mRNA molecules from a

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single gene. (3)
Different protein structures could be
formed as there are *variations of exons/ mRNA; this means that each mRNA
strand will have a *different primary structure due to a different sequence of
amino acids. *The secondary and tertiary structure of proteins will depend on the
primary structure/ sequence *due to different bonds *such as Hydrogen/ Ionic/
Disulphide bonds. Each protein will be developed into *different 3D shapes as a
How does the translation of mRNA into the sequence of amino acids in a
ribosome occur? (3)
First *a specific amino acid becomes attached to tRNA
*by the amino acid codon binding to the tRNAs anticodon *e.g. tRNA with
alanine has CGA anticodon which binds to GCU on mRNA; only two tRNA
molecules can be held on a ribosome at any one time. The tRNA and the amino
acid bond by the formation of *peptide bonds using the enzyme *peptidyl
transferase. *Only two tRNA and amino acids can be held in a ribosome at any
one time.
Name and describe the structures where the polypeptide chain of an
enzyme would be synthesised. (2)
*On the ribosomes/poly(ribo)some *which is made of
rRNA/ribosomal RNA. OR *on the rRNA which is *a ribosome attached to a
State two differences between fibrous proteins, such as actin and
myosin, and globular proteins, such as enzymes.
*Fibrous long/linear/straight chains and *Globular compact/spherical; *Globular
are folded and fibrous are not; *Globular are soluble and fibrous are not; Fibrous
are involved in structural functions (keratine) and globular are not; *Globular are
involved in catalysis/metabolism (enzymes) and fibrous are not.

Explain how the work of zoos could be important to the survival of
endangered species. (2)
Zoos may run *captive-breeding programmes
*which conserve alleles/genes/ the gene pool of a species and may run
*reintroduction programmes/ re-introduce species into suitable habitats in the
Suggest why it is important to conserve rare and endangered plants. (2
*This will conserve genetic diversity/genetic
variation/biodiversity. It may also *prevent extinction. Conserving the plants may
be good as they may be *useful as medicines/eq or they may be *depended on
by animals for food or as a habitat, there may also be aesthetic reasons.

Suggest why many scientists consider that the use of protected

reserves is likely to be more successful for the conservation of some
animals than captive breeding programmes in zoos. (3) Reserves will
cause*less stress/trauma/discomfort/depressed for the animals as *reserves
provide a larger area for animals that require this. Animals are *more likely to

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breed in their natural environment and *larger numbers available will result in a
wider gene pool. *There are problems associated with releasing animals back
into the wild and these are avoided with reserves (I.e. habituation). *Disease is
less likely to wipe out the whole population. *reserves allow natural interspecific
relationships/communities to exist and *natural family/social
structure/behaviour,* i.e. because their natural diet/food is available.

Using a line of quadrats to investigate the distribution of organisms is
a transect
Quadrats may be divided up into smaller sections to... make it easier to
estimate/measure /count the organisms & so the results are more precise
Explain the meaning of All other abiotic factors were controlled.(2)
*Abiotic factors are non-living/non-biological/do not involve
organisms.* If all other factors are controlled they are kept constant/the same.
Explain how a quadrat would be used to obtain the mean density of the
two species in different areas. (3)
*You will need to take several/more than 2
using *random quadrat positions, *these can be generated by a random number
generator on your calculator (or other suitable method).
*You would then count the number of individuals in each quadrat and then
*calculate the mean density of the species using the total number of each
species divided by the total area sampled (*you need to know the area of the
quadrat to do this).
Suggest how results could be displayed in order to compare the effect
of temperature on the growth of seedlings of two species. (3)
You could use a *graph such as a *line
graph with the *X&Y axes correctly drawn (i.e. temp at bottom/Y and growth
rate/time at X). *You would use the same scale for the axes of both plants and
would *plot each temperature/ species of plant separately.
Suggest why seeds may be germinated at 18 C before being placed in
the experimental conditions. (2)
*This was done to control variables. *18C may be
the optimum/ suitable temperature for germination. * This technique makes sure
that all the seeds are viable OR can germinate *and so increasing the validity of
the investigation.
Suggest why taking photographs is a suitable method to count
invertebrates. (2)
*As they move about a lot *they are difficult to
count *some might be counted more than once/missed out.
Why would it be difficult to determine which abiotic factor is influencing
the behaviour and distribution of a species? (3)
*Because for results to be (scientifically) valid

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*only one factor can be varied, *other factors need to be kept constant. *There
will be many biotic factors in a habitat and these are difficult to control. *It will be
difficult to set test factor values as a result.
Suggest how the scientists can have their results accepted by other
scientists. (2)
*Work needs to appear in a (Scientific) journal or
being presented at a conference.*Peer review of work by other scientists to
*consider the studys validity or reliability.
The temperatures used in this investigation were 0C, 10C, 20C, 30C,
40C and 50C.
Suggest what the results of the investigation show about the minimum
temperature required for photosynthesis in Elodea. Give a reason for
your answer. (2)
*The minimum temperature is between 0oC and 10oC /above 0oC but less than
10oC, *no photosynthesis occurs at 0oC as *water freezes at 0oC.
*We know that the minimum temperature is somewhere between 0 oC and 10 oC
but there are no measurements between these temperatures.
Enzymes control the rate of photosynthesis in
Discuss how far the results of this
investigation support her conclusion. (4)
Her conclusion is supported to some extent as *the shape
of graph is typical of an enzyme-temperature graph, i.e.
*the rate increases (up to 30 oC) *because more enzymesubstrate complexes/collisions between enzymes and
substrates and *the rate decreases (after 30oC) due to
enzyme denaturation. However it isnt supported as *other
factors could be affecting photosynthesis (e.g. CO2
Concentration). *The gas/oxygen/carbon dioxide solubility also changes with
temperature. *The graph shows evidence of correlation and not causation.
Describe and suggest explanations for the effects of these two abiotic
factors on the distribution of (A. elegantissima)
on this shore. (3)
*There is no indication that temperature has an effect
e.g. little variation, only 2oC so *distribution must be
influenced by height above the low water mark *as the
organism is more likely to dry out at higher levels.
There would also be *a difference in food availability
e.g. less at higher levels, more at lower levels as it is
*more likely to be eaten at lower levels.
Suggest how this data could be analysed to
assess the relationship
between these two abiotic factors and the
distribution of (A. elegantissima on this shore).
You could *plot graph(s) of numbers of anemones against height and
temperature/abiotic factors and then look for a *correlation.
You could also *use a statistical analysis/test *such as the Spearmans Rank
Correlation Coefficient.


Topic 5: On the Wild Side

1. group A = 720 and group B = 662/662.4 2. units correct = {dm3 day-1 /

dm3 per day};
Suggest two reasons why a suspension of cells of a unicellular alga, in a
solution, is more suitable for investigating CO2 production in
photosynthesis than using leaves. (2)
Because *samples of cells can be taken easily and there will be *no damage to
plant/leaf /other cells during sampling; *The carbon dioxide level (in water) can
be adjusted/maintained/changed easily; *As alga is single celled RuBP/GP/
products cannot pass into other cells/rest of plant, the alga will also on have *one
kind of cell and thats the one that photosynthesises; You can *control the
mass/number/surface area of cells to ensure that isnt another influencing factor;
*genetically-similar cells will also be used which will reduce variation and so
other factors.
Suggest why it would be advisable to illuminate the cells at a high light
intensity during a photosynthesis and C02 experiment. (3)
*As light is needed for the light-dependent
reaction keeping it at a high intensity means *it will not be a limiting factor.
*Thus C02 concentration is the only limiting factor. *ATP/ rNADP are produced
during the light dependent reactions, *ATP/ rNADP/ light-dependent products are
required for the light-independent reactions/ Calvin cycle/ carbon-fixation.

Both *RuBP and GP levels remain constant until the carbon dioxide is lowered;
*these are used in the Calvin cycle. *At lower carbon dioxide levels the RuBP
increases and drops and then stays constant, it *rises at 250seconds because it
is being regenerated and it falls at 310seconds as being used to fixate carbon

Topic 5: On the Wild Side

dioxide into GP. *The RuBP level remains constant once a (new) equilibrium is
*At lower carbon dioxide levels the GP drops and then stays constant, *it drops at
250 seconds because less carbon dioxide is available to convert into GP/less
carbon fixation occurs. *It levels out at a lower level as carbon dioxide is still
available but at lower level. *credit manipulation of figures (i.e. GP
drops by 1au)
Compare the changes in mean environmental temperature
between the pre-monsoon and the post-monsoon periods
from 1600 to 2000. (3)
*There is no/little change in pre-monsoon temperature but postmonsoon has risen overall, although they *both fluctuate the
*fluctuations match each other; the fluctuations are within/less
than 1oC. *The range of (mean) temperatures is greater OR shows
greater fluctuations, in post-monsoon period. *Reference to a
particular change in both e.g. both decreased between 1800 to
1850. *Credit correct manipulation of figures to compare with
Calculate the overall percentage increase in the mean NPP from January
to May. (3)
*Correct readings from graph indicated e.g. (11 and
*Correct subtraction e.g. (11-1 / 10)
*Correct division (by 1) x 100/1 to give 1000%

Using information from the graphs, describe

and explain the relative effects of temperature and hours of sunlight on
NPP in this grassland. (4)
*Between January and April NPP increases as light increases, there is a
*correlation between NPP and light; thus an *increase in light increases the rate
of photosynthesis/ATP and so the energy available for Calvin Cycle, this is
because *(credit correct details of photosynthesis) e.g. light results in excitation
of electrons. *The changes in NPP occur after the changes in light/peak light is
April and peak NPP is in May.
But there is *no real correlation between temperature and NPP/reference to
temperature fluctuating despite *temperature affecting how quickly enzymes
work, for example *NPP falls from May but the temperature remains high. *Light
and temperature are limiting factors.
Use the data in the tables to suggest which of the two species is better
adapted for growth at a wide range of latitudes (distance from the
equator). Give reasons for your choice.(4)


Topic 5: On the Wild Side

*Sea plantain/Plantago maritima are better adapted. Because
*different latitudes have different mean temperatures and the *sea
plantain grows better in all three
Temperatures. Whereas *bog sedge/Kobresia simpliciuscula does not
grow very well at lower temperatures/10oC and 14oC. *Credit
appropriate comparative manipulated figures i.e. Sea Plantain has
73g more dry mass after 50days in 10oC.

Give reasons for your answers. (4)

*As the rate of growth is linked to the rate of photosynthesis.
*The top of the shore is shallower and where most wavelengths are
available/lower shore is deeper where only green (and blue) wavelengths are
available.*The red weeds reflect/do not absorb red light OR green weeds
reflect/do not absorb green light, thus the *green seaweed has its highest rates
in red/blue light and is at its lowest in green light but *would still grow well if all
light waves were available. *The red seaweed is at its highest rate of
photosynthesis in green light only and so *can only grow where only green light
*A. Because *in
Central Europe
never reach
25oC/data for
25oC is
irrelevant/14oC is
within the
range/close to the
temperature and
*the mean
temperature is 15.25/15.3oC. *A has the highest rates of CO2 fixation at 14oC
*therefore A will grow well in the temperature range of Central Europe.
*All others would have relatively low yield at 14oC.


Topic 5: On the Wild Side

Suggest why the students were not able to draw

valid conclusions about the effect of saturation
of the soil by water on the distribution of the
five plant species. (3)
*Because saturation was not measured/depth of water
does not give saturation data, there are *no data on
other factors/variables that *may be affecting
controlled/confounding *i.e.Temperature. *Only one set

Soft Rush

of data is taken.
Calculate the percentage of the mean GPP that remains as NPP within
plants on Earth.
The mean GPP for plants on Earth is 24.4 106 J m2 year1.
The plants use 3.7 106 J m2 year1 of this energy in metabolic processes
*24.43.7=20.7 *10024.4=4.09


*The rate of growth increases as temperature increases between 13oC and

22oC/up to 22oC, it then *decreases between 22oC and 25oC/above 22oC *e.g.
increases by 0.7a.u./4.5 times and decreases by 0.1a.u. This is because
*enzymes are involved in growth; *molecules move about more/have more
kinetic energy as the temperature increases *therefore enzyme and substrate
molecules collide more/rate of enzyme-substrate complexes formation increases
as temperature increases.
But after a fixed point there will be *denaturation of some enzymes/protein
molecules, *which decreases the rate of growth/reactions as fewer enzyme
molecules are available.

Topic 5: On the Wild Side

Suggest why it was important that this investigation was carried out at
a high light intensity. (3)
*So that each temperature has the same light intensity which *must be above
the threshold/compensation point *below which no net photosynthesis takes
place. This ensures that *light is not limiting factor/so temperature is the only
limiting factor.
*Photosynthesis produces material needed for growth.
Suggest two abiotic factors, other than light intensity, that would need
to be controlled in this (temperature) investigation.
*Wavelength/colour/frequency of light; *CO2 concentration; *pH of solution;
mineral concentration