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Vector Control Of A DFIG Based Wind Turbine

Vector Control Of A DFIG Based Wind Turbine

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YEAR

VOLUME

NUMBER

: 2009

:9

:2

(1057-1066)

VECTOR CONTROL

OF A DFIG BASED WIND TURBINE

1

1,2

Memorial university of Newfoundland

St. Johns, NL, Canada A1B3X5

1

Email: mda04@mun.ca

ABSTRACT

Variable speed wind turbines (WT) based on the Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) is

commercially offered and is frequently used in grid connected mode. The variable speed operation in

such wind turbines is achieved by means of a four-quadrant ac-dc-ac power converter among the

rotor winding and the grid while the stator is directly connected to the grid. Below rated wind speed,

tracking the maximum power/torque curve realized by speed/current control mode while pitch

control ensures the rated power for above rated wind speed. In this research, a maximum power

control strategy is incorporated with the DFIG whereby the produced power serves as the dynamic

active power reference for the DFIG. Stator flux oriented vector control is applied to decouple the

control of active and reactive power generated by the DFIG based WT. Details of the control strategy

and system simulation results in Simulink are presented in the paper to show the effectiveness of the

proposed control strategy.

Keywords: Variable speed wind turbine; Doubly fed induction generator; Pitch control; Vector

control; Maximum power control.

1. NOMENCLATURE

Vds ,Vqs

respectively

Vdr , Vqr

: d- and q- axis rotor voltages

respectively.

I ds , I qs

: d- and q- axis stator currents

respectively.

I dr , I qr

: d- and q- axis rotor currents

respectively.

ds , qs : d- and q- axis stator flux linkages

respectively.

Received Date: 05.02.2009

Accepted Date: 05.11.2009

dr , qr

respectively.

Rs , Rr

: Stator and rotor resistances

respectively.

Ls , Lr

: Stator and rotor inductances

respectively.

Lm

: Mutual inductance of stator and

rotor.

m , s , r : Mechanical, synchronous and rotor

speeds respectively.

Pm , Ps , Qs : Mechanical, stator active and rotor

reactive powers respectively.

1058

Vector Control Of A Dfig Based Wind Turbine

Tm , Te

: Mechanical and electrical torques

respectively.

2. INTRODUCTION

A Doubly-Fed Induction Generator can realize

the variable speed operation and thus maximize

the output power from the wind turbine [1]. The

rotor windings of the DFIG are fed to the grid

via a four-quadrant ac-dc-ac power converter.

This arrangement has several advantages

including rotor speed variation from sub

synchronous to super synchronous speed based

on the wind speed, independent control of active

and reactive power and reduced flicker.

DFIG

power (usually 25% of the generator rating),

which results in reduced cost of the converter

system. A typical grid connected WT based on

DFIG is presented in Fig. 1.

Two converters namely, Rotor side converter

(RSC) and Grid side converter (GSC) are an

integral part of such configuration. Scalar or

vector control of the DFIG allows optimum

performance of the system. The vector control

fact that below rated wind speed (BRWS), the

WT will trace the maximum power/torque curve

and above rated wind speed (ARWS), the output

power is limited to its rated power. To trace the

maximum power/torque curve, speed/current

control mode is favored, while pitch regulation

ensures the rated power for ARWS of the WT.

The scope of the present work is limited to the

development of a control strategy for operation

BRWS. The proposed maximum power

extraction control strategy for the DFIG based

grid connected wind turbine employs the

produced power as a dynamic active reference

power for the DFIG in BRWS mode. A fourth

order DFIG model is developed and stator flux

orientation vector control scheme is adopted to

decouple the control of active and reactive

power production by the DFIG. The q- axis

component of the rotor current is controlled to

achieve the control of active power production

by the DFIG while d- axis component of the

rotor current is controlled to achieve the control

of reactive power production. The control of the

grid side converter is not of primary concern for

this study as the focus of the work is the

tracking of the maximum power of the wind

turbine and the control of the active and reactive

power produced by the stator of the DFIG.

This paper is organized as follows. The second

section gives a short overview of the DFIG

based WT. In the third section, the

characteristics of the wind turbine are depicted.

The dynamic model of the DFIG and controller

analysis is presented in the fourth and fifth

sections respectively, and the sixth section

contains the simulation results. Finally, the

findings of the investigations are highlighted in

the conclusions.

3. WIND TURBINE

CHARACTERISTIC

response and accurate control is required [2].

Applying VCS allows decouple control of active

and reactive power produced by the DFIG. The

RSC can realize the decouple control of active

and reactive power by adopting the stator flux or

voltage control strategy while the GSC can

realize the control of the DC link and network

power factor by using the grid voltage oriented

vector control strategy.

function of Tip-Speed Ratio (TSR) , where, is

given in terms of rotor speed, m (rad/s), wind

speed, V (m/s), and rotor radius, R (m) as

Rm

=

(1)

V

control strategies have been proposed in the

upon . If pitch angle, is incorporated, Cp

J.E. QUAICOE

1059

Vector Control Of A Dfig Based Wind Turbine

becomes

function

of

and ,

i.e.

Pmax = k pV 3 = kopt m 3

21

116

0.4 5 e i

C p ( , ) = 0.5176

i

+0.0068

here,

(2)

1

0.035

3

+ 0.08 + 1

The

increases, Cp decreases, thus reducing the

power produced by the WT.

The mechanical output power of the wind

turbine can be expressed as

Pm = 0.5 AC p ( , ) V 3 = K1 (m )

(3)

rotor rotational area, i.e., R2.

The corresponding torque produced by the wind

turbine is given by (4) which simplifies to (5)

Tm =

Pm

(4)

Tm = K1 (m )

where,

(5)

K1 = 0.5 AC p ( , )

variation in wind speed is presented in Fig 2.

3OPT

speed may be derived by using (1) and (4) to

(6)

angle () is usually held to an optimum value

(typically less then 100 [4]) for BRWS and a

rate limiter is often used to limit the rate of

change of the pitch angle. Present concern of

this paper assumes the pitch

of rotational speed of the turbine

In order to investigate the actual behavior of the

DFIG, dynamic equation needs to be considered

for more realistic observation. From the point of

view of the control of the machine, the dq

representation of an induction machine leads to

control flexibility. The dynamic behavior of the

DFIG in synchronous reference frame can be

represented by the Park equations provided all

the rotor quantities are referred to the stator

side. The stator and rotor voltages are expressed

as follows:

Vds

V

qs

V

dr

V

qr

d ds

s qs

dt

d qs

= Rs iqs +

+ s ds

dt

d

= Rr idr + dr (s r )qr

dt

d qr

= Rr iqr +

+ (s r ) dr

dt

= Rs ids +

(7)

rotor can be related to their currents and are

expressed as follows:

J.E. QUAICOE

1060

Vector Control Of A Dfig Based Wind Turbine

ds

qs

dr

qr

= Lrr iqr + Lm iqs

(8)

The electromagnetic torque developed by the

DFIG is related to the torque supplied by the

turbine and can be expressed as

d m

Te = 1.5 p ( ds iqs qs ids ) = 2 H

+ Bm + Tm

dt

(9)

where, Tm is positive for motoring operation

and negative for generator operation. Equations

(7) to (9) are the set of differential equations

which represent a fourth order model for

describing the dynamic behavior of DFIG.

5. VECTOR CONTROL

STRATEGY

In order to achieve a decouple control of active

and reactive power, stator flux oriented vector

control scheme is adopted. Based on the

previous research the following assumptions are

considered:

has been neglected as the effect of

stator resistance is quite low

compared to the grid voltage [5].

The DFIG is connected to a stiff

grid, i.e., the frequency and

voltage is assumed constant [7].

Magnetizing current of the stator is

assumed to be determined by the

grid [7].

The q-axis is 900 ahead of the d-axis

and rotating at synchronous speed in

the direction of rotation [8].

The stator flux vector is aligned with

the d-axis of the stator [8].

Vds = 0

ds = s

(10)

and

=

V

V

qs

s

qs = 0

Neglecting the stator resistance, i.e., Rs = 0 (7)

becomes

dds

Vds = 0 = dt sqs

dqs

Vqs = s ds = Vs = dt + s ds

(11)

V = R i + d dr ( )

r dr

s

r

qr

dr

dt

V = R i + qr + ( )

qr

r qr

s

r

dr

dt

s = Lss ids + Lm idr

J.E. QUAICOE

(12)

1061

Vector Control Of A Dfig Based Wind Turbine

The rotor voltages are then obtained as

Md. ARIFUJJAMAN M.T. IQBAL

J.E. QUAICOE

1062

Vector Control Of A Dfig Based Wind Turbine

Vdr

Vqr

(13)

Lm 2

LmVs

+ (s r ) Lrr

idr +

Lss

s Lss

L 2 di

= Rr idr + Lrr m dr

Lss dt

L 2

(s r ) Lrr m iqr

Lss

L diqr

= Rr iqr + Lrr m

Lss dt

stator, the rotor fluxes and voltages can be

written in terms of the rotor current as [9]

Lm

Ps = L Vs * iqr

ss

2

V

V

L

Q = s s m * i

dr

s s Lss

Lss

(14)

component, iqr can be used to regulate the active

power generated by the stator of DFIG while, idr

can be used to control the reactive power

produced by the stator. Essentially, control of

the active and reactive power is decoupled and a

decoupler is not necessary. A block diagram of

the control system is presented in Fig. 4.

5. SIMULATION RESULTS

The system described above is simulated using

Matlab-SimulinkTM blocks and the simulink

model is presented in Fig 5. The stator of the

DFIG is connected to a 690 V rms, 60 Hz

network. The DFIG is rated at 2MW and the

1.2

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.5

1.5

2

Time (sec)

2.5

J.E. QUAICOE

3.5

1063

Vector Control Of A Dfig Based Wind Turbine

4

q-axis rotor current component

d-axis rotor current component

3.5

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

0.5

1.5

2

Time (sec)

2.5

3.5

6

Stator active power

Stator reactive power

2

Power (pu)

Current (pu)

-2

-4

-6

-8

0

0.5

1.5

2

Time (sec)

2.5

3.5

J.E. QUAICOE

1064

Vector Control Of A Dfig Based Wind Turbine

dc-ac (GSC) converters. Built-in converters of

Simulink for the RSC and GSC are considered

for the simulation. The nominal DC link voltage

is set to 1200V and the DC capacitance is 16mF.

development of the system including grid side

converter control will be presented in a future

paper.

12.0 m/s is applied after a stable condition (2

seconds). Although such a step change is not

very realistic, the change can be considered as

the most drastic change from the point of the

control of the system. The simulation is started

from 2 seconds and within 3 seconds all the

quantities reach to their steady state values. The

speed of the wind turbine increases (from .82 pu

to 1.2 pu) due to the change in wind speed (Fig.

6) which ensures the maximum power

production as found in the reference wind

turbine modeling curve corresponding to this

two wind speeds(Fig. 3). The corresponding

power increase from 0.21 pu to 0.7 pu (Fig. 8)

while reactive power remains the same. The

power curve for both active and reactive power

contains ripple and is mainly due to the

controller parameters. An average value is

considered to describe the power quantity.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

production by the DFIG, the q-axis component

of the rotor current increases to 0.5 pu and

remains at that value afterwards while d-axis

component of the rotor current remain

unchanged (Fig. 7) thus show the effectiveness

of the proposed control strategy.

Lumped

constant

experienced during the simulation. Limiters and

memory elements have been placed in several

nodes to eliminate convergence problems.

However, this limits the range of effective

parameter variations. In particular, the controller

parameters tuning need more attention. In

further work, methods of removing such

limitations will be reported.

7. CONCLUSIONS

Discussion of the dynamic modeling and

associated control strategy of a DFIG based

wind turbine has been presented. The stator

flux oriented vector control scheme is

incorporated with the DFIG control to realize

the fast and accurate control. Active power

production by the DFIG is controlled through

the q-axis rotor current while reactive power

Md. ARIFUJJAMAN M.T. IQBAL

Science and Engineering Research Council

(NSERC) Canada for providing financial

support of this research

Appendix

OF THE SIMULATED

DFIG

Rated power

Stator voltage

2MW

690V

0.0108pu

Rs

Rr

0.0121pu

Lm

3.362pu

Lls

0.102pu

Llr

0.11pu

Inertia

REFERENCES

[1] Zhao, Y., Zou, X.D., Xu, Y.N., Kang, Y.,

Chen, J. Maximal Power Point Tracking

under Speed-Mode Control for Wind

Energy Generation System with Doubly

Fed Introduction Generator, Proceedings

of the IEEE International Power

Electronics and Motion Control Conference

2006, Shanghai; China, Vol: 1, pp.1 5,

2006

[2] Cardenas,

Roberto.,

Pena,

Ruben.,

Sensorless Vector Control of Induction

Machines for Variable-Speed Wind Energy

Applications, IEEE Transaction on Energy

Conversion, Vol: 19, No: 1, pp. 196 205,

2004.

[3] Li, H., Chen, Z., Pedersen J.K., Optimal

Power Control Strategy of Maximizing

Wind Energy Tracking and Conversion for

VSCF Doubly Fed Induction Generator

System, Proceedings of the IEEE

International

Power Electronics and

J.E. QUAICOE

1065

Vector Control Of A Dfig Based Wind Turbine

Motion

Control

Conference

2006,

Shanghai; China, Vol: 3, pp.1 6.2006

Funabashi, T., Fujita, H., Sekine, H.,

Output power leveling of wind turbine

Generator for all operating regions by pitch

angle control, IEEE Transaction on

Energy Conversion, Vol: 21, No: 2, pp. 467

475, 2006.

[5] Mohamed, M.B., Jemli, M., Gossa, M.,

Jemli, K., Doubly fed induction generator

(DFIG) in wind turbine modeling and

power flow control, Proceedings of the

IEEE

International

Conference

on

Industrial Technology 2004, AL; USA,

Vol: 2, pp. 580-584, 2004

Jenkins, N., Comparison of fixed speed

and doubly-fed induction wind turbines

during power system disturbances,

Proceedings of the IEE Generation,

Transmission and Distribution, Vol:

150, Issue 3, pp.343 352, 2003

[9] Toufik, B., Machmoum, M., Poitiers, F.,

Doubly fed induction generator with active

filtering function for wind energy

conversion system, Proceedings of the

European

Conference

on

Power

Electronics and Applications 2005,

Dresden; Germany, pp. 1-9, 2005

Energy Conversion Systems, John Wiley

& Sons Ltd, 1998, ISBN 0-471-97143-X

[7] He, Yikang., Hu, Jiabing, Zhao, Rende.

Modeling and control of wind-turbine used

DFIG under network fault conditions,

Proceedings

of

the

International

Conference on Electrical Machines and

Systems 2005, China, Vol: 2, pp. 986-991,

2005

Md. ARIFUJJAMAN received his M.Eng. degree in Electrical and Computer

Engineering from Memorial University of Newfoundland (MUN), Canada on

September 2006. Prior to that, he fulfilled his B.Sc. degree in Electrical and Electronic

Engineering from the Khulna University of Engineering and Technology (KUET),

Bangladesh. Afterwards he joined as a lecturer at the same university and

consequently held the position of a Consultant and Research Testing Officer for about

2 years before starting his M. Eng. at MUN. He is currently working on his Ph.D. in

the wind energy at the High Voltage Engineering Laboratory of MUN. His research

involves simulation, control and innovative design level approach of renewable energy

systems with an intense to small wind energy conversion systems.

M. T. IQBAL received the B.Sc.(EE) degree from the University of Engineering and

Technology, Lahore in 1986, the M. Sc. Nuclear Engineering degree from the Quaid-eAzam University, Islamabad in 1988 and the Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering

from the Imperial College London in 1994. From 1988 to 1991 and from 1995 to 1999

he worked at the Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Science

(www.pieas.edu.pk), Islamabad, Pakistan as an Assistant Engineer and later as a

Senior Engineer. From 1999 to 2000 he worked as an Associate Professor at, Riphah

International University (www.riphah.edu.pk). Since 2001 he is working at Faculty of

Engineering and Applied Science, Memorial University of Newfoundland. His

teaching activities cover a range of electrical engineering topics including control

systems, power electronics and renewable energy systems. His research focuses on

modeling and control of renewable energy systems.

J.E. QUAICOE

1066

Vector Control Of A Dfig Based Wind Turbine

John E. QUAICOE received the B.Sc. degree from the University of Science and

Technology, Kumasi, Ghana in 1973, and the M.A.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees from the

University of Toronto, Canada in 1977 and 1982 respectively. In 1982 he joined the

Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science at Memorial University of

Newfoundland, where he is presently a Professor and Associate Dean (Undergraduate

Studies) with teaching and research activities in power electronics and related areas.

His undergraduate and graduate teaching activities are in the areas of electric circuit

analysis, electronic circuit analysis and design, energy systems, power electronics and

power electronics systems, including modeling, analysis, control and design of power

converters for various applications. Dr. Quaicoe was the recipient of the Presidents

Award for Distinguished Teaching at Memorial University of Newfoundland for 2001

and the IEEE Canada Outstanding Educator Medal for 2002. His research activities

include inverter modulation and control techniques, utility interface systems and

power quality, and uninterruptible power supplies. His recent research activities focus

on the development of power electronic systems and control strategies for fuel cells and wind generation systems.

He is a member of the Association of Professional Engineers and Geoscientists of Newfoundland and Labrador.

J.E. QUAICOE

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