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ASPHALT

Mineral filler, bituminous material, and bituminous binders

Dela Rosa, Shechani E,


Paz, Patrick Renz Y.

Asphalt
It is a mixture of bitumen and mineral filler.
Typically composed of 5% bitumen cement
and 95% aggregates (stone, sand, and
gravel).
It is a composite material commonly used to
surface roads, parking lots, and airports.

TYPICAL COMPOSITION OF
ASPHALT
Sand
Petroleum (most widely used asphalt mixture)
Mineral Filler
Binder

MINERAL FILLER
Dust additives that reduces the
void content in the mixture
Classifications:
Limestone (finely powdered)
Slag
Hydrated Lime
Portland Cement
Trap Rock Dust
Fly Ash

BINDER PROPERTIES
Adhesion
Bituminous materials adhere to clean dry surfaces.
Viscosity
All bituminous materials are viscous, i.e. when subject to a
long term load they deform continuously.
Softening point
This is the temperature at which the binder softens to a predetermined point.

BITUMENS
It is an oil based substance.
It is a semi-solid hydrocarbon product produced by
removing the lighter fractions (such as liquid petroleum gas,
petrol and diesel) from heavy crude oil during the refining
process.
Softened by high temperature and solvents

BITUMENOUS PAVEMENT
Used mainly for roadways and
parking lots
Designed to sustain heavy
loads of cars and trucks
Layers:
Base
Subbase
Surface Course

TYPICAL BITUMENOUS PAVEMENT

BENEFITS OF USING
ASPHALT ROAD
Noise reduction
Surface water dispersal
Skid resistance
Easy maintenance reduces traffic disruption
Clearer lane marking with colored asphalts
Versatile and flexible

TESTING BINDERS
Sliding plate viscometer
In this apparatus a thin film of binder is sheared between two
glass plates and the shearing force is measured.
Standard tar viscometer
In this test the time taken for a set volume of tar to flow
through an opening at a given temperature is measured.

TESTING BINDERS
Penetration test

For straight bitumens viscosity is normally measured with a


penetration test. A 1mm diameter needle is loaded with a
weight of 100g and the distance it drops into a bitumen
sample in 5 seconds is measured (at 25oC). A bitumen is

referred to as 70 pen if the penetration is 7mm.

TESTING BINDERS
Softening point test
To measure the softening point a small sample is melted, cast
in brass ring and cooled and then progressively re-heated

until it deforms (i.e. "flows") by a given amount.

BINDER MIXTURES
Cutbacks
This term is used to describe a mixture of a binder and a light volatile oil.
They are liquid at low temperatures until the volatile oil evaporates.. Due
to the release of solvents into the atmosphere they are now rarely used.

Emulsions
When mixed with water binders will generally settle out. An emulsifier must
be added to give a stable solution. Bitumen paints are made this way.
The water evaporates and the bitumen remains on the surface. The
current types of cold rolled materials are based on emulsions.

FOUR COMPONENTS OF A
TYPICAL MIX
Coarse aggregate (retained on 2.36mm sieve)

Fine aggregate (passing 2.36mm sieve but retained on 75)


Filler (passing 75), may be cement.
Binder: Bitumen etc.

TESTING BITUMINOUS
MIXTURES
Penetration test
This test is similar in principle to the penetration test for binders
but on a larger scale. The steel pin is 6.35mm (0.25") diameter
and the load is 10 N/mm2
Dissolution of binder
There are a number of BS tests which involve dissolution of the
binder in solvents. The mix proportions and the nature of the
binder may be determined.

TESTING BITUMINOUS
MIXTURES
Percentage refusal density
This test is used to measure compaction in road construction.
The density of a core from the road is compared with the
maximum density achievable using heat and heavy
compaction (the refusal density).
Marshall test
In this test asphalt mixes are made at several different binder contents.
Cylindrical specimens are loaded in compression on their curved
surfaces. The maximum load (stability) and the deformation (flow) is
recorded.

ASPHALT CONCRETE
PAVEMENT
The term Asphalt Concrete refers to a dense graded road surface
made of hot mineral aggregates, mixed with hot asphalt and laid at
high temperature of about 275F to 300F.
Asphalt concrete is the highest type of dense bituminous pavement
suitable for the most heavily traveled roads.

The thickness of compacted asphalt concrete ranges from 2 inches


for lightly traveled road to 6 inches or more for roads where traffic is
considerably heavy.

SURFACING MATERIALS
Hot rolled asphalt
Coarse aggregate dispersed in a mortar composed of sand,
filler and bitumen. This is gap graded.
Asphaltic concrete
Asphalt in which the aggregate particles are continuously
graded to form an interlocking structure.
Surface dressing
Sprayed bitumen binder with stone chippings rolled on. This is
used for repair work.

SURFACING MATERIALS
Slurry surfacing and micro asphalts
Bitumen emulsions with selected aggregate combinations.
Also used for repair.
Stone mastic asphalt
gap graded asphalt composed of a coarse crushed
aggregate skeleton with mastic mortar.

BITUMINOUS PAVEMENT FAILURE

1. Surface
Failure

2. Base
Failure

3. Basement
Failure

BITUMINOUS PAVEMENT
FAILURE
caused by excessive load. Heavy load creates deflection
on the road surface, with insufficient underlying strength.

Elastic deformations in the sub-grade penetrate to a depth


of 6.00 meters although mostly to a depth from the surface.

FAILURE MECHANISMS
Wearing course
Rutting (shear failure)
Potholes (bond failure)
loss of skid resistance (viscous flow)
Lower courses
Cracking (Fatigue failure)
Breakdown due to failure of lower courses (e.g. reflected
cracking from dry-lean concrete)

REFERENCE
http://www.tpub.com/content/engineering/14071/css/14071_303.htm
http://www.aboutcivil.com/Bituminous-Materials-and-Plastics.html

www.claisse.info/student/Powerpoints/8.%20Bitumens.ppt
http://www.dykespaving.com/blog/the-origin-and-composition-of-asphaltconcrete/
http://www.myasphaltpavingproject.com/design/pavement-design/

http://www.eurobitume.eu/bitumen/applications/application-roads/benefits