You are on page 1of 7

International Journal of Computer Systems (ISSN: 2394-1065), Volume 03 Issue 05, May, 2016

Available at http://www.ijcsonline.com/

Optimization of DEEC Routing Protocol using Genetic Algorithm


Amandeep Kaur, Mandeep Kaur
Department of ECE, Baba Banda Singh Bahadur Engineering College
Fatehgarh Sahib, India

Abstract
Due to the advancements in wireless communication, information technologies and electronics field, in recent years the
WSN have gained so much attention. They consist of large no. Of sensor node that are usually deployed randomly over
an area to be observed, collects data from sensor field and transmit data to base station. Because node sensors are
energy limited so to increase network lifetime is important factor. Energy saving is also an important design issue in the
WSNs routing design. Distance between the nodes and BS and distance between nodes they are the factors that cause
energy dissipation. Applying genetic algorithms (GAs) in finding energy efficient shortest route for WSNs is emerging as
an important field. GA could be very helpful in providing optimized solution to energy efficient shortest path problem in
WSN. Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering (DEEC) can be defined as a clustering based algorithm in which cluster
head is preferred on the behalf of probability of ratio of residual energy and average energy of the network. In this paper
genetic algorithm is applied on DEEC routing protocol to enhance network lifetime.
Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks, Stability period, Energy efficiency, SEP protocol, DEEC protocol, Genetic
Algorithm (GA).

I.

INTRODUCTION

A large range of sensing element nodes that are unit


densely deployed over a large geographical region and
networked through wireless links are used for the making
of wireless sensor networks. Each sensor node in WSN has
capability to communicate with each other and base station
is used for the data integration and circulation. In WSN
each and every node can become transmitter and receiver
[12]. Energy-efficient protocols should be designed for the
characteristic of WSN to extend the network lifetime. In
order to reduce the energy consumption, sensor nodes are
efficiently organized into clusters. On the basis of
clustering structure, many energy-efficient routing
protocols are designed. The clustering techniques are
helpful for performing data aggregation, which combines
the data from source nodes into a little set of significant
information. The fewer messages are transmitted under the
circumstance of achieving enough data rate specified by
applications for increasing energy saving. [7]

Fig .1 Wireless sensors network

Clustering Hierarchy
In WSN nodes are not invariably same they could be
heterogeneous that increase network complexness. To
increase stability and reduce the energy consumption
cluster is essential technique in WSN.

For processing, sensor networks include a many data


for an end-user. Therefore, there is a requirement of
automated methods for combining or aggregating the data
into a little set of significant information. [18]
Once the network is established, it start sensing the
information and the energy of the nodes goes on dissipating
whenever they obtain a little information and send it to
other nodes or BS. The nodes can be made more energy
efficient by using routing protocols. [2]

Fig. 2 Clustering Hierarchy


376 | International Journal of Computer Systems, ISSN-(2394-1065), Vol. 03, Issue 05, May, 2016

Amandeep Kaur et al

Optimization of DEEC Routing Protocol using Genetic Algorithm

In [1] compression of SEP and DEEC protocols has


been analysis in which DEEC found best in compression
with SEP routing protocols. So in this work DEEC
protocols is going to be optimized using genetic algorithm
to improve energy efficiency.
II.

REVIEW OF CLUSTERING ALGORITHMS FOR


WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

A.

SEP (Stable Election Protocol)


A Stable Election Protocol (SEP) is for clustered
heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. Heterogeneous
WSN Nodes have different energy levels. In SEP, many of
the elevated energy nodes are referred to as advanced
nodes and the chance to become CHs is more in advanced
nodes as compared to non-advanced nodes. In advanced
nodes, extra energy is taken off by SEP. [15]

B.

DEEC (Distributed Energy Efficient)


DEEC use the residual and initial energy level of the
nodes to select the cluster-heads. At every election round,
DEEC does not require any universal knowledge of energy.
Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering (DEEC) can be
defined as a clustering based algorithm in which cluster
head is preferred on the behalf of probability of ratio of
residual energy and average energy of the network. The
routing time in number of round is different according to its
residual and initial energy for each node. In this algorithm,
the nodes with low-energy will have lesser chances to be
the cluster heads as compared to the high Initial and
residual energy nodes. In a two-level heterogeneous
network, where there are two types of nodes, m.N
advanced nodes with initial energy equal to Eo.(1+a) and
(1 m). N normal nodes, in which the initial energy is
equal to Eo. Where a and m are two variable which manage
the nodes percentage types (advanced or normal) and the
total initial energy in the network Etotal [7].
The value of Total Energy is given as
Etotal = N.(1m).Eo+N.m.Eo.(1+a)

(1)

The average energy of rth round is set as follows


E(r)=1/NEtotal(1R)

(2)

R denotes the total rounds of the network lifetime and


is defined as
R=Etotal/ERound

(3)

Fig3. Flow chart of CH selection in SEP protocol


Advantage:

SEP is scalable and dynamic, even normal node can


be selected.

In SEP, no universal knowledge is required at every


round.

No earlier distribution is assumed of energy levels.

Limitations:
The drawback of SEP method is that the election of
the cluster heads is not dynamic among the two
types of nodes, which results that the nodes will
die first that are far away from the powerful
nodes.
Fig4. Flow chart of CH selection in DEEC protocol

377 | International Journal of Computer Systems, ISSN-(2394-1065), Vol. 03, Issue 05, May, 2016

Amandeep Kaur et al

Optimization of DEEC Routing Protocol using Genetic Algorithm

Advantages:
At every election round, DEEC does not want any
universal knowledge of energy.
DEEC can perform multi-level heterogeneous
wireless network.
Limitations:
Advanced nodes always punish in the DEEC,
particularly once their residual energy reduced
and become in the variety of the normal nodes.
In this position, the advanced nodes die rapidly
than the others.
C. Genetic Algorithm
Genetic Algorithm is used to make cluster member,
cluster head and next cluster dynamically, which is used to
calculate average fitness and increase life time of the
network. [3]
1. Population: A population is gathering of numerous
chromosomes and the best chromosome is working to
come up with next population. Initially the GA starts with a
population of predefined variety of chromosomes and
randomly selected cluster heads. Each chromosome is
evaluated by GA by calculate its fitness. GA selects best
suitable chromosome after the evaluation of fitness and
then applies crossover and mutation. [3]
2. Fitness Calculation: The fitness function is designed to
increase the network lifetime, which evaluates whether, a
particular chromosome increases network lifetime or not.
The algorithm conserve the historically obtained most
excellent chromosome, that is, with the highest fitness
value, called elitism. The fitness of each chromosome is
considered by

where di denotes the distance between the (i+1)the


node (or, gene) and the ith node denotes the data gathering
chain. A longer data gathering chain is indicated by higher
value of the chromosome energy and which means to be an
inferior solution. [15]

Fig 5. General scheme of GA mechanism.

5 Mutation
The mutation is an exploration process which
transforms genes to overcome the limitation of the
crossover.
In this paper, this operation enables the search for
optimal chromosome by transforming a cluster-head to a
cluster member and a cluster member and a cluster-head,
with a small probability. The probability of transforming
from cluster member to cluster-head is set higher than that
of the opposite case for preventing abnormal increase of
cluster-heads., clusters should be reconstituted after
executing the crossover and mutation, since the clusterheads positions could have been shifted. [4]

3. Selection
The process of determining in which two
chromosomes will assistant to form a new
chromosome is known as selection.
The chromosomes with higher fitness values have
more chances to of matting. [11]
4. Crossover
Crossover is a binary genetic process useful
on two chromosomes. It recombines the genetic
materials of two parent chromosomes to create a
child chromosome. The results of the crossover
are depending on the selection procedure.

Fig 6. Flowchart of implemented scheme

378 | International Journal of Computer Systems, ISSN-(2394-1065), Vol. 03, Issue 05, May, 2016

Amandeep Kaur et al

Optimization of DEEC Routing Protocol using Genetic Algorithm

spaced nodes, the cluster distance is high and thus the


energy consumption will also be higher. C should not be
too large for reducing energy consumption. Size of the
clusters will be controlled by this metric.
3) Cluster Distance - Standard Deviation (SD): The
variation in the cluster distances should not be large for
uniform spatial allocation of sensor nodes, where nodes are
uniformly placed. However, for non-uniform spatial
distribution, the cluster distances must not be necessarily
the same where nodes are randomly placed. According to
the deployment information the variation in cluster
distances should be tuned. Variation in cluster distances
will show poor network configuration if the deployment is
uniform and must be tuned to get uniform clusters. [14]
The cluster distances, SD, with a deviation can be
considered as follows:

(6)

(7)

III.

SIMULATION RESULT

A. Transmitted data SEP :

Fig 7. Flow chart of implemented scheme of GA


Fitness Parameters
The fitness of a chromosome is designed to increase the
network life time and to reduce the energy consumption.
Some of fitness parameters are described in this segment.
1) Direct Distance (DD) to Base Station: It is defined
as the sum of all distances from sensor nodes to the base
station. Therefore this distance is defined as follows:

(4)
Where dis is the distance between node i and BS node
s. For a longer network, this distance should be minimized;
otherwise, the energy will be wasted of most of the nodes
.However, for a smaller network, direct transfer to BS is to
be fine.
2) Cluster Distance (C): The cluster distance, C can be
defined as the sum of the distances from the nodes to the
cluster head and the distance between head and BS. For a
cluster having k member nodes, the cluster space C is
defined as follows:

This figures represent the transmitted data of SEP in


which number of nodes are 200 and maximum number of
rounds are 2000 .The red represent the dead nodes and blue
represent alive nodes.

(5)
Where dih is the distance between nodes i and cluster
head h and dhs is the distance between cluster head h and
BS node s. For a cluster having large number of widely379 | International Journal of Computer Systems, ISSN-(2394-1065), Vol. 03, Issue 05, May, 2016

Amandeep Kaur et al

Optimization of DEEC Routing Protocol using Genetic Algorithm

(1) Count of Cluster heads SEP:

B (1) DEEC Clusters:

The figure shows the count of cluster heads in SEP.

This figure shows the DEEC clusters and represents


dead
nodes, alive nodes and sink.

(2) Dead Nodes:


(2)Dead nodes:

The figure shows that in SEP, dead nodes start from


1000.

(3) Packets to Cluster Heads:

This figure shows the dead nodes of DEEC and dead


nodes start from 1500 rounds.

(3) Alive nodes:

This figure shows that the packets to cluster heads is


constant upto 1000 rounds and decreases after 1000 rounds
due to dead nodes.

This figure represents alive nodes of DEEC in which all


nodes are alive up to 1500 rounds and dead nodes starts
afterward.

380 | International Journal of Computer Systems, ISSN-(2394-1065), Vol. 03, Issue 05, May, 2016

Amandeep Kaur et al

Optimization of DEEC Routing Protocol using Genetic Algorithm

( C) Gentic alogrithm:
GA is implemented on DEEC protocols and results are
shown below:

Figure D(1) shows the comparison of SEP , DEEC &


GA Dead nodes in which dead nodes of SEP starts from
1000 and of DEEC starts from 1300& GA on DEEC starts
from 2111.

(1) Dead nodes:


(2) Alive nodes:

This figure shows the dead nodes of GA on DEEC start


from 2111 rounds.
(2) Alive nodes:

This figure show the comparison of alive nodes of SEP,


DEEC & GA .In which nodes are alive up to 1000 of SEP
and up to 1300 rounds of DEEC & GA on DEEC starts
from 2111.
IV.

This figure represents alive nodes of GA on DEEC in


which all nodes are alive up to 2111 rounds and dead nodes
starts afterward.

The main motive of designing energy efficiency


protocol is to increase the network lifetime and improve the
energy efficiency of the wireless network. The proposed
work is based on the comparison between the conventional
DEEC protocol and the optimized DEEC using GA. The
nodes are deployed in the network and the performance
parameters of the network are evaluated after applying
Genetic Algorithm on DEEC protocol. Genetic Algorithm
is helpful in searching energy-efficient clusters for sensor
networks. Total energy consumption is concerned with the
number of cluster-heads and their position. It is clear after
comparison that optimized DEEC using GA is better and
improving the network lifetime.

(D )Comprsion of sep, deec & GA on DEEC


(1) Dead Nodes:

CONCLUSION

REFERENCES
[1]

[2]
[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

Amandeep kaur, Mandeep kaur Performance Comparative of SEP


and DEEC Protocol in Wireless Sensor NetworkIETE,April
2016,pp 70
F. Akyidiz, Y. Sankarasubramaniam W. Su,and E. Cayirci, "A
survey on sensor networks",IEEE Commun, August 2002.
Ali Norouzi and A. Halim Zaim Genetic Algorithm Application in
Optimization of Wireless Sensor Networks the Scientific World
Journal Volume 2014, pp 15.
A. Zahmatkesh and M. H. Yaghmaee A Genetic Algorithm-Based
Approach for Energy- Efficient Clustering of Wireless Sensor
Networks International Journal of Information and Electronics
Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 2, March 2012
G. Smaragdakis, I. Matta, A. Bestavros, "SEP: A Stable Election
Protocol for clustered heterogeneous wireless sensor networks",
Second International Workshop on Sensor and Actor Network
Protocols and Applications (SANPA 2004), 2004.
Jiun-Jian Liaw, Chen-Yi Dai, Yi-Jie Wang The Steady Clustering
Scheme for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks in
Proceeding of Ubiquitous, Autonomic and Trusted Computing,
2009. UIC-ATC '09. Symposia and Workshops on 7-9 July 2009.

381 | International Journal of Computer Systems, ISSN-(2394-1065), Vol. 03, Issue 05, May, 2016

Amandeep Kaur et al
[7]

[8]

[9]

[10]

[11]

[12]

[13]

[14]

[15]

[16]

[17]

[18]

Optimization of DEEC Routing Protocol using Genetic Algorithm

L. Qing, Q. Zhu, M. Wang, "Design of a distributed energyefficient clustering algorithm for heterogeneous wireless sensor
networks". ELSEVIER,Computer Communications 29, pp 22302237, 2006.
Manjeshwar A, Grawal DP. TEEN: A protocol for enhanced
efficiency in wireless sensor networks. In Proc. of the 15th Parallel
and Distributed Processing Symp. San Francisco: 2001. vol. 3,
pp.30189a
M. Handy, M. Haase ,and D.Timmermann, Low energy adaptive
clustering hierarchy with deterministic cluster head selection , in
proceeding of IEEE, International Conference on Mobile and
wirless Communications networks, Stockholm, Sweden,2002, pp.
368-372
Ming Yu, Leung, K.K. and Malvankar, A. A dynamic clustering
and energy efficient routing technique for sensor networks. IEEE
on Wireless Communications, Vol: 6(8): pp3069-3079, August
2007.
Mohammed Abo-Zahhad, Sabah M. Ahmed1, Nabil Sabor1 and
Shigenobu Sasaki A New Energy-Efficient Adaptive Clustering
Protocol Based on Genetic Algorithm for Improving the Life time
and the Stable Period of Wireless Sensor Networks International
Journal of Energy, Information and Communications Vol.5, pp.4772. 3 (2014) .
Monica R Mundada (2012), A Study on Energy Efficient Routing
Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks International Journal of
Distributed and Parallel Systems (IJDPS) Vol.3, No.3,Pp 311-330.
P. Krishna, N.H. Vaidya, M. Chatterjee, D. Pradhan, A clusterbased approach for routing in dynamic networks, ACM SIGCOMM
Computer Communication Review 27 (2) (1997) 4965.
Sajid Hussain, Abdul Wasey Matin, Obidul Islam Genetic
Algorithm for Hierarchical Wireless Sensor Networks Journal of
networks, VOL. 2, No. 5, September 2007.
Sharma T,Kumar B,Tomar G.S Performance Comparision of
LEACH, SEP and DEEC Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network
Proc. of the Intl. Conf. on Advances in Computer Science and
Electronics Engineering ,2012
V. Mhatre, C. Rosenberg, D. Kofman, R. Mazumdar, N. Shroff,
Design of surveillance sensor grids with a lifetime constraint, in: 1st
European Workshop on Wireless Sensor Networks (EWSN),
Berlin, January 2004.
Vinay Kumar Singh, Vidushi Sharma Elitist Genetic algorithm
based energy efficient routing scheme for wireless sensors
networks International Journal Of Advanced Smart Sensor
Network Systems ( IJASSN ), Vol 2, No.2, April 2012.
W.R. Heinzelman, A.P. Chandrakasan, H. Balakrishnan,
Energyefficient communication protocol for wireless microsensor
networks,in: Proceedings of the 33rd Hawaii International
Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-33), January 2000.

382 | International Journal of Computer Systems, ISSN-(2394-1065), Vol. 03, Issue 05, May, 2016