DEMOGRAPHIC SPATIAL ANALYSIS AND MODELING

GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS

by

WADEMBERE MUGUMBU ISMAIL

Thesis submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the Degree of Master of Science (Planning – Geographical Information Systems) of the University Science Malaysia

June 2001

Read! In the name of thy Lord Who created Created man out of a clot of congealed blood Proclaim! And thy Lord is Most Bountiful He Who taught by the Pen Taught man that which he knew not

DEDICATION

This work is dedicated to the memory of… my father, A. B. K. Mugumbu, who guided me to the right path; my dear sister, Zaina Gimbo Mugumbu, who left when it had just begun … ………to the three inspiring men towards my study…… my dear uncle, Mr. Y. B. K. Wadembere, who always wants me to have the best; my dear uncle, Prof. Mukwanason A. Hyuha, for the promises which keep me going, my dear supervisor, Assoc. Prof. Lee, for his visions in the use Information Technology.. . ……… to the four most important women in my life…… my mother, Zulaiha Mugumbu for her love, prayers, pains and troubles; my aunt (mummy Fati) for her guidance since my childhood and all troubles my loving sister, Sarah H. Wadembere, for every good thing a sister would offer; my friend (greenatwins_1101) for her constant long calls which gave a sense of love.

…… and my ever loving and caring extended family…

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First and foremost, I would like to give Glory to God Almighty for His Grace and help in all my endeavors and for bringing me this far in my educational career. I would like to express my gratitude to my supervisor Assoc. Prof. Dr. Lee Lik Meng for his guidance throughout this research; his comments and constructive criticisms greatly enhanced this thesis. Further, he is thanked for providing advice on use of Information Technology (IT) and helping me to gain dynamic research skills to complete this project. Further thanks go to the academic staff of the school of housing, building and planning; and non-academic staff. People who stay and work in the shadows and whose praises are yet to be sang to a high crescendo with special thanks to wonderful IT laboratory staff (Mr. Leow, Miss Aisha, and Miss Kam Hong) for advice on numerous technical issues about GIS, Networking, Internet and providing Computing support. What else can one say to his friends and brothers who during the two years stay in Malaysia have shared the tears, sorrows and joy with him? People who in one way or the other have been instrumental in making one’s stay here a memorable one. Would "thank you" be enough for providing valuable assistance and provided a research environment that was productive. Aminu, Osman, Ibrahim, Abdul-Fatah, Abdul-Nouh, Chong, Ali, Ahmad and his wife, Sattam, Jennifer, Ling, Papa, Azha, Mohd, Jasuya, Ahmad, Sulieman, Aku, Shola, Shakirh, Hajara, Obby, Mustapha, Malinga, Musa, Abdullah, Joseph and his wife, Dr. Omar, Dr Umaru and all the numerous friends whose names have not been mentioned due to over-sight. My most sincere gratitude goes to the staff of Penang State Planning Department, Malaysia; Institute of Postgraduate Studies, university library, security division, university clinic of Universiti Sains Malaysia; the food vendors and those who wish to remain anonymous for research commenting; their help was greatly appreciated and they are generously thanked. Several hours across the pearl of Africa (Uganda), I want to thank my beloved mother for her patience, perseverance and understanding throughout this period. I fondly remember you. Daddy and uncles’ daughters: Hajara, Marrum, Hanifa, Fatuma. Sarah, Amin, Nakato, Sophia, Nulu. May God bless you and I love you all. I am grateful to my brothers and cousin: Asuman, Hamidu, Moses, Ibrahim, Nouh, Alumasi, Zub, are all fondly remembered. My Mothers and aunts: mummy Fati, Petwa, Nalongo, Mugo,Yasin. My friends: Irumba, George, Nathan, Grace, Wana, Lucy, Mugisha. And all other friends; too numerous to mention. Thanks for your love and support. Finally, no words could describe my debt to my sponsors (Islamic Development Bank) and my family for their moral support and though overseas lived with me every single moment of all my graduate studies.

It has been nice knowing you all; and to you all I say 'terima kasih, banyak…banyak'..

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Dedication..................................................................................................................................i Acknowledgement....................................................................................................................ii Table of Contents....................................................................................................................iii List of Figures.......................................................................................................................viii List of Tables...........................................................................................................................xi Abbreviations.........................................................................................................................xii Acronyms...............................................................................................................................xiii Abstrak...................................................................................................................................xiv Abstract...................................................................................................................................xv 1 INTRODUCTION AND MOTIVATION............................................................................1 1.1 Background 1.2 Problem Statement 1.3 Objectives of the Study 1.4 The Approach of the Study 1.5 Thesis Layout 1 1 3 3 6

2 GIS AND DEMOGRAPHICS IN PLANNING...................................................................7 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Demographic Information in Planning 2.3 Demographic Data Analysis 2.3.1 Aggregation Demographic Analysis 2.3.2 Disaggregated Demographic Data 2.3.3 Need for Demographic Spatial Analysis 2.4 Demographic Statistical Analysis 2.4.1 Spatial Statistical Analysis 2.4.1.1 Spatial Pattern Analysis 2.4.1.2 Nearest Neighbor Analysis 2.4.1.3 Spatial Autocorrelation 2.4.1.4 Descriptive Statistics 2.5 GIS Spatial Analysis 2.5.1 Need for GIS Demographic Spatial Analysis
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7 7 7 7 9 10 11 11 12 12 12 12 13 13

2.5.2 Spatial Analytical and Modeling Capabilities into GIS 2.6 GIS Demographic Spatial Analysis into Planning 2.7 Summary

14 15 18

3 MATERIALS AND DESIGN OF GIS DEMOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS.........................19 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Study Area 3.3 Resources used in the Study 3.4 Data used in the Study 3.5 Attempts to carry out Demographic Spatial Analysis 3.5.1 SPSS for Windows 3.5.2 S-Plus 2000 Professional 3.5.3 IDRISI for Windows 3.5.4 SpaceStat Extension for ArcView 3.6 GIS in Malaysia 3.6.1 GIS-DSA Research and Applications in Malaysia 3.7 Database for GIS Demographic Analysis 3.7.1 Uncertainty (Fuzziness) in GIS Demographic Analysis 3.7.2 Individual Modeling 3.7.3 Demographic Geocoding/Georeferencing using Buildings 3.7.4 Demographic Data Representation and Manipulation in GIS 3.7.5 Connecting DB with GIS 3.8 GIS Demographic Analysis 3.8.1 GIS Approach to Spatial Modeling 3.8.2 Evolving the Demographic Model 3.9 Visualization and Presentation Techniques 3.9.1 Choropleth Technique 3.9.2 Cartograms 3.9.3 Lorenz Curves 3.10 GIS Demographics Visualization 3.10.1 Demographics Visualization Methodology 3.10.1.1 Cross-Variable Mapping 3.10.1.2 Multiple Displays (Multimedia Interaction)
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19 19 21 21 22 22 22 23 23 23 25 26 26 27 27 28 29 30 30 32 33 33 34 35 36 36 37 37

3.10.1.3 Surface and Multi-Dimensional Displays 3.10.1.4 Composite Indices (Dimension Reduction) 3.10.1.5 Superimposition 3.10.1.6 Dynamic Displays (Dynamic Data Visualization) 3.11 Multi-Dimensional GIS for Demographic Modeling 3.11.1 Two-Dimensional GIS 3.11.2 Two and half-Dimensional GIS 3.11.3 Three-Dimensional GIS 3.12 Summary

38 39 39 39 39 39 40 40 40

4 GIS DEMOGRAPHIC SPATIAL ANALYSIS.................................................................41 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Two-Dimensional GIS Demographic Analysis 4.2.1 ArcView GIS Extension 4.2.2 Demographics Analyst 4.2.2.1 Development Strategy 4.2.2.2 User Interface 4.2.2.3 Functions of Demographics Analyst 4.2.2.4 Table Document Graphical User Interface 4.2.2.5 Scripts in the Demographics Analyst 4.2.2.6 Further Details on Demographics Analyst 4.2.3 Other Scripts and Extensions used 4.2.4 Demographic Nearest Neighbor Analysis 4.2.5 Demographic Spatial Change Analysis 4.2.6 Spatial Progressive Similarity Clustering of DCs 4.2.7 Demographic Spatial Alternative Appraisal 4.2.8 Demographic Spatial Segregation/Integration Analysis 4.2.9 Selection of Analysis Variables among DCs 4.3 Summary 41 41 41 42 42 42 43 45 46 47 47 48 49 49 50 52 56 58

5 MODELING DEMOGRAPHICS AS THIRD DIMENSION..........................................59 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Surface and Volume-Based Demographic Spatial Analysis 5.3 3D Spatial Object Representation of Demographics 5.3.1 3D Data Structures
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59 59 60 60

5.3.2 Surface-Based Representation 5.3.3 Volume-Based Representation 5.4 Demographic Data Interpolation and Extrapolation 5.4.1 Geo-Demographic Interpolation and Extrapolation 5.4.1.1 Demographic Holes, Breaks and Boundaries 5.4.1.2 Generation Demographic Points at Boundaries 5.4.1.3 MODC Extrapolation at Boundaries 5.4.1.4 Triangular Irregular Network (TIN) 5.4.1.5 Building a Delaunay Triangulation 5.4.1.6 Generating the Constrained Delaunay Triangulation 5.5 Demographics Modeling by Surface GIS 5.5.1 Demographic Surface Characterization 5.5.2 Demographic Quantitative Surface Characterization 5.5.2.1 Demographic Iso-lines and Vertical Demographics 5.5.2.2 Quantitative Spatial Effect 5.5.2.3 Quantitative Spatial Analysis 5.5.2.4 Transparent Neighborhood Analysis 5.5.3 Surface Characterization of Demographics Variation 5.5.3.1 Demographic Spatial Variation 5.5.3.2 Demographic Directional Variation 5.5.3.3 Demographic Outshoot 5.5.3.4 Demographic Dropfold 5.5.3.5 Demographic Undershed 5.5.3.6 Demographic Overshed 5.5.3.7 Demographic Overfold/Underfold 5.5.3.8 Demographic Spatial Pass 5.5.4 Demographic Visibility Surface Analysis 5.5.4.1 Demographic Viewshed 5.5.4.2 Demographic Linear Analysis 5.5.5 Uncertainty in Demographic Surface Analysis 5.6 Volume-Based 3D Demographics Modeling 5.7 Summary

61 61 62 63 64 64 65 65 65 66 67 67 68 68 69 70 70 72 72 74 76 77 77 78 78 79 79 80 81 82 84 87

6 CONCLUSION.....................................................................................................................88 6.1 Introduction
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88

6.2 Summary of Thesis 6.3 Human-Computer Interaction 6.4 GIS Demographic Database for Planning Analysis 6.5 Summary of Findings, Contributions and Applications 6.6 Suggestions for Future Work

88 90 90 91 92

BIBLIOGRAPHY..................................................................................................................92 Appendix A Statistical Analyses........................................................................................105 Appendix B GIS Analyses .................................................................................................108 Appendix C True 3D GIS-DSA..........................................................................................112 Appendix D Field Survey Forms.......................................................................................117 Appendix E Data used in the Study...................................................................................123 Appendix F Demographics Analyst on the Web................................................................139 Appendix G Thesis Web site................................................................................................140

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure No. Title of Figure

Figure 1.1 Model of carrying out GIS demographic spatial analysis ..................................4 Figure 1.2 Three Dimensional demographic modeling tasks................................................5 Figure 1.3 Visual overview of the main portions of the thesis..............................................6 Figure 2.4 GIS demographic spatial analysis into planning process..................................17 Figure 3.5 Location of the study area....................................................................................19 Figure 3.6 Location of roads, land use and buildings in study area...................................20 Figure 3.7 Buildings in heritage area displayed in 3D.........................................................21 Figure 3.8 Linking tables by creating primary and secondary keys..................................30 Figure 3.9 Traditional and GIS approaches to demographic analysis...............................31 Figure 3.10 GIS demographic analysis procedure...............................................................32 Figure 3.11 Comparison of choropleth mapping and cartogram.......................................34 Figure 3.12 Illustration of measure of concentration using Lorenz curve........................35 Figure 3.13 GIS demographic visualization.........................................................................37 Figure 4.14 ArcView showing position and functions of Demographics Analyst.............43 Figure 4.15 Demonstration of the user interface and Demographics Analyst..................45 Figure 4.16 ArcView table interface showing Demographics Analyst...............................46 Figure 4.17 Nearest neighbor analysis..................................................................................48 Figure 4.18 Identifying demographic characteristics in progressive clustering...............50 Figure 4.19 Combining demographic characteristics in progressive clustering...............50 Figure 4.20 Location of the people and the area for clearing.............................................51 Figure 4.21 Evaluating alternatives by editing features......................................................51 Figure 4.22 Spatial distribution of racial categories............................................................55 Figure 4.23 Aggregation of demographic characteristics....................................................56 Figure 4.24 Spatial distribution and location of marital status..........................................57 Figure 4.25 Spatial distribution and location of the various religions in study area........57 Figure 5.26 Surface and volume visualization......................................................................59

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Figure 5.27 Three dimensional spatial object representations...........................................60 Figure 5.28 Spatial demographic interpolation and extrapolation....................................64 Figure 5.29 Constrained Delaunay triangulation procedure..............................................66 Figure 5.30 TIN showing total population per building......................................................68 Figure 5.31 Persons per building as vertical demographics................................................69 Figure 5.32 Quantitative spatial location of persons per building.....................................69 Figure 5.33 Quantitative spatial effect analysis....................................................................70 Figure 5.34 Spatial location of single persons (a) and religions (b)....................................70 Figure 5.35 Malay per building.............................................................................................71 Figure 5.36 Malay per building overlaid with persons per building..................................71 Figure 5.37 Overly of Malay and Persons per building in 2D............................................72 Figure 5.38 Slope from TIN of total population per building.............................................73 Figure 5.39 Slope of surface of religion.................................................................................73 Figure 5.40 Slope of surface of race.......................................................................................74 Figure 5.41 Aspect from TIN of persons per building.........................................................75 Figure 5.42 Aspect of surface of religion...............................................................................75 Figure 5.43 Aspect of surface of race....................................................................................76 Figure 5.44 Demographic features on surface of Malay per building................................77 Figure 5.45 Surface of Malay per building showing demographic features......................78 Figure 5.46 Surface of racial spatial influence.....................................................................79 Figure 5.47 Positions of the observation points and target point.......................................80 Figure 5.48 Demographic Viewshed on TIN of number persons per building.................81 Figure 5.49 Line of sight with observer and target at different MODC............................82 Figure 5.50 Different surface generated by Spline, IDW, and TIN....................................83 Figure 5.51 Continuous spatial distribution of the Malay race..........................................84 Figure 5.52 TIN of Persons per building...............................................................................84 Figure 5.53: Spatial distribution and location of the various religions in study area.......85 Figure 5.54 Continuous spatial location of the various religions........................................85 Figure 5.55 Spatial distribution and location of marital status..........................................86
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Figure 5.56 Spatial distribution and location of marital status..........................................86 Figure 5.57 Cut and fill between Malay and the total population......................................87 Figure C.58 Using trapezoidal rules....................................................................................114 Figure C.59 Incremental volume calculations using polyhedron.....................................115 Figure F.60 ArcScript web site interface for searching for scripts..................................139 Figure F.61 ArcScript web site interface showing search results.....................................139 Figure G.62 This thesis web site interface on the Internet................................................140

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LIST OF TABLES Table No. Title of Table

Table 3.1 Representation of demographic data in GIS.......................................................29 Table 4.2 Spearman Correlation of Analysis Variables......................................................52 Table 4.3 Road * Race cross tabulation................................................................................54 Table 4.4 Analysis by entering DCs with road as dependent variable...............................56 Table A.5 Pearson correlation of Analysis Variables........................................................106 Table A.6 ANOVA................................................................................................................106 Table A.7 Regression coefficients of demographic characteristics...................................106 Table A.8 Excluding variables analysis...............................................................................107 Table E.9 Persons in the study area....................................................................................123 Table E.10: Penang population according to mukim........................................................130 Table E.11: Building Information in the study Area.........................................................132

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2.5D 2D 3D 3D-DM 3DM B-rep CDT DC DEM/DTM DSI DT ESDA GI GIS GISci GIS-DA GIS-DM GIS-DSA GIS-DV GIS-SA IDW MAUP MODC TEN TIN

ABBREVIATIONS Two and One Half-Dimensional (surface) Two-Dimensional (plane surface) Three-Dimensional (volumetric body) Three Dimensional Demographic Model Three Dimensional Models Boundary Representation Constrained Delaunay triangulation Demographic Characteristic Digital Elevation Models or Digital Terrain Models Demographic Spatial Informatics Delaunay Triangulation Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis Geographic Information Geographic Information System Geographic Information Science Geographical Information System Demographic Analysis GIS Demographic Model. Geographical Information System Demographic Spatial Analysis GIS Demographic Visualization Geographical Information System Spatial Analysis Inverse Distance Weighting Modifiable Areal Unit Problem Magnitude of Demographic Characteristic Tetrahedral Network Triangular Irregular Network

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ACRONYMS Planning is a future-oriented multi-disciplinary, comprehensive, and self-questioning i.e. a process of analyzing problems, designing alternative solutions, evaluating the alternatives and their consequences, making formal recommendations, and formulating strategies for action and participating in their developing and implementation. The intent of this process followed in both government and business is to improve collective decisions in the public and private sectors, so that today's solutions do not become tomorrow's problems. Geographical Information System (GIS) is a system of hardware, software, data, and people to collect, store, analyze, manipulate, model, visualize, and disseminating information about areas of the earth. Data analysis can be defined as the extraction of significant facts embodied in a dataset. Spatial data analysis therefore is the process of seeking out patterns, associations and the extraction of useful information from data that are distributed over space to help in description, characterization, discovering, understanding and prediction of patterns and spatial phenomena. It comprises of a set of techniques for analyzing, computing, visualizing, simplifying and theorizing about geographic data. Modeling is a key ingredient of this analytical process, but measurement, statistical summary and visualization are also involved. In GIS, there are two common uses of word model. One is the idea of data model, an ideal schema for organizing data about the real world. The other is the symbolic representation of the relationships between spatial objects and their attributes i.e. the process to put together expressions of these general principles with representations of parts of the reference system to form a replica that exhibits behavior similar to that of the reference system. Demography is the scientific study of human populations involving primarily producing new knowledge and understanding of human behavior through the measurement of the size, growth, density, distribution, and diminution of the numbers of people. Data describing a human population is referred to as demographic data and Demographics is the demographic information itself which is applied in business, planning and public administration. Geo-demographics is the classification of people or households in relation to their neighborhood and share similar socio-economic, behavioral characteristics, or demographic characteristics. Iso-demographics is having same magnitude/type of demographic characteristic. Demographics iso-lines are lines connecting points of same magnitude/type of demographic characteristic. Demographics iso-surfaces are surface having same magnitude/type of demographic characteristic. Demographic boundaries are the boundaries created by differences or change in demographic characteristics. Ethnicity is the cultural practices, language, cuisine, and traditions - not biological or physical differences - used to distinguish groups of people. Race is defined primarily by society, not by genetics, and there are no universally accepted categories. Cohort: A group of individuals sharing a common demographic experience with respect to an observed period of time (e.g., individuals sharing the same birth year or years, individuals who fall in a specified age range.) Georeferencing (or Geocoding) The process of assigning a geographic location (e.g. latitude and longitude) to a geographic feature on the basis of its address. Geocode A code assigned to identify a geographic entity; to assign an address (such as housing unit, business, industry, farm) to the full set of geographic code(s) applicable to the location of that address on the surface of the Earth. Mukim is word in Bahasa Malaysia used to refer to a subdivision almost equivalent to the English parish

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ANALISIS DAN PEMODELAN RUANG DEMOGRAFI MENGGUNAKAN GIS ABSTRAK Sistem Maklumat Geografi (“Geographical Information System”- GIS) boleh digunapakai bagi menjalankan analisis ruang dan perwakilan kuantitatif serta pemodelan bagi datadata berkaitan ruang. Ia sesuai dengan analisis populasi yang menggunakan sifat-sifat data mengenai manusia bagi mendapatkan saiz populasi, komposisinya, ciri-cirinya dan bagaimana populasi boleh diagihkankan mengikut ruang. Kajian ini dimulai dengan memfokuskan kepada isu-isu berikut (1) Apakah teknik GIS yang sesuai untuk digunakan pada analisis populasi yang spesifik? (2) Apakah dimensi GIS yang sesuai untuk sesuatu analisa itu? (3) Apakah terma yang boleh digunakan untuk mengkategori dan menggambarkan demografi, dan (4) Bagaimana untuk menjalankan berbilang analisa ciri-ciri demografi secara selari. Motivasinya adalah untuk membawa manfaat teknologi GIS kepada proses perancangan secara amnya dan kepada demografi secara khususnya. Dalam pembinaan teknik-teknik ini, kajian ini mengambilpakai pengalaman dan pengetahuan daripada usaha-usaha aplikasi GIS yang terdahulu dalam analisis perancangan dan demografi. Ia juga mengkaji bagaimana GIS analisis ruang dan teknik pemodelan boleh digunapakai bagi analisis demografi dengan cara mengkaji keputusan analisis demografi yang konvensional, apa yang telah dilakukan dalam GIS-DSA (“GISDemographic Spatial Analysis”), dan apa yang dijangkakan oleh seseorang perancang pada demografi. Ia juga menggunapakai kaedah “geoferencing” individu menggunakan bangunan sebagai entiti ruang dan menggunapakai gabungan pakej statistik dan GIS untuk menilai data teragih serta mikro daripada kajian sebenar. Ini membenarkan kajian analisis demografi dijalankan dalam bentuk “2D GIS”, yang melibatkan penghasilan modul prototaip (“Demographics Analyst”) sebagai perlanjutan daripada “ArcView” bagi menyiapkan analisis demografi jiran terdekat, analisis interaktif kepadatan, laporan ruang alternatif, pengumpulan ruang progesif, dan lain-lain lagi. Diikuti dengan pengkategorian dan pemodelan permukaan demografi yang melibatkan pengenalan kepada berbilang terma demografi, penjanaan sifat dan kuantiti demografi, terjemahan dan aplikasinya; dilakukakan setelah metodologi ekstrapolasi dan interpolasi. Akhirnya, menggunakan 3D, satu teknik pemodelan “incremental solid” diperkenalkan, yang memerlukan kajian lanjutan untuk keseluruhan pembangunannya termasuk algoritma dan kod-kod bagi pembangunan perisian. Kajian ini menunjukkan semua analisis demografi tidak boleh dicapai dengan baik dengan hanya meninjau atau membuat analisis dalam satu dimensi GIS sahaja; ia memerlukan GIS berbilang-dimensi untuk menjalankan GIS-DSA. Ia juga menunjukkan bagaimana berbilang dimensi GIS (2D, 2.5D dan 3D) boleh digunakan untuk melaksanakan tugas tertentu dalam analsis demografi teragih dan tidak teragih dengan pengumpulan data secara tradisional. Keperluan ini banyak meminjam terma daripada lain-lain aplikasi dan bidang bagi digunakan untuk menjana penvisualan sifat demografi dan kuantitinya yang selari dengan pandangan para perancang. Semua maklumat ini boleh diperolehi di http://www.hbp.usm.my/thesis/heritageGIS

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ABSTRACT Geographical Information Systems (GIS) can be used to undertake spatial analysis, quantitative representation and modeling of spatial data; making them fit for population analyses which uses attribute data about humans in order to get the size of population, its composition, characteristics, and how they are and will be spatially distributed. This study was initiated by the need to address the following issues: (1) which GIS techniques to apply to specific population analysis? (2) Which GIS dimension is fit for which analysis task? (3) What surface terms to characterize and visualize demographics, and (4) How to carry out multi-vertical analysis of demographic characteristics. It was motivated by the desire to bring the benefits of GIS technology to the planning process in general and to demographic analysis in particular. In developing the techniques, this study learnt from the experiences and knowledge of previous efforts of GIS applications in planning and demographic analysis. It examined how GIS spatial analysis and modeling techniques are being used and can be utilized for demographic analysis by examining results from the conventional demographic analyses, what has been done in GIS demographic Spatial Analysis (GIS-DSA) and what a planner expects from demographics. It employed individual georeferencing using buildings as the spatial entity and using GIS and statistical packages to experiment on both aggregated and micro demographic data from field survey. That enabled carrying out demographic analysis in 2D GIS, which involved producing a prototype module (Demographics Analyst) as an extension to ArcView GIS to accomplish spatial demographic nearest neighbor analysis, interactive density analysis, spatial alternative appraisal, spatial progressive clustering, etc. Followed by demographic surface characterization and modeling which involved introducing various demographic terms, generation of demographic features and quantities, their interpretation, and application; done after developing Geo-demographic interpolation and extrapolation methodology. Finally, using true 3D, a technique of incremental solid demographic modeling for quantity analysis was introduced, which need further research for its full development including algorithms and codes for a software development. This study shown that all demographic analyses cannot be achieved by looking or carrying out analysis only in one dimensionality of GIS; need to employ multi-dimensional GIS to accomplish GIS-DSA. It has shown how the various dimensionalities of GIS (2D, 2.5D, and 3D) can be used to accomplish specific tasks in demographics analysis at both aggregated and disaggregated with data collected by the traditional methods. This necessitates borrowing many terms from other applications and fields and even coining new ones to be used in generating visualizable demographic features and quantities that are in line with planner’s point of view. All these available at http://www.hbp.usm.my/thesis/heritageGIS (thesis web site) with easy to use interface as described in G

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Chapter I 1 INTRODUCTION AND MOTIVATION

1.1 Background In planning any area, the growth potentials must be expressed in terms of the population it is expected to sustain – the size of population, its composition, characteristics and its spatial distribution. To achieve this, the planning process has to use many attribute data about humans. Planning analyses require information on the different Demographic Characteristics (DCs), their quantities, how they vary from one location to another, how they are and will be spatially distributed in a study area and which DCs to be considered for which spatial planning analysis. Hence, demographics are the main inputs in the planning process. This population data is normally collected at the point level (individuals/households) but it is always aggregated to existing spatial entities (e.g. administrative units) to allow tabulations according to various data attributes and demographic analysis using statistical techniques. Here the human geographical dimensions of the information in data during demographic analysis are being forgotten most of the time, making it only to be used in data collection. As a result georeferencing information is lost or hidden or details are difficult to extract. Openshaw (1994a) talks about "spatial analysis crime" a label applied to those agencies that hold spatial information and fail to adequately use or analyze it. The problem may not be the lack of interest in spatial analysis by those with the data, no total lack of suitable methods or taken up with the quantitative revolution years of the 1960s, but how to go over it (how to carry out demographic spatial analysis and modeling in GIS environment). Past research confirms that the Geographic Information (GI)-based tools developed by vendors and/or academics are for various reasons under-utilized (Harris, 1989; Harris & Batty, 1993; Klosterman, 1997; lee, 1995). Among the reasons for under-utilization of GIS in planning is incompatibility of the mostly generic GI tools with the tasks and functions performed by planners. Murray (1999) concludes that it is one thing to have digital data, but a far more challenging issue is how this data can be analyzed and modeled leading to its understanding even for the users who are not GIS specialists. This, then, is the central theme in this thesis: GIS demographic spatial analysis and modeling in 2D, 2.5D and 3D can generate visualizable features and quantities for planning analysis. 1.2 Problem Statement The focus in this research was demographic spatial analysis and modeling in 2D, 2.5D and 3D GIS. This study investigated how GIS spatial analysis and modeling improves demographic data analysis at both aggregated and disaggregated levels in the planning process where demographic information and spatial analysis are strongly interrelated. We seek for new ways and how the available 2D, 2.5D and 3D GIS spatial analysis and modeling methods can be manipulated to produce a set of techniques that can be used to generate visualizable demographic features and quantities for planning analysis. This is further explained in the paragraphs that follow. To easily understand and fully utilize all of demographic data there is need to carry spatial analyses and modeling at both aggregate and disaggregate levels and to be linked to their locations. Thus, the problem ranges from representing spatially micro demographic data to aggregated data at which demographic features and quantities are required. GIS, with its spatially referenced data and spatial analysis tools can provide solutions and these problems correspond directly to the two key strengths of GIS manipulation and display of spatially referenced data (Chrisman, 1997; Chou, 1997; DeMers, 2000; Tomlin, 1990). This is further facilitated by GIS’s capability to test and manipulate variables faster and as it is less expensive to test models rather than reality and can predict consequences of proposed activities through simulation, which helps to pick "best" alternative. It is described as an important revolution in the planning practice (UCGIS) as GIS-related capabilities, techniques, and methods contribute to several skill areas of professional planners. These include analytical/research, communication and data processing (Godschalk & McMahon, 1992; Friedmann & Kuester, 1994; Kaufman & Simons, 1995). However, existing GIS spatial analysis and modeling techniques are not directly tailored to Demographic Spatial Analysis (DSA). We need to highlight the weak areas in current demographics analysis and look towards demographic analysis,
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characterization, and modeling in 2D, 2.5D and 3D GIS, or a combination of them to be able to generate demographic features and quantities for planning analysis. As we search for GIS-DSA, there are issues that need to be considered as highlighted by Gerland (1996). That unlike physical data (infrastructure, land cover, and land use), demographic data have some properties that make it difficult to deal as they are intended to explain or manage the behavior of individuals or groups. The position and the boundaries of demographic phenomena cannot be directly determined through observation or measurements, the phenomena are linked to people and their activities. Therefore, their distribution over space is often extremely uneven and heterogeneous, and these phenomena are not permanent but transient (Gerland, 1996). Also because of the very heterogeneous sources of population data, a variety of integration problems can occur (Gerland, 1996). Some of the problems are missing positional information, inconsistent classifications and methodologies, different spatial units, different levels of aggregation ("resolution"), thematic and spatial data gaps and different time references. These proceeding reviews bring in what the researcher termed as GIS-DSA problems. (1) The problem of demographic georeferencing i.e. how demographic data be geocoded efficiently to represent DCs, carry out spatial analysis and modeling. (2) Which GIS techniques to apply for which DA. (3) The question of which GIS dimension (2D, 2.5D and 3D) can accomplish DSA task. (4) The issue of surface terms that can be used to characterize demographics. (4) Multi-vertical DCs representation and modeling to be able to deal with DCs having the same location. Traditional population has been represented in 2D vector format, making it difficult to carry out surface analysis. To overcome the vector-based areal analysis, the raster surface has been proposed which uses discrete irregular data locations using the concept of ‘moving-kernel density estimation’ (Bracken & Martin, 1989; Martin, 1989). All in all population analysis in 2D has its own disadvantages in that the attributes are just linked to the x, y coordinates and can not be used as an integral part of the location during analysis and modeling; necessitating the move to 2.5D to overcome limitations. The idea that population can most appropriately be mapped and modeled as a surface (2.5D) is not new, Schmid and MacCannell (1955) discussed the construction of contour-based maps of population density, while Nordbeck and Rystedt (1970) demonstrated that population density can be viewed as a continuously varying reference interval surface. Tobler (1979) presented a method for pycnophylactic (volume-preserving) interpolation of values from irregular zones into surface form, and Goodchild, et al. (1993) reviewed a number of approaches to areal interpolation, noting that the process can be viewed as involving the estimation of an underlying population surface. Bracken and Martin (1989) dealt with the generation of socioeconomic surfaces for public policymaking, to over come the problems inherent in the analysis and presentation of such data in conventional area-based form. Martin (1996) comes out with use of surface representations to overcome problem of zonal boundaries, which support spatial analysis. The latest development in GIS population analysis and modeling is population geocoding using raster-based techniques, which use regular grid for modeling (Martin, 1999). Martin (2000) has developed a FORTRAN program for surface construction, which has been written for a Unix workstation, the technique is not currently included within any commercial GIS software. He is now working on a Visual Basic implementation. With those developments of population surface representation, the question is what surface terms can be used to characterize demographics. This calls for coining of terms to facilitate generation of visualizable demographic features and quantities. Another issue is that some DCs are represented spatially by two entities that differentiate them. For example gender, it either male or female; marital status is either single or married; etc. when these entities are modeled in GIS with the latest development in GIS surface analysis and modeling, we are able only to show their spatial locations and extents but not their spatial quantities. For a planner who is always looking how much and how DCs vary as we move from one location to the next, that does not provide total solution for s/his needs. They lack the true z values that should be the quantity of DCs, hence need techniques to represent them in such a way that their quantities can be represented spatially at the same time differentiating them by their traditional characteristics i.e. the combination of the surface and the Solid analysis and modeling.

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1.3 Objectives of the Study The objective of this study was to investigate how GIS (2D, 2.5D, and 3D) spatial analysis and modeling improves the demographic data analysis at both aggregate and disaggregate levels in the planning process in order to come up with documentation of a set of GIS demographic spatial analysis (GIS-DSA) techniques for generating visualizable demographic features and quantities. The following apriori sub objectives are formulated: • To assess how demographic analysis is being conducted and the current weaknesses. • The available GIS spatial analysis and modeling techniques that can be employed. • Requirements of a planner from demographics • Coining of new surface terms for surface characterization of demographics. • Development of GIS techniques (2D, 2.5D, and 3D) for DSA. • The utilization of GIS-DSA techniques in planning process. To accomplish the objectives, to keep focused and help in setting out the methodology, following research questions were formulated: • What is needed by the planner from demographics • How demographics analysis is being carried • What are the available GIS tools • How to geocode/georeference demographic data • Which GIS techniques to apply for specific demographic analysis • Which GIS dimension to apply for demographic analysis • What should a characterization of demographics achieve • How should and what are surface terms to characterize demographics • How to carry out multi-vertical GIS demographics 1.4 The Approach of the Study The approach starts by a review of literature of GIS and demographics in planning followed by Demographic Statistical Spatial Analysis (DSSA). We then look at the methods of GIS data analysis and modeling; GIS in planning analysis. After that, we start questioning what GIS-DA requires, how GIS-SA can be manipulated in relationship with results from DSSA to get GIS-DSA. Up to this stage, the concentration is in the conventional 2D GIS and done following the model given Figure 1.1

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Figure 1.1 Model of carrying out GIS demographic spatial analysis Then introduce 3D demographic spatial analysis and modeling, which is modeling the vertical dimension and encompasses the following general tasks as given in Figure 1.2.

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Figure 1.2 Three Dimensional demographic modeling tasks

• • • • •

Generation: reading demographics from the database, formation of relations among the diverse observations i.e. model construction. Manipulation: modification, refinement and derivation of intermediate models. Interpretation: analysis and information extraction. Visualization: graphical rendering and derived information; and Application: development of appropriate application models for planning purposes.

Modeling the vertical dimension is divided into surfaces-based (2.5D) and true 3D (solid) modeling. Start by looking at the shortcomings of 2D GIS-DA; then introduce the new demographic surface terms, their representation and the derivation of DCs from the surface and their interpretation. This proceeds by employing the conventional techniques from terrain analysis and modeling (DEM and DTM) and new techniques. Before embarking on a detailed description of the nature of GIS demographic surface analysis and modeling its scope is defined by addressing a number of underlying questions. First, what should a characterization of demographics in terms of surface attempt to achieve? Here look at characterization as having three specific objectives to answer, namely to identify spatial pattern, to facilitate interpretation, and to allow visualization of results, the whole aim being their applications. Second, How should demographic surface be modeled? In order to provide an objective scheme for development and evaluation of characterization tools, first demographic surface terms are identified and define demographic surface in terms of its form (generation), what lies upon it (appearance) and what it is used for (planning); which involves interpretation, visualization, analysis and application. As we accomplish these, we shall be contributing to what difference does it make to carry out demographic spatial analysis in GIS in terms generating visualizable demographic features and quantities. As this approach is followed, we can say from Namboodiri’s (1991) definition of scope of demographic studies1, this thesis is concerned with demographic analysis of size, composition and spatial spread and not with the conditions (deaths, migration, and birth) that produce those changes and the implications (e.g. mortality, fertility) of changes in population structure. Have limited the terms size and composition to number of people
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Demographers traditionally focus on the ever-changing size, composition, and spatial spread of the human inhabitants of territorial units. The size changes because of deaths, migration, and birth. Compositional change occurs when members of the population change their ascribed or achieved characteristics or when attrition (e.g. due to deaths) or accession (e.g. due to migration occurs disproportionately in different segments (e.g. age strata) of the population 5

and their make respectively to age, sex, ethnicity, and marital status which has been categorized into single (unmarried, divorced, living alone, separated, widowed) and married. This is done so that we focus on contribution of GIS to DSA and not the various categories of DCs. Using these variables devise and developed techniques in form of 2D, 2.5D and 3D GIS; these are neither to replace nor to substitute the statistical analysis but to complement, enhance and fill the missing gap which an analyst may face when carrying out demographics in GIS. In addition, this is not about implementing statistical methods as that have been done elsewhere and only reference will be made to such methods. 1.5 Thesis Layout This thesis main body is divided in four parts under six chapters (Figure 1.3).

Figure 1.3 Visual overview of the main portions of the thesis

First, is the “Introduction” covered in chapter one that highlights the research background, motivation, problem statement, objectives, methodology and list of Acronyms. Second is the Literature Review (chapter two) of GIS and demographic data in planning analysis, what is needed by a planner in terms of DA, information supposed to be derived from such data and analysis, the concerns and methods of DSSA, and what is lacking in them and then GIS-DSA and concludes by looking at a possible structure of utilizing GIS-DSA techniques in planning analysis. Third, is the “Approach” divided into chapter three which covers the study area, data used in the study, database design, connection between DB and GIS, evolving the GIS-DM, visualization of demographics, and introduces multi-dimensional GIS by outlining 2D, 2.5D, and 3D GIS to give an insight on GIS analysis and modeling techniques. Chapter four deals with demographic spatial analysis in 2D GIS. Chapter five starts with demographic data interpolation and extrapolation then demographic surface characterization. It ends by developing a model for 3D demographic spatial analysis. Finally, the Conclusion in chapter six which summarizes the research, findings, contributions, application and highlights areas of future work.

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Chapter II 2 GIS AND DEMOGRAPHICS IN PLANNING

2.1 Introduction At the core of this thesis is the perceived need for improvement and new spatial techniques in the current planning practice for the planner to carry out demographic analysis. The term spatial is crucial as it means that it is not enough for the planner to carry out aspatial demographic analysis. This chapter examines four important questions that are the basis and key to GIS Demographic Spatial Analysis (GIS-DSA). The first, why there is need for demographic analysis in planning; the answer to this question is important because it places this study in the context of planning. The second question, how demographics are analyzed; by answering this, set justification for developing the GIS-DSA for planning analysis. Third, demographic data itself and what are the setbacks for a disaggregated spatial analysis? Then finally, what are problems and attempts that have been done to empower GIS for demographic spatial analysis? So that we learn from others and we do not fall in the likely potholes as we move to GIS-DSA. 2.2 Demographic Information in Planning Although physical planning has been the traditional focus (Solesbury, 1974), demographic is an important concern, as plans must reflect the interests and priorities of people and the implementation of plans must take into consideration the possible conflicts of DCs. One of the main reasons for studying demography is that population structure and change are intertwined with physical, social, economic and political structure (Namboodiri, 1991) and the study of demography is essential to understanding these linkages so that have a grasp of what the available facts are and how to use them to examine the determinants and consequences of population trends. In addition, understanding the determinants and consequences of population trends is essential in implementing and evaluating polices and programs that are often introduced with the view to steering population trends in specific directions. In planning analysis, demographic data is termed as being very important (Plane, et al., 1994) and in sustainable development, which is, ultimate planning goal; it is declared as the ultimate requirement (Chapin, et al., 1985). This is so, as in planning any area, the growth potentials must be expressed in terms of the population it is expected to sustain. To achieve that, there are many aspects that are needed by a planner in terms of demographic analysis – chief among those is analysis of the size of population, composition, characteristics, spatial distribution, (Chapin, et al., 1985; Haining, 1990; Klosterman, et al., 1994; Plane, et al., 1994), generation of demographic features and quantities and selection DCs to use in the different planning analysis. DCs affect priorities in health and social care and they can be used for predicting where money needs to be spent, saved or redirected. For example; if there was a sudden rise in births, a lot more money would have to be spent on education. At a more national level comparisons can be made from area to area. For example, if one area shows a particularly high rate of deaths from smoke related cancers; extra resources might be directed in to health education in that area. DCs can also identify areas of need for major projects such as determining quantity and location of important facilities like housing, schools, hospitals, etc and amenities like parking spaces, electricity supply, drainage system, water supply, wastewater treatment, and solid waste capacity depend on demographics. So demographic information is useful for: assessing need, prioritizing need, planning ahead, saving money, justification of expenditure, justification of action, estimating expenditure, and evaluating. A plan formulated without serious consideration of the carrying capacities of the population (DCs) will eventually leads to man made disasters like traffic congestion, pollution, flood, strained infrastructures and a wholesale destruction of the delicate balance in our environment2 as emphasized by several planners and leader3. 2.3 Demographic Data Analysis 2.3.1 Aggregation Demographic Analysis Most of the population data, e.g. Penang, Malaysia; is reported according to age (5 year cohorts), sex, marital status, ethnicity, household size, type of household (like single
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Penang Draft structure plan (1987), Municipal council of Pinang Island. Penang Island Municipal Council president (Datuk Haji Mohamed Bin Yeob Abdul Raof – Penang Draft Structure Plan, 1987) commits on formulating the plan, the main concern will always be the well being of the people. 7

person household, nuclear family households, extended family, headship rate, and non private households), and growth rate; nevertheless, aggregated to mukim (see Table E.10) to be used in planning analysis4. By analyzing population according to such divisions and other areal geographies such as census zones, electoral constituencies, or local government areas leads to problem of modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP) as fully discussed by Openshaw (1984). It gives rise to false interpretations where analyses are made purely because of arbitrary aggregations of the data (Fotheringham & Rogerson, 1993; Openshaw, 1984) and may even produce relationships that are non-existent (Thomas & Huggett, 1980). However, Openshaw (1984, page 33) reminds us of the important fact that “the MAUP exist because of uncertainty as to what are the spatial entities that are being studied”. If this uncertainty is removed, then the MAUP disappears with it. Another issue is that of ecological fallacy, which is the inappropriate inference of individual/household-level relationships from areal unit results (Wrigley, et al., 1996). Any observed pattern in the mapped data may be largely due to the particular configuration of zonal boundaries used; and the relationship between variables that are observed at one level of aggregation may not hold at the individual or any other level of aggregation (Martin, 1996, 1999). Many researches have been carried out in this area including Openshaw (1984) where he quantified for the typical range of ecological fallacy problems, which might be expected in census data analysis via a study of 122,342 households census records for the city of Florence, Italy. With MAUP and ecological fallacy, population aggregation becomes a critical problem when it comes to allocation in planning; among these are economic resource allocation, facility location, and recreation location planning; which all require detailed population spatial distribution (section 2.3.3). This has led to a trend in application of GIS for population analysis and increased precise georeferencing. As a result new data series are becoming available which offer the ability to directly georeference individual property to sub-meter precision such as the UK’s ADDRESS-POINT product (Martin, 1996). However to argue that the answer to minimize the impact of the MAUP and ecological fallacy is by only using data at the lowest possible level of aggregation and doing away with zones altogether by moving to frame independent forms of spatial data representation and analysis; there are problems with both approaches and it seems inevitable that population analysis will continue to use aggregate data. Before we look for different ways of analyzing population to avoid such analysis problems, it important to know why analysis is done at such aggregation level so that advantages of aggregated geographical analysis are incorporated in our developments and improvement, the justifications for this analysis could be seen as (Openshaw, 1991; Martin, 1996,1999): • Some analysis and many social phenomena (such as unemployment rate) cannot be measured for an individual, but only have meaning in relation to aggregation data. • The density index is simple and so can readily be understood by policy makers and political subdivisions (zones) are the smallest geographical unit for which this index could be accurately calculated because the zone areas are known. • The zones boundaries are statutorily defined and possesses a legal significance- this is important because public expenditure has been conventionally allocated only through processes that recognize official geographical areas. Zones have been used for a number of other key indicators with resource implications index like defining deprivation areas for health service resource allocation. • Due to the requirement for protection of individuals’ identities In addition the above justifications, it has the following four main advantages: 1) Aggregating data does not provide much burden on computing resources. 2) Do give sufficient insights into system-wide behavior by facilitating the understanding of the behavior of groups of people (Fotheringham & Rogerson, 1993). 3) Spatial aggregation is a form of simplification, which furthers our understanding of a complex problem, and 4) by aggregating spatially, errors in poor quality data will tend to cancel.

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State population report Pulau Pinang (1995); Penang Strategic Development Plan 1991-2000 (1991), Institute of strategic and international studies and Penang Development Corporation; Penang state databank (1996), Malaysia 1994 department of statistics, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 8

2.3.2 Disaggregated Demographic Data Aggregation has the above justification and advantages, but true analysis of population structure is about looking at it at disaggregated level of families, households, individuals, gender, race, age, ethnicity, etc. As Eversley, et al. (1982) states, the key to the analysis of consequences of change in demographics for welfare policies lies not in the aggregation of number, but in the structure of the population. Taking an example like a change (decrease) in the population may be represented by a proportional reduction of households of all types, or a similar reduction in average households size, or a combination of both of these, by considering the population at that aggregation, we work on the assumption that the populations are similar in structure, composition, and distribution. Under such assumption; change in policy like expansion of infrastructure would be constant, these assumptions are sometimes quite unrealistic as the actual situation on ground may be that different small areas have different population densities, not forgetting that areas will be having different population demographic composition leading to different needs for each area. Also planning for new area, disaggregated demographics plays a big role, as different age cohorts tend to settle in the same area. This has been experienced in many cities like the analysis carried out by Burnley, et al. (1997) where from the socio-demographic profiles of movers to outer suburban Sydney (Australia) were markedly over represented in the 25-34 age-cohort (45.1% of the movers) making it the peak home-purchasing group. From the findings done on two North American cities of Toronto and Vancouver in Canada, Skaburskis (1997) gives determinates for locational preferences and the age 30 when most children leave their parents to form households, which fall within the 25-34 cohort given by Burnley, et al. (1997). There is need to examine the changing pattern of demography at micro level to monitor the needs and demands as the growth in the number of households has greatly exceeded the rate of population growth in most countries and so more dwellings would be needed even if overall population remained stable. Taking for example the average household size in Great Britain fell from 3.3 to 2.5 persons between 1961 and 1991 (Chris, 1995). This change alone implies that an additional 100 dwellings may have been required for every 1000 persons in the population in 1991 than had been the case 40 years before. When Vaupel (1998) examines ageing and longevity through a demographic analysis "the population of most of the world's countries are growing older. This shift is creating a new demography, demography of low fertility and long lives. The rapidly growing populations of the elderly are putting unprecedented stresses on societies, because new systems of financial support, social support, and health care have to be developed and implemented”. Thus, it is important to analyze DCs to show where the change is occurring i.e. where marriages are taking place, where the fertility is constant or changing, separation and divorce leading to single parent households. The intermetropolitan distributions: where the specific age cohorts are concentrated in inner city, outskirts, where pensioners are living; how the area varies. There is need to analyze disaggregated population sparsity in planning as it may cause additional costs (staffing, fabric, additional transport, etc) in deriving public services to population in different areas. As this had been carried out according to political boundaries, this becomes costly to derive services to areas, which are not densely populated compared to densely populated areas. Although by aggregating spatially, errors in poor quality data will tend to cancel, research evidence, however, suggests that for a given set of data, aggregating data into spatial units the benefit occurs only when the data quality is poor. The issue of the computing limitations is now history as modern electronic computers are able to handle large volumes of data when a highly disaggregated spatial representation is adopted especially with the GIS technology which is capable of handling the finest level of resolution required. Looking from the data observation point, traditionally population are collected mainly using the field survey method where information about each individual is recorded, but this population data is later aggregated mainly according to zones to be used in planning analysis. This leads to hiding important spatial information mostly about individuals and end up by not using data of spatial allocation of people, which is much needed for efficient social planning. We have to change and the question of resources

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should not be the main setback as the same data collected traditionally can be utilized in disaggregated spatial analysis. About confidentiality concerns, many authorities have expressed their views including Openshaw (1994b) view on privacy, where he says that, there are civil liberties, privacy, and data protection excuses that can be applied, but these are often grossly exaggerated, misunderstood, and treated only in a highly negative manner. He further argues that in the UK the data protection act of 1984 is not so much protecting sensitive data as preventing or scaring people from performing analysis and concludes by saying, this is clearly not right, more especially if there is a public goods case that can be made. Privacy, confidentiality, and civil rights should not prevent analysis so much as to ensure that the information is not released or misused in a way that impact on the privacy of the identifiable individual. This is very important but it is not a valid excuse for non-analysis within appropriate confidentiality envelopes and barriers (Openshaw, 1996). Even though the data have not been released at the micro-data level, the planner has to analyze and take advantage of using non-aggregated data. Software control can be used to protect privacy after the planners have analyzed the data at the micro-data level. In some parts of the world, this was over come long time ago like Nordbeck and Rystedt (1970) cover the case in which individual people are directly observed at coordinate locations, and also Sweden data are publicly available with the geographical coordinates of individual houses (Tobler, 1979). Finally, disaggregate models enable us to learn about individual behavior and from this aggregation can be performed where the planner is not interested in individual behavior. The areal aggregation approach is the most common and includes the conventional choropleth census mapping and census type data are generally available in this form. Martin (1991) points out the limitations of this approach, including the inherent assumption that geographic space is divided into internally homogeneous zones with all change occurring across zone boundaries. This is a fundamental flaw, as neither the attributes characteristics (age, sex, race, etc) nor the distribution of population can reasonably be expected to be uniform within any arbitrarily defined areal unit. Although total counts and summary statistics for the attributes defined will be correct, this information is impossible to interpret up to individual level precisely. 2.3.3 Need for Demographic Spatial Analysis After looking at the way population is handled, and since planning is becoming increasingly demanding both spatial and non-spatial data (Jebasingam, 2000; Nasruddin, 2000); an understanding of the spatial distribution of human activity has an increasing important role to play in answering many questions as expressed in section 2.2. It provides valuable information on the analysis of settlement and neighborhood patterns and the distribution of residential, commercial, and industrial activities. It has been argued that social and spatial structure “feed upon one another” to, in a literal sense, eventually become each other. Knowing where the young and old live, tells us about the changing social relationships and their individual geographies. It is a basis for a better knowing of why society is organized as it is, making us to learn from history so that we properly plan. Dorling (1994) argues that spatial patterns of a population reflect the social structure. These patterns reflect a reality that impinges upon everyday lives; lives whose course is governed by that social structure, a social structure that is changing spatially. Spatial population analysis becomes a critical problem when it comes to allocation in planning; among these are economic resource allocation, facility location, and recreation location planning; which all require detailed population spatial distribution (Planes, et al., 1994). Openshaw (1991) gives three basic types of locational problem of interest here: 1. Pure location problem: which involves finding the optimum geographical or spatial location of a single facility to serve a fixed set of demand. This needs the evaluation of the demand that is expected at potential location. Taking the example of location of youth center, the question is which site is likely to attract more youth. 2. Location problem: here it is assumed that the location of demand points (viz. people) and the location of two or more facilities are both known and fixed. The problem is to determine an optimal allocation of the demand points to facilities so as to satisfy a particular objective; for example determining which people go to the youth center. 3. Location-allocation problem: this combines the above two. That is, given a set of fixed demand points determine the optimum locations for two or more facilities so that they
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best serve the demand points. For example determining the location of more youth centers given the population in the study area. From this, we see the need for spatial population at individual level according to DCs, as different age groups, sex category, and marital status need different facility to be located in area where such population with specific DCs is living, as one zone may be having population with few falling under specific youth category. Also not taking population spatially at disaggregated level has the weakness in that a wrong conclusion may be made like two zones having the same total population and differ in that one zone may be having households concentrated in one corner. Thus, we should not take households and zones as being homogenous in their composition and size. There are several reasons why spatial analysis is key to integrated demographics assessment framework. • There is a strong link between humans and their environment. Spatial analysis techniques and methods help to incorporate spatial elements in order to develop clearer picture of this human/environment link. • For population study, different group's outcomes require varying spatial resolution of population model. • People’s actions and activities are spatial. Adding a spatial perspective can often add an important dimension to a study. For instance, using spatial analysis researchers could identify geographic clusters, define service areas for facilities as well as develop models to calculate the impact of changes in populations. • Demographic spatial analysis is needed more in this 21st century, as the newest generation of adults, younger than most residents is becoming the majority (Listokin, et al.); and different groups of city residents have become more sophisticated in pursuing their special interests. They are better informed, understand laws and procedures, have greater political skills, and are more militant and persistent. They have learned that planning brings order to change. Planners have to respond by directing public services and capital improvements toward upgrading the quality of life in those areas that have unique attractions for various groups. Thus, spatial demographics are needed in the preparation and implementation of comprehensive plans, location-allocation plans and development plans, which deal with the process of growth/decline of cities and metropolitan areas. 2.4 Demographic Statistical Analysis Before we go GIS Spatial Analysis (section 2.5), let us look at the methods and techniques that have been most commonly used to analyze demographics. This is necessary to guide us as we seek for GIS-DSA. The methods of statistical data analysis fall into Multivariate data analysis and univariate data analysis. Univariate analysis involves the examination across cases of one variable at a time and three major characteristics are looked at: the distribution, the central tendency and the dispersion. Univariate statistical techniques represent a variety of basic descriptive statistics and include: Poisson process, nearest neighbor analysis, etc (Haining, 1990; Cressie, 1991; Fotheringham, et al., 1994). There are situations where several possible response variable needs to be dealt with simultaneously and this bring into consideration multivariate statistical techniques. Multivariate statistics provide the ability to analyze complex sets of data where there are many independent and possible dependent variables, which are correlated to each other at varying degrees. The most commonly used methods of modeling multivariate data include (Fotheringham, et al. 1994; Plane, et al. 1994, Trevor, 1994) descriptive statistics, multivariate statistical analysis, multivariate spatial correlation, Clustering, Geostatistical, Spatial econometric modeling, factorial ecology and spatial general linear modeling. Since this thesis is about spatial analysis, only the spatial statistical analysis techniques will be looked at. 2.4.1 Spatial Statistical Analysis Under spatial analysis, the focus is a spatial data set i.e. a data set in which each observation is referenced to a site or area (geographical location). Much of demographic data is collected in spatial context and methods of analyses of spatial data include data description, map interpolation, exploratory data analyses (including descriptive statistics), explanatory analyses, and confirmatory data analyses (statistical inference, development and testing of models) (Haining, 1990). Spatial statistics (statistics concerned with data collected at various points in space) summarize and describe numerically a variety of spatial patterns. Spatial statistics fall into three categories: Point
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pattern analysis, spatial autocorrelation and Geostatistics (include descriptive spatial statistics) (Cressie, 1993) 2.4.1.1 Spatial Pattern Analysis Generally, analysis of spatial data involves the usage of either the connectivity or the similarity of spatial objects. A data set consisting of irregularly distributed points within a region is referred as (spatial) point pattern. In point pattern analysis the spatial properties of points are studied rather than the individual entities (quality of the point). Points are one-dimensional (1D) features, thus the valid measures of point distribution are the number of occurrences in the pattern and respective geographic location (Chou, 1997). The objective of analysis of a point pattern may involve test of complete spatial randomness, estimation of intensity, stochastic model fitting (involving or containing a random variable or variables) etc, to provide an explanation of the underlying processes. Point pattern analysis is concerned with the location of events, and with answering questions about the distribution of those locations, specifically whether they are clustered, randomly or regularly distributed (Bailey & Gatrell, 1995; Cressie, 1993) so that we able to determine the relationships between DCs. To determine such relationships use a number of techniques including the use of basic descriptive statistics (i.e. mean, standard deviation, etc.), Poisson process using the chi-square test statistic, nearest neighbor distance using the R test statistic, quadrat analysis and spatial autocorrelation using Geary's C and Moran's I test statistic (Chou, 1997) 2.4.1.2 Nearest Neighbor Analysis Nearest neighbor analysis examines the distances between each point and the closest point to it (Fotheringham, et al., 1994; Wulder, 1999). The Nearest neighbor is a method of exploring pattern in locational data by comparing graphically the observed distribution functions of event-to-event or random point-to-event nearest neighbor distances. Either with each other or with those that may be theoretically expected from various hypothesized models, in particular that of spatial randomness (Upton, 1985), i.e. it describes distribution of points according to their spacing. The Nearest neighbor index measures the degree of spatial dispersion in the distribution based on the minimum of the inter-feature distances (Chou, 1997), i.e. it is based on the distance between adjacent point features. Such that the distance between point features in a clustered pattern will be smaller than in a scattered (uniform) distribution with random falling between the two. Thus Nearest neighbor analysis puts us in position determine how sparse the DCs are as we carry out planning. 2.4.1.3 Spatial Autocorrelation Spatial autocorrelation may be defined as the relationship among values of a single variable that comes from the geographic arrangement of the areas in which these values occur. It measures the similarity of objects within an area, the degree to which a spatial phenomenon is correlated to itself in space (Cliff & Ord, 1973, 1981), the level of interdependence between the variables, the nature and strength of the interdependence. Spatial autocorrelation is an assessment of the correlation of a variable in reference to spatial location of the variable. Assess if the values are interrelated, and if so is there a spatial pattern to the correlation, i.e. is there spatial autocorrelation. Spatial autocorrelation tools test whether the observed value of a variable at one locality is independent of values of the variable at neighboring localities. Spatial autocorrelation may be classified as either positive or negative. Positive spatial autocorrelation has all similar values appearing together i.e. a map pattern where geographic features of similar value tend to cluster on a map. While negative spatial autocorrelation has dissimilar values appearing in close association i.e. a map pattern in which geographic units of similar values scatter throughout the map. When no statistically significant spatial autocorrelation exists, the pattern of spatial distribution is considered random (Chou, 1997). With this analysis, we can test to know the characteristics of the population where similar DCs are uniformly distributed or concentrated in one locality. 2.4.1.4 Descriptive Statistics Descriptive statistics addresses itself to summarizing in brief form the information contained in a distribution. They are used to describe the basic features of the data in a study. They provide simple summaries about the sample and the measures, present quantitative descriptions in a manageable form and help us to summary large amounts of data in a sensible way. Descriptive statistics are divided into basic descriptive statistics
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and descriptive statistics for spatial data (Chou, 1997; Willemain, 1980): Basic descriptive statistics are aspatial- include 1) central tendency, which shows the trend in the distribution: include mean, median, and mode. 2) Dispersion that shows the extent of dispersion about the central tendency includes the range and the standard deviation. 3) The entropy is an index of uncertainty representing in a quantitative way, how well we can predict which value a random variable will take on. 4) Skewness measures the extent to which the bulk of the values in a distribution are concentrated to one side or the other of the mean; and 5) kurtosis measures the extent to which values are concentrated in one part of a frequency distribution. Descriptive statistics for spatial data, unlike the first group which deals with a simple set of numbers and do not refer to geographic location, x, y coordinates or anything spatial, this leads us to understand spatial relationships among points and the distribution of point features. Employ techniques like spatial dispersion, spatial arrangement, spatial mean, geometric center and standard distance. 2.5 GIS Spatial Analysis GIS and spatial analysis have enjoyed a long and productive relationship over the past decades (Goodchild, et al., 1992; Fotheringham & Rogerson, 1994), the origins of spatial analysis lie in the development in the early 1960s of quantitative geography and regional science (Chou, 1997) and many developments have taken place. GIS has been seen as the key to implementing methods of spatial analysis, making them more accessible to a broader range of users, and hopefully more widely used in making effective decisions and in supporting scientific research. GIS is different from other statistical analysis because the attribute data has established links to maps for visual analysis (Clarke, 1997). Any statistic we can think of to describe the data then automatically has geographic properties and as a result can be placed on maps for visual processing. It has been argued that in this sense the relationship between spatial analysis and GIS is analogous to that between statistics and the statistical packages. Specialized GIS packages directed specifically at spatial analysis have emerged (Bailey & Gatrell, 1995). Anselin, Chou (1997) and Fotheringham, et al. (1994) have discussed the ways in which implementation of spatial analysis methods in GIS are leading to new exploratory evidence. The analysis of spatial order and spatial association requires the following three elements of spatial information: 1) the exact location of every spatial feature must be available, 2) attribute data which provides important information about the properties of the spatial features under consideration, and 3) topology responsible for defining the spatial relationships between map features (Burrough, 1986, Chou, 1997). From Chou (1997), DeMers (1997) and Heywood, et al. (1998) GISs are indispensable for spatial analysis because of their ability to integrate all the three elements of spatial formation in locally consistent manner. A database management system handling only attribute is best used for aspatial statistical analysis. A computer system capable of handling location and attribute data but not topological elements is suitable for automated cartography, but not spatial analysis. A typical automated cartography system provides mapping functions for organization and presentation of spatial information but spatial relationships among map features can be effectively processed only by using GIS that provides the functionality to handle all three types of elements 2.5.1 Need for GIS Demographic Spatial Analysis We need to answer questions like "what if?” which is probably the comprehensive attempt to date in simulating land use scenarios (Klosterman, 1999), this needs demographics to play a vital role in the outcomes, but yet to gain usability in planning at various levels of government (Matheny, et al., 1999) due to lack of easy reference to spatial databases. Demographic data for planning analysis has been traditional analyzed by statistical techniques (section 2.4) and various models have been developed like Population Analysis Spreadsheets (PAS), Spread model (Klosterman, et al., 1994). Most of these models although they can account for change in demography, they lack the spatial aspect as it is not possible to geographically view and analyze the patterns, ignoring the demographic spatial dimension. There are approaches from different fields trying or which have taken advantage of GIS’s spatial analysis capability in order to incorporate the spatial aspect like geology, terrain analysis, etc. Although the GI-based tools have proved useful for understanding physical and environmental processes, the socioeconomic dynamics are still hard to model and/or simulate making the use of GIS in demographic data not fully utilized. Nevertheless, it is rapidly expanding, as Martin (1996) reports; the 1991 census of population was the first in UK to be conducted in what
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might be called the ‘GIS era’. The 2001 census geography is designed by and for GIS (Martin, 1999), and many other areas have or are integrating spatial aspect like in Tiger files5 and PopMap6. When it comes to planning, for almost two decades in 1960s and 1970s GIS and planning modeling developed in parallel with few interactions (Sui, 1998). But, this changed by the 1980s and by early 1990s; it was and perhaps still a general consensus within GIS community and GIS applications that the lack of analytical and modeling capabilities is one of the major deficiencies in the current generation of GIS technology. This seriously limits the usefulness of GIS as a research tool to analyze spatial data and relationships (Anselin & Getis, 1993; Goodchild, 1987; Fischer & Nijkamp, 1992; Openshaw, 1991; Sui, 1998). 2.5.2 Spatial Analytical and Modeling Capabilities into GIS Many researchers like Goodchild, et al. (1992), Anselin and Hudak (1992), Fischer and Nijkamp (1992), Fotheringham and Rogerson (1994), and Fischer, et al. (1996) are working towards overcoming lack of spatial analytical and modeling capabilities in GIS. To address this shortcoming, extensions toward enabling statistical analysis within the GIS environment have been attempted (Zhang & Griffith, 1997; Anselin). In each case there is an increasing distinction being made between those who see the analysis functions as being driven by the user7 with the emphasis on interactive spatial statistics (e.g. using Xlisp Stat) with various graphic devices providing a means of visualizing patterns and relationships; and others8 who regard the analysis as being performed largely automatically by machine but with some user guidance, intuition and insights, whilst also presenting the results back for further interpretation. As Openshaw (1995) points out, the aim is to create an intelligent partnership that allows machines to do what they are best at (e.g. pattern sifting) and let human beings do what they are good at (interpretation, application of experience, ability to think laterally, etc). He concludes that the optimal approach is clearly a combination of the two. In addition, various approaches have been proposed which include integration of spatial analysis methods and other models in GIS that has led to a new exploratory analysis (Goodchild, 1987; Haining, 1990; Fotheringham & Rogerson, 1993; Openshaw, 1994c; Openshaw, 1997). This followed Fotheringham, et al. (1994); Chou (1997); and DeMers (2000) conclusion that GIS is an incomplete set of spatial analytical tools, in many cases we are obliged test or combine GIS tools with statistical analysis and others in order to accomplish spatial analysis. Many on-going research on the linkage and integration between GIS, spatial statistical analysis and other models (e.g. Arentze, et al., 1996; Fotheringham, et al., 1994) have suggested the following approaches.

1.

Embedding GIS-like functionalities into other spatial analysis or modeling packages (Birkin, et al., 1987) e.g. XLisp-Stat Package which extend the geographical data handling and mapping facilities of statistical programming package (Openshaw, et al., 1996; Tierney, 1991). 2. Embedding urban modeling into GIS e.g. urban data management system (UDMS), TransCAD, ArcView Spatial/Network analysts (Sui, 1998) 3. Loose coupling, where GIS package and urban modeling program (e.g. TRANSPLAN, TRIPS) or statistical package (e.g. S-Plus, SAS, SPSS) can be maintained as two separate packages and simply exchange data between the two systems via data exchange using either ASCII or binary data format (Shaw, 1993; Sui, 1998; Sui & Lo, 1992). The approach writes information from a GIS into a file and read this into a statistical package to carry out the analysis. The results are then read back by GIS. Anselin, et al. (1993) have combined SpaceStat, a program for the analysis of spatial data, with the Arc/Info using this approach. 4. Tight coupling: Spatial analysis or urban models can be fully integrated within the GIS software via either GIS macro or conventional programming (Anselin, et al., 1993; Ding & Fotheringham, 1992; Sui, 1998).
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TIGER, (Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing system), http://www.census.gov/geo/www/tiger/, U.S. Census http://www.census.gov/ and http://www.census.gov/geo/www/index.html 6 An information and decision support system for population activities - United Nations Population Information Network (POPIN) http://www.undp.org/popin , http://www.undp.org/, and http://www.un.org/ 7 SPACE-STAT (Anselin, 1992) and SPIDER-REGARD packages of Haslet, et al., (1990, 1991) 8 Openshaw et al (1987, 1990). Anselin (1994) and others who prefer the highly man-machine interactive data exploration approach. 14

Although loose coupling is the simplest approach (Densham, 1996; Fedra, 1991; Nyerges, 1991) it has many problems (Densham, 1996) including being unable to drag-drop, inconsistence between data structures causing versioning problems that both introduce errors to and propagate them through analysis. In Carver (1998), we see that to export spatial data from the GIS to standard statistical systems is not an adequate solution, because the nature of spatial data requires specific spatial analytical functions. In addition, it is not realistic to embed GIS functions into a spatial statistical package although it seems to be an overwhelming preference (Carver, 1998). A full integration of spatial analysis tools into a GIS seems most promising (Hansen, 1996). And that using this strategy we can utilize the interactivity between maps, charts and spatial statistics to get a good feeling of patterns and relationships within the data; examples include Arc/SPlus (Arc/Info is linked to S-Plus), SpaceStat integration with ArcView GIS by Anselin, Openshaw’s Geographical Analysis Machine (GAM) (Openshaw et al., 1987). Specialized GIS packages directed specifically at spatial analysis have emerged as given by Anselin (1996, 1999), Anselin and Getis, (1993), Bailey and Gatrell (1995), Haining (1990), a good example is IDRISI for windows. Coming to relation with this study, these are not directed towards generating demographic features and quantities from the planner’s point of view and the difficulty the planner often experiences in understanding what the results mean in relation to planning analysis is the issue here, not the integration. The principle need is to develop a style from the existing techniques and documentation of spatial analysis for GIS demographic analysis, so that the planner (as a user of GIS) can use, not to force a planner to the methods that were created by experts for experts (Openshaw, et al., 1996). A fully integrated system can be built by designing both GIS and analytical capabilities around a common data model and providing a single user interface i.e. model inside GIS environment. Although, modeling inside GIS is one of the most frequently cited deficiencies of GIS (Harris & Batty 1993); but Longley and Batty (1996) concludes that GIS should be adapted and extended so that it is made relevant to the domains to which it is applied as well as to the ways in which it can be used to extend science. It is this approach being adopted (in this thesis) where demographic analysis in 2D, 2.5D and 3D are being modeled in a GIS environment. But, it is useful to try to identify the types of spatial analysis needs that appear to exist in the GIS era and take advantage of several criteria that aim to distinguish between GISable and GIS irrelevant technology (Openshaw, 1991, 1994c) as we move to a GIS-DSA. With this approach, it is easy for the planner to carry out DSA and relate to other spatial databases as it will be discussed and experimented (in section 4 & 5) with the tasks and the way a planner is accustomed to using demographics. Nevertheless, let us look at GIS demographics spatial analysis into planning in the section that follows 2.6 GIS Demographic Spatial Analysis into Planning Before we look at study area, materials, methods, design of GIS for demographic analysis, and experimentation of GIS-DSA, it is vital to know how the developed GIS-DSA in 2D, 2.5D and 3D can be integration in the planning analysis. A planner may use different sets of techniques to support his/her activities and Arentze et al. (1996) differentiates between those techniques or models that are external to the planning activities and those that support these activities. External techniques and models typically provide information that planners can use to base their decision upon e.g. population analysis, input/output analysis, spatial choice models, etc; other techniques and methods support these activities directly e.g. design methods, multi-criteria evaluation, scheduling and time management algorithms. Here we are concerned with population; but before we go into detail, and also to better understand its integration; let us look at the developments of GIS in planning. Planning theory is based on two types of rationality that are relevant for understanding the role of GISci and GIS technology in urban and regional planning: instrumental and communicative rationality. Instrumental (functional) rationality is based on a positivist idea, which puts information gathering and scientific analysis at the core of planning. It assumes a direct relationship between the information available and quality of decisions based on this information. Communicative (substantive or procedural) rationality focuses on open and inclusive planning process, public participation, dialogue, consensus
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building, and conflict resolution (Godschalk, et al., 1994; Innes, 1996). While the two theoretical stances are often viewed as competing (Sager, 1990; Yifachel, 1999), the role of information (this case demographics) is relevant to both of them (and not restricted to instrumental rationality as the more traditional view would hold). Participants in the planning process rely on many types of "information”, including both the formal analytic reports and quantitative measures and the understandings and meanings attached to planning issues and activities (Innes, 1998). Indeed, GISci and GIS in particular has contributed and will continue to contribute to the planning practice in this information age with communicative (expression with words) transcending the quantitative dichotomy. Many researchers (Arentze, 1996; Lee, 1995; Longley & Batty, 1996) have dealt with importance and application of GIS in planning and many planning models have been integrated into GIS (section 2.5). This is further evidence from GI research e.g. UCGIS research priorities (UCGIS) all applicable to the field of planning and will certainly benefit from its research. From that we see the most critical areas of GI research that have benefited and carry the potential of being the most useful for planning practice are: 1) GIS database developments for planning-related analysis; 2) Integration of GI technologies with urban models. 3) Building of planning support systems. 4) Facilitating discourse and participation in the planning process. 5) Evaluation of planning practice and technological impact. GIS-based research in planning spans all five-contribution areas and a variety of planning sub fields, including urban growth management, land use planning, zoning, housing, community and economic development, transportation planning, environmental issues, provision of community parks and open space, and supply of public utilities and amenities (Harris & Batty, 1993; Webster 1993, 1994; Wellar, et al., 1994). In addition, Wellar, et al. (1994) and Webster (1993, 1994) matches the scientific input required to the various stages of the planning process: a) problem identification requires description and prediction; b) goal setting, plan generation, evaluation of alternatives, and choice of solution requires prescription; c) implementation requires description, prediction, and prescription; and finally d) monitoring requires description and prediction With such GIS applications in planning, GIS-DSA integration is possible as the developed 2D, 2.5D, and 3D GIS-DSA techniques are within GIS environment and GIS aid the planning process via incorporation one or more of the following features: Modeling procedures (Kammeier, 1999); expert systems (Edamura & Tsuchida 1999; Shi & Yeh 1999); databases, decision trees, computer aided design or CAD (Ranzinger & Gleixner, 1997; Schuur, 1994); mapping (Singh, 1999); user interfaces for public participation (Shiffer, 1992); virtual reality and World Wide Web (Doyle, et al., 1998; Heikkila, 1998); development of planning support systems and integration of GI with other technologies like hypertext, groupware, audio/visuals, multimedia, models, simulations, expert systems, etc. (Varkki, 1997; Hopkins, 1999); Evaluation of planning practice and technological impact (Knaap et al., 1998; Nedovic-Budic, 1998, 1999; Sawicki & Flynn, 1996; Talen, 1996, 1998); facilitating discourse and participation in the planning process (Craig, 1998; Harvey & Chrisman, 1998; Sawicki & Craig, 1996; Sarjakoski, 1998; Schon, et al., 1999; Talen, 1999). For a clear picture of the contribution of GIS-DSA and its integration into the planning process, let us take into consideration, the different scales and different stages of planning (combination of those proposed by Arentze, et al. 1996; Yeh, 1999) i.e. problem identification (determination of planning objectives), goal analysis and specification (the analysis of existing situations), generating alternatives (development of planning option), information collection (modeling and projection), evaluation (selection of planning options), plan implementation, monitoring and feedback/early warning. Different functions, scales, and stages of planning need different demographics input and also make different use of GIS (Figure 2.4) and quite different types of decisions are made at each planning level and the methods of planning used will differ (Kerr, 1992).

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Figure 2.4 GIS demographic spatial analysis into planning process The first step in planning process is that of problem identification. GIS are well suited for this task and GIS-DSA comes directly into play as the problem touches the human being. With search, retrieval and overlay options allows the planner to test if certain areas meet the conditions s/he thinks are indicative of the problem according to the demographics. The second phase concerns goal analysis and specification. Although GIS do not allow one to perform such analysis (Arentze, et al., 1996); its environment aids one to immediately define goals seeing the results of analysis and demographics play a role in goal compatibility analysis. GIS-DSA can be used in analysis of the existing situations by running spatial query, mapping, and integrating the generated demographics with other features and databases to identify areas of conflict. The next step involves generating alternatives. Although it is still largely a manual exercise (Arentze, et al., 1996), there is a lot of research to improve it (Lee, 1995). GIS provides a suitable environment for performing this task if the problem is to find suitable locations for developing or reorganizing activities. Map overlay techniques combined with GIS-DSA and generated demographics are useful and demographics are vital as a component of overlay in developing planning options as in identifying possible options like solution space for future development, or narrowing down the space to be searched. Once the alternatives are defined, one needs collects information on how these alternatives perform on the articulated goals and objectives. This involves prediction and projection, where GIS-DSA plays an imperative role by making it possible to carry out spatial modeling of demographic distribution; making it easy to estimate the widest range of impacts of existing trends of population and measuring system performance. The next step of planning process involves evaluating alternatives based on their evolution scores. Adopting a view point that the planning style is subjective in that the planner generates the alternatives and sets the weights in the evaluation process, then techniques such as decision analysis, multi-criteria evaluation support this stage
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(Arentze, et al., 1996). Alternatively, one can choose a more rational style; in this case, the task of the planner would more typically be to formulate objectives subject to a set of conditions; employing techniques like location-allocation which GIS-DSA directly supports. For example, as service provision vary by needs and neighborhood, because of differences in local area characteristics. It therefore becomes important to establish a consistent standard upon which to evaluate different zones. GIS-DSA can assist in this task, by considering the profile of the potential beneficiaries in a catchment area and relating to the characteristics of the actual planning area considered, with GIS assisting in location analysis to evaluate different planning scenarios. Once a decision is made, a plan is implemented. However, in planning for any new project there is need for population support before the decision can be taken to implement the project; thus it is important to know how the population of different characteristics feel about geographical locations. Using GIS-DSA, we able to carry out direct mail to specific persons, this may result in proper project location. In addition, results of GIS-DSA can be used in the implementation of urban plans by carrying demographic impact assessment of proposed projects thus evaluating and minimize the impact of development on the population. Finally, we come to the aspect of monitoring the process. GIS-DSA helps to provide spatial change that allows the planner to assess whether the actual evolution of the system is consistent with the predictions underlying the plan. Closely related to monitoring is early warning. In this case, the system warns in advance that the evolution of the system would not be according to plan if the present trend continues. Models of early warning are often the same as the ones used predictive and evolution purpose. Hence, GIS-DSA directly contributing to the process in examining whether development is following the needs of the population, to evaluate the impact of development on the population and see whether adjustments of plan are needed. 2.7 Summary In this chapter we have look at the need for demographic analysis in planning and the touching issues of data aggregation, why disaggregation has not been the total practice, demographic statistical analysis and presentation techniques to draw ourselves to things to put into consideration/to be incorporated in demographic spatial analysis which included needs for GIS Demographic Spatial Analysis (GIS-DSA). Finally as a GIS demographic spatial and modeling to generate visualizable features and quantities for planning analysis, we looked at a model to integrate GIS-DSA in planning and the pros and cons were documented, showing where and how demographic analysis can be employed in planning; making the whole process feasible. This cleared a way for analysis, but before that, we have to look at the study area and design of GIS-DSA in the following chapter.

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Chapter III 3 MATERIALS AND DESIGN OF GIS DEMOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS

3.1 Introduction A review of the GIS and demographics in Planning and methods of analysis was undertaken so that we get hands on what have been done, how it have been done, the outcomes and their application and integration to help in GIS demographic spatial analysis (GIS-DSA). This chapter covers the study area, resources used in the experimentation, how the data was obtained, stored in a Database (DB) including the DB design, geocoding, usage of data in GIS, carrying out GIS data analysis and modeling, evolving Demographic model (DM) in GIS, and ways of GIS demographics visualization. As those will be examined, we will also be outlining uncertainty that maybe involved in GISDemographic analysis. It will end by looking at dimensionalities of GIS that can be used to accomplish GIS-DSA. 3.2 Study Area The study area was heritage area found in a high-density residential and commercial area in Georgetown city, Penang, Malaysia (Figure 3.5).

Figure 3.5 Location of the study area
Target (red area on the left) indicates Penang (state of Malaysia) and box A on the right shows location of heritage area in Georgetown (city in Penang). See Figure 3.6 for expanded visualization of A.

The study area is bounded by Kampong Kolam road on the north and northeast, Lebuh Pantai on the south, with Lepuh Armenian and Lebuh Acheen running through it north to south, and Lorong Lumut, Lebuh Cannon, and Jalan Masjid running east to west (Figure 3.6).

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Figure 3.6 Location of roads, land use and buildings in study area
Brown represents social activities, pink for commercial, blue for open space, gray for utilities and light green shows buildings

The area has many historical and important features, which include: The Khoo Kongsi, the headquarters for the Chinese clan called Khoo; which was first built in 1835 and destroyed by fire in 1884, but rebuilt later in 1902. The Malay mosque called Lebuh Acheh mosque is the oldest mosque on the Island built in 1808. The syed Mohammed AlAtas residence built in the 1860s being a landmark for the early settlers on the island, Cannon square, one of the traditional Chinese settlement, and others. The area has a layer of urban form built from the 17th century; this delineates the heritage city of Georgetown. The quality of its urban form lie in the unity of elements which are related to individual buildings, clusters of buildings and spaces. This unity expresses the melting pot quality of the city multi racial, multi culture, multi influence and multi institution society. In addition, the landscape and architectural forms play an important role in the spatial arrangement of the buildings, which are almost equally spaced, and having mostly two floors (Figure 3.7) this makes them ideal to be used as spatial units of analysis as discussed in section 3.7.3.

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Figure 3.7 Buildings in heritage area displayed in 3D
Dark brown shows building with one floor, chocolate -two floors, blue - three floors and brown - 4 floors per building.

3.3 Resources used in the Study The following were used: ArcView GIS version 3.1, ArcView Avenue (customization and application development for ArcView) programming environment, ArcView Spatial Analyst, ArcView 3D Analyst, SpaceStat Extension, IDRISI for windows, and customized extension (Demographics Analyst) developed in this study (section 4.2.2). All for GIS analysis, modeling, and to provide a graphical user interface (GUI) for direct interaction to view and edit geo-feature objects. Microsoft Access 2000 as a relational database management system (RDBMS) to store the data so that we are able to compare the compatibilities and take advantage of other analysis outside GIS. Data was retrieved from RDBMS to be used in GIS, statistical analysis and visualization; others packages used included S-Plus 2000 professional and SPSS 9.0 for windows for statistical analysis. The link between these software packages was done using Microsoft Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) and other import and export functions within these packages 9. The references10 used include books and periodicals, lectures, seminars and discussions, software packages, and the Internet sites about GIS, planning, demography, computer science and population all on www11. 3.4 Data used in the Study To accomplish the objectives using the outlined methodology, the main information requirements were: 1) The cadastral GIS of the study area, which already existed in GIS format obtained from Assoc. Prof. Dr. Lee Lik Meng12. This was included, as most data collected by local governments are associated with properties and recorded by address. With it being part of the DB, make it easy to relate with other records like physical features, buildings, housing codes, and many other aspects taken into consideration during planning. 2) Land use: shopping points, housing, recreation, etc obtained in GIS format from Penang state planning office (Jabatan Perancangan Bandar dan Desa) Penang, Malaysia. 3) Population: two data sets were used i.e. the Penang population census data (Table E.10) that was obtained at mukim level from Malaysia population and housing census of 1991 collected by Statistics Department of Malaysia. The other was micro level data (Table E.9) collected in study area using a questionnaire (field survey form in D) carried out in October 1999 with other two master students Jennifer Tiong 13 and Chong Chee Kit14. During the survey, a sample of 343 persons was interviewed. This
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SPSS Data Driver 32 for database capture; S-Plus import and export wizards, Microsoft Access get external data (import and table linkage) and export, and ArcView’s add table, import, and SQL connection (see sub section called GIS access to tabular data in B. 10 For references quoted in the thesis without year of publication are only from the internet due to the fact that some authors do not indicate years and these pages are always changing, but that does not mean all internet references do not have years, some do have. 11 Thesis, references, links, and other research outcomes) are being hosted on School of Housing, Building, and Planning (HBP) web site under thesis section http://www.hbp.usm.my/thesis/heritageGIS 12 Planning, GIS, and IT Lecturer at School of Housing, Building, and Planning; Universiti Sains Malaysia 13 http://www.hbp.usm.my/thesis/Heritage 14 http://www.hbp.usm.my/thesis/HeritageDB 21

was selected basing on location (building) with the aim of obtaining data on every household. The response was good in that we managed to get the targeted information and for the household members who were absent, the information was obtained from those present. The following information was extracted from the survey: name, age, education level, religion, building number, household member relationship to household head, occupation, origin of accentors, marital status (grouped into single or married), number of children, gender, race, and households. With such information and means of collecting the data, it is enough to be termed micro data (Ma, et al., 1997) and has all the necessary details for a disaggregated GIS-DSA. However, other details like the names are hidden from the display tables for privacy reasons but included in database for analysis purposes. 4) Buildings: floor space, number of floors, ownership, building location, area, etcTable E.11 and Figure 3.7). This was collected together with population data as we divided ourselves into two groups; one for personal data and the other the physical structures, infrastructures and buildings. 3.5 Attempts to carry out Demographic Spatial Analysis Before we can see GIS trend in Malaysia and how GIS-DSA preparation was done, let us try to carry out DSA by other techniques and software packages. The packages tried include SPSS for windows, S-Plus, IDRISI for windows and SpaceStat Extension to ArcView. 3.5.1 SPSS for Windows SPSS for windows is a computer program (computer software) for statistical analysis. It has several analytical functions that can be used to accomplish demographic analysis, which include: Descriptive which gives univariate summary statistics (sample size, mean, minimum, maximum, standard deviation, variance, range, sum, standard error of the mean, and kurtosis and skewness with their standard errors) for several demographic variables in a single table and calculates standardized values (z scores). Another set of functions are statistics measuring either similarities or dissimilarities (distances), either between pairs of variables or between pairs of cases. These similarity or distance measures can then be used with other procedures, such as factor analysis, cluster analysis or multidimensional scaling, to help analyze complex data sets. For example, it is possible to measure similarities between population sets based on certain characteristics, such as age, sex, race, size, etc. the result helps to gain a sense of which population sets are similar to each other and which are different from each other. With SPSS, we are able to carry out Linear Regression which estimates the coefficients of the linear equation, involving one or more independent variables that best predict the value of the dependent variable; for example, to determine whether the location of residence of person is related to the ethnic group. Scatterplot indicates that whether the variables have either positive or negative linearly related. The above SPSS functions and several others like Bivariate Correlations, Cox Regression Analysis, Crosstabs, Canonical Correlation, Curve Estimation, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Discriminant Analysis, Factor Analysis, Frequencies, General Loglinear Analysis, GLM Multivariate, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, Kaplan-Meier Survival Analysis, K-Means Cluster Analysis, Life Tables, Logistic Regression, Logit Loglinear Analysis, Spearman Correlation Coefficient, Variance, etc; all these explained under SPSS for windows 15 on the thesis web site. They give aspatial demographics that cannot be directly related to individual locations and they can be applied in spatial analysis to generate visualizable demographic features and quantities for planning analysis. 3.5.2 S-Plus 2000 Professional S-Plus offers Basic Statistics, Regression functions, linear and non-linear nonlinear regression and minimization, Mixed Effects Models, Classification, Nonparametric regression, ANOVA analysis, Smoothing and Interpolation, Multivariate Analysis, Cluster Analysis, Time Series, generalized linear models, generalized additive models, tree models, smoothing splines, survival analysis, multiple comparisons, mixed-effects models, survival analysis, quality control and discriminant analysis and much more. In addition to classical statistical techniques, S-PLUS offers exploratory graphing techniques in 2D and 3D (from histograms to bar charts to Scatterplot) to help you as you dig deeper into your data, to discover hidden trends and relationships that get lost in summary statistics and text output. For example, by selecting demographic data points on graphs you are able to see them highlighted across all graphs and in the data set. Also enable to
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redraw graphs without selected outliers, explode graph panels to view subsets of data, and easily view pop-up descriptions of data values. All those are well explained under Splus 2000 professional help under S-Plus 2000 Professional 16on the thesis web site. As you can notice in the analysis, there is no reference made to the geographical locations that is very important for DSA. 3.5.3 IDRISI for Windows IDRISI is produced by the Clark Labs17, Graduate School of Geography at Clark include: the development, distribution processing software IDRISI and the vector a non-profit research organization within the University. Activities undertaken by the Labs and support of the raster GIS and Image digitizing and editing software CartaLinx.

IDRISI is primarily a raster system with vector capabilities for display, conversion and linking to a database management system. All analysis, except for some simple querying of the database is performed in raster. Facilities to translate data from vector to raster and back again are included in the Reformat/Raster-Vector conversion menu of IDRISI. As explained under IDRISI for windows18 on the thesis web site, IDRISI has rich surface analysis capability that can be used for GIS demographic surface analysis as will be dealt with in section 5.5, but they are not oriented to generating visualizable demographic features and quantities for planning analysis. 3.5.4 SpaceStat Extension for ArcView As explained in section 2.5.2 various approaches have been proposed which include integration of spatial analysis methods and other models in GIS that has led to a new exploratory analysis (Goodchild, 1987; Haining, 1990; Fotheringham & Rogerson, 1993; Openshaw, 1994c; Openshaw, 1997). The SpaceStat Extension for ArcView was developed by Anselin, et al (1998) and it currently being distributed BioMedware Inc19. It aims at incorporating statistical functions in ArcView GIS. It is based on the tight coupling approach. This is different from the loose coupling one by Anselin, et al. (1993) were combined SpaceStat, a program for the analysis of spatial data with the Arc/Info and the stand alone SpaceStat. With SpaceStat using Moran scatter plot, we are able to carry out Moran analysis where the result comes in a new view with a unique value map with four colors corresponding to the four quadrants of the Moran Scatterplot of a selected variable. Using Box Map, we are able to create a new View with a quartile map for a selected variable with the outliers highlighted (a box map). LISA Local Moran Map is responsible for creating a new View with a unique value map for those locations with a significant Local Moran statistic. Moran Significance Map is a combination of a Moran Scatterplot Map and a Local Moran map, showing the quadrant of the Moran Scatterplot only for those locations with a significant Local Moran statistic. G-Stat Map gives the same as LISA Local Moran Map but for the Gi or Gi* statistic. As noted from the function are directly at accomplishing statistical; they are not directed towards generating demographic features and quantities from the planner’s point of view and the difficulty the planner often experiences in understanding what the results mean in relation to planning analysis. 3.6 GIS in Malaysia After looking at the study area (Georgetown city, Penang - Malaysia), resources to be used, data to be used in this study and attempts to carry out DSA by other techniques and packages; before we can go to how GIS-DSA preparation was done, let us take a look at the GIS developments, activities, research and which have/are taking place in the country so that we get to know this research’s possible contributions and applications in addition to the general planning applications as discussed in section 2. Because GIS are designed as a generic system for handling any kind of spatial data, they have a wide range of applications in urban and natural environments, such as urban planning, natural resources administration, agriculture, public utility network
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http://www.hbp.usm.my/thesis/heritageGIS/master/research/SPlus2000.htm Clark Labs web site at http://www.clarklabs.org/ 18 http://www.hbp.usm.my/thesis/heritageGIS/master/research/IDRISI for Windows Demo.htm 19 http://www.biomedware.com/ 23

management, route optimization, demography, cartography, coastal monitoring, fire and epidemics control. In most domains, GIS play a major role as a decision support tool for planning activities. All those are applied in Malaysia, but here we are mainly concerned with GIS research and applications to demographic analysis. But before that, let us take a look at the general GIS trend in Malaysia. To start with, let us look at Malaysia GIS Resources. There are many web sites dedicated to the use of GIS in Malaysia like GIS Malaysia 20 which gives GIS news, host GIS articles, provides link to out standing GIS web sites, etc. GISNET MALAYSIA21, a public service site dedicated to information and news on GIS and related technologies and professions in Malaysia. There is a website for property listing using Web-Based GIS at Malaysia real net22. Lot parcels and base map can be bought online from department of surveying and mapping (JUPEM) web site23. There are maps and geographical information from the Geography Site at About24. There are free GIS data about Malaysia for downloading from the GIS Data Depot25. Free download of Penang GIS Maps 26 (Penang Island Road Network, Georgetown, Penang and Universiti Sains Malaysia Main Campus) provided by Assoc. Prof. Dr. Lee Lik Meng and Universiti Sains Malaysia. In addition to the GIS web sites, big GIS software vendors like ESRI have set up offices in Malaysia to provide users with technical assistance which has further facilitated GIS development and usage. There are many companies helping and developing GIS packages like Landsoft sdn bhd27. NaLIS28 which is coordinated by the Ministry of Land and Cooperative Development is now trying to solve issues and policies related to data infrastructure, data standards and data sharing between each agencies. GIS has been applied in Malaysia by many companies and organizations like CH2M Hill; which was started during the company's involvement in the telecommunications arena to install a fiber optic system in Malaysia. They employed GIS to identify the optimum system configuration for a hybrid fiber optics cable (HFC) system. Also, set up ARC/INFO NT to maintain the Malaysian GIS center as a long-term installation. Now they CH2M Hill's Penang office supports other company projects that require data conversion. Maps are scanned, placed on the company's FTP server and pulled off in Penang. There (Colorado, USA), the GIS center handles heads-up digitizing, cleanup and attribution. Then, the Penang center places the polished ARC/INFO files back on the server. These files are then downloaded by CH2M Hill's other GIS centers. GIS is being used, especially in the planning processes and the application of best practices for land management and habitat security for elephants and rhinos in Malaysia. The project is the Sabah component of AREAS (Asian Rhino and Elephant Action Strategy), a WWF initiative to coordinate Asian elephant and rhino work in their range states through a strategic approach (WWF in Malaysia29). GIS has been applied in National Land Information System (NaLIS30) to assist in Planning and Development in Malaysia. The Government of Malaysia using GIS developed the River Basin Information System 31 (RBIS) in 1998, through technical cooperation of Japanese International Corporation Agency (JICA32) to support the river basin management for Perak river basin. The RBIS gives access to various records and statistics related to the river basin management through the system. GIS was applied by Perunding Utama 33 in collaboration with Iris Environmental Systems that were commissioned by ESSO Malaysia Berhad in 1993 to prepare a report and ESI maps for the coastline of Negeri Sembilan, part of Selangor and
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http://www.gismalaysia.com/ http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/5941/ 22 www.zoomrealestate.com 23 http://www.juwpkl.gov.my/ 24 http://geography.about.com/science/geography/library/maps/blmalaysia.htm 25 http://www.gisdatadepot.com/catalog/MY/datalist.html 26 http://www.hbp.usm.my/itsupport/FreeDownloads/PgGISFreedownloadIntro.htm 27 http://www.mmserve.com/juru/l_exp.htm 28 http://www.nalis.gov.my/eng/nhp01-e.html 29 WWF in Malaysia http://www.wwfmalaysia.org/wwfm/aboutus.htm 30 http://www.nalis.gov.my/eng/nhp01-e.html 31 http://rbis.moa.my/ 32 http://www.jica.go.jp/) 33 http://pusb.8m.com/proj.html 24

most of Pulau Pinang. The project covered a coastline distance of about 137 km. The study highlighted the need to modify the classification system to take into account differences in coastal geomorphology as dictated by changes in tide conditions. GIS has also been used by the same company in urban planning studies, such as the Structure Plan for the District of Yan. The study involved the digitizing of cadastral, coastline, natural and man-made drainage systems, infrastructure and other information for the production of maps. Maps showing land use, river systems, coastline, drainage and infrastructure features were produced which were used in planning of future development in Yan District. GIS has also been applied in “The Ecosystem Approach To Environmental Management” under LESTARI’s Langat Basin study. The Langat Basin lies adjacent and to the south of the Klang Valley, Malaysia’s most highly developed urban Centre where the nation’s capital, Kuala Lumpur, is situated. It has an area of approximately 2200 km2 and a population of around 725,000 people. The new administrative capital, Putra Jaya, Cyberjaya, the Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) in Sepang, the multimedia super corridor (MSC) and a high technology park are all located in the Basin. GIS been employed in utility provision like the SAT NLSA for the Largest GIS-Substation in Malaysia34; a project is for Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) by VA TECH SAT Malaysia. Other GIS projects in Malaysia include: the Pulau Langkawi GIS hydrology database 35, GIS Applications for Dumping Site Selection in Pulau Langkawi-Malaysia (Yagoub, et al), Perak Town map36, etc. Many presentations have taken place like ESRI South Asia Users' Conference and different researcher have demonstrated and laid foundation for the use of GIS. A good example is the Penang Experience by Lee (1997) in Creating Large Digital Maps for Municipal Planning Applications Using Desktop GIS. 3.6.1 GIS-DSA Research and Applications in Malaysia Various researchers in Malaysia have/are looking at demographic analysis using GIS like Ruslan, et al. (2000a) have look at the use of GIS to assist in understanding the spatial variation of racial segregation. Also, they have employed GIS to examine the trend and spatial pattern of population density and growth in peninsular Malaysia between 1980 and 2000 (Ruslan, et al., (2000b). Yaakup, et al (1994) have described a GIS approach to spatial modeling for squatter settlement planning in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia There are research groups like GeoData Program 37 under school of Humanities, Universiti Sains Malaysia; where demographic analysis in GIS is among their areas of application research. They are other GIS demographic analysis project like the “Internet GIS for Malaysian Population Analysis”. This provides ways to understand population characteristics in Malaysia. It is an Internet GIS (Web GIS or Web-based GIS) created to analyze demographic statistics. This system creates choropleth maps that have the functions of "Zoom In", "Zoom Out”, graph displays, attribute query and basic spatial analysis, etc and it is accessible over the Internet38. Other Internet GIS developments include Penang population39 analysis on the web. Also, the Department of Statistics Malaysia (DOSM), being the leading government agency in the collection, compilation and dissemination of national and state level statistics, has accordingly taken appropriate measures to use GIS. As part of the implementation of the GIS under the 1991 Population and Housing Census Project; there has been the creation of the Cartographic Database which involved the capture of geographic data pertaining to census geostatistical and administrative unit which was completed in 1995. With the completion of the creation of the database, it was then possible to generate thematic maps as well as produce spatial data according to the requirements of users. The Census Atlas, released in 1996, represented one of the main products arising from the application of GIS. The maps presented in the Census Atlas covered a variety of topics namely population size and composition, marital status, migration, education, economic household and housing. These maps were produced by the ArcView Version 2.1 GIS software on workstation using the inkjet plotter. Apart from the Census Atlas, the Department has also found GIS to be
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http://www.sat-automation.com/012000-1213.htm http://www.geocities.com/RainForest/Vines/7101/ 36 http://161.142.136.183/maps/town/gtownmap.html 37 http://www.hum.usm.my/geodata.html 38 http://land.geo.tsukuba.ac.jp/teacher/murayama/history/malay/index-e.html 39 http://land.geo.tsukuba.ac.jp/teacher/murayama/history/malay/malaysia/index-e.html or http://land.geo.tsukuba.ac.jp/teacher/murayama/history/malay/index-e.html 25

extremely useful in meeting the special needs of data users. In this respect, GIS applications have been put to good use in cases where data is required to cover certain ad hoc areas by radiating from a point or specified distance (band) away from a selected feature. For example, the Department has been able to meet requests speedily for data on population, households, housing and other related characteristics for areas within a certain radius from given geographical locations as specified by the data users. Population data in terms of parliamentary constituencies have also been generated using GIS. From the above you can see the GIS has been applied by both government and private organizations in different fields all requiring demographics which makes sense and necessitates for the development of techniques to generate visualizable demographic features and quantities which can employed in different ways and applications as outlined in section 6.5 under concluding remarks. 3.7 Database for GIS Demographic Analysis After collecting all the above data, it was put into a database (DB). This was organized according to individual levels to maintain the micro data, at the same making facilities for storage of aggregate data. In this study, used a relational database and to avoid repeating research about designing a relational model and DB structure see thesis by Chong Chee Kit available on internet40 which dealt with DB using the same data. Also, for information about the steps in design, qualities of a good DB design, and the E-R modeling process see Cowen (1997). Below discuss the connecting the DB with GIS layers and geocoding; before that, let us look at factors put into considerations to help in disaggregated modeling and analysis including uncertainty in GIS-DSA 3.7.1 Uncertainty (Fuzziness) in GIS Demographic Analysis As DB is the bases for experimenting the techniques of GIS-DSA in 2D, 2.5D and 3D, it is important that we know the uncertainties involved. Uncertainty is the degree to which an information source does not fully inform i.e. imperfect knowledge regarding aspects of a model i.e. the discrepancy between geographic data in GIS, and the geographic reality that the data are intended to represent (Chrisman, UCGIS). Uncertainty as a general topic concerns many disciplines from statistics to philosophy but the focus here is to mobilize the results of these more generic efforts to the specific topic of GIS-DSA. A large amount of the uncertainty in GI comes from fundamental choices in measuring and representing (Heuvelink, 1998) i.e. at the level of inputs, data management, analyses, model formulation, representation, and output of the model in a GIS environment. Hence, spatial analysis in GIS as Isaaks and Srivastava (1989) writes is subject to uncertainty due: 1) The datasets upon which they operate which are the outcome of a process of discretization and generalization. 2) Actual value at any particular location on the continuous surface, which is a factor of the distance that location is from the nearest data points. 3) The variation of the surface between the data points. 4) The accuracy of the data measures in the dataset. Uncertainty can be categorized as containing both horizontal (positional accuracy) and vertical components (attribute accuracy) i.e. may be due to an incorrect magnitude of demographic characteristic (MODC) at the correct location, or a correct MODC for an incorrect location, or some combination of these. The MODC is determined at data collection; thus, uncertainty due factor 4 was outside the scope of this thesis. Uncertainty due factor 1 and 2 has been carefully considered by using actual data values at discrete level in geocoding and representation (section 3.7.3) and basing interpretation on only data points. For the variation of the surface between the data points i.e. uncertainty due factor 3 has been dealt with by using two data structures (gird and TIN) making it possible to deal with irregular and regular data points in both raster and vector GIS formats. However, uncertainty exists in the location of individual members of the same households. This is because they are initially assumed to be staying at the location, but to provide better visualization, their location is slightly displaced but within the boundary of the household. This was employed as it can be evidenced from section 3.10 that visualization is an effective way of understanding spatial data (Hearnshaw & Unwin, 1994) and in the examination of spatial data error (Beard, 1994) as it a powerful mechanism for identifying the spatial distribution and possible causes of uncertainty. The explanation of uncertainty in the various techniques will be dealt with independently when discussing each technique also with the possible applications and the limitations.
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3.7.2 Individual Modeling The main concern for this thesis was disaggregated modeling where the individuals had been represented as points in DB and to be manipulated in GIS at the same level. This was to cater for future depends as the use of GIS for socioeconomic application continues to widen in this 21st century. Also, this has been advocated in the last decade (Martin, 1991, 1999) and various commentators have suggested that being in position to carry out GIS spatial and modeling at different scale is one of the solutions to overcome the limiting factors preventing effective use of GIS for socioeconomic applications. For the socioeconomic applications, the objects of ultimate interest are usually individual persons or household (Martin & Higgs, 1995); and in their commentary about scale and generalization in geographical analysis with regard to the measurement of geographical event; Longley and Batty (1996) supports the use of point data as it offers the most precise and accurate representations of spatial phenomena. In addition, spatial modeling of individuals can help us understand dynamic population level processes such as spatial similarity and habitat availability and preferences. Also individual-level databases facilitate ad hoc aggregation, allowing the design of areal units to suit analytical requirements. Goodchild, et al. (1992) has emphasized that nature of a GIS data model determines the range of analytical processes that can be undertaken and is not a subissue relating only to representation or display. Since the DB determines GIS data model, using individuals clearly lays ground for the success of GIS-DSA. The question at this point is the location chosen for the georeferencing of individuals. Should the data relate to home address, workplace or both? In this study used the building of residence as the spatial unit for georeferencing of individuals due to the reasons and advantages as discussed in the section 3.7.3 that follows. 3.7.3 Demographic Geocoding/Georeferencing using Buildings Georeferencing being the process of assigning/associating a data point with a geographic location (e.g. latitude and longitude) based on some form of address; involve inputting spatial data in the GIS by assigning geographical coordinates to each point, line, and area entity (DeMers, 1997) to allow using addresses to identify locations on a map (Chrisman, 1997). This address need not necessarily be a street or mailing address, but can be any key identifier of a particular location, such as the name of a place or the lot and block number of a property parcel (see geocoding in B). The buildings were used for geocoding as we could use the single value geocoding method and the use of building is in line with the formulated seven tests for effective analysis in GIS (Coombes, 1995), which have been interpreted in this thesis in terms of building as spatial units: 1) Are the buildings the smallest that the confidentiality restrictions deem to be possible (to allow for maximum flexibility of aggregation). It is true; they are the smallest that can be used for georeferencing, as people are mobile and cannot assign permanent coordinates to them; thus use of buildings as they are the smallest permanent spatial entity that can be employed in analysis and buildings can be similar in terms of size, area, etc which help in aggregation analysis. The use of building for location (which can be manipulated or aggregated in various fashions) may also offer lesser threat to personal privacy for example saying in a housing project (buildings) there is 145 people within age cohort 7-14 years do not point to any specific person. But for planning purposes, this is vital information e.g. planning for location of high school; we get how many people within a certain age cohort who are possible users based on their proximity to proposed site. 2) Is each of the areas in a set of building, or other set of areas, defined on a consistent basis. Yes in this century people at least do not normally live in the open air, they stay in buildings. 3) Does this set of area represent (part of) ‘real-world’ entities, such as settlement, which can thus be recognized using these boundaries? Yes, buildings are real entities and they are the basis for human settlement. As Okpala (1980) concludes that, a residential building is a realistic base for analyzing population as buildings are occupied by people 4) Does the set of areas allow comparison with previous data at all level, or for some minimal grouping of areas to create consistent boundaries? Yes, buildings allow comparison as information about development of welfare of people and improvement in settlement is obtained down from building: economic situation, demographic analysis, social characteristics basic needs, housing needs, etc (Yaakup, et al., 1994).
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In addition, building can serve as both a definitive linkage point between two addressbearing databases, and as a categorical or a continuous 2D variable along which imputation of data is possible and can be employed in vertical dimension analysis to aid in density (section 5.5.2.2) and spatial influence analysis (section 5.5.2.4) in planning. 5) Does the set of areas cover the whole of the study area without leaving any locations whose data are too spare to allow them to be published? Yes for population analyses, buildings cover the whole area as each person lives in at least one. 6) Are the boundaries of the areas available in the digital form? Yes, building data is always available as a complete data about buildings can be obtained from the planning office as they approve and keep record to monitor developments. In addition, it is almost universally collected in census, development care documents, associated with a broad range of both socio-economic and environmental factors. 7) Can these areas be readily and accurately linked by their location coding to all the areas used in the many non-census datasets? Yes, buildings can be used for all areas by creating unique identifier for census and non-census datasets. Using buildings we have been able to say yes to all questions and for this specific study area; the buildings have almost the same planimetric area and most of them are two floors (Table E.11 and Figure 3.7); thus not biasing spatial and vertical analyses. 3.7.4 Demographic Data Representation and Manipulation in GIS A GIS geared towards the analysis and representation of the DCs should adopt four approaches. First is the individual level approach, in which data are held relating to every individual person in the population. Second is areal aggregation approach where data is grouped according to predefined zones. The third option begins with the assumption that demographic phenomena of interest to the analysis are essentially continuous over space and attempts are to reconstruct this continuity. Lastly, representation using solids where demographics are taken as occupying 3D space. Having to put demographics in GIS there is need to look at how the different entities will be represented in order to be able to manipulate them. Table 3.1 highlights how the DCs can be represented using the GIS primitives (points, lines, area, and polygons).

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Table 3.1 Representation of demographic data in GIS
POINT  Real world entity • Individual persons • LINE Street/road residence • AREA Building/Zone of living • SURFACE Population density

Data collection and entry  Digital object • Personal coordinates • Street coordinates • Building/zone boundary • TIN or 3D-DM

Data manipulation  Manipulatio n technique • • • Nearest neighbor analysis Boundary generation Surface generation • Topological analysis • • • Areal interpolation Centroid generation Surface generation • • • Slope analysis TIN/TEN creation Analysis of surface/Solid form

Data output transformations  Visualizatio n technique • • • Point mapping Multivariate display Convert to 3D • • • Line mapping Line cartograms Convert to 3D • • • Choropleth mapping Areal cartograms Convert to 3D • • • Tin mapping Grid mapping Convert to 3D

The columns illustrate four classes of geographical phenomena namely point, line, area, and surfaces. The rows illustrate four stages in the representation process. DCs exist in the real world; georeferencing them provides the link with digital objects, which may be used to represent their locations; then GIS provides the manipulation tools for the creation of new objects; and visualization techniques are applied to each case. Between these stages are the data collection and entry, data manipulation, and data output transformations. 3.7.5 Connecting DB with GIS As all data was represented as tables, these tables comprised of rows and columns; rows and columns are unordered (i.e., the order in which rows and columns are referenced does not matter). Each table has a primary key, a unique identifier constructed from one or more columns. A table is linked to another by including the other table's primary key. Such an included column is called a foreign key. For individual data, each person was given a unique identifier number, which is the first column in Table E.9 and second column on Figure 3.8a – screen capture from ArcView GIS. To obtain a primary key another column called Rd_bldg (fourth column in Table E.9 or fifth column on Figure 3.8a) was created by combining a person’ building of residence number (third column in Table E.9/fourth column on Figure 3.8a, the same as second column in Table E.11/third column on Figure 3.8c) and the road/street number (fifth column in Table E.9/sixth column on Figure 3.8a, the same as second column on Figure 3.8b). The result was used as a foreign key when geocoding persons to buildings. For buildings, the primary key was created by joining the building number (second column in Table E.11/third column on Figure 3.8c) and the road/street number (fourth column in Table E.11/fourth column on Figure 3.8c). The relationship between buildings, land use, and cadastral (lots) was established using the coordinates of the polygons.

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Figure 3.8 Linking tables by creating primary and secondary keys When it came to the aggregated population from the census, the mukim number (second column in Table E.10/fourth column on Figure 3.8d) and district number (first column in Table E.10/second column on Figure 3.8) were combined to get the primary key, which was used to geocode the population to the mukim. 3.8 GIS Demographic Analysis 3.8.1 GIS Approach to Spatial Modeling GIS possess the means to capture, store and manipulate spatially referenced data (Burrough, 1986, Huxhold, 1991), thus the use of GIS for modeling is mainly aiming at incorporate geographic space as a factor in the model. This has been handled by many researchers including Lee (1995) who discusses details of GIS and spatial interaction modeling in chapter four of his PhD thesis. With such spatial modeling and data manipulation in GIS and GIS’s effect on spatial statistical analysis, which has led to broadening of process of hypothesis testing; provides easy ways for GIS-DSA in much more flexible as it can be noted from the Figure 3.9, modified from Getis (1999). A step has been added to the traditional approach of hypothesis-guided inquiry, and most steps have been expanded to include more opportunities to access data from different vantage points. The added step, data manipulation, presents planners with opportunities to use larger samples, view data over a series of map scales, and generally to be in a stronger position to carry out spatial analysis of demographic data.

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Figure 3.9 Traditional and GIS approaches to demographic analysis To accomplish GIS-DSA, the following components as shown in Figure 3.10 have been identified

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Figure 3.10 GIS demographic analysis procedure Geocoding/referencing was dealt with in section 3.7.3; GeoProcessing is a way to create new data based on themes in a view. In most cases, alter the geometric properties of the features in a dataset while controlling some aspects of how its attribute data is handled (ESRI, 1998) as explained under Geoprocessing in B. Linking attribute utilizes the linkage with tables letting us to work with data from a tabular data source in GIS. Then, this data from the tables is added to maps, and symbolize, query and analyze this data geographically (see linking tables in B). During GIS-SA the inputs and results can be visualized using the methodology in section 3.10. GIS, modeling, and visualization need to operate together in an interactive way, i.e. there are interrelated stages of analysis (determination of features), visualization (checking results of analysis and to allow interaction), interpretation, and modeling requiring choice of points as a basis for the model and allows measurements, studies of change, simulation, and deriving features. For example, a 3D-DM may be modified by model manipulation procedures. It might then be displayed by visualization procedures, or analyzed through interpretation functions. Visualization and interpretation in turn may require or support further modification or adaptation of the original 3D-DM. Thus, results of individual/various modeling steps may feed back into previously run procedures. Whereas the methods of Analysis, Visualization and Modeling are generally used independently of each other, here have used them cooperatively to improve the results and make the process of deriving the demographic features and quantities easier and faster. Ideally, the modeling will feed the visualization, which in turn influences the human operator who can then change the modeling parameters; but during such process there may be need to bring in external data which necessities evolving the model. 3.8.2 Evolving the Demographic Model Like any good GIS term, data integration can mean many things to many people. In this thesis, it refers to the process of adding more data and combining data from different sources into an existing GIS-DM. To do so, the new data must be related to features in developed GIS-DM some way. The relationship will be either: explicit where the data further describes the features being modeled, this involves providing additional attributes to the feature; or Implicit if the data further describes some attribute of the features. For example, an individual may have an attribute called ‘male’ with values ‘active’, ‘healthy, etc. If additional information is obtained on those attributes e.g. on “healthy” it may be that the person do not have viral diseases; these implicitly become attributes of the male.
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To achieve the above, the new data must have a common key with the existing data. A key is defined generically as any piece of data that identifies a particular feature or row of data; they can be categorized as spatial or non-spatial. Spatial key is one where two features are considered related by virtue of occupying the same location in space. This could be a point location (x, y in 2D or x, y, z in 3D), a linear segment (having the same start/end point with respect to some reference location on a line) like demographic boundaries, an area (occupying the same polygonal extent), or volumetric (occupying the same solid extent). Non-spatial key is where the common attribute can be thought of as database column i.e. one where some common textual or numeric attribute value is used to identify which rows from different tables to join. Combining the keys (spatial or non-spatial) with type of relationships (explicit or implicit), we get four properties of different key types: 1. An explicit non-spatial key will be the primary key or some other unique key of the feature and a corresponding key in the new data. This may be as straightforward as building numbers, like in this thesis where geocoding ID had to be created by combining the building number with the road/street number to create a unique ID (see Table E.11) or it may involve some work like performing address matching when the common keys are addresses. 2. An implicit non-spatial key: the additional data describes some attribute of a feature rather than the feature itself. In this case, the additional data would be a lookup table with the key field in the existing data acting as a foreign key into the new data table. The previous example of male illustrates an implicit non-spatial key. 3. An explicit spatial key: the additional data includes a location (1, 2, or 3D) to be matched with the existing data by proximity e.g. relating land use to buildings. 4. An implicit spatial key: the additional data spatially surrounds the existing data. The attributes of the new data become associated with existing features by virtue of the fact that the existing features are spatially ‘inside’ the new dataset. Through the above data integration, we get the following advantages and will affect the model in the following ways: 1) Provide additional dimensionality to data: adding data for example describing male to DM of ethnicity allows for visualizing, analyzing, modeling a variable in terms of these characteristics. 2) Enable analyze relationships between additional features: for example, bringing in size of households locations to a DM of ethnicity to analyze how households vary with ethnic groupings. Can also generate and analyze inter-related data sets from different sources like administrative records, censuses, field surveys, and survey rounds. 3) To facilitate in its application, for instance evolving DC with planning features then integrating it puts us in position to analyze relationships between additional features and analyze correlation between different data sets. The result is that the analysis process of demographics is enriched with information available and gaps in any particular data set are filled in. 3.9 Visualization and Presentation Techniques Presentation techniques cover different approaches to the visualization and presentation of demographic datasets. These approaches are designed around the concept of data spaces, and present the user with a series of tables, pictures, or graphics; each describing a data space, and with tools to explore the synergy between data spaces. In most cases, this means mapping the distribution of people in terms of their place of residence. This has been accomplished in many ways: using data tables, data pictures and graphics (symbols for location e.g. circle, cubes) (Hornby, et al., 1984; Witherick, 1990; Indiana State University web site41). Before we go on to GIS demographics visualization, let us look at the traditionally used techniques of choroplethic maps, cartograms, and Lorenz curves; this is necessary as demographics has been presented by these techniques. 3.9.1 Choropleth Technique This involves mapping the distribution in terms of the relationships between the numbers and the area, a measure usually referred to as population density (Figure 3.11a). The disadvantage with this; is that none of them relate to the actual areal units to be used in the analysis and maps represent average values for the chosen areal units (Witherick, 1990). The spatial aggregations according to the imposed arbitrary zones tend to persist
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Indiana State University, Choroplethic http://www.indstate.edu/gga/gga_cart/gecart04.htm

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http://www.indstate.edu/gga/gga_cart/gecart18.htm

and

and indeed, they often dominate subsequent analyses (Hearnshaw, et al., 1994). In addition, their interpretation may give false impression; this happens particularly where adjacent areas show significantly different density values; the map indicating quite erroneously marked break in the continuity of population distribution occurring along the boundary between two areas, when in fact there is a smooth transition in densities. There is also some technical problems encountered in the compilation of population density maps i.e. how many different classes should be recognized and how should these classes be delimited? In addition, as Witherick (1990) put it, population density per unit area is a very crude measure, as it does not put into consideration the inhabitable land (areas) and other physical considerations. Another shortcoming of this method as it is based on areal units (zones); is that of variable size of the spatial units and also the implied assumption that all attributes of a zone have uniform spatial distributed throughout the zone (Wegener, 1999); not accounting for the topographical relationships and ignoring the fact that DCs and activities are continuous in space. 3.9.2 Cartograms Cartograms are special purpose maps or diagram showing geographical statistical information (Dorling, 1994) used to illustrate some feature other than area. The cartographer (map-maker) tries to keep the features in the same relative position and shape as they would be on a real map, but the size for example of each country is distorted according to how large or small the statistic is for that particular category of information. For example, on a cartogram for oil production, Saudi Arabia would appear to be the largest nation on the face of the earth, and tiny countries such as Bahrain and Kuwait would appear to be very large as well. The visualization of demographic data by use of cartograms is where a particular exaggeration is deliberately chosen in maps (Figure 3.11b). In this context, the term cartogram should be taken to mean equal population cartogram. This distinction needs to be made because ordinary maps are in fact a form of cartogram based on equal land area. Although a population cartogram is an appropriate basis for seeing how something is distributed spatially across groups of people, such cartogram is not a distortion of the world, but a representation of some particular aspect of it (Dorling, 1993, 1994), but makes spatial analysis difficult, as some details cannot be retrieved making them inappropriate for disaggregated population spatial analysis. In addition, it makes it difficult to judge density, as the appearance of a cartogram of the same population will vary from one person to another. The scale of visualization becomes local; the quality of representation of the demographic data and its spatial distribution begins to break down (Bracken, 1994) making interpretation of results dependent on scale of visualization.

Figure 3.11 Comparison of choropleth mapping and cartogram

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The subdivisions represent mukim in Penang, Malaysia. Red representing 0-5662, green 5663-18339, blue 183340-45822, purple 45823-107263, and yellow 107264-207287 persons per mukim according to 1991 population of Malaysia (Table E.10)

Cartograms differ from traditional maps as they use a variable other than area to derive the size of areal units on the map. A major draw back of using traditional map based cartographic representations for portraying human based socio-economic information is that areas with high populations and high population densities, e.g. cities are displayed very small on maps. Traditional maps therefore tend to highlight patterns in the least important areas, i.e. where few people live. In contrast, cartograms represent areas in relation to their population size. As a result, patterns are displayed in relation to the number of people involved instead of the size of the area involved. Example Figure 3.11 clearly shows how using a cartogram can give a vastly different impression of overall trends. 3.9.3 Lorenz Curves Lorenz curve is a graphical method widely used to show variations in demographic concentration (Figure 3.12). The drawing of the Lorenz curve proceeds as described by Lingner (1974) and the cumulated percentages of area of the zones are plotted against cumulative percentage of population on a graph and points joined together to form a 'curve' (Figure 3.12). If the zones have similar densities, this curve will follow the diagonal, indicating an even distribution of population (concentration of population) throughout the total zone concerned. Normally, of course, there is considerable deviation from this and more 'bowed' the Lorenz curve, the greater is the unevenness of distribution of population. If the population were distributed with inequality, the curve would coincide with the x-axis (Lingner, 1974).

Figure 3.12 Illustration of measure of concentration using Lorenz curve
(From Lingner, 1974. A handbook for population analysts Part A: Basic methods and methods. Population concentration in USA 1950.)

Gini Coefficients (henceforth, Ginis) are often used to summaries Lorenz curves. Consider the Lorenz curve in which the cumulative percentage of tracts is plotted against the cumulative percentage of the elderly. The Gini compares the area L, between the diagonal (signifying equal distribution) and the Lorenz curve, to the entire area under the diagonal, T. as L/T approaches zero (1) the population under study is more (less) equally distributed (Goodman, 1986). Lorenz curve has the limitation that is can only be used when the information about the areas is available in equivalent zones/units (Hornby, et al., 1984 and Witherick, 1990).
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3.10 GIS Demographics Visualization Visualization being to make visible what was obscure, what could not easily be imagined or seen as GIS models contain a lot of information that remains locked up inside without proper rendering. User expectations concerning ease of use and clarity of interpretation have increased to the point where it is expected that analysis tools convey the impacts of various management plans42 using techniques conducive to instant understanding and meaning. Visualization techniques have proven valuable in the presentation of analysis results (Church, et al, 1994). These techniques can be crucial in supporting users in gaining new insights into the structure of their problems by generating different views of the situation and by exploiting their own visual skills so that they can recognize meaningful alternatives and strategies during the problem-solving process (Angehrn & Luthi, 1990). GIS-related visualization is described as the interface of three processes: 1) computer analysis (data collection, organization, modeling and representation); 2) human cognition (perception, pattern identification and mental imaging); and 3) graphic design principles (construction of visual displays). MacEachren (1994) further describes the concept of "geographic visualization" as stressing map use that can be conceptualized as a 3D space. Both descriptions of visualization imply that maps and associated images can now be constructed that incorporate 3D perspectives. This ideally suits GIS Demographic Visualization (GIS-DV) to contribute to the techniques of GIS-DSA. In so doing provide solution to overcome some of the problems inherent in DSSA (section 2.4) that require the analyst to know beforehand precisely what s/he is looking for (Dorling, 1994) Although we can use the dot maps in which persons are represented spatially by dot, has limitation that the spatial dots do not carry along with them their aspatial aspects, the others being how many people should be represented by a single dot, where should it be placed, and what should be the physical size of the dots themselves (Hornby, et al., 1984). This calls for GIS-DV where we are able to see simultaneously the detail and the whole dataset. The purpose is to highlight the potential for exploring a demographic database by means of visualizing spatial patterns to enable detect spatial clusters or clearly delimited subsets that may point to substantive processes that have generated the pattern, or which may indicate alternative variables that may provide insight into the issue of interest. We are concerned with questions like how demographics are varying as change localities; how neighborhoods are spatially interacting with each other. These questions cannot be answered by conventional quantities techniques because the answers are unlikely to be simple enough to be presentable in tables or questions. Pictures are needed to show how different places and holistic patterns need also to be seen without generalizing out the detail (Dorling, 1994). Here the visualization should be in such a way that analysts choose what they wish to see and how they wish to view it. 3.10.1Demographics Visualization Methodology As geographers develop and embrace visualization coupling it with GIS called geographic visualization (Buckley, 1999) many techniques are utilized which have been developed and presented in literature by several people including Cleveland (1993), DiBiase, et al. (1994), Dorling (1994), Robinson, et al. (1995), and Buckley (1999). In this thesis, we are interested in ones that involve some form of georeferencing as a way of representing the spatial aspects of demographics. Methods to enhance visualization include the ability to rotate, set lighting, zoom, use cross-sections, linkages and various transparency values. This methodology is to initially map demographics as color-coded based on the level and type of characteristics and ways of representation (section 3.7.4), then employ the techniques of Cross-variable mapping, Dynamic displays or Dynamic Data Visualization, Multiple displays and multimedia interaction, Surface and multi-dimensional displays, Superimposition, Composite indices or Dimension reduction and symbol segmentation. These are being employed in combination (see Figure 3.13) then adding new perspectives taking nature of demographic data, advantages of techniques and the balance between readability and utilization.

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Decision Support Systems, Environmental Models, Visualization Systems and GIS http://bamboo.mluri.sari.ac.uk/~jo/litrev/chapters.html 36

Figure 3.13 GIS demographic visualization 3.10.1.1 Cross-Variable Mapping This method is limited to either two or three variables as the number of classes the human eye can distinguish is limited (Buckley, 1999). Bivariate mapping is used to simultaneously depict magnitude of variables within a homogenous area for two map themes (Robinson et al., 1995) and trivariate mapping is used to show three variables in the same way. This will be utilized with results of demographics ESDA in 2D (section 4.2). 3.10.1.2 Multiple Displays (Multimedia Interaction) Multiple displays can be generated in either constant or complementary formats (Buckley, 1999). Constant display being a series of displays with the same graphic design structure that depicts changes in DC from multiple to multiple. For example, showing how age composition vary from race to race and according to location; the consistency of design ensures that attention is directed towards changes in the characteristic; this helps to analysis DC according to structure make up and in relation to their location. The results of multiple displays are either taken to dynamic displays (section 3.10.1.6) or multidimensional displays (section 3.10.1.3). Complementary formats helps in combining the DCs display with other formats; this is when multimedia comes in. As the name suggests, multimedia, is a term describing a computer system, which employs multiple media; it has been applied with different meanings in different contexts. It has entered common language and is used when describing publications, presentations, television, communication, computer games, and information systems. Multimedia is sometimes restricted to systems, which employ a wide range of technology. Buckley (1999) notes computer manufacturers, in particular, as well as some writers in the popular computer press, have a tendency to claim that a
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system must offer live video and audio, in synchronization, in order to qualify as a multimedia system. Although video and audio are powerful media, which are natural components of many user interfaces, their presence should not be the defining characteristic of a multimedia system. Such a technologically driven definition only serves to confuse users and designers alike (Buckley, 1999), and the potential for exploiting the technology to the best possible advantage for the end users may suffer as a result. Such restrictions will therefore not be implicit in the definition of multimedia in this thesis. It follows from this that a word processor, for example, which allows drawings and text to be integrated in a document is a multimedia system. This study uses GIS packages like ArcView GIS as multimedia systems, to integrate demographics with photographs, text, plots, tables, images, graphics, and other formats for display data. This multimedia approach is extended to hypermedia by linking the multiple channels of information either transparently (Buttenfield, 1996, p.466) or in different windows, which do not obstruct the main window and the main window controls their display. 3.10.1.3 Surface and Multi-Dimensional Displays Portraying the demographic surface in a single 2D view (whereby real world phenomenon is projected in Euclidean space in either vector or raster formats) always leads to some ambiguity or incompleteness. The use of multi-dimensional displays (2.5D and 3D) where each dimensional is used to depict one (or more) DCs helps to overcome this problem as the perception of objects on a flat map or computer screen is a key component to the full realization of their form. For maps, cartographic symbols (for 2D map legends) have been proposed to show volumetric features on a map (Kraak, 1992); they also offer interesting opportunities for exploring abstract data that are not available in two dimensions. Here MODC is used as the height i.e. expressed as volume; the aim to show how it varies across the study areas and use the 3D facilitates of pan, zoom, interacting tilt and rotation to change the viewing perspective. There are a number of factors to keep in mind when using multi-dimensional displays. A common rule of thumb is that the dimensionality of the display should not exceed the dimensionality of the data and because elevation of the surface in one location may obscure another location, varying the perspective should be used when more than one dimension are displayed (Buckley, 1999). If change in perspective cannot be achieved using multiple or dynamic displays, the use of the technique may be limited. MacEachren (1995) cautions against inappropriate use of realism in multi-dimensional displays reminding us of that realistic representation tend to convince the user that the information on the map is “real”; when, in fact is all maps are abstractions of reality. For example, it is not right or misleading to interpret the MODC of all the developed 3D images in relation to the spatial extent, as all heights have been exaggerated by a factor of four. To aid multi-dimensional visualization, color illumination or shading of objects is a powerful cue to the 3D structure of an object (Kraak, 1992). Further, users of multidimensional data have to be able to peel back layers, slice edges, and zoom in and out of the scene. Another common function required in multi-dimensional systems is the ability to scale data along the axis. Typically, this is performed on the z-axis (Kraak, 1993), by doing this the user can exaggerate MODC. Demographic data can be visualized as surface (2.5D and 3D) in a variety of ways where a surface is elevated to depict the MODC in relation to its geographical location. A single data layer can be viewed as a colored or gray-scale flat raster image. 2 or 3 such data layers can be combined together by the user and displayed as a single flat raster or flat raster images can be draped over a 2.5D surface representing demographic data as 2.5D surface taking advantage of transparency adjustments. 3D representations allow the user to shift viewpoint and to 'fly through' the data, which can be useful in gaining an overview of data patterns (Shepherd, 1995) and data sets can be combine for comparison purposes. Van Driel (1989) recognized that the advantage of 3D lies in the way we see the information. It is estimated that 50 percent of the brain's neurons are involved in vision. What is more, it is believed that 3D displays stimulate more neurons: involving a larger portion of the brain in the problem solving process. With 2D contour maps, e.g., the mind must first build a conceptual model of the relief before any analysis can be made.
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3.10.1.4 Composite Indices (Dimension Reduction) As demographic data sets are always large, and a visualization, which attempts to display too many data dimensions, will become incomprehensible to the user (DiBiase, et al., 1994). Composite indices also called cartographic modeling or composite mapping (Buckley, 1999) are created when several data variables are combined into one. Using some techniques, spatially referenced data can be condensed into fewer layers, without losing too much useful information. Multiple variables can be generalized by statistically collapsing spatial data into fewer variables using combination of links (+, -, *, /) or multivariate techniques where summary statistics can be calculated from a combination of data layers. 3.10.1.5 Superimposition Several layers of data are often combined for example in a weighted overlay or analytical hierarchy process. Simple operations such as layer addition, subtraction and multiplication are standard options in GIS (Chrisman, 1997; DeMers, 1997, 2000). Combinations that are more complex will require an interface where the user can specify mathematical weightings and possibly fuzzy rules for combination of data layers in something more approaching a rule-based system. 3.10.1.6 Dynamic Displays (Dynamic Data Visualization) Dynamic displays introduce an element of change in time, space or display of parameters and these are described in terms of interaction and animation (Buckley, 1999). To visualize data, a static display is not enough. Being able to rotate an object depends upon the view plane normal or viewing plane. This plane should be rotatable in x, y, and z directions, and rotation should be dynamic. Animation is a useful technique for viewing data layers, which represent change as a result of a stochastic simulation. It is considered here as it provides multiple simultaneous views of the same event, thus allows different perspectives (vantage point, orientation, illumination), generalization parameters (classification, simplification, exaggeration), scale (extent, resolution), level of measurement, and number of dimensions (Robinson et al., 1995) of the same aspect of execution to be related to each other. Thereby, allowing the observer to gain an instantaneous insight into variation of DC. It can be used for dynamic graphs where data are can be represented by means of multiple and simultaneously available views such as tables, a list of labels, a bar chart, pie chart, histogram, stem and leaf plots, or scatterplot. These views are shown in different windows on a computer screen. They are linked in the sense that when a location in any one of the windows is selected by means of pointing device, the corresponding locations in the other windows are highlighted as well and GIS adds map as another view. 3.11 Multi-Dimensional GIS for Demographic Modeling For GIS analysis and modeling, data is handled in different ways according to dimensionality; and each will be dealt with separately to be able to assess the shortcoming of each and what tasks it can accomplish; but before that let us look at what is involved in each. 2D is based on a Cartesian (x, y) coordinate system and is usually tied to a mapping datum and have been part of mapping since its inception and they form the fundamental base on which to present geographical data analysis. 2.5D mapping and analysis uses these Cartesian coordinates but adds an attribute such as height to achieve the extra half of a dimension. This is sometimes incorrectly referred to as 3D mapping and analysis; this type of model can only describe a surface and cannot handle more than one Z value at the same point (De Floriani, et al., 1998), thus the name 2.5D. 3D uses the concept of volumetric objects. If surfaces can be animated (surface fly-through or time lapse), they are called three and one half-dimensional (3.5D). 4D GIS adds time to volumetric analysis and mapping, and 5D GIS is defined as 4D plus attributes, but the focus in this thesis remains on purely spatial dimensions in 2D and 2.5D and 3D GIS. 3.11.1Two-Dimensional GIS 2D mapping is limited to representation of data on planar surfaces and elevation is represented using attribute values. 2D mapping of demographical phenomena has been used with significant results. There are some advantages and disadvantages of 2D GIS for
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representing data, which are inherently 2.5D and 3D. Map components include vector objects (points, lines, polygons) or raster grids, which are used to display phenomena. 3.11.2Two and half-Dimensional GIS Mapping of demographical phenomena in 2.5D deals primarily with surfaces. These resulting surface interpretations can represent the distribution of DCs. The use of 2.5D representation of surfaces has some disadvantages for modeling, the most obvious being the lack of volumetric capabilities (Bernhardsen, 1999). Nonetheless, simple and efficient surface generation can be valuable for investigations that do not require 3D capabilities. Here z values can be used in a perspective plot to create the appearance of 3D. These are actually 2.5D plots, which are attractive for displaying continuous surfaces e.g. perspective plots can be computed from any viewpoint. 3.11.3Three-Dimensional GIS 3D GIS is a technology that is increasingly being used for display and analysis of data containing horizontal and vertical spatial coordinates. A wide range of applications of 3D analysis is available to users in general (Raper, 1989). The 2D point, line and polygon vector representation of objects can be extended to include a volume element in 3D space (Kraak, 1993) and 3D raster grids can be used in analysis and display (AbdulRahman, et al., 1998). These volumetric vector and raster systems evolved from early solid modeling (Mäntylä, 1988). 3.12 Summary This chapter has looked at the study area, resources to be used in the experimentation, how the data was obtained, stored in a Database (DB) including the DB design, geocoding, usage of data in GIS, and evolving Demographic model (DM) in GIS. Have been able to show how various DCs can be added to a developed model to consist of any DCs according to the analyst choice. This has the advantage in that at first, the analyst can develop DM consisting of DCs s/he previews as necessary at that time but as s/he continues, may find it necessary to add or remove for simulation purposes or finds them significant for specific analysis. It also showed the requirements for GIS-DSA and GIS demographics visualization methodology in order to generate visualizable features. It has ended by properly outlining the various dimensions (2D, 2.5D and 3D) that will be utilized in GIS-DSA in the chapters to follow.

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Chapter IV 4 GIS DEMOGRAPHIC SPATIAL ANALYSIS 4.1 Introduction A review of GIS and demographics in planning and the methods of analysis was undertaken so that we get hands on what have been done, how it have been done, and the outcomes to help in GIS demographic spatial analysis (GIS-DSA). This chapter deals with 2D GIS demographic analysis before asking ourselves in chapter five, what other dimensionalities in GIS can be used to accomplish other GIS-DSA tasks of GIS-DSA. Before we start to experiment GIS-DSA, let us summarize what GIS-DSA is suppose to achieve i.e. show spatial distribution and variation of DCs, show spatial relation between DCs and other infrastructures, how DCs can be represented as continuous variables, represent and visualize spatial influence of DCs, how the demographic quantities vary spatially, and multi-vertical representation of DCs. In order to accomplish that, the following will be looked at: spatial progressive similarity clustering, demographic spatial alternative appraisal, selection of DCs, demographic nearest neighbor analysis, demographic spatial change analysis and demographic spatial segregation/integration. Others include demographic iso-lines and vertical demographics, quantitative spatial effect, quantitative spatial analysis, transparent neighborhood analysis, demographic undershed, demographic overshed, demographic shrinkage points, demographic escalation points, demographic spatial pass, demographic overfold, demographic underfold, demographic spatial variation, demographic directional variation, demographic visibility analysis, and demographic solid analysis. Those will be based on the many GIS spatial analysis techniques (Bailey, 1994; Chou, 1997; Volusia, 1997), which include: Single layer operations (GIS procedures which correspond to attribute queries, spatial queries, and alternations of data that operate on a single data layer). Multiple-layer operations, which are useful for manipulation of spatial data on multiple data layers. Spatial modeling, which involves the construction of explanatory and predictive models for statistical testing. Point pattern analysis, which deals with the examination and evaluation of spatial patterns and the processes of point features. Network analysis, designed specifically for line features organized in connected networks like location analysis. Surface analysis deals with the spatial distribution of surface information; it involves the processing of spatial data in a continuous spatial form. Others include: spatial overlay, boundary analysis, proximity analysis, buffer analysis, clustering, and georeferencing and solid modeling. 4.2 Two-Dimensional GIS Demographic Analysis As a move to carry out GIS-DSA in 2D GIS using ArcView GIS as an example, let us look at demographic analysis preparation in ArcView, which involves getting a base map; in this case, the base map used is that of the cadastral GIS. On base map overlay the building layer on which all the spatial analyses are based. For the population analyses that are first carried out in database or statistical software are imported into ArcView GIS using the accessing tabular data capabilities of ArcView or linked using the SQL connection (see B). After importing population files, they are georeferenced to the buildings as the reference spatial units using ArcView’s single field style geocoding style 43. As most GISs are not tooled for demographic analysis, to aid in analysis the following scripts and extension have been used. 4.2.1 ArcView GIS Extension Many research and extension have been developed to incorporate different function in ArcView and there exist many scripts and extensions on ESRI ArcScript web site 44. Some developments have focused on customizing the interface to reduce the functions so that non-GIS experts can easily accomplish task; a good example is on be Yagoub, et al when they developed a user interface for selecting a dumping site in Langkawi-Malaysia. Some have focused on incorporating new functions like SpaceStat by Anselin; the developed module in the next section follows this trend due to lack functions to accomplish GIS-DSA. The main intention here is to create new functions although reducing the circle (access to
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This address style is used for geocoding based on the value of a single field in the reference theme's attribute table. The style contains one single component, the Key Field. It is filled with a data field from the attribute table in order to the make the theme matchable. The required component is A KeyField, which can be any single field in the attribute table. It can be the building number, permit number, parcel ID, or postal code. The KeyField component contains a list of preferred field names. ArcView reads the fields in the theme's attribute table and locates the default field, if available.
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http://gis.esri.com/arcscripts/scripts.cfm 41

existing functions) through which non-GIS user can revolve around ArcView to carry out analysis and modeling has been taken into consideration. As the ability to describe complex geographic modeling with straightforward options for a greater number of users is well recommended by many researchers (Wilson, 1990). 4.2.2 Demographics Analyst This module was developed using the object-oriented scripting language of ArcView Avenue to assist in demographic analysis, prototype for GIS-DSA and human-computer interaction within existing geographic information systems software i.e. ArcView GIS. It comprises of different scripts implementing several features of DSA that are unavailable from the standard menu choices of ArcView GIS. 4.2.2.1 Development Strategy In the design and development of the new module, were constantly guided by various principles of human computer interface and software development. The quality and ease with which computer applications are developed depends greatly on the effectiveness and efficiency of the developer (Ganter, 1996). Hence, when developing the module used a style with shared consistency of appearance and organization. This style and consistency helps the programmers’ mind and the minds of code readers or future programmers to focus on the meaning of code and ignores the “noise”. Emphasis was put on program documentation (headers and comments) and the naming of variables, scripts and files in ways that impose a useful structure. For example, all names of scripts in the module start with demographic then the action it carries out; like, a script that displaces demographic points is named Demographic.DisplacePoints. This makes it easy to identify them from the ArcView directory when the module is loaded. The Hungarian notation was followed, which is popular in C and windows programming (McConnell, 1993) and is considered the best by many programmers (Ganter, 1996). Another key aspect of software development is respect for cognition or human information management for software is compiled and executed by computers, but it is written, debugged, reviewed, edited and maintained by people. The advice to "think first of people" (Davis 1995, Principle 92) led to a few simple procedures help compensate for the passage of time and the limitations of human memory so that others who may inherit or acquire our code will be added value to them as I did to others’ codes. The development of this prototype followed a hierarchical interface design approach. This approach has three levels at which interface goals must be addressed. The first is the conceptual level of computer interface design, which should pinpoint what the system is for, who the expected system users are, what needs are met by the system, and what the results of working with the system should be. This is followed by development of operational level goals outlining specific tasks that must be accomplished to achieve conceptual level goals. In addition, this level requires the formalization of these tasks as operations on information. Lastly, at the implementational level, decisions are made about how to implement those operations and represent them to the user. The module that we set out to develop was designed for planners carry out DSA. It was done by taking advantage of the ArcView user interface that allows users to write their own scripts in a language called Avenue, and then incorporate those scripts directly into the interface using pull down menus, buttons, or tools. 4.2.2.2 User Interface Designing an interface involves combining the available tools with a set of user requirements and good design principles (ESRI, 1993). The goal of an application programmer should be to create an interface that performs the desired tasks easily, efficiently, and requiring a minimal time for training. Whether the design is for small scale or big application the attention should be paid to organization, logical flow, visual appearance, ease of use, error checking, and on line help. The general principles that applicable to all user interface designs are given by Sommerville (1996): These principles are user familiarity, consistency, minimal surprise, recoverability and user guidance. The increasing level of complexity of GIS systems requires special consideration to the user-friendliness of the system. This may be discussed from two points of view: from the viewpoint of specialized users, calling for sophisticated capabilities; and from the viewpoint of wide audiences, requiring the ease of use for non-GIS users. Raper and Rhind (1990) argue that ease of use is a vital criterion for the selection of an appropriate
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GIS. It is generally accepted that a system, which is easy to use, can help cut recruitment and training costs and help retain staff. 4.2.2.3 Functions of Demographics Analyst This module was required to accomplish the following, which after its development become the functions of demographic analyst: • Adding x y coordinates to analysis tables • Updating coordinates • Calculating area and perimeter • Transferring attributes from one feature to another • Linking analysis features with other sources of information like pictures • Converting polygons to points • Spreading (displacing) points within a set boundary or spatial extent • Carrying out interactive nearest neighbor analysis • Carrying out progressive spatial clustering Each function can be accessed independently as items from a pull down menu. This makes it easy for the user by providing a set of capabilities that can be combined in innovative ways. When the Demographic Analyst is loaded, an additional menu appears between the windows and help menu in the traditional ArcView GIS view interface (Figure 4.14) and it also appears in ArcView GIS table interface (Figure 4.16).

Figure 4.14 ArcView showing position and functions of Demographics Analyst Spreading (displacing) points within a set boundary or spatial extent is a function that was to achieve spreading the geocoded population randomly within the boundaries of the polygons e.g. buildings so that they are not on top of each other. This does not introduce errors as the building was used as unit of spatial analysis. It was done using the “displace points”. The result is that each point appears with a unique spatial reference to aid in spatial planning and gives good visualization of the density. It can also be employed in evaluating alternatives by spatial varying of points, which change the spatial location of DCs. Transferring attributes from one feature to another: when it comes to point analyses, to avoid the problem of points in the display having the same constant attributes after the evaluating alternatives by spatial varying points and introducing new ones. We use “one to many link” function that helps to link the personal attributes to the randomly displaced points and other features. This was employed in demographic analysis basing on the buildings as the unit of analysis where the individuals were linked to the building.

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Converting polygons to points: Some times it became important to carry out progressive polygon to point analysis, it was done using the “convert polygon to point” which adds another point theme, then the analysis is done basing on the points. Add x y coordinates is used to assist to evaluate alternatives by varying the numbers where we can delete or add some DCs. In all cases, we are able to add coordinates using add x y coordinates function or update the new locations in table using the function calculate and update coordinates. The function “calculate area and perimeter” comes into play when the area and perimeter are needed in analysis. Distance between points: It calculates distance from points in one theme to points in another. This function will prompt the user for two point themes in the active view. The first is the point theme containing the selected points that you wish to calculate the distance from. The second is the point theme containing points that you wish to calculate the distance to. Its role is in spatial analysis of DCs that are in different themes. Spatial nearest neighbor: this function was attached to a button on ArcView GUI (see red arrow labeled “A” on Figure 4.14 or “a”, Figure 4.15). When you click this button, a cursor cross will appear and can drag any rectangular area and then a message box will tell you the R-value and how many features were accounted for in the analysis. R-values relate how clustered or dispersed points are within the rectangle. This provides the analyst the opportunity to carry interactive DSA by specifying a variable spatial extent. It can be applied in many tasks like progressive density analysis, progressive clustering, etc to be detailed later (sections 4.2.4, 4.2.7, 4.2.6). Find Nearest Feature: Finds feature nearest to a point, it works by creating a new tool in a ViewDocGUI as the apply function with script called Demographic.FindNearestFeature which is automatically put into ArcView directory when Demographic Analyst is loaded. It is attached to tool in ArcView GUI (see red arrow labeled “B”, Figure 4.15). It finds the nearest feature in the active theme to the point entered interactively by the user after activating the cursor by clicking on the tool, reports the distance and selects the feature. Summarizes theme: Summarizes selected fields from active theme and uses the summary dialog to allow the specification of fields and rules for aggregation. The summarization occurs directly from the view document, using the current active theme. The result of the summarization is a new .dbf file (newtable.dbf), which is opened. If the Merge option is chosen, a new theme is created and can be added to a view. This script provides similar functionality to existing controls in the table DocGUI, however this is executed directly from a view.

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Figure 4.15 Demonstration of the user interface and Demographics Analyst Since the main concern was not to develop the module but to carry out DSA, only a brief description of its functions has been given in this subsection; for the various applications will be dealt within the various sections to follow as the need arise to accomplish certain tasks of DSA. For detailed description and other functions and the tasks that can be accomplished by this module, click the help under the Demographic Analyst45 menu when the module is loaded. This will open a popup menu having all topics of the module and clicking on any like “displace points” opens up another popup window containing the descriptions as shown on Figure 4.15. 4.2.2.4 Table Document Graphical User Interface Demographic Analyst also adds a new menu table DocGUI (Figure 4.16) with the following functions:

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The data and all the results of experimentation in this thesis can be downloaded from http://www.hbp.usm.my/thesis/heritageGIS/download.htm it include results of experimentation, data used in experimentation, copies of ArcView Scripts and extensions used, thesis, etc 45

Figure 4.16 ArcView table interface showing Demographics Analyst Create New Table: This creates a new Table using Multi-input dialog box. An empty table is created and Message box is used to prompt the user for information to add to the table. After clicking cancel, the new table document will be added to the project and opened. The default ID in the dialog box is incremented for each record as the record number displayed in the dialog box title. The fields that are created are ID, Name, Age, Building, Road, Gender, Race, Religion, Marital. This allows new data to be added to a project and database. Combine fields: This combines two fields in a table, it allows two existing fields within a shapefile to be concatenated and written to a user specified field. To concatenate more than two fields, run the function in succession. It can be run from any interface (i.e. Views, Tables, etc.) as it collects all documents from the project and pulls out all the table documents. Modify table: This renames or modifies fields in a table document by presenting a dialog box requesting you to select field to modify then after selected a field another dialog box will appear for you to enter modification parameters i.e. name, type, width, precision 4.2.2.5 Scripts in the Demographics Analyst There are many scripts that make up the Demographic Analyst; given below are the main scripts; minor scripts like the one which install, uninstall, add menu, remove menu, create dialog and scripts which describe and gives help to the functions are not given below, they can be found as explained in section 4.2.2.6. The scripts include: Demographic.AboutDemgraphicsAnalyst gives a brief description of extension; it is under the function About Demographic Analyst. Demographic.FindNearestFeature: finds feature nearest to a point, it under the function Find Nearest Feature. Demographic.SpatialNearestNeighbor: perform spatial nearest neighbor analysis, it under the function Spatial Nearest Neighbor. MakeExtension: it is the script responsible to generate the Demographics Analyst when it is complied and it write the extension with the file name Demographics1.avx. Demographic.DistanceBtnThemes: calculates distances from points in one theme to points in another, it is under the function Point Distance Between Themes. Demographic.AddXYCoordinates: adds X and Y coordinates of features to attribute table, it under the function Add XY Coordinates; it was derived from a script called addxycoo.ave. Demographic.Areas: returns the area of a shape, it under the function Calculate Area, Acres and Perimeter. Demographic.AttributeTransfer: this script overlays one polygon theme (the "edit" theme) on another polygon theme (the "source" theme) with similar or larger features and transfers attributes of the source theme to the features of the edit theme, it under the function Attribute Transfer; it was modified from a script called overlayatts.ave46. Demographic.UpdateCoordinates: this script updates the latitude and longitude fields of a table to accurately reflect the positions that are assigned to the actual feature, it under the function Calculate and
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Author: Holly Gaudet email holly.gaudet@mms.gov 46

Update Coordinates; it was derived from fixtabxy.ave. Demographic.Summarize: it summarizes selected fields from active theme; it is under the function Summarize Theme; was derived from thmsumm.ave. Demographic.DisplacePoints: this script will displace points that fall on top of one another. It will spread the points in a radial pattern from one central point that remains the same. It prompts the user to enter a disperse distance in decimal degrees, it under the function Displace Points. Demographic.PolygonToPoints: Converts selected polygon/polyline to points to create a new shapefile, it is under the function Convert Polygon to Point; it was derived from a script called poly2point.ave 47. Demographic.CombineFileds: this script allows two existing fields within a shapefile to be concatenated and written to a user specified field, it was generated from a script called Fields.Concatenate48. “Write all Document Locations” write name and path to all themes and tables in a project to a text file, it uses a script called Demographic.WriteInfo modified from a script called writeinfo.ave49. All the scripts obtainable from ESRI ArcScript web site50 4.2.2.6 Further Details on Demographics Analyst This module is available on this thesis web site51. It can also be downloaded from at ESRI ArcScript web site52 as explained in F. It comprises a compressed file containing both the Demographics Analyst extension file (demographics1.avx) and the ArcView 3.1 project file (demographics.apr) used to create the extension. Demographics.apr contains all of the Avenue scripts used in the Demographic Analyst extension as well as the script that is used to create the extension i.e. MakeExtension. The project file has been included in this package to simplify viewing of the Avenue scripts as a way of promoting sharing and to enable those who would like to make further changes or what to learn how to do it. Also included in the zip file is readme.htm, which introduces the module and explains how to use and load it. By making the scripts available, I hope it will encourage further enhancements to its functionalities. To use the Demographics Analyst extension, copy the file demographics1.avx to ArcView's 32-bit extension directory. On Windows platforms, this directory is usually: C:\ESRI\AV_GIS30\ARCVIEW\EXT32. After demographics1.avx has been copied to ArcView's 32-bit extension directory, it can be loaded from ArcView's File menu by selecting the Extensions... menu choice then Demographics Analyst. When it is loaded, a menu labeled Demographics Analyst is added to the menu bar for Views between the Window and the Help menus. The Demographic Analyst menu contains the its functions and the help choice with instructions on how to use it. Since emphasis was put on program documentation (headers and comments) and the naming of variables, scripts and files in ways that impose a useful structure. For example, all names of scripts start with Demographic then the action it carries out; like, a script that displaces demographic points is named Demographic.DisplacePoints, and the script which provides more details and functions and help on how to use it is named Demographic.HelpDisplacePoints. This makes it easy to identify them from the ArcView directory when the module is loaded. In order to get the scripts either open the project file (demographics.apr) and click on scripts under the main menu. Alternatively, invoke the script manager when you click on the system script button. You also bring up the script manager when you double-click the Apply property, the click property or the Update property in the Properties list of the Customize dialog box. 4.2.3 Other Scripts and Extensions used Other Extensions and scripts used in this thesis included: Link2InternetExplorer53, this extension, once loaded will add a button in View GUI button bar having Internet Explorer icon on it (red arrow labeled “e”, Figure 4.15) used to link html information during analysis. Hot potato extension54, this once loaded will add buttons in View GUI (see red
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'Author: Shuai Jiangping Email: jpshuai@hotmail.com or jshuai@uoguelph.ca, Department of geography, University of Guelph, URL: www.geocities.com/shuai_jp 48 'Author: Clayton Kingdon, kingdon71@hotmail.com, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources
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Mikael Elmquist, mikael@swegis.com, Herrgårdsgatan 20, 652 24 Karlstad, Sweden, www.swegis.com ESRI ArcView Scripts web Site at http://gis.esri.com/arcscripts/scripts.cfm 51 http://www.hbp.usm.my/thesis/heritageGIS/download.htm 52 ESRI ArcView Scripts web Site at http://gis.esri.com/arcscripts/scripts.cfm 53 Author: Dr. Arun K. Saraf, Email : saraffes@rurkiu.ernet.in Department of Earth Sciences, University of Roorkee, ROORKEE 247667, INDIA. Obtained from http://gis.esri.com/arcscripts/scripts.cfm 54 Author: Kenneth R. McVay, rcreed@earthlink.net obtained from http://gis.esri.com/arcscripts/scripts.cfm 47

arrows labeled “b” and “c”, Figure 4.15). It is used for linking images and pictures to view. For example after establishing the link between the buildings and an active theme using link button (red arrow labeled “b”, Figure 4.15), by clicking on the hot potato link button (red arrow labeled “c”, Figure 4.15) and clicking on feature like the heritage center office (highlighted polygon see where the red arrow labeled “d”, Figure 4.15 is pointing), a picture of the building will popup to add on the analysis by providing visualization. Others include random point extension55, Nearest neighbor analyst extensions56; Xtools extension,, Analysis extension, edit tool extension, Bivariate mapping extensions, Database access extensions, Geoprocessing extensions, Coordinate extension, grid analyst extensions, etc all available ESRI ArcScript web site57 or thesis web site58 and their contribution to GIS-DSA will be highlighted in the subsequent analyses. 4.2.4 Demographic Nearest Neighbor Analysis GIS makes it easy to perform spatial nearest neighbor analysis in order to understand the how close individuals or different DCs are. It is one way of analyzing locations of DCs/individuals by measuring the distance between them. This technique has been used to determine spatial relationships in demographic data; e.g. to assess the spatial relationship between the members of the same ethnic group and other ethnic groups. This demonstrated in ArcView GIS using nearest neighbor analysis function under Demographics Analyst (section 4.2.2). It is done by dragging a rectangle around the features you wish to conduct spatial nearest neighbor analysis. The wait cursor will appear and then a message box will tell you the R-value and how many features were accounted for in the analysis. R-values relate how clustered or dispersed points (or centroids of polygons and Polylines) are within the rectangle you specified. An R-value of 0 (zero) indicates an intensely clustered pattern, while an R value of 1 indicates a random distribution, and an R-value of 2 (or higher) indicates strongly dispersed pattern. This was experimented by running the nearest neighbor analysis on two racial groups (Chinese and Indians) in the study area to find out the differences in their location. Started by using the whole study area as the spatial extent, this gave an R-value of 0.373126 for the Chinese and R-value of 0.130641 for the Indians. Changing the spatial extent to smaller area (see red rectangle called spatialborder on Figure 4.17), it gave totally a different set of R-values i.e. R-value of 0.32398 for the Chinese and R-value of 0.207086 for the Indians (Figure 4.17).

Figure 4.17 Nearest neighbor analysis
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Author: Stephen Lead email: slead@esriau.com.au. Obtained from http://gis.esri.com/arcscripts/scripts.cfm Author: Dr. Arun K. Saraf, Email : saraffes@rurkiu.ernet.in Department of Earth Sciences, University of Roorkee, ROORKEE 247667, INDIA. Obtained from http://gis.esri.com/arcscripts/scripts.cfm 57 ESRI ArcView Scripts web Site at http://gis.esri.com/arcscripts/scripts.cfm 58 Thesis web site at http://www.hbp.usm.my/thesis/heritageGIS/download.htm where all stuff used in the study including thesis can be downloaded 48

This shows that the two racial groups do not have the same distribution through the study area with; the Chinese being almost uniformly distributed in the two tested areas with 12 persons in the small area out of 241 in the study area. The Indians have a higher concentration in the small area, which accounts for 38 out of 52 in the study area. With such analysis, we are in position to carry out micro/disaggregated spatial analysis and make conclusions about the spatial composition and location of the population according to the DCs upon which we are basing our spatial analysis. 4.2.5 Demographic Spatial Change Analysis In conventional analysis, percentage change in population is derived using the model of dividing the most recent population by the earlier population, subtracting one from the result, and multiplying by 100 percent to convert to a percentage (Plane, et al., 1994). It can be noted that the model does not take into consideration the spatial referencing, which is needed so that the analyst knows where the change is occurring. In the conventional model, these spatial percentage changes are taken according known zonal subdivisions. This is when GIS spatial analysis capacity has to be brought in to combine the above model with the spatial dimension to come up with spatial percentage change. There are many opinions for the analyst, either to set a spatial extent using an interactive tool (as demonstrated in section 4.2.4) or to use a polygon that can by overlaid to the population. With this, the analyst does not have to know the zones in advance and the result have spatial component as it is needed (section 2.3.3). 4.2.6 Spatial Progressive Similarity Clustering of DCs Cluster analysis is about determining homogenous areas; there exist many methods of clustering like measure of similarity, iterative clustering, and agglomerative clustering (Plane, et al., 1994). All these methods have one weakness in that they consider only clustering between areas/regions, because of that they can not accomplish the classification needed at micro level; where DCs could be grouped in such a way that each have to be added incrementally. Thus, need for an improved one i.e. measuring or carrying out cluster analysis using a method developed for thesis named spatial progressive similarity. This method can be used for household identification and incrementally combine to come up with a cluster of similar or same characteristics. This can be used for household analysis and other analysis, which may involve classification. For example, it can be employed to carry out clustering according to ethnicity using householders as the centroid for each household. Here the householders are identified together with their DCs and the distances between every two householders are measured. These distances are compared for every pair of the householders and if householders in pair measured are of the same characteristic under investigation and the distance between these householders is smaller relative to the distance between dissimilar householders, then the two householders are combined and also their entities are used in the next progressive similarity clustering. The distances between two householders is obtained using Euclidean method for calculating distance between two points. The first initial steps they are clustered with many polygons and holes in the study area like Figure 4.18 where polygons are drawn around every different DC where the distance with other DCs is greater than between similar DC. As the process continues those are refined by combining polygons having similar DCs and adjusting the boundaries so that cover up the holes and occupy the all of the study area like Figure 4.19.

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Figure 4.18 Identifying demographic characteristics in progressive clustering

Figure 4.19 Combining demographic characteristics in progressive clustering 4.2.7 Demographic Spatial Alternative Appraisal Planners are always faced with the task of looking for spatial locations where the DCs do not conflict. This can be achieved by evaluating alternatives of DCs spatial distribution in study area. For example evaluating alternatives by editing features, this involves moving points (people) to different or better position in order to evaluate the alternative for planning purposes. For example if we want to move all people staying in the area demarcated with red boundary (see area for clearing on Figure 4.20) so that area is set aside for open space and utilities.

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Figure 4.20 Location of the people and the area for clearing
Green polygon representing open space, brown for social activities, pink for commercial, gray for utilities and infrastructures

One way is by using the add x y coordinates function in Demographic Analyst add coordinates in the attribute, then opening the table (Figure 4.21) and make changes to the coordinates so that points move to new locations then geocoding them to the buildings or adding them as event theme under the view menu. We used the easiest way of just moving points from the identified spatial extent to other locations. With this, we are able to visualize the effect of the change before making decision. After making the changes like in our example, the area has been cleared (Figure 4.21); then we employed the function of Demographics Analyst to accomplish the analysis and assess the effect.

Figure 4.21 Evaluating alternatives by editing features Using the function calculate and update coordinates under demographic analyst we updated the new locations in table. It was also possible to evaluate alternatives by varying the numbers where we can delete or add some DCs. Being able to evaluate
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alternatives in GIS is vital in that in very many situation planners are faced with the problem of comparing DCs spatially for different locations or zones, which they want to do in such a way that location/zones can be varied at any time in the process. GIS provides the capability to do such types of analyses for different sizes of spatial dimensions. Having the population at different geographical locations geocoded and displaying these geographical locations either in the same view or different views to provide visual comparison in ArcView GIS, it is done by setting a spatial extent using an interactive tool as described in section 4.2.4. This can be done for the different DCs for any spatial extent. Thus, the planner does not have to know the geographical size to which to carry out spatial demographic comparison before beginning on the task of analysis. In addition to that, Demographic Analyst offers more analysis power compared to the traditional techniques where it is possible also to carry out such analyses by setting the same spatial sizes in different zones. This provides the planner with the capacity to judge whether the demographic difference is due to geographical location or to spatial dimension or both. 4.2.8 Demographic Spatial Segregation/Integration Analysis Segregation indexes (index of dissimilarity, the Gini index of diversity, exposure index, entropy index of segregation) reflect the extent to which the various subgroups of the total population are clustered within certain geographical sub areas (Plane, et al., 1994. pp. 303-307). It is usually standardized so that it ranges from a minimum of zero which is found when each geographic sub area has an equal share of the subgroup total population to a maximum value of one which is obtained only when there is no mixing of subgroup in any geographic sub areas. They have real world application to redistricting and zoning in planning process and these segregation indexes can be used to evaluate the fairness of alternative proposed plans for carving up a region into units or zones (Morrison, et al, 1992; White, 1986). These measures when applied alone may produce results that are not right. A case in point (Morrison & Clark, 1992) is Hispanic district drawn up in Los Angeles (USA) under a special census tabulation. The so-called Hispanic district was, in fact 53 percent non-Hispanic. This was the result of the lack of incorporation of the spatial aspect to determine to extent to apply the indices. GIS can improve them by incorporating the spatial dimension, thus being able to select areas on which to apply the segregation measures and locate areas where the index is low or high as the need varies. This is being experimented in this thesis on “residential racial segregation against integration” and residential racial segregation is being defined as the tendency for individuals with different racial backgrounds to inhabit different parts of metropolitan areas in greater concentrations due to various reasons59. Since we want to determine how the concentration of races varies spatially, start with running Correlation in SPSS on micro data (Table E.9). This gives -0.167 (Table 4.2) using Spearman and Pearson correlation as given in Table A.5. Table 4.2 Spearman Correlation of Analysis Variables
ROAD Cor. Coefficient Sig. (2-tailed) Cor. Coefficient Sig. (2-tailed) Cor. Coefficient Sig. (2-tailed) Cor. Coefficient Sig. (2-tailed) Cor. Coefficient Sig. (2-tailed) Cor. Coefficient 1.000 . -.019 .732 -.043 .427 -.167(**) .002 .055 .307 .072 GENDER -.019 .732 1.000 . -.029 .589 .037 .500 .040 .456 .033 AGE -.043 .427 -.029 .589 1.000 . -.029 .593 .041 .450 -.687(**) RACE -.167(**) .002 .037 .500 -.029 .593 1.000 . .685(**) .000 -.073 RELIGION .055 .307 .040 .456 .041 .450 .685(**) .000 1.000 . -.092 MARITAL .072 .182 .033 .547 -.687(**) .000 -.073 .179 -.092 .089 1.000

ROAD

GENDER

AGE

RACE

RELIGION MARITAL
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Households of same race feel less threatened by choosing to reside in close proximity or discriminatory market in which certain groups are denied access to the entire housing stock. 52

Sig. (2-tailed)

.182

.547

.000

.179

.089

.

** Correlation is significant at the .01 level (2-tailed) and N= 343

Spearman correlation indicates the relationship between the various racial groups and the streets in the study area (Figure 4.22). The result shows that there is negative correlation between race and location. Tabulating the race against streets (Table 4.3) we start to observe trend that is not totally in agreement with the above.

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Table 4.3 Road * Race cross tabulation
RACE 1 (Chinese) 1 (Jalan Masjid Kapit) 2 (Lebuh Acheh) 3 (Lebuh Armenian) Road 4 (Lebuh Cannon) 5 (Medan Cannon) 6 (Lebuh Pantai) 7 (Lorong Lumut) Total 25 55 85 26 33 14 3 241 14 52 5 50 18 20 44 1 2 (Indian) 3 (Malay) Total 25 117 106 26 33 14 22 343

Continuing with the investigation into GIS, there is disagreement with the results obtained in ArcView GIS where the first step in this process was to geocode all racial groupings so that we relate them to locations. This provides insight into the changing residential patterns of racial and ethnic groups in study area. The results show that, there is spatial relationship between race and location; Chinese as being dominate on Jalan Masjid Kapit, Indians as the majority on Lorong Lumut (Figure 4.22). Such results require less previous knowledge of how to interpret results as they can be visualized. The variation in results can be explained, as the statistical correlation does not take into consideration spatial relationship and proximity, which GISs handle well and the other thing is that GIS provides interactive analyses, giving analyst the opportunity to compare the attributes with the visual results. Then a question comes in “what about if the relationship is not so obvious for the eye to easily see?” This is where GIS is very important as it uses the computing technology to provide the smallest detail in the data. All GISs have the pan and zoom functions; with these, the analyst can select a section where the pattern is not clear and zoom in to see the details and using the pan function to move to the next section. Because of such GIS capabilities, the researcher saw no need in developing a corresponding spatial index as such index would be limiting the capabilities of GIS disaggregated spatial analysis. Also it should be noted that the individual persons have been used in the analyzes with their location being referenced to buildings.

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Figure 4.22 Spatial distribution of racial categories
Black dots representing Chinese, yellow for Indian and Malay by blue.

Carrying out aggregation of such data according to the streets (this time looking at only race) Table 4.3, we see that much information is not available as compared to Table E.9. Analyzing such aggregated data in GIS with only such a slight aggregation of buildings to streets, we immediately unable to take full advantage of GIS spatial analysis capabilities; as we are able only to show the aggregated number of individuals on each street (Figure 4.23). We loss details about the location of individuals as from that we can not determine who belongs to which building as compared to earlier disaggregated analyses.

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Figure 4.23 Aggregation of demographic characteristics 4.2.9 Selection of Analysis Variables among DCs Here, the problem addressed is that of having many DCs, which one consider for a specific planning analysis. For example “what DCs can contribute to population location determination according to DCs, that must be included in the location analysis” according to data from the study area (Table E.9). First run the analysis in SPSS giving the results in Table 4.2, with Spearman correlation between location (road) and gender = -0.019, age = -0.043, race = -0.167, religion = 0.055, and marital status = 0.072. These results indicate the level at which each DC shows how the population composition varies with location. All those variables giving R (correlation between the predicator variables combined and the dependent variable) of 0.194 (Table 4.4) using multiple regression by entering variables (SPSS, 1998, Foster (1998) and R square of 0.038. Table 4.4 Analysis by entering DCs with road as dependent variable
Model 1 2 3 4 5 R .010(a) .067(b) .113(c) .194(d) .194(e) R Square .000 .005 .013 .038 .038 Adjusted R Square -.003 -.001 .004 .026 .023 Std. Error of the Estimate 1.57 1.57 1.57 1.55 1.55

a Predictors: (Constant), GENDER b Predictors: (Constant), GENDER, AGE c Predictors: (Constant), GENDER, AGE, RACE d Predictors: (Constant), GENDER, AGE, RACE, RELIGION e Predictors: (Constant), GENDER, AGE, RACE, RELIGION, MARITAL

Looking at Table 4.4 we can see that marital status, which is given the highest correlation with location in Table 4.2, has no contribution to a combined model; this is further explained by running ANOVA as given in Table A.6, getting coefficient of correlation in Table A.7, and excluding variables analysis in Table A.8. In addition carrying spatial analysis in ArcView GIS, the results of marital status in Heritage area (Figure 4.24) show that the marital status (which in this study we divided it into only single and married) is spread throughout the whole area and cannot be used for population allocation. Maybe other population data from different areas, marital status may provide insights for location determination, for this study area is not the case. That is why is important for each analysis to be carried out to determinant DCs which will give reliable results. From
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that we may be prompted to conclude that none of the variables can be depended upon for location determination, which is not right in this specific case of heritage area. When we compare the other factors spatially it can be found out that race has the highest correlation with location (Figure 4.22) followed by religion (Figure 4.25). This is the importance of GIS analysis, where it can be used to find spatial relationships between variables. From that if you need to get statistical results, then do so after knowing which variables should be included; like in the above example, we should not have included marital status. This eases the work of the planner and guides him from making unrealistic analysis, which will give false results.

Figure 4.24 Spatial distribution and location of marital status

Figure 4.25 Spatial distribution and location of the various religions in study area
Brown dots represents Buddhist, dark blue - Hindu, green - Islam, yellow - Christians, and purple – others

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4.3 Summary This chapter dealt with demographic spatial analysis in 2D GIS and as modules for all techniques were not available in the ArcView GIS; various extensions and scripts including producing a prototype module (Demographic Analyst) as an extension to ArcView was employed for the analysis to provide extra demands of demographic analysis. These facilitated to compare the demographic analysis results between statistical analysis techniques and GIS and accomplishing GIS demographic spatial analysis in 2D e.g. spatial demographic nearest neighbor analysis, demographic spatial analysis, spatial alternative analysis, spatial progressive clustering, selection of analysis variables, etc.

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Chapter V 5 MODELING DEMOGRAPHICS AS THIRD DIMENSION 5.1 Introduction Carrying out demographic analysis and modeling in 2D was undertaken on the premise that there are techniques that could accomplish tasks of GIS demographic spatial analysis (GIS-DSA) to generate visualizable features and quantities for planning; which involved development of Demographics Analyst. According to the problem statement in section 1.2, using 2D GIS (section 4.2) we have been able to locate and show the relationships between DCs, represent DCs according to their proximate, and how they vary spatially. However, we have not been able to represent and visualize influence of DCs, how the demographic quantities vary spatially, unable to spatially analyze multi-vertical demographics and their representation. In addition, we have been unable to spatially to represent DCs like marital status, which have only two factors differentiating them so that their quantities can be depicted in addition to their traditional representation (single or married). Hence the need to incorporate a third (vertical) dimension in the spatial analysis in addition to x, y plane and this chapter deals with modeling of demographics as third dimension in order to carry out GIS-DSA in 2.5D and 3D. We start by looking at demographic data interpolation and extrapolation in order carry out modeling of the third (vertical), which has been divided into 1) demographic surface characterization and modeling in 2.5D (surface-based) where relationship between vertical and horizontal position is one to one and 2) 3D solid demographic modeling (volume-based) which is many to one 5.2 Surface and Volume-Based Demographic Spatial Analysis The following visualization may be helpful. Imagine that Figure 5.26 is a box consisting of clay, the vertical amount in every location being the gray color and top surface of clay being the blue-green. Cutting the clay using a sharp edge at equal intervals in all directions without removing any slice, it appears as grided as shown with thin black lines running parallel to each other. This is surface-based is where we can visualize the surface (blue-green and gray part) being represented by surface primitives, in other words, 3D objects are described in terms of their external observable surface which describe 3D surface using augmented 2D modeling primitives.

Figure 5.26 Surface and volume visualization Taking slice DD (red color) away and visualizing the block from side DD, we will observe a hollow opening. We will be able to see the inside and the same happens if slice CC (light green). That is volume-based if as object’s interior is described by solid information i.e. 3D objects are described in terms of the volume they occupy and deals with the 3D aspects using 3D model primitives. With volume-based, in addition to the surface-based we are able to visualize the interior, this enable us to be in position to make conclusion about complex situations according to our desire. The situation maybe that there is a DC on the base and stopping anywhere before reaching the top, or it may reach the surface, or not touching any of the surface like assuming we remove slice DD and using that space we cut out on the side of removing clay, take it out and replace DD in its position.
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We have to be able to determine the mass and visualize that situation. Thus, unlike volumetric 3D object models, surface representations ignore the invisible internal volume of the objects. In such cases, the only available information is on the observable surface boundary and nothing is known about the space occupied by this boundary. Since the surface boundaries are the primitives of these models, most of the analysis is facilitated by appropriate mappings of the curved surfaces onto planar patches while preserving the surface topology. Each will be handled separately, but before we carry out surface-based (section 5.5) and volume-based in (section 5.6), let look at ways by which demographics can be modeled incorporating the vertical dimension. 5.3 3D Spatial Object Representation of Demographics Once the demographic data is collected, the task is to represent it in a 3D-DM, of which the final form is in grid or triangular format i.e. a raster or vector 3D data structure must be chosen to describe demographics as geo-objects. Figure 5.27 shows object representations adapted from Li (1994), but modified to fit this research’s requirement.

Figure 5.27 Three dimensional spatial object representations 5.3.1 3D Data Structures 3D Raster Data Structures: In the raster approach, voxels serve as the building blocks for geo-objects. The topology of voxel data is inherent in the data structure (Worboys, 1995), with cell values in the grid accessible by row, column and level (z). There are three methods to store voxels. The simplest form of storage is as a Binary raster, where voxels are indexed as on or off depending on whether they make up a particular geo-object. Understandably, this approach often requires large amounts of available storage and searching for attribute data within a 3D grid can be enhanced with another alternative, indexing by Octree, the 3D equivalent of their 2D counterpart, the quadtree. Constructive solid geometry (CSG), a common CAD/CAM solid modeling technique (Samet, 1990a, 1990b), combines the occurrences of 3D primitives (objects) such as cubes, spheres, and cylinders using geometrical transformations and regularized set operations into a binary tree. As the 3D raster data structure is a series of rows and columns of cubes; this relative simplicity of 3D raster grids comprised of voxels is important; however, raster volumetric environments do have some limitations (Samet, 1990a). For example, the boundary of an object can be somewhat jagged if voxel resolution is low. Grid spacing (resolution) is an important feature of raster systems. A grid with large spacing (low resolution) may not represent elements effectively, and a grid with small spacing (high resolution) may store too much data about an object to permit efficient processing. 3D Vector Data Structures: Vector data structures represent features as a series of discrete linearly connected points within a database. Building upon the points, connections between points are made to represent lines (vectors). A series of lines can then connect to form polygons. Point, line and polygon features also contain associated
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data such as attributes that are used to describe the characteristics of features they represent. These basic features are used to build topology between objects and, therefore, define their spatial relationship. This spatial foundation for storing objects allows for query of information and attributes attached to those objects (Worboys, 1995). 5.3.2 Surface-Based Representation There are many ways for surface-based representation; the most commonly used are grid, shape model, facet model and B-rep (Figure 5.27); each has its strong points, weakness and fields of appropriate application (Abdul-Rahman, et al., 1998; Li, 1994). Grid: A grid is a popular method of surface representation in GIS, digital mapping and DTM. Many DTM and terrain surface packages are based on this representation as discussed in Petrie and Kennie (1990). It uses points as the basic element and it has several advantages, e.g. the structure is simple to generate, topology information is implicitly defined (Peucker, et al., 1978). The grid structure could be regular or irregular. In both cases (regular or irregular), every grid point has height (single value). Excellent surface maps can be derived with this structure, but it is unable to represent objects with multiple heights. Shape model: A shape model describes an object surface by using surface point derivatives (e.g. slopes). With known slopes of each grid point, a normal vector of a grid point can be defined and used to determine the shape of the surface. Li (1994) reported that this structure has an important application in 2.5D (surface) model reconstruction but not in 3D. Boundary representation (B-rep): B-Rep models represent a solid indirectly by a representation of its bounding surface; an object is represented by a combination of primitives of type point, edge, face and volume. Faces, edges, and vertices and the related geometric information form the basic components of B-Rep models (Li, 1994; Reda, 1996). Due to computational complexity and inefficient Boolean operations (Cambray, 1993), it has been suggested that B-rep is suitable for regular objects (Li 1994; Mäntylä 1988) and B-rep models can represent a wide class of objects but data structure is complex, and it requires a large memory space. Facet model: A facet model describes an object surface-by-surface cell, which can be of different shapes and sizes. One of the most popular facet models is a triangle facet. A TIN is an example of the facets. A surface can be described by a network of triangle facets; each facet consists of three triangle nodes that have x, y, z coordinates for each node. This structure is widely used in DTM and other terrain surface software mainly because of its structural stability (Midtbø, 1996), simplicity for processing (Abdul-Rahman, et al., 1998), and for object visualization (Kraak, 1992). Triangles may be generated in raster or in a vector domain and most techniques of triangulation are based on Delaunay triangulations. 5.3.3 Volume-Based Representation There are many ways for Volume-based representation; the most commonly used are 3D array, octree, Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) and 3D TIN (Tetrahedral network, TEN) (Figure 5.27) each has its strong points, weakness and fields of appropriate application (Abdul-Rahman, et al., 1998; Li, 1994). They are employed in Solid Modeling; where all primitives are guaranteed to occupy 3D space. Solid modeling is good for a variety of purposes beyond guaranteeing physically realizable objects. It is easy to derive properties such as length and volume from solids. Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) represents an object by a combination of predefined simple primitives called geometric primitives. The primitives are, for example, spheres, cubes, cylinders, cones, or rectangular solids, and they are combined using Boolean set operators and linear transformations. As discussed by Abdul-Rahman and Drummond (1998) the storage space increases as the number of primitives increases (Samet, 1990a) and some research works suggested that CSG is suitable for describing regularly shape objects (Cambray, 1993; Li, 1994). Octree (Voxel) Representation: An octree is an established hierarchical data structure that specifies the occupancy of cubic regions of object space. Here 3D object is
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represented by the volume it occupies in a Cartesian 3D space, such a space is subdivided into regular volume units, namely a unit 3D cube, also referred to as voxel (Reda, 1996). It is simply a 3D generation of a quadtree. In this technique, a volume of space is recursively divided into 8 parts until each part of the subdivision is homogeneous. Octree subdivision is a method of data compression applied to eliminate storage of similar data for identical valued adjacent cells. If all the cells within one octant are similar, the whole octant is stored as one element. If features do not fill an entire octant, that area is subdivided into eight again until the highest resolution of storage is reached. The octree structure allows for efficient Boolean operations on geo-objects, but it is time-consuming to build. By compressing the similar voxels, data can be reduced efficiently, yet when objects are complex, little or no data reduction may occur. Octrees are also an approximate representation therefore a very detailed representation of objects is hard to achieve; in octree, storage space increases rapidly when resolution increases. 3D TIN (Tetrahedral Network, TEN): 3D TIN is an extension of a 2D TIN. An object is described by connected but not overlapping tetrahedral networks (TEN) (Midtbø, 1996; Pilouk, 1996). One can estimate a surface value anywhere in the triangulation by averaging node values of nearby triangles, giving more weight and influence to those that are closer. The resolution of TINs can vary, that is, they can be more detailed in areas where the surface is more complex and less detailed in areas where the surface is simpler. The coordinates of the source data are maintained as part of the triangulation so subsequent analysis like interpolation will honor the source data precisely. Here no information is lost; and TINs are well suited for simulating the dynamics of surface change especially using a finite-difference rather than a finite-element approach (Tucker, et al. 1999), in which MODC can be computed at the nodes rather than within the triangles. TIN has the ability to adjust its resolution based on the complexity of the surface being modeled (Abdelguerfi, et al., 1997) and it can incorporate surface specified constraints such as pre-specified linear and area features. Similar to 2D TIN, TEN has many advantages in manipulation, display and analysis; like employing a tetrahedron, which is made of four vertices, six edges and four faces. This representation has been considered a useful data structure in 3D GIS by many researchers including Raper and Kelk (1991). It can be generated using the same technique as for 2D TIN (Abdul-Rahman, et al., 1998). If we built 2D TIN from 2D Voronoi, then the 2D Voronoi is extended to 3D. 3D TIN can be derived from 3D Voronoi polyhedrons (Qingquan & Deren, 1996). These two authors pointed out that tetrahedron has several advantages compared to other solid structures including its the simplest data structure and can be reduced to point, line, area, and volume (solid) representations; fast topological processing; and also convenient for rapid visualization. 5.4 Demographic Data Interpolation and Extrapolation In order to present population data continuously, there is a need to interpolate and extrapolate the MODC in locations that may not fall at the exact locations of the data points and demarcation of demographic boundaries to help to derive and generate continuous phenomena in the form of surface (section 5.5.1). In case of population data aggregated to polygons, to spread the data from centroids to cover the whole polygon to meet the needs of prediction and simulation. There are many interpolation techniques each with its weakness and strength and additional conditions being imposed on the general formulation of the spatial interpolation problem (Mitas, et al., 1999), which defines the character of the various interpolation techniques and are classified as point or areal. For population data aggregated to polygon, areal interpolation is always employed. It is the problem of transferring data from one set of areas (source reporting zones) to another (target reporting zones). This is easy if the target set is an aggregation of the source set, but more difficult, if the boundaries of the target set are independent of the source set (Bracken & Martin, 1995). This implicitly assumes that the data are uniformly distributed throughout the polygon. This is usually not the case for population related data. Many researches are taking place and looking for ways of better population interpolation, those include improves in areal interpolation which weights data values for a partial polygon proportionally to the ratio of partial polygon area to complete polygon area by Shepard, and others. Rase (1998) also dealt with problem of population in his “Interpolation and display of statistical surfaces” and “Volume-Preserving Interpolation of
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a Smooth Surface from Polygon-Related Data” where the volume-preserving properties of Tobler’s pycnophylactic interpolation and the advantages of the triangular irregular network for preserving the geometry of lines are combined. The demographic data being used in this thesis do not exist uniformly in the study area and have been geocoded as discrete points (section 3.7.3) and point-based interpolation are employed. These work on the principle that given a number of points whose locations and values are known; determine the values of other points at predetermined locations. MacEachran and Davidson (1987) identify five factors significant to the accuracy of continuous surface representation: 1) data measurement accuracy, 2) control point density, 3) spatial distribution of data collection points, 4) intermediate value estimation, and 5) spatial variability of surface represented. For the first factor, the individual micro data was collected as discussed in section 3.4, second and third have been dealt within geocoding section 3.7.3 were the person’s place of residence was use for georeferencing basing on building as the spatial unit. Here we look at remaining factors (4 & 5) being referred to as spatial interpolation. Spatial interpolation is the procedure of estimating the value of properties at unsampled sites within the area covered by existing observations, it can be thought of as the reverse of the process used to select the few points from a DM, which accurately represent the surface. The rationale behind spatial interpolation is that points close together in space are more likely to have similar values than points far apart (Tobler's Law of Geography; Martin, 1991). For point-based, the typical examples are conditions based on geostatistical concepts (Kriging), locality (nearest neighbor and finite element methods, IDW, TIN), smoothness and tension (spline), or ad hoc functional forms (polynomials, multi-quadrics). Several researchers including Burrough (1986), Davis (1986), Hearn and Baker (1986), Isaaks and Srivastava (1989), Cressie (1993), Wingle and Poster (1996) have discussed these techniques. Kriging: is based on the concept of random functions where the surface or volume is assumed to be one realization of a random function with a certain spatial covariance, co-kriging-including information about correlations of two or more attributes to improve quality of interpolation, disjunctive Kriging, and zonal Kriging. Kriging has been less successful for applications where local geometry is the key issue (which is the case in this study) and other methods prove to be competitive or even better (Hardy, et al.). Local neighborhood approach methods are based on the assumption that each point influences the resulting surface only up to a certain finite distance (Martin, 1999), among the methods are IDW, natural neighbor, TIN and rectangle based methods60. The point-based interpolation can be exact interpolators providing the true value at data point in that the surface passes through all those points. This concept is being used in this study in TIN interpolation (section 5.4.1.4); where the nodes are placed at know points before generating the DT. Approximate interpolators are used when there is need to predict and estimate as need varies and are employed in estimating the MODC at boundaries (section 5.4.1.3). In Proximal interpolation, all values are assumed equal to the nearest known point and output data structure is thiessen polygons with abrupt changes at boundaries; it is useful e.g. in generating surfaces according to social and cultural differences. These techniques can be used independently or in combination as in this study. For algorithms of interpolation and extrapolation, see Klinkenberg, Pariente (1994), Abdul-Rahman (1994) and Sárközy (1998). These areal and point based interpolation techniques, however does not satisfy the needs of a planner who what to generate demographic surfaces (section 5.5) from micro population data. There is need to look to ways how those techniques can be improved or what can be done so that we generate demographic surfaces. Hence, a procedure called Geo-Demographic Interpolation and Extrapolation has been developed. 5.4.1 Geo-Demographic Interpolation and Extrapolation There is need to generate demographic boundaries for demarcating the demographic spatial extent, prediction, simulation, zoning, and for extending demographic spatial extent (MODC extrapolation) as in most cases the demographic points do not cover the whole study area and do not reach the boundaries. It also requires being in position to define a variable shape, handle demographic holes, breaks, and boundaries; and extend the demographic surface to any desired geographical area and boundary to help to
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incorporate knowledge of the data and study area. Modules included in GIS packages like ArcView GIS using the Spatial Analyst and 3D Analyst, the spatial extent of surface generated from discrete points, is also always up to the extent of data points if using TIN (Figure 5.50d). If use IDW, it will be covering an area in form of a rectangle (Figure 5.50b). Technical solutions can be devised like in ArcView GIS, e.g. a null-value mask has been used which process the points to get a bounding polygon, then create a mask covering areas of working region outside the polygon (see ArcView technical solution in B). However, this has its shortcoming in that the grid is just clipped and the points do not carry with them the respective DCs. Thus, for demographic interpolation with the aim of surface and 3D representation, more than the traditional interpolation and extrapolation is needed and this can achieved through the stages as outlined in Figure 5.28.

Figure 5.28 Spatial demographic interpolation and extrapolation Here, we divided the process of achieving demographic spatial interpolation and extrapolation into uni-demographic dealing with interpolation and extrapolation of one DC at a time and is designed for representing one DC. The other one is multi-demographic for dealing with many DCs at once and will be dealt with in section 5.6 about volume/solid modeling dealing with multi-demographics representation and employs volume preserving techniques. Both lead to geo-demographic interpolation and extrapolation, which has been developed to fulfill the requirements of demographics representation as surface, and is accomplished through the following steps. 5.4.1.1 Demographic Holes, Breaks and Boundaries Although conceptual surfaces are usually considered smooth, discontinuities can be present sometimes, for example in case of physical, political, social, and cultural barriers e.g. iron curtain between the two Germanies until 1990. We have divided such discontinuities into demographic holes, breaks and boundaries. Demographic holes are defined and used to refer to spatial extents, which do not have population, or a particular DC being considered in analysis, this can be obtained from the data and/or the analyst knowledge of the study area. It can be of any shape but should be a planar polygon with more than two sides. Demographic breaks are similar to holes expect that they have only two sides i.e. they are planar linear. They can be used at the end of study area or DC. Demographic boundaries are linear demarcation at the end of the DC, study area, breaks and the edges of the demographic holes. In an effort to get boundaries some factors have to considered: 1) pixels will have neighbors outside the study area and therefore without values. Some decision must be made about the behavior of the surface outside the study area e.g. population density equals zero (in case of inhabitable locations like lakes or rivers) or population density unknown and assumed equal to the values of the outermost pixels of the study area. 2) Type of boundary has to be taken into consideration: Political boundaries created by political factors, Geo boundaries due to appearance of geographical physical and manmade features which cause division in the DCs. 5.4.1.2 Generation Demographic Points at Boundaries After identifying the boundaries, the next step is generation of points at boundaries point (get coordinates of points along the boundary). To ensure that points extrapolated follow Tobler's Law of Geography, they take on the resolution of nearby points. This is
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accomplished by starting at the beginning of the boundary. At that point, search for the nearby three points (as those are the points which will be nodes in the building TIN) find the shortest distance between any two points. It is this distance, which is added to the first point at the beginning of the boundary to get the location of the next point along the boundary. For location of the rest of points, the preceding boundary point must be part of the three points from which the shortest distance is searched in order to locate the next boundary point. 5.4.1.3 MODC Extrapolation at Boundaries The extrapolated boundary do not carry with them the MODC; for extrapolating the MODC at boundaries we proceed by looking for all data points neighboring each interpolated location with a predefined spatial extent, that the spatial sparsity and quantity of existing points is reflected in the new interpolated point. In order to obtain a surface that reflects a change in DC, the MODC for new point will be obtained from neighborhood by an iteration process by employing IDW and after an appropriate MODC is given to the point; then go on the next points; it should be noted that this new point can be used to determine others. This means the number of new points introduced do not alter the appearance of the surface, thus being able to use in prediction and simulation like obtaining the optimum number of persons per certain spatial extent. 5.4.1.4 Triangular Irregular Network (TIN) After establishing points along boundaries, then proceed to surface building; since the location of demographic data points is seldom regular or even rectangular and boundaries nearly never follow the grid lines, to avoid problems in representation the TIN is used. If need arises, algorithms and programs have been developed to interpolate irregular points, lines and polygons to a regular grid. TIN allows the preservation of the original data points in the model of a surface (Peucker, et al., 1978). The data points are the nodes of the irregular grid, the nodes are connected by arcs or edges, forming a mesh of triangles of different size and orientation. It can be adapted to varying resolution requirements in the same network. In regions of high DC, the mesh can be made denser. The TIN used for interpolation is built from the boundary and in constructing the final TIN the triangles should be small enough to accommodate to the resolution of the boundary polylines and the barriers (if present) as the size of the triangles determines the resolution of the surface for display purposes. Examples of data structures for TINs can be found in Renka (1996), Ruppert (1995) or Shewchuk (1997). For the assignment of the arcs connecting the nodes, several strategies are possible. The Delaunay triangulation is considered the optimal procedure to generate quality meshes (Ruppert, 1995). The more recent implementations of the Delaunay triangulation provide support for constrained lines, allowing the definition of boundary, holes and barriers inside the network (constrained Delaunay triangulation). 5.4.1.5 Building a Delaunay Triangulation There are a wide variety of algorithms available to build a DT for a set of points. The one selected was first described by Bowyer (1981) and Watson (1981); and as Lattuada and Raper comments it has been proved to be the best of those available in terms of quality of elements generated (Kanaganathan, et al., 1991). This is an incremental algorithm, meaning that points are added one at a time into an existing triangulation for description of these algorithm see Baker (1987), Lattuada, and Raper. However, from those algorithms and it is evident from the definition of a DT that problems arise in the procedure when certain degeneracies occur in the data. Common degeneracies in two or more dimensions are (Lattuada, et al): 1. Two points are coincident: The DT for a set of points is defined only if the points are distinct, so the uniqueness of the points in the given set is treated as a prerequisite for the applicability of this algorithm. 2. Three points of a potential triangle are co-linear (or four points co-planar). This means that it is not possible to compute a valid center for the circumcircle of a triangle or the center of the inscribed sphere for tetrahedra. 3. Four or more points are cyclic. Common ways to deal with such degeneracy are: reject the point, delay the point insertion or shift its coordinates. The choice as to which is the best one often depends on the application; for application of demographic modeling is the shift of coordinates slightly using the displace point script in the Demographic analysis (section 4.2.2). As this does not have great effect as individual location are geocoded using building and the
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position of a person cannot be pin pointed by the estimated coordinates, which lays in the building. Since the convex hull will always be part of the Delaunay network, start with these edges (boundary) and work inwards until the network is complete, connect the closest pair which by definition must be a Delaunay edge, search for a third point such that no other point falls in the circle through them, continue working outward from these edges for the next closest point. In summary choose a Voronoi Edge, connect the two generators of the edge with a line segment and repeat for all edges. For illustration of relationship and construction of Directed Edges, Nodes, Triangles, Establishing and updating node connectivity, Updating Voronoi geometry, and triangulated irregular mesh; and corresponding algorithm and pseudo-code see Tucker, et al. (1999). 5.4.1.6 Generating the Constrained Delaunay Triangulation The previous section has shown how DT is constructed, but that is not enough for 3D demographic modeling as there is need to be in position to generate demographic boundaries and other subdivisions as the need arise. Thus, we ultimately need to generate constrained Delaunay triangulations (CDT). That is, we want to be able to compute a modified version of the DT in which user-defined edges or "constraints" may be specified (Peterson S.; Guibas & Stolfi, 1985). After building the DT (section 5.4.1.5 and Figure 5.29a) the constraints are added to it. Constraints will all be in the form of a required edge between two points. To adjust for the constraint, we need to delete all triangles, which have an edge that intersects the constraint. In a way, we are clearing a path for the constraint (Figure 5.29b). Once this is finished, we will have a polygon, within our triangulation that contains the two points of the constraint.

Figure 5.29 Constrained Delaunay triangulation procedure This process is then repeated for all constrained edges. Holes in the triangulation may be specified as a closed polygon consisting of constrained edges. Once the constraints are in place (Figure 5.29c), we invoke a "triangle-eating virus" which erases all triangles inside the polygon. The result maybe a non-DT (Figure 5.29d), then we have to re-triangulate as described easier to enforce DT (for a detailed description see Peterson S.). After model construction, it can be converted to grid from the TIN and TEN and the vice verse (AbdulRahman, et al., 1998).

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5.5 Demographics Modeling by Surface GIS In population analysis for planning the variables are usually based on polygonal areas and common practice to use a point within the reference polygon as a geometric proxy to generate the continuous surface. The trend is changing since micro data is becoming available, surfaces of population can be derived from point data. All being done incorporate the spatial aspect in population analysis and also in some cases there are some (more or less) tactical reasons for using surfaces and surface maps (Bracken & Martin, 1995) in spatial planning at the national or international level. For example, the administrative boundaries are not visible or the height of the surface is equivalent to a probability to be used for fuzzy reasoning (Rase, 1998). This has taken off in high gear, as modeling and display of continuous surfaces are economically feasible only with computer assistance in GIS. However, the surfaces generated are interpreted in terms of the variables being represented; e.g. if a surface is derived from data representing population in a state, then the interpreted is in terms of low, high, increasing, decreasing, etc as the surface curves. For planning purposes that is not enough, there is need to device and generate surfaces from micro demographic data in a variety of terms/features to explain DC behavior with more meaningful interpretations which can be used in planning not only to stop at aggregate levels. Maps of this kind of surface can be a very useful complement to the usual choropleth maps in spatial analysis. Although the vast majority of GISs currently work only in two dimensions, across the plane, certain applications like demographic characterization in order to understand their distribution and determine their spatial variation require the addition of third dimension (amount of DCs) in order to be treated as a surface. With this, the DC is taken as a surfical characteristics i.e. one that can be expressed such that each of its cartographic points is associated with exactly one position in a third dimension perpendicular to the cartographic plane. Have only one entity that distinguishes surfical characteristics to be derived in this section and excludes forms such as spheres, cubes and other polyhedrons; these forms will usually associate two or more vertical positions with each horizontal position and will be dealt with in 3D demographic modeling (section 5.6). Before embarking on a detailed description of the nature of GIS demographic surface analysis and modeling its scope is defined by addressing a number of underlying questions. First, what should a characterization of demographics in terms of surface achieve? Here look at characterization as having three specific objectives to answer, namely to identify spatial pattern, to facilitate interpretation, and to allow visualization of results, the whole aim being their applications. Second, How should demographic surface be modeled? In order to provide an objective scheme for development and evaluation of characterization tools, first demographic surface terms are identified and define demographic surface in terms of its form (generation), what lies upon it (appearance) and what it is used for (planning). In so doing answer: what will the surfaces be, what will they represent, how the surfaces will be interpreted and visualized; all being for the need to define demographics to facilitate predication, simulation, and its application. These will be called demographic surfaces, to stress the difference with the surface of the earth. ArcView GIS, Spatial analyst and 3D Analyst have been used for experimentation. 5.5.1 Demographic Surface Characterization The derivatives of the modeled demographic surface allow demographic feature types to be identified. For clarity and easy of understanding, these have been divided into demographic quantitative surface characterization (5.5.2), surface characterization of demographic variation (section 5.5.3), and demographic visibility surface analysis (section 5.5.4). Any part of the surfaces not identified in one of the categories above is regarded as iso-demographic i.e. having same magnitude/type of demographic characteristic. Due to lack of ways to describe, present, and interpret demographic spatial analysis in terms of surface which can be easily used in planning, the following terms have been redefined from their traditional meanings and also new ones have been coined as a step towards spatial analysis of demographics to take advantage of surface analysis and visualization in GIS. As each is introduced, it will be defined, how can be obtained, interpretation of the result, and will discuss the problem it can solve and its possible application by giving examples.

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5.5.2 Demographic Quantitative Surface Characterization Here we are concerned with showing how the number/quantity vary as move from one location to the next in the study area. This can be in terms of magnitude of demographic characteristic (MODC) or number of persons for example Figure 5.30 shows how the total persons per building varies in heritage area; it also shows the spatial quantitative similarity and influence of the population. These techniques are employed in this section to show: Demographic Iso-lines and Vertical Demographics, Quantitative Spatial Effect, Quantitative Spatial Analysis, and Transparent Neighborhood Analysis.

Figure 5.30 TIN showing total population per building
Light blue 0-4 persons per building, green 5-7, orange 8-9, red 10-12, and blue 13-15 persons per building

5.5.2.1 Demographic Iso-lines and Vertical Demographics The traditional technique of iso-lines can be used to represent demographics especially spatial linear MODC. For example making the iso-lines to represent the number of persons per building shows how it varies in the study area. Although such iso-lines do not show the quantity and alone give little detail for interpretation, combining them with number of persons per building depicted using vertical dimension (Figure 5.31) which we have called vertical demographics we are able to show how neighborhood in terms of their quantity. Here the overlay of iso-lines with vertical demographic (Figure 5.32) where the vertical demographic show the MODC and iso-lines show spatial extent of number of persons per building and how the relationships vary spatially as it can be seen that they go around the 3D vertical lines giving an insight of the possible location and spatial extend of a certain DC.

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Figure 5.31 Persons per building as vertical demographics

Figure 5.32 Quantitative spatial location of persons per building
Light blue 1-3 persons per building, green 4-6, orange 7-9, red 10-12, and blue 13-15 persons per building

From such analysis we able to provide answers to questions like how far from that point in terms is the same MODC occurring, what spatial extent is influenced by that quantity, or what quantities are around that point. These have a lot of application like to determine the possible location of a certain demographics like age groups, racial groupings, etc. They can also be employed to derive demographics iso-surfaces (surfaces having same MODC). In addition, iso-demographics can be generated from demographic data by joining points of same MODC then classifying regions. 5.5.2.2 Quantitative Spatial Effect As planners are obliged to assess the existing situation and possible effects so that can predict future, e.g. the effect of population on infrastructures like roads, buildings, open space, etc. This can possible by use 3D to know where DC effect is felt, for example by overlaying a TIN produced from the number of people per building (Figure 5.30) with the 3D perspective of the buildings in heritage area (Figure 3.7) we are able to visualize buildings with many inhabitants and which fell the effect of many persons in nearby buildings (Figure 5.33).

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Figure 5.33 Quantitative spatial effect analysis From the Figure 5.33 we can see that there are more people living in locations indicated by arrows from S as compared to location T. As light blue represents 0-4 persons per building, green 5-7, orange 8-9, red 10-12, and blue 13-15 persons per building and Dark brown shows building with one floor, chocolate 2 floors, blue 3 floors and brown 4 floors per building. 5.5.2.3 Quantitative Spatial Analysis With 3D surface analysis, we are in position to show how the quantities of DCs vary spatially. Even the DCs like marital status which have been traditional represented by only two variables differentiating them (single or married), this is improved in that in addition to the traditional representation we are able to show their quantities (Figure 5.34a) where light blue represents 1-3 single persons per building, green 4-6, orange 7-9, red 10-12, and blue 13-15 persons per building.

Figure 5.34 Spatial location of single persons (a) and religions (b) Another good example of representing quantities is Figure 5.34b, which shows how the number of religions per building varies spatially where light blue indicates locations having 0-2 religions, green 3-5. 5.5.2.4 Transparent Neighborhood Analysis Unlike neighborhood analysis in 2D with 3D neighborhood analysis, we are in position to show spatial influence and proximity of different DCs. For example, by making the TIN of number persons per building (Figure 5.30) transparent to 50% and overlaying it with the number of Malay per building (Figure 5.35) to obtain Figure 5.36, which shows the
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relationship between the total number persons per building with the number of Malay per building.

Figure 5.35 Malay per building

Figure 5.36 Malay per building overlaid with persons per building
Light blue 1-3 persons per building, green 4-6, orange 7-9, red 10-12, and blue 13-15 persons per building.

This puts the analyst in position to make quick decision basing on the facts presented in an easy to understand format. This can be compared with Figure 5.37 showing same as Figure 5.36 i.e. total number of persons per building overlaid with number of Malay per building but in 2D vector-based GIS; with this we able only to visualize the spatial location but not their spatial relationships including quantities.

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Figure 5.37 Overly of Malay and Persons per building in 2D 5.5.3 Surface Characterization of Demographics Variation Here we have demographic undershed (concavity surface), demographic overshed (convexity surface), demographic shrinkage points (concavities in all directions), demographic escalation points (convexities in all directions), demographic spatial pass (concavity in one direction and convexity in a different direction), demographic overfold (linear convexity in all directions), demographic underfold (linear concavity in all directions), demographic Spatial variation (surface turbulence), and demographic directional variation (surface directional change). 5.5.3.1 Demographic Spatial Variation It is always demanding on the part of an analyst to know how the DC varies per defined areal units, as a way to provide a solution, we get demographic spatial variation by employing slope calculation techniques. Traditionally, slope calculation (which identifies the inclination of a surface) has been used to find low slopes for potential construction sites and high slopes that may be prone to erosion or landslips. Here a dramatic change of application is being witness in demographics, it is being employed to show how DC varies continuously and spatially as move from location to location by interpreting the output slope values (in degrees) as spatial change in DC. The slopes are derived from TIN which organizes the neighborhood relationships between a set of points representing a specific DC as an exhaustive set of triangular facets as discussed in section 5.4.1.4 and 5.4.1.5. The vertices of the triangles are placed at the demographic data points, and since there are no data between the vertices, then each triangular facet has a constant slope thus treated as a uniform property of the triangular facet, which implies the uniform change of a DC. Taking the example of slopes derived from total population per building in study area (Figure 5.38)

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Figure 5.38 Slope from TIN of total population per building Light blue represents variation equivalent to 0-18 degrees, green 18-36, orange 36-54, red 54-72, and dark blue 72-90. You can notice that almost all the area has a slope of 018 (light blue color), which means that the variation in the number of persons from building to building is relatively uniform. This has application in terms of zoning if it is to be done where they’re least variation in DC which can be shown by slopes as they diverge and converge, thus providing the planner with easily visual variation of DC to base on when making conclusions about need for location of facilities and allocation of resources (section 2.3.3). Other illustrations of slope application in demographics see Figure 5.39 (for religion variation) Figure 5.40 (change in race in study area).

Figure 5.39 Slope of surface of religion

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Figure 5.40 Slope of surface of race
Illustration of demographics spatial variation; where light blue represents 0-18 degrees, green for 18-36, orange for 36-54, red for 54-72, and dark blue for 72-90. Notice the uniformity of the colors implying that number of persons per building for religions is almost the same with only a few breaks and the change in race from building to building is relatively uniform with a few expectations

5.5.3.2 Demographic Directional Variation When it comes to determining demographic directional variation, we take advantage of the techniques of aspect calculation. Slope measures the plane that is tangent to the original surface at each point (Chrisman, 1997) the direction of the slope is called aspect i.e. direction of the surface. It has been traditionally used to determine how much sun a hill will receive and this information used for locating houses, ski resorts, where different crops will do best, etc. here the aspect values are being interpreted to show the direction of variation of DCs. From the slope of persons per building (section 5.5.3.1) derive aspect and the results show direction in which the population is changing (Figure 5.41).

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Figure 5.41 Aspect from TIN of persons per building.

Light blue represents 0-72 degrees, green for 72-144, orange for 144-216, red for 216-288, and dark blue for 288-360. The gray areas means zero change, but notice their absence which means the number of persons is changing in different directions; which is not the case with Figure 5.42 (religion) and Figure 5.43 (race).

Figure 5.42 Aspect of surface of religion

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Figure 5.43 Aspect of surface of race

Using the same techniques, we able to show which areas are likely to have that effect, and direction of possible expansion; e.g. the results from race variation (Figure 5.43), shows direction in which the race is changing in the heritage area. This provides the planner with likely direction of change of DC to base on when making conclusions about need for future location of facilities and allocation of resources (section 2.3.3). This technique can be used to show an encroachment of one race into an area say traditionally associated with another race or when one race moves out because of some pressure or socio-economic/lifestyle change by comparing surfaces of each race; which leads to other investigations to draw conclusion. In addition, by changing the variables, this technique can be used to show variation in socio-economic status e.g. rich moving out or back into heritage building in old cities and pushing city folks out. 5.5.3.3 Demographic Outshoot Demographic outshoot is a term, which has been coined to refer to DCs, which do not follow the general trend of a specific location. For example in a location we may be having only one race say Chinese, but all of sudden there appears one building having Indians. Another example may be in the race itself say having a surface of Malay like Figure 5.44 (light blue 0-2 persons per building, green 3-5, orange 6-8, red 9-11, and blue 12-15) with a general trend say in the area having 3-6 persons per building but suddenly there appears 9-11 persons per building like location labeled demographic outshoot (Figure 5.44), then that is a demographic outshoot. If buildings are of same/similar size, then this can be used to indicate/determine overcrowding according to a set/carrying capacity of the building.

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Figure 5.44 Demographic features on surface of Malay per building Demographic outshoot may be due to errors or uniqueness in DC. In both cases, it is important for the analyst; if it is due to errors then s/he is able to identify that. If it due to uniqueness in DC then helps the planner to know, where such DCs are appearing so that s/he does not make conclusions that contradict with what is on ground and that will affect certain percentage of the humanity. 5.5.3.4 Demographic Dropfold Demographic dropfold is a term, which has been coined to express a situation where a DC represented on a surface form a linear appearance with both surfaces on the side sloping towards it and the DC is gradually reducing in a one direction. An illustration of this has been on a surface produced from the Malay race (Figure 5.44) where a demographic dropfold appears in the position labeled bb. With such we are able to tell where a variation in the DC is converging so that we can investigate reasons for that and we able to know the greatest path of the demographic variation (line ‘b’ to ‘b’ - Figure 5.44) which further instigate the desire to find out why. 5.5.3.5 Demographic Undershed A demographic undershed has been coined and defined as an attribute of each point on the demographic surface that identifies a region having MODC more than that point i.e. it is region around a point having all slopes facing it; and that point where the slopes are converging has been referred to as demographic shrinkage point (Figure 5.45). To find a demographic undershed, we begin at a specified cell and label all cells that have higher MODC than that cell, then all cell which have higher demographics than those, etc until the highest limits of the surface are defined. The demographic undershed is then the polygon formed by the labeled cells. The result should show the points (demographic shrinkage points) of lower DC and the spatial extent from demographic shrinkage point where the DC is increasing. On Figure 5.45, demographic shrinkage point is the point labeled shrinkage point and the light blue surface around it is demographic undershed. A demographic undershed can be used in delineating spatial extent where DC is above a set level giving the analyst the visibility and location required to base on when making decision like facility location e.g. all the demographic undershed having DC (say age less than 10 years) then need an infant school.

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Figure 5.45 Surface of Malay per building showing demographic features 5.5.3.6 Demographic Overshed A demographic overshed is an attribute of each point on the demographic surface which identifies the region having lower demographic level i.e. region around a point having all slopes running from it; and that point where the slopes are originating has been referred to as demographic escalation point. To find a demographic overshed, we begin at the specified cell and label all cells which slope from it, then all which slope from those, etc. until the lower limits of the surface are defined. The demographic overshed is then the polygon formed by the labeled cells. The result shows the points (demographic escalation points) of high DC and the spatial extent from demographic escalation point where the demographic is decreasing. On Figure 5.45, the point labeled escalation point is a demographic escalation point and the orange surface around is a demographic overshed. 5.5.3.7 Demographic Overfold/Underfold A demographic overfold is a term that has been redefined from ridge used in landscape analysis. It is a curve consisting of points: a point lies on a demographic overfold if its neighborhood can be subdivided by a line passing through it such that the surface in each half-neighborhood is monotonically decreasing when moving away from the line (Figure 5.44). A demographic linear overfold occurs where there is a local maximum in the surface in one direction and a demographic underfold occurs where there is a local minimum in one direction, it occurs where there is least change in DC. Both Demographic overfold and underfold can be of vital importance if the planning is to take into consideration producing plans which are in harmony with social briefs, such location indicating DC intensification which should be avoided in zoning if such community is enjoying their proximity of being in same zone. For example if zoning is to be done basing on historic heritage, it can easily be done long such boundaries represented on Figure 5.46 where is change in color. However, care should be taken not to bring in discrimination (like according race, religion, economic status, etc) in such analyses.

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Figure 5.46 Surface of racial spatial influence
Figure 5.46a red showing the influence and location of Chinese (persons per building), purple for Indians, yellow for Malay, and the remaining colors for others. Figure 5.46b chocolate represents Chinese, dark gray for Malay, purple for Indians, and rest by other colors

5.5.3.8 Demographic Spatial Pass A pass is a saddle point for the surface adopted from terrain analysis, a point where there is a local maximum in one direction and a local minimum in a different direction (see demographic spatial line ‘a a’ on Figure 5.44). It is important to know such points as a basis for determining the locations if the planner’s target is to make a subdivision or derive a boundary where there a break in change in the MODC. To do so the planner just joins the demographic spatial pass to get boundary. 5.5.4 Demographic Visibility Surface Analysis Visibility surface analyses are concerned with the computation of visibility information from a viewpoint, which can lie outside or inside the domain, or with the use of visibility to solve optimization problems and generation of the visible area (Lange, 1994; Davidson et al, 1993). The visibility spatial analysis uses visibility query algorithms with the simplest visibility query problem being to determine the mutual visibility of two points. Others include issues related to the different properties of surfaces that can be revealed by varying the viewpoint in several ways, changing direction of view, varying viewing height, etc to achieve demographic viewshed, demographic undershed, demographic overshed, and demographic spatial limit. To carry out visibility analysis overlay observations points T, P, and Q and target point R on TIN of number persons per building Figure 5.47).

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Figure 5.47 Positions of the observation points and target point 5.5.4.1 Demographic Viewshed "Viewshed" is a term being borrowed from terrain analysis that indicates the entire area an individual can see from a given point. If two locations on surface enjoy an uninterrupted view of each other, then they are said to be in view from each other. When one location is specified as the viewing location, and the visibility of all other locations in the study area is analyzed, the resulting map of the study area is known as the viewshed or the visible area (Fisher, 1991, 1993). Given a certain MODC and assuming you are on that demographic surface then "demographic Viewshed" is the entire area you can see from that point. For example, Figure 5.48a shows viewshed obtained from position P using 4 as MODC (4 persons per building); implying that at that MODC and position only that spatial extent has the specific DC below or same as view point that can be directly determined. Comparing this with another viewshed, Figure 5.48b produced from the same viewpoint but at a higher demographic level (6 persons per building); more spatial extent is obtained. From the same MODC but with two viewpoints in different location (at point P and Q) we see ourselves getting more spatial extent (Figure 5.48c). By just lowering the MODC to 4 but increasing the number of positions to four viewpoint (P, Q, T, and R) we get greatest spatial extent as shown in Figure 5.48a.

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Figure 5.48 Demographic Viewshed on TIN of number persons per building
Each highlighted cell (shown in green) indicates that it is visible from the viewpoint, and conversely, has a view of the viewpoint itself and red representing not visible

Being able to determine the viewshed provide the planner with quick grasp of the location problem (section 2.3.3) at hand, e.g. location of an infant school, knowing the maximum age which goes to an infant school (say 6 years) and using that as the observation level, obtain a spatial extent which shows the location with people below or at 6 years. However, information on schooling was not collected, hence unable to test this. Another visibility structure is the horizon of a viewpoint (V) at specific MODC i.e. demographic spatial limit; which is used and defined here as boundary of the demographic viewshed and determines the farthest point on the surface that is visible from V for every radial direction around V in the x y plane. The procedure starts from the derivation of the viewshed as above, then at edges of the viewshed (horizon) draw/demarcate the boundary that forms the demographic spatial limit. This directly assists in zoning/demarcating through generating polygons according to the edge, which can be used in subsequent analysis. 5.5.4.2 Demographic Linear Analysis This visibility spatial analysis uses visibility query algorithms with the simplest visibility query problem consisting in determining the mutual visibility of two points like observation point P and the target point R (Figure 5.47). In a "brute-force" approach, this reduces to finding either the surface edges on a TIN are intersected by the vertical plane passing through segment PR. For each intersected element (edge or cell) e, a test is performed to decide whether e lies above PR or not; and the two points are reported as visible in case of a positive answer and not visible for negative answer. This was experimented on Figure 5.47 and using the line of sight tool from analysis tool menu of ArcView; the most important part is specifying the DC level of observer and target position so that it is offset above the surface. Taking the example of the number of people per building and using the three observer positions (P, T, and Q) and target position (R) for four different MODC; different obstruction point, extent of sight, and different linearly visible location are obtained. Using line of sight having observer and
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target point with same MODC (4 persons per building) all do not see the target with one from T blocked (Figure 5.49a). By making observers MODC (one person per building) lower than target point (6 persons per building) limited linear spatial extent is visible with all not seeing the target and one from T being blocked just after a short distance from observation position (Figure 5.49b). Using higher observers MODC (6 persons per building) and lower target point (1 person per building) although can see a bigger linear spatial extent two of the lines of sight from T and P can not reach the target point (Figure 5.49c). Using line of sight having observer and target point with same MODC (6 persons per building) more linear spatial extent is visible with two sights from T and P not seeing the target (Figure 5.49d).

Figure 5.49 Line of sight with observer and target at different MODC
Figure 5.49a shows lines of sight where observer at 6 as MODC (1 person per building) lower than target point at 6, Figure 5.49b having observer and target point with same MODC (4), Figure 5.49c having observer at 6 as MODC higher than target point at 1, and Figure 5.49d having observer and target point with same MODC (6). Each line having many portions with different color i.e. green for visible parts, red for parts not visible, and a blue point along the line indicating where sight is first obstructed which ArcView 3D Analyst gives its coordinates in the status bar at the bottom of application window

Line of sight helps to know linearly which spatial extent has DC with the set observer and target MODC. The of sight tells you whether a given target is visible from a point of observation, also find out what is visible along the line of sight. This can be directly applied in analyzing the impact of linear projects like roads, railways, subways, etc from certain points to city will have on the population. As a result, be able to determine who from benefit from the project, whether it will be utilized to capacity, and in case of compensations it helps to give an initial idea of the people that will be displayed by the project. This cannot be experimented on in this study, as the data was limited to only one part of the inner city. Therefore, it remains a challenge to other researchers to test and draw further conclusions. 5.5.5 Uncertainty in Demographic Surface Analysis As we end this section, which has dealt with demographic surface characterization, let us look at the uncertainty in demographic surface analysis i.e. what surface analysis is unable to account for, and the possible false interpretations. First, there should caution about the interpretation of surfaces derived from different interpolations methods for example Figure 5.50a interpolated by spline, Figure 5.50b by IDW, and Figure 5.50c by TIN all represent the same DC but they differ in smoothness and visual appearance. To
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take care of that, all the interpretations were based on the TIN with IDW used only for illustrations of the differences that may arise.

Figure 5.50 Different surface generated by Spline, IDW, and TIN
Light blue stands for 1-3 persons per building, green 4-6, orange 7-9, red 10-12, and blue 13-15. Figure 5.50a by spline interpolation, Figure 5.50b by IDW, Figure 5.50c by TIN at resolution of 1m, Figure 5.50d by TIN but at resolution of 10m

Secondly, although some differences can be seen between the above interpolated surfaces rendered using ArcView GIS, it is difficult to make a valued judgment about the data quality of each, even when compared with the 'true' surface. The only form of data error likely to be detected using this method is that of 'blunders' - significant localized deviations in MODC. Even so, blunders may be hard to detect due to their minimal areal extent. Thirdly, the issue of variation in surface resolution, as you can notice the difference in appearance between Figure 5.50c (having resolution of 1 meters) and Figure 5.50d (having resolution of 10 meters) both obtained by TIN. To take care of that, the resolution of Figure 5.50c was used in all interpretations. This was chosen as it was in line with the resolution of the database that was geocoded at individual level (section 3.7.2). Using a resolution of 10 meters would imply that we aggregate the data before surface analysis like some people living in the same rooms that are not up to 10 meters squared. Fourthly, Care should be taken about the interpretation of demographic surface as they indicate spatial influence of the DCs not the actual location. For instance, Figure 5.51a shows the continuous unlimited extent being influenced by the number of Malay per building through out the study area and Figure 5.51b is limited to 50 meters.

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Figure 5.51 Continuous spatial distribution of the Malay race
Light blue indicating spatial influence of 0-3 persons per building, green 4-7, orange 8-9, red 10-12, and blue 13-15. Figure 5.51b is radial distance of 50m from Malay residences with light blue representing 0-2 persons per building, green 3-5, orange 6-8, red 9-11, and blue 12-15 persons per building.

Finally, another false interpretation may result from exaggeration. For example, it is not right or misleading to interpret the MODC of all the developed 3D images in relation to the spatial extent, as all heights have been exaggerated by a factor of four. For example, as Figure 5.52b is exaggerated by factor 2 as compare to Figure 5.52a both generated from the same data and representing the number of people per building.

Figure 5.52 TIN of Persons per building
Light blue represents 0-4 persons per building, green 5-7, orange 8-9, red 10-12, and blue 13-15 persons per building. Figure 5.52b is exaggerated by factor 2 as compare to Figure 5.52a.

5.6 Volume-Based 3D Demographics Modeling Although have tried to utilize the available 3D modeling capabilities to accomplish 3D demographics analysis, many demographic analysis questions remain unanswered mainly the multi-vertical demographics analysis and representation. With such developments, we are still unable to clearly model and visualize DCs that have the same location but vary in magnitude and in vertical location. The reason being with such 3D surface analyses61, we are unable to represent more than one DC at one location in a single model so that we have true 3D analysis and 3D-view 62. What is obtained although visualizable in 3D is a spatial influence of the DC and representation of magnitude of the
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It is not real 3D modeling, but processing the data as 2.5D, thus neglects important information such as connectivity in the third dimension. This can have major disadvantages when it comes to producing accurate and consistent results. An illustration of the advantage of 3D imaging over 2.5D imaging is the ability of true 3D to correctly identify different objects see http://www.demon.co.uk/ffaltd/advantages3d.html.
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A true 3D-view for example `Virtual London', a pilot project at university college, London; This essentially enables the user to visually wander around the college in 3D and pick up information about buildings, rooms, and people in them see http://www.geog.ucl.ac.uk/casa. Also see http://www.geo600.uni-hannover.de/geo600/site/3d_view.html 84

majority/dominant DC; the minor ones are unavailable as they are ignored. A case in point is the 3D model of the various religions where for example the Buddhist as shown on Figure 5.53 (check for arrow pointing to Buddhist) is not depicted on the 3D surface (Figure 5.54). As they are few Buddhists in that location as such, their magnitude cannot penetrate up to the surface.

Figure 5.53: Spatial distribution and location of the various religions in study area With such result, interpretation that all buildings laying in the spatial extent shown by orange color on Figure 5.54 are occupied by Muslims is wrong as there are some Buddhist in the same location as shown on Figure 5.53.

Figure 5.54 Continuous spatial location of the various religions
Light blue shows spatial influence of Buddhists, green for Hindu, orange for Islam, Christianity by red and others by dark blue

In addition, some DCs like marital status have little meaning when modeled as surface. This is mainly because at the same spatial location, there are many single and married persons (Figure 5.55) and what the surface does is to represent only the majority and ignore the minorities, as it can be observed on Figure 5.56, which is a surface modeling of marital status from Figure 5.55.

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Figure 5.55 Spatial distribution and location of marital status

Figure 5.56 Spatial distribution and location of marital status
Red representing married and yellow for single. Here care should be taken when interpreting this, as it does not mean where there are married, there is no unmarried but they are the majority. In addition, the vertical dimension does not represent the quintiles

Another issue is that such analysis with results like from above Figure 5.56, it does not represent the quantities at the same time, as it is overtake by showing the differences in marital status. Even transparent overlay analysis as explained in section 5.5.2.4 has the limitation that it cannot be manipulated as one 3D solid model. However, 3D has been dealt with by many researchers including Raper (1989), Kraak, (1993), Reda (1996), and Abdul-Rahman (1999) and a wide range of applications of 3D analysis is available to users in different fields like landscape, terrain, geology, etc. Moreover many packages for 3D do exist like True3D63, C_Images 3D64, Manifold® 3D View Studio™65, Extreme 3D, Animation Master 2000, and another66. All are oriented to displaying graphics with no reference to geographical location of the entities and some for display database and spreadsheet in 3D as images. However, Some volumetric geographic data handling systems already are in use for graphical and specialized analytical applications like mining, terrain analysis. Such systems, however, are not oriented towards the representation for addressing demographic modeling in true 3D. For example, ArcView GIS 3D Analyst does not solve the above problem of analyzing the marital status quantities at the same representing the traditional characteristics. Also experimenting with cut and fill function to obtain the variation/difference in number between total population and the Malay race incorporating the spatial, the results (Figure 5.57) shows only the gain, loss, and spatial extents; the volumes/quantities obtained are
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The True Hidden 3D Design Software for Microsoft Windows 95, 98 and Windows NT for creating true 3D graphics like stereogram see http://tropin.phy.ulaval.ca/dzfeng/true3d/main.htm or http://www.geocities.com/ResearchTriangle/Facility/3914/ The C_Images 3D Development Kit is a library of image processing & analysis functions written in C++, independent of any Graphical User Interface or visualization software. It provides 3D processing and analysis, retaining connectivity and edge information. See 65 Manifold® 3D View Studio™ display and analyze data in 3D and create the 3D plots and graphs see http://www.manifold.net/news/pr_3dvs.html Manifold System GIS launch 3D View Studio to provide 3D services. 66 3D Graphics Software Reviews see http://dir.yahoo.com/Computers_and_Internet/Graphics/3D/Software/ . 86

not in line with population values. It does not give solution questions/situation where we want to determine spatially how many they differ and if we are to balance, how many should added or removed.

Figure 5.57 Cut and fill between Malay and the total population
Obtained by taking TIN of total population (Figure 5.52) and subtract the TIN of Malay (Figure 5.45). Red indicates gain and blue for loss

However, does not mean that there are no packages for population analysis; actually many software packages do exist which include Populus 67, HumPop68, Rural/Urban Projection Program and PAS69, PC-Edit and PopMap70 and others71. Nevertheless, they are not set to answering the above shortcomings; this is where 3D solid modeling is needed to be able to combine the above. There is need to develop True 3D GIS-DSA techniques; a proposed methodology is given in C 5.7 Summary This chapter has been on the incorporation of a vertical dimension in demographic analysis; to accomplish that three major aspects were examined: demographic interpolation and extrapolation, and generating demographic boundaries, and adding a third dimension to DCs. This led to surface-based 3D demographics that covered characterization of demographics in terms of surface analysis, which entailed analyzing the distribution of a DC represented as third dimension allowing derivatives of the modeled surface (demographic feature) to be identified. This led to need for 3D-volumedbased demographic spatial modeling so that we obtain information about what lays inside the demographic surface, this has been just introduced as documented in C highlighting the use constrained Delaunay triangulation and polyhedral to come up with an incremental demographic solid modeling, leaving the development codes to implement the algorithms for future.

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Simulation models for teaching population biology and evolutionary ecology [Department of Ecology, Evolution & Behavior / University of Minnesota] http://biosci.cbs.umn.edu/software/populus.html 68 Departments of Computer Science and Geography / Virginia Tech] http://geosim.cs.vt.edu/ 69 U.S. Census Bureau http://www.census.gov/ftp/pub/ipc/www/rup.html 70 Software and Support for Population Activities Project by UNDP http://www.undp.org/popin/softproj/index.htm 71 Software and demographic models at Netherlands interdisciplinary demographic institute http://www.nidi.nl/links/nidi6700.html This page presents an overview of demographic software and models on the World Wide Web 87

Chapter VI 6 CONCLUSION

6.1 Introduction This chapter summarizes the work presented in this thesis and gives a review of the important contributions of GIS demographic spatial analysis (GIS-DSA). While section 6.2 give a brief summary of the issues, it does not cover all and the full details of these discussions are found in the previous chapters. Finally, areas of future research are discussed in section 6.6. We can say that using modern information technology such as GIS for demographic analysis will enhance and make the process of planning easy, because one works from the very beginning towards producing plans that will be supported and accepted. This has been seen in this thesis where we have analyzed and modeled in GIS to generate visualizable demographic features and quantities from the planner’s point of view than forcing him to the methods that were created by experts for experts. 6.2 Summary of Thesis This study was motivated by the need to address issues such as: which GIS techniques to apply to specific population analysis? Which GIS dimension fits which analysis task? What surface terms can be used to characterize and visualize demographics, and multi-vertical analysis of demographic characteristics (DCs) that have the same location and may have only two variables differentiating them? It was motivated by the desire to bring the benefits of GIS technology to the planning process in general and to demographics in particular. Hence, this study investigated what GIS can offer to demographic spatial analysis at both aggregated and disaggregated levels using 2D, 2.5D and 3D GIS spatial analysis and modeling techniques to produce a set of techniques that can be used to analyze and generate different demographic features and quantities for planning analysis. In developing the techniques, this study sought to learn from the experiences and knowledge of previous efforts of GIS application in planning and demographic analysis, exploit all available GIS capabilities and develop new ones. We started by examining how GIS spatial analysis and modeling techniques are being used and can be utilized for demographic analysis by examining results from the conventional demographic analyses, what has been done in GIS demographic analysis and what a planner expects from demographics. It incorporated spatial aspects using residential buildings as the spatial unit of analysis and georeferencing persons using points as GIS element in order to accommodate both aggregate and disaggregate (micro) demographics from field survey and used GIS and statistical packages for experimentation. This approach put us in the position to have access to individual data at the same time protecting privacy. This spatial geocoding also offered a means of freeing geographical analysis from the use of political zoning and others, providing the potential to avoid some problems of aggregation and disaggregation i.e. thorny issues such as heterogeneity, the MAUP, aggregation bias, and ecological and atomistic fallacies. All these were achieved using multi-dimensional GIS techniques after realizing that all demographic analyses cannot be achieved by looking or carrying out analysis only in one dimensionality of GIS. Hence, we need to employ multi-dimensional GIS to accomplish GIS-DSA i.e. demographic spatial analysis in 2D GIS, Surface (2.5D) demographic spatial analysis and modeling, and 3D demographic spatial modeling. Demographic Spatial Analysis in 2D GIS: As the modules for all GIS-DSA were not available in ArcView GIS, I employed various extensions and scripts including producing a prototype module (Demographic Analyst) as an extension to ArcView to provide the extra demands of Demographic Analysis (DA) during experimentation. These facilitated a comparison of the DA results between statistical analysis techniques and GIS and also help to accomplish GIS demographic spatial analysis in 2D such as spatial demographic nearest neighbor analysis, interactive density analysis, spatial alternative appraisal, spatial progressive clustering, etc.

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Demographic Interpolation and Extrapolation for Planning Analysis: Since the techniques are developed for planning application, the fundamental requirement was to represent the demographic surface and solid such that DC can be retrieved for any given location, as it is often unlikely that the locations will coincide with the planner's queried locations. The DCs were interpolated from the data points using developed Geodemographic interpolation and extrapolation methodology. This helped: (1) to provide iso-demographics for displaying data graphically, (2) represent discrete DC into a continuous format, (3) generate some property of the surface at a given point, (4) estimate DC spatially, (5) change the unit of comparison when using different data structures in different layers, (6) change the level of demographic aggregation, (7) help in demographic boundary generation, and (8) help in volume/quantity computation/retrieval. Also because of extrapolation, have been able to generate demographic boundaries: (1) for extending demographics to cover the whole study area, (2) to determine to spatial extend of demographics, and (3) for spatial demographic predication. Surface (2.5) Demographic Spatial Analysis and Modeling dealt with characterization of demographics in terms of surface analysis that entailed analyzing the distribution of DCs represented as third dimension allowing derivatives of the modeled surface (demographic feature) to be identified. To accomplish this necessitated borrowing many terms from other applications and fields and even coining new ones. These included: demographic undershed, demographic overshed, demographic shrinkage points, demographic escalation points, demographic spatial pass, demographic overfold, demographic underfold, demographic Spatial variation, demographic directional variation, iso-demographics, demographic iso-lines. The other was visibility surface analysis for identifying demographic viewshed, demographic spatial limit and linear spatial demographic variation. Finally, surface analysis for demographic predication which gives demographic spatial classification and demographics spatial influence. At the end, we show how various demographic features can be generated as well as their interpretation and application. This provided demographic features and quantities from the planner’s point of view and lessening the difficulty the planner often encounters in interpreting the results in relation to planning analysis. Solid (True 3D) Demographic Spatial Modeling dealt with true 3D to obtain information about what lays inside the demographic surface. This has been just introduced highlighting the use of constrained Delaunay triangulation (CDT) and polyhedral to come up with an incremental demographic solid modeling. This means that DCs as solids are added one at a time into an existing model and a new model is generated. It was designed to fulfill the requirements of planning in that as a DC is introduced into the model, we get its contribution to result model to help in prediction and as the need arises can be used to compute quantities. It also provides perspective demographic spatial analysis and being able handle many DCs at the same time without losing the details. It needs further research in terms of developing codes to implement the algorithms (section 6.6 and C) Aggregated and Disaggregated Demographic Analysis: we have shown that it is possible to carry out aggregated and disaggregated demographic analysis at the same time, but we have to start with disaggregated analysis as aggregated ones can be derived from it. It has been shown that disaggregated DSA can be carried out even using data from the traditional data collection methods (field-surveys) and it provides more analyses. As with disaggregated analysis, we are able to locate spatially individuals’ residential buildings, which is not possible with aggregated analyses like at mukim level. With aggregated analyses, much information is not available as it is lost during the process of aggregation as it has been shown in this thesis for example with only such a slight aggregation of buildings to streets, we immediately unable to locate persons to buildings. GIS Demographics Analysis for Planning: A model to integrate GIS-DSA in planning was outlined, documented its pros and cons and showed where and how demographic analysis can be employed in planning. The goal of GIS-DSA and modeling to generate visualizable demographic features and quantities for use in planning analysis has been achieved. In so doing this study has contributed to knowledge in the area of demographic analysis and planning techniques through developing an innovative use of GIS technology
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(utilizing the GIS’s 2D, 2.5D and 3D) and puts us in a position to enjoy the advantages of GIS-DSA (see B). It should be noted that although GIS packages provided by vendors can accomplish many aspects of GIS-DSA, some need customization or even writing and developing new modules. 6.3 Human-Computer Interaction Despite the above benefits and achievements in form of GIS-DSA, to take advantage and utilize it depends on what is called Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). Three key issues help to determine the level of HCI that can be supported. (1) How freely can the analyst sequence system capabilities to solve their problems? To carry out GIS-DSA, the user must know what operations are available and how to sequence them; this was accounted for by deciding to model GIS-DSA inside GIS. As a prototype an ArcView GIS module (in form of an extension) called Demographic analyst was developed where pull down menu shows the available functions and clicking on any one gives the explanation in the status bar. (2) Can the analyst choose the representation of the problem that they work with? Through visualization (as illustrated in under GIS demographics visualization), analyst can see and check the trend of action. (3) Are the solutions from GIS-DSA perceived to disrupt or fit in the planning process? This is why GIS demographics analysis into planning was included, which shows how GIS-DSA fits into the planning process. 6.4 GIS Demographic Database for Planning Analysis As we end this GIS-DSA, we propose four levels of database integration in Demographic Spatial Informatics (DSI) at which GIS would play important roles at each level. Level one: surveillance of indicators. This could include traditional surveillance, such as changes in population over time. With the expanded data linkages of DSI, it might also include ongoing monitoring of indicators like changes in residence, uniformity in location, or age cohort change. While this form of uni-dimensional monitoring of trends can be accomplished without GIS, GIS provides the additional capability to rapidly analyze or display geographic sub-populations and to overlay GI over temporal information. An example might be maps to discern that increasing dominance of one ethnic group is occurring in a specific portion of a city. Level two: geographic integration of multiple variables. This integration can occur by area (data aggregated into administrative areas like enumeration blocks or survey blocks) and by discrete point geocoding that displays and analyses points or imputed spatial surfaces (it is this which is advocated for). To continue the example, geographic patterns of dominance of one ethnic group might be compared with age composition, sex ratios and the incidence of the elderly. Because population sets have been geocoded to discrete locations, both analysis and display of small area information is enabled. Some information (like economic status) may be cautiously imputed from small area census or other data. This may indicate associations between ethnicity and other features (with a cautious respect for potential fallacies of multi-level comparisons). Level three: individual level record linkage. Automated record linkage of individual records from multiple databases is now feasible, using probabilistic or deterministic linkage strategies. Record linkage methodologies have become standardized in recent years, and unique identifiers are not always necessary. By these methods, linked data sets are created subsequently stripped of personal identifiers. To continue the example at this level, imagine it can be shown that participants in a comprehensive development coordination program come from the particular ethnic group than individuals living in the same area with similar other DCs that do not participate in the program. Level four: real-time, point-of-service information. At the highest level of integration and functionality, population databases accompany individuals, developments and planners on their daily business. Imagine that a person presenting his developmental proposal is automatically identified as coming from certain place, when he applies for development at a planning department. Although this level presents the greatest technical and confidentiality-related challenges, some existing applications demonstrate the utility of population systems for individual services. Within an integrated DSI linked to service delivery, facility location, opportunities for tailoring prevention, evaluation, and planning abound to achieve true continuous improvement in population living.

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GIS is crucial at each of these levels. It greatly simplifies data management, display and calculations for the first two levels. In addition, when displaying information using commonly understood geographic boundaries, GIS helps communicate the immediate significance of information to a public than might otherwise fail to comprehend that they are disadvantaged, inviting greater participation in planning and policy. The third and fourth levels use the specificity of point-location both for linkage of records and for more discrete display and analysis (spatial representation free of arbitrary administrative polygons like zones or enumeration blocks, allowing more natural visual and statistical representations of data). This point-specificity also potentially facilitates linkage to a greater number of databases, and does so in a way that may be more respectful of individual confidentiality than through use of names or other personal identifying variables. Address information could link, for example, building-age, and ownership status (from plot records), etc. These data could target interventions (service planning), derive predictive models (population-based demography), or evaluate the effectiveness of housing policy changes (outcomes effectiveness research). For these reasons GIS, facilitated by geocoding of demographics and other data records, becomes the sine qua non of demographic spatial informatics. GIS-DSA can be utilized in Planning Support System with packages like What if? PSS 72. To determine "What" would happen "if" set of policy choices are made and assumptions about the future prove to be true. Policy choices, which can be considered in the model, include the expansion of public infrastructure and the implementation of alternative land use controls. Assumptions, which can be considered in the model, include the projected population and employment, future household characteristics and assumed development densities. All those can easily be obtained from GIS-DSA 6.5 Summary of Findings, Contributions and Applications From this research and putting in mind the summary of the thesis above, the new tools, procedures and methodologies developed; the three main findings are: • We need to use 2D, 2.5D and 3D GIS to accomplish Demographics spatial analysis • Current GIS need more modules in order to accomplish GIS-DSA • Developers need to adopt true 3D in addition to 2D and 2.5D for GIS-DSA And the contributions to knowledge as a result of this research are: • Development of Demographics Analyst • Documentation of a methodology for demographics visualization • Development of Geo-demographic interpolation and extrapolation procedure • Coining of new demographics terms for GIS demographics spatial analysis • The introduction and setting grounds for development of Incremental true 3D (solid) demographics modeling The findings and contribution of this thesis are applicable and useful to: • GIS software developer as they seek to incorporate demographic analysis functions. • GIS-DSA is applicable by planners as they seek to make sure activities do not contradict and making the people live in harmony, healthy and developed society • Statistics and population census department • Demographics analyst and specialist. • Policy makers and administrators as they allocate and reallocate resources • Telecommunications projects in setting out and monitoring • Health care: In addition to the asset management tasks in which GIS is commonly used, the analytical capabilities of GIS aid in DSA to base on when assessing epidemiological effects on population as carry out analysis of outbreak and spread of illness and disease within the community. • Retail: Most new out-of-town supermarkets are sited with the aid of a sophisticated GIS. The GIS is used to store socio-economic and here GIS-DSA is utilized to determine possible customers within the proposed area basing on their demographics. With the thesis hypothesis: “Can GIS accomplish Demographics Spatial Analysis for Planning Analysis”, hence the objective: “Investigate how GIS can be used to generate
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The What if? PSS is an interactive GIS-based system which supports aspects of the planning process: conducting suitability analysis, projecting future land use demand, preparing a land use plan, and allocating this demand to suitable locations. http://www.dcigis.com/whatif 91

demographics for planning analysis”. The Thesis Statement is “Although GIS can accomplish Spatial Analysis, there is more needed in terms of 2D, 2.5D and 3D GIS Modeling for Demographics Spatial Analysis for Planning Analysis” 6.6 Suggestions for Future Work Although the developed techniques under 2D and 2.5D have been tested, most of the 3D techniques could be experimented as the total development of modules (writing of computer codes of the algorithms) was out the scope of this thesis, the demonstration has been done for only techniques that could be accomplished using ArcView GIS 3D Analyst. There is need in future to develop true 3D demographic methodology as outlined in C. This should be done basing on objects, as the development of object-oriented concepts is more flexible and powerful. There is need to take advantage of this type of strategy that enhances modularity, portability, reusable, etc to reduce software development time. As object-oriented programming languages such as C++, Smalltalk, Java, etc make it possible for different applications to inherit the same basic data structure functionality while adding application-specific capabilities as needed (LaserScan Ltd; Tucker, et al., 1999). Take use of the dynamic objects, where instead of the application drawing the features according to a fixed representation derived from a feature code and stored coordinates, the application sends a message to each feature object, asking it to draw itself. Each object can decide how best to draw itself, using any available information. As well as object class (equivalent of feature code) and coordinates as before, this information can include combinations of attributes, relationships with other objects, either explicit or inferred through spatial adjacency, and environmental information time. This means that from a single demographic dataset, a wide set of visualizable features can be generated to facility in its evaluation and suit a range of planning-oriented requirements. Secondly, another area of relevance is the uncertainty determination. The measures of uncertainty by central tendency and dispersion (Fisher, 1993) require two sets of data that describe the same dataset. The question to be addressed in future research is how the above and spatial measures of errors in relation to the first law of geography that states "everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things” (Tobler, 1979) can be used to assess uncertainty in the GIS-DSA where we have one set of observation. Thirdly, as the need for GIS-DSA continues to expand, there maybe need to automate some of the techniques that have been developed as most were designed in an interactive way where the analyst makes all the decision about the spatial extent. Among them is the progressive clustering, spatial nearest neighbor analysis, etc A final point worth making is that demographics are about people who as always changing in terms of time and space. The spatial aspect has formed the basis of this thesis leaving out the mobility and temporal aspects. This can be looked at from the point of adding another dimensional to the developed GIS-DSA techniques, in terms of 4D GIS. BIBLIOGRAPHY Abdul-Rahman, A. (1994) Design and evaluation of TIN interpolation algorithms, EGIS Foundation http://www.geog.gla.ac.uk/~alias Abdul-Rahman, A. (1999) Spatial tessellations using an object-oriented approach; Proceedings of the 7th; GIS Research UK Annual Conference (GISRUK '99), 14-16th, April, Southampton, England, U.K., pp. 13-23 Abdul-Rahman, A. and J. Drummond (1998) Raster-based algorithms for 2D and 3D TINs generations; Proceedings of International Conference of Spatial Information Science and Technology (SIST' 98), December, Wuhan, China Abdul-Rahman, A., J. Drummond and J. Shearer (1998) Representation of 3D Spatial Objects, Proceedings of American Congress on Surveying and Mapping (ACSM) Conference and Exhibition, 2-4 March, Baltimore, USA

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APPENDIX A

STATISTICAL ANALYSES

As move to carrying out statistical analysis in GIS, start by data screening using descriptive statistics like Frequency, Crosstabs to find out missing values and unrealistic entries, then MANOVA (multivariate Analysis of variance) as a preliminary test to see if there are actually differences between/among the groups. Then run correlations between DCs using Spearman’s Rank Correlation. Spearman Correlation Coefficient: Commonly used nonparametric measure of correlation between two ordinal variables. For all of the cases, the values of each of the variables are ranked from smallest to largest Pearson correlation coefficient is computed on the ranks from spearman, which measure the association between rank orders. Correlation coefficients range in value from 1 (a perfect negative relationship) and +1 (a perfect positive relationship). A value of 0 indicates no relationship. Regression Analysis: It is estimation of the linear relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables or covariates. Pearson's chi-square test: The chi-square test performs a Pearson's chi-square test on a two-dimensional contingency table. This test is relevant to several types of null hypothesis: statistical independence of the rows and columns, homogeneity of groups, etc. The appropriateness of the test to a particular null hypothesis and the interpretation of the results depend on the nature of the data at hand, in particular on the sampling scheme. The returned p value should be interpreted carefully. Its validity depends heavily on the assumption that the expected cell counts are at least moderately large; a minimum size of five is often quoted as a rule of thumb. Even when cell counts are adequate, the chi-square is only a large-sample approximation to the true distribution of X-squared under the null hypothesis. If the data set is smaller than is appropriate for a chi-square test, the Fisher’s exact test may be preferable. To perform Pearson’s chisquare test in S-Plus: Choose Statistics - Compare Samples - Counts and Proportions - ChiSquare Test. Meaning of the symbols and interpretation of results The meaning of symbols in the table and the interpretation of results of SPSS are based on SPSS 9.0 for windows (1998, 2000) and Foster (1998). R indicates the correlation between the predicator variables combined and the dependent variable. R square indicates the proportion of the variability in the dependent variable, which is accounted for by the multiple regression equation. Analysis of variance table (ANOVA) shows the sum of squares explained by the regression equation and the residual sum of squares. The residual sum of squares is the variability in the dependent variable, which is left unexplained by the regression equation. The F statistics is obtained by the dividing the mean square regression by mean square residual. If F is significant (the value labeled Sig is less than 0.055) then R squared is significantly different from zero. This means one can assume there is a linear relationship between predicator and the dependent variables and the regression equation allow us to predict the dependent variable at greater than chance level. When the regression coefficient (B) for each predicator variable is standardized (transformed into standard scores) to be referred to as beta shows the relative importance of each predicator. The T values and Sig T indicate whether the regression coefficients for each variable are greater than zero and row with constant refers to the intercept of the regression line.

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Table A.5 Pearson correlation of Analysis Variables

Road Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) 1.000 . -.010 .847 -.066 .220 -.087 .107 .078 .149 .049 .363

GENDER -.010 .847 1.000 . -.025 .639 .061 .260 .026 .631 .033 .547

AGE -.066 .220 -.025 .639 1.000 . -.054 .321 .068 .209 -.669(**) .000

RACE -.087 .107 .061 .260 -.054 .321 1.000 . .540(**) .000 -.029 .591

RELIGION .078 .149 .026 .631 .068 .209 .540(**) .000 1.000 . -.111(*) .039

MARITAL .049 .363 .033 .547 -.669(**) .000 -.029 .591 -.111(*) .039 1.000 .

Road

GENDER

AGE

RACE

RELIGION

MARITAL

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed), * significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

Table A.6 ANOVA
Model Regression 1 Residual Total Regression 2 Residual Total Regression 3 Residual Total Regression 4 Residual Total Regression 5 Residual Total Sum of Squares 9.285E-02 844.088 844.181 3.845 840.336 844.181 10.712 833.469 844.181 31.753 812.428 844.181 31.788 812.393 844.181 df 1 341 342 2 340 342 3 339 342 4 338 342 5 337 342 6.358 2.411 2.637 .023(e) 7.938 2.404 3.303 .011(d) 3.571 2.459 1.452 .227(c) 1.922 2.472 .778 .460(b) Mean Square 9.285E-02 2.475 F .038 Sig. .847(a)

a Predictors: (Constant), GENDER b Predictors: (Constant), GENDER, AGE c Predictors: (Constant), GENDER, AGE, RACE d Predictors: (Constant), GENDER, AGE, RACE, RELIGION e Predictors: (Constant), GENDER, AGE, RACE, RELIGION, MARITAL f Dependent Variable: ROAD

Table A.7 Regression coefficients of demographic characteristics
Unstandardized Coefficients Model B Std. Error Standardized Coefficients Beta t Sig.

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1

(Constant) GENDER (Constant)

3.209 -3.297E-02 3.396 -3.830E-02 -4.984E-03 3.663 -2.135E-02 -5.337E-03 -.193 3.466 -1.853E-02 -6.709E-03 -.414 .260 3.407 -1.907E-02 -6.271E-03 -.413 .261 2.749E-02

.264 .170 .305 .170 .004 .343 .170 .004 .116 .346 .168 .004 .137 .088 .595 .168 .005 .137 .088 .227 -.006 -.084 -.193 .189 .009 -.006 -.090 -.193 .189 -.007 -.071 -.090 -.012 -.067 -.010

12.147 -.194 11.152 -.225 -1.232 10.674 -.126 -1.321 -1.671 10.024 -.110 -1.668 -3.029 2.959 5.728 -.113 -1.159 -3.016 2.957 .121

.000 .847 .000 .822 .219 .000 .900 .187 .096 .000 .912 .096 .003 .003 .000 .910 .247 .003 .003 .904

2

GENDER AGE (Constant)

3

GENDER AGE RACE (Constant) GENDER

4

AGE RACE RELIGION (Constant) GENDER

5

AGE RACE RELIGION MARITAL

a Dependent Variable: ROAD

Table A.8 Excluding variables analysis
Model AGE 1 RACE RELIGION MARITAL RACE 2 RELIGION MARITAL 3 4 RELIGION MARITAL MARITAL Beta In -.067(a) -.087(a) .078(a) .050(a) -.090(b) .083(b) .009(b) .189(c) -.002(c) .009(d) t -1.232 -1.603 1.451 .917 -1.671 1.542 .125 2.959 -.023 .121 Sig. .219 .110 .148 .360 .096 .124 .900 .003 .981 .904 Partial Correlation -.067 -.087 .078 .050 -.090 .083 .007 .159 -.001 .007 Tolerance .999 .996 .999 .999 .994 .995 .552 .699 .547 .546

a Predictors in the Model: (Constant), GENDER b Predictors in the Model: (Constant), GENDER, AGE c Predictors in the Model: (Constant), GENDER, AGE, RACE d Predictors in the Model: (Constant), GENDER, AGE, RACE, RELIGION e Dependent Variable: ROAD

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APPENDIX B

GIS ANALYSES

Geocoding in ArcView GIS Geocoding refers to the process of associating a data point with a geographic location based on some form of address. An address specifies a location in the same way that a geographic coordinate does. However, since an address is merely a text string containing the information of building/house number, street name, and/or lot number, an address needs a mechanism to calculate the geographic coordinate for the address and then display the location on a map based on the assigned coordinate. To do so, addresses stored in tabular data files must first be associated with a geographic feature. The coordinates of a data source can be used to calculate and assign coordinates to addresses if the data source features also have addresses. Address matching involves comparing addresses in the attribute table with the address attributes in the matchable layer. Standards and rules are applied to make decisions about whether addresses match. When a match is found, geographic coordinates are derived from the matched feature and assigned to the address. If a match cannot be found, you can edit the address if it has errors or relax the matching parameters in the Geocoding Preferences so that there is a higher likelihood of finding a match. With Geocoding we are able to link demographic data maintained in large databases of events to geographical locations; enabling us to display the tabular data containing addresses as points on a map and find their locations on a map easily, query and find geographic features using addresses, perform point-in-polygon analysis, generate demographic surfaces and construct 3D models. Geocoding process in ArcView GIS Address geocoding in ArcView is a process that creates a theme based on address data that can be displayed with other themes in a view. In this study during geocoding, ArcView reads individuals/household addresses and locates them in corresponding buildings on a theme representing the buildings (georeferenced using the building numbers), which are in turn located to lot number for the area within which they occur. ArcView then creates a geocoded theme based on an ArcView shape file to store the attributes of all records in the address event table and the X, Y coordinates of the successfully matched records. ArcView adds the geocoded theme to the view and displays each matched record with a point symbol. In ArcView GIS to make a theme matchable 1. The theme is added to a view; the theme should contain the necessary matchable address attributes for geocoding. 2. Then the theme is made active. The theme Properties dialog box is opened to display the geocoding theme property panel to choose a suitable address style for the theme. The address style chosen determines the fields and the way of indexing a field, as well as the data used for geocoding addresses and locating an address in a view. 3. ArcView finds the default field from the attribute table for each component of the address style. You can change the field by selecting a new field from the drop-down list. A check mark in front of the address component indicates that the component is required. A checked component needs to be filled with a data field from the attribute table. A component without a check mark is an optional component. If no suitable data field is found from the attribute table, <None> can be set to the nonrequired component. Note: if no data fields are selected for the required components, the theme cannot be made matchable. 4. ArcView provides an option to use place name aliases. Select a table in the project that contains the aliases and their associated addresses. Attaching alias information to the theme allows locating an address using a place name alias. <None> is selected if do not want to use place name aliases. 5. Pressing OK makes the theme matchable. ArcView will display a message box for to confirm building the geocoding index using the selected address style. Press yes to start indexing the data of the required components. If <None> is selected for a required component of an address style, pressing OK will not make the theme matchable. To geocode addresses against a matchable theme 1. Add a tabular data file containing the addresses to the project. The address must be stored in a single field in this table. Values in the address field can also be in the form of place name aliases. 2. From the View menu, choose Geocode Addresses to open the Geocode Addresses dialog box. Specify the options and choose Batch Match or Interactive Match. For Batch Match, ArcView will match the addresses without invoking the Geocoding Editor. If you choose Interactive Match, ArcView will display the Geocoding Editor for you to control the address matching process. If multiple or no matches exist, you can adjust the matching parameters in the Geocoding Preferences dialog box, interactively edit the addresses if there are mistakes, or manually assign geographic coordinates to the events with missing information. 3. During the process, ArcView will create a geocoded theme in the form of an ArcView shape file to store the attributes of all records in the address event table and the X, Y coordinates of the successfully matched records. When the matching process is done, ArcView will display the results of geocoding and allow you to rematch the addresses. When you press done in the Re-match Addresses dialog box, ArcView will add the geocoded theme to the view. GeoProcessing in ArcView GIS 108

GeoProcessing is a way to create new data based on themes in a view. In most cases, alter the geometric properties of the features in a dataset while controlling some aspects of how its attribute data is handled. Process under GeoProcessing include: Clip one theme based on another: This process creates a new theme by using a polygon theme (or selected polygons in that theme) as a cookie cutter on a point, line, or polygon theme. The output theme will only contain data from the theme you're clipping--the theme used as a cookie cutter is only used to define the clipping boundary. In this study it is used define the extent for a certain ethnic group, determine boundary of study area by clipping a theme of cadastral features that extends over a much larger area, etc. Intersect two themes: This process is similar to clipping a theme, except it preserves only those features falling within the spatial extent common to both themes. The features of the input theme are intersected or sliced by the intersect theme. The attribute data from both themes are included in the new theme's attribute table. Dissolve features based on an attribute: Dissolving features in a theme coalesces adjacent features that have the same attribute value. It is used in analysis to dissolve a theme population census based building boundary into one based on ethnicity. This removes boundaries between adjacent boundaries with the same predominant ethnic group. Union two themes: The Union process is used to produce a new theme containing the features and attributes of two polygon themes. Union creates a new theme by combining two polygon themes. The new theme has data and shapes from both themes, including their intersection. In fact, union differs from intersect only by the fact that all the features of both themes are included in the resultant theme, including those features that did not overlap. This helps in the ethnicity clustering analysis taking into account the location i.e. building. Merge themes together: Using merge is similar to union--a new theme is created from multiple themes but their features are not intersected. Merge allows you to combine the features from two or more themes of the same geometric type. When you merge themes, you specify which theme has the same fields you want the new theme to have. If the other themes you're merging have more fields than the theme you have specified, those fields won't be in the new theme's table. If the other themes do not have the same fields as the theme you have specified, empty cells will be added to the new theme's table. In this study, it helps merge several individual with others themes with to make a study area. Assign data by location: Assigning data by location uses a spatial relationship to join data from one theme to another theme. This can be used in analysis by assigning data from a theme of ethnicity to a theme of land use. The ethnicity data is added to the land use data, along with the distance to the household nearest the land use event. As a result, the ethnic group nearest the most or particular land use may be regarded to be more active. Locate address: Finds a specific address on a view in the active theme. The Locate Address option searches the active matchable theme(s) in the view to find an address you specify. It is carried out by typing the address you want to search for into the Address box. When the address is found, ArcView draws a point and places it on top of the location. ArcView will pan the view if the found location is outside the current display of the theme. If more than one matchable theme are active in the view, ArcView will search the address in the first matchable theme. If the address cannot be found in the first active matchable theme, ArcView will display a new Locate Address dialog box for you to specify an address and then search in the next active matchable theme. Locate is only available for themes whose geocoding properties have been set. GIS access to attribute data Using ArcView's Database Access extension, you can create themes in a view representing spatial data that is stored in a relational database; these are called database themes. A database theme has a query that retrieves a set of fields and records from one or more tables in the database. One of the fields retrieved must be a spatial column; spatial columns contain spatial data the way numeric columns contain numeric data. What the database theme displays in the view is the value contained in the spatial column for each of the records retrieved from the database. The reasons why we use database themes in ArcView are essentially the same reasons why we store spatial data in a relational database. Relational databases use client-server technology, letting us develop a corporate database. Our data is stored in a central location on the database server, and is accessed across local or wide area networks by users with client software for the database. With the Database Access extension, ArcView can be a client to the relational database. Relational databases let us store an extremely large number of records together in a single table in the database. Relational databases provide efficient multi-user access to data. With locking mechanisms, many people can update and modify the same layer of data at the same time. With transaction management, updates to the database aren’t saved and available to others until you commit the transaction, and you have the option to undo an editing session. These features let many database users access the most current data while others are editing it. 109

ArcView's tables are dynamic: An ArcView table references the tabular data source it represents, but does not contain the tabular data itself. This means that tables are dynamic, because they reflect the current status of the source data they are based on. If the source data changes, a table based on this data will automatically reflect the change the next time you open the project containing this table. Linking tables: You can link a table to the active table based on the values of a common field found in both tables. Link establishes a one-to-many relationship between the destination table (the active table) and the source table (the table you are linking to the active table). One record in the destination table is related to one or more records in the source table. Typically, the source table contains descriptive attributes of features that you wish to link to the features in a theme's table so that you can select features from this theme on a view see which linked records in the source table are selected. Unlike joining tables, linking tables simply defines a relationship between two tables, rather than appending the fields of the source table to those in the destination. When tables are linked, neither table is changed - they are just linked to one another. After a Link is performed, selecting a record in the destination table will automatically select the record or records related to it in the source table. If the destination table is the feature attribute table of a theme, selecting one of the theme's features in the view selects that feature's record in the attribute table, and therefore automatically selects the records related to it in the source table. Selecting a record in the source table does not select the corresponding record in the destination table. This is because the link only exists in the destination table. An example of a one-to-many relationship in this study is building occupancy; many tenants may occupy one building. In ArcView, if you have a source table of tenants and a theme representing buildings, you could link the table of tenants to the table for the buildings theme. In this way, selecting one of the buildings on the view will also select the records for the tenants of that building in the tenants’ table. As it can be noticed, cannot add directly tables from SPSS and Microsoft Access Database (these are the packages which are used in this study to carry out demographic analysis) into ArcView GIS. What is done, either the tabular demographic data is exported from those packages using their export modules as dBase files to the folder containing ArcView project file being currently used; from there then they can be read directly by ArcView; or Connecting to a database using ArcView's Standard structures language (SQL) connection feature, and run a queries to create a table. However, before that capacity can be used, have to install Microsoft open database connectivity (ODBC) for SQL server, the Microsoft Windows versions of ArcView uses Microsoft's ODBC standard. ODBC is Microsoft's open interface for accessing data in a heterogeneous environment of relational and non-relational database management systems. Connecting to a database to create a table: Using ArcView's SQL connection feature, you can connect to a database server and run an SQL query to retrieve records from it. The records you access become a table in your project. You can then use this table like any other ArcView table. ArcView stores the definition of the SQL query you used to create the table, not the records themselves. The records themselves are stored in a temporary file while the table is being used. The file is removed when you delete the table, close the project, or quit ArcView. When you open a project containing a table representing the results of an SQL query, ArcView will automatically reconnect to the database to obtain the data for your table. Any changes in the database will therefore be reflected in your table, and any views, charts or layouts that use this table's data.

Technical solution in ArcView Grid Construction in ArcView according to study area With a set of data points, a grid generated in ArcView GIS is rectangular form not according to study area, and some times, we need a grid covering only study area. The grid is rectangular, as it is made up of a set (square) cell size, and a set number of rows and columns of cells. Having the study area as a polygon shapefile, first convert it to a grid (From menu choose Theme, Convert to Grid) then use it as a mask via the analysis properties dialog box. N.B. the map extent and cell size should set the same as the intended interpolation grid. After that, the area outside study area should then be No data. Using the map calculator (Analyze, map calculator) and typing in the window ([Newgrid].IsNull).con([NewGrid], [YourGrid]) where Newgrid is the one that you have created from the shapefile and YourGrid is your data grid. This basically clips your data grid to the extent of the study area. TIN Construction in ArcView according to study area TIN covering the whole study could not be generated using the using ArcView (it only gives TIN covering up to the limits of data points). To construct TIN, first interpolate a grid that allows estimation of values beyond the points (the estimation is subject to much greater error outside the points, as it's based on less data, and do not know anything about the real values outside of those measured. Another source of error is in selection of an interpolation model to create the grid. TIN values will be more accurate within the measured points). Once the grid creation, it is converted to a TIN which will cover the study area via the Theme>Convert Grid to Tin function from the AV menu. Advantages of GIS Demographics analysis

110

As we end this thesis, let outline the advantages of GIS-DSA which have been discussed • GIS is an excellent means of storing and analyzing demographic data. A GIS system allows a planner to bring together disparate demographic data sets that previously had no known relationship other than location, empowering us to make decisions that we previously only dreamed of. • It provides the planner with the capacity to judge whether the demographic difference is due to difference in geographical location (spatial dimension) or due to variation in numbers or both. • It is possible to compare demographic characteristics from geographical areas of varying spatial dimension • It gives the planner the chance to carry out spatial analysis where the geographical location of demographic characteristics can be attached to the analysis results. Thus able to produce maps and graphs having the spatial aspect • GIS-DSA provide the ability to interactively select cells or particular demographic characteristic onscreen, using the planner's visual judgment of the relationships between various characteristics according to the targeted goal, in so doing resolve spatial conflicts, e.g. in youth center allocation sex having precedence over age. • When it comes to demographic spatial percentage change, there are many opinions for the analyst; either to use a spatial interactive tool or fixing the spatial extents then carrying out analysis • With GIS-DSA, the planner does not have to know the extent to which to carry spatial demographic comparison before beginning on the task of analysis • Apart from providing information at individual level it maintains the density measure as this is intended to represent not just the "emptiness" of areas but also the dispersion characteristics of people and settlements, averaged over a sufficiently large unit of space as to yield a reasonable indicator. • With the use of GIS the problem of trade off can totally be eliminated in the analysis processing, as each individual is accessible and in most case even no need to use weights as no individual can have conflicting demographic characteristics. The use of weights can be used where or when to produce or use a certain demographic characteristic in preference to another, and to carry out clustering those to be used as input in the planning suitability analysis. • In this study, where all the details are recorded in database, GIS is being used to visualize the results of demographic spatial analysis by making queries. It makes relationships among map elements visible, heightening one's ability to extract and analyze information. • Since no set and fixed spatial entities then planner can carry out simulation using GIS. • In addition, in GIS we are able to keep track of the various land uses like inhabitable areas, open space, etc as we carry out spatial analysis. • With developed 3D-DM, we are in position to analysis the DC in 3D and generate visualizable results.

111

APPENDIX C

TRUE 3D GIS-DSA

Considerations in Construction of 3D-DM In addition to requirements of 3D Demographic modeling discussed in the in the main body of this thesis, the following are also put into consideration as the 3D-DM is constructed. 3D spatial interpolation: 3D spatial interpolation provides methods for transformation of values representing DC measured at scattered locations. The fundamental requirement is to represent the DC such that their quantity can be retrieved for any given location. As it is often unlikely that the locations will coincide with the analyst's queried locations, the DC must able to be interpolated from the DM. This is handled by first boundary generation to get values for coordinates along the boundary, then extend interpolation problem into one of extrapolation, in which we estimate level of DC outside the domain of the current range of data points but within the study area; all those were discussed in section 3. Generation of third dimension of Demographics: Demographic variables like the marital status, sex, etc do not carry with them the Z value per spatial entity, the task here is to generate the z values for the demographic variables, for the illustration, will use sex that is either male or female. Start by looking for the least spatial subdivision, and in this research, the building has been used as the spatial entity for geocoding. Get the totals of the male and the female for each geocoding spatial entity, and this value becomes the z value and male/female becomes an attribute to be accessed through the attribute table, this has be described in section 3. Multiresolution 3D-DM: Multiresolution modeling means maintaining objects at different level of detail (LOD) or approximation, where the LOD may be different in distinct areas of the object. When it comes to visualization, it means to render the model at any given moment with minimal LOD sufficient to produce an image of reasonable quality (Klein, 1996). The ability to provide a representation whose accuracy is variable over the domain is often called selective refinement (De Floriani, et al., 1998). A so-called LOD model is a simple sequence of approximate representations at increasing LOD. A Multiresolution models (MM) must: a) Perform selective refinement for any given accuracy in short (real) time; b) Provide always conforming meshes, i.e., avoid cracks due to abrupt transition between different LOD within a mesh; c) Have a size not much higher than the size of the model at full resolution. In this study a model, called the Multiresolution Triangular Model (MTM) (De Floriani, et al., 1997) is being used, where a Delaunay tetrahedalization is adopted as the initial mesh. The more tetrahedra are removed from the volume mesh, the more details of the reconstructed shape appear. The algorithms and the procedure to accomplish that were described by De Floriani, et al, in papers like “Managing the LOD in 3D Shape Reconstruction and Representation” and “Multi-Shapes: LOD in Object Reconstruction”; and are based on the MTM discussed by De Floriani, et al. in “Variable Resolution Operators on a Multiresolution Terrain Model”. Use objects: here every thing is modeled as objects, as they provide for easy boundary partition, easy to assemble to come out with the required model, cater for breaks and unique features like holes, easy to aggregate, easy to extend if there change of size of dimension of study area Volume Visualization Here the concern is the 3D volume visualization techniques that can be used to explore the interior of the demographic models. Volume visualization is a method of extracting meaningful information from volumetric datasets through the use of interactive graphics and imaging, and is concerned with the representation, manipulation, and rendering of volumetric datasets (Kaufman, et al., 1993). Its objective is to provide mechanisms for peering inside volumetric datasets and for probing into voluminous and complex structures and dynamics. It encompasses an array of techniques for projecting and shading a volumetric dataset or properties thereof and for interactively extracting meaningful information from it using transformations, cuts, segmentation, translucency control, measurements and the like. There are several methods/ algorithms for the visualization in 3D (3D visualization of volume data): Wireframe rendering, Rendering of surfaces, Volume rendering/Direct volume rendering, and Volumebased rendering of surfaces (Baxa, et al.; Carneiro, et al. 1996; Foley, et al. 1990; Hollasch, 1991; Kaufman, 1991). As each method has it advantages and disadvantages, all are employed and raytracing algorithms used to render three-space scenes. Raytracing solves several rendering problems in a straightforward manner including hidden surfaces and is not restricted to rendering polygonal meshes; it can handle any object that can be interrogated to find the intersection point of a given ray with the surface of the object see Foley, et al. (1990) and Hollasch (1991) for details. The tetrahedron can be used for raytracing and all demographics (3D objects) approximated by an appropriate mesh of tessellating tetrahedrons

Choice of 3D Structure for Representing Demographics Considering the target of the modeling (demographic 3D modeling problem), what has to be represented and achieved, the methods/techniques and structures for 3D representation, their advantages and disadvantages as discussed in previous sections, we are now in position to choose 3D-DM representation; but before we commit our selves. The two major items i.e. criteria proposed by Abdul-Rahman, et al., 112

(1998) for selecting the most appropriate representation for irregular objects (DC) are visited: ability to represent (or to be converted to) object primitives, e.g. points, lines, surfaces, and areas; and topological and attribute data can be integrated and formulated. Therefore, that database queries, and data retrieval can be performed (Abdul-Rahman, et al., 1998). True 3D GIS analysis demands that feature points, arcs, surfaces, and bodies be manipulated and analyzed as discrete entities. These unordered data elements, in order to construct a comprehensive 3D-DM; it is necessary to establish the relations between the data elements, as well as an interpolation model to approximate the surface and object behavior. Thus, the facet model and TEN type of representation are going to be used for 3D Demographic modeling as handle both raster and vector based modeling (Abdul-Rahman and Drummond, 1998). With both we take advantages of both surfaces-based (boundary model) and volume-based representations, and can handle demographic resolution which is not constant but varies with the spatial location of the characteristics and further helps in multiresolution modeling which in needed in demographic analysis. Solid Volume Modeling TEN and Facet Models for 3D-DM Tetrahedron is the fundamental building unit of the TEN approach, it is composed of the following primitives: 4 vertices, 4 facets, 6 edges, 3 edges per facet, and 3 facets per vertex. Considering a particular DC represented by tetrahedra, for each tetrahedron at least one facet will represent the characteristic as surface, and the vertices of this facet will be points of individual locations. Tetrahedra edges joining two points are lines of gradual DC change; also tetrahedra edges separate two directions or rate as well showing the DC. Those edges representing change in category are the edge of the characteristic, and the x, y coordinates of their vertices represent the bounding polygon (or 'area') of the characteristics. Finally considering the surface of the study area itself, if this has been described by a series of tetrahedra, as with the characteristic some facets will be surface facets and their vertices describe an irregular 3D-DM. Before employing the tetrahedron in construction of 3D-DM, they are generated through Delaunay triangulation and Voronoi diagrams and built as described in section 5.4.1.5. Then we employ the developed DT, CDT, and model conversions into solid volume to facility demographic quantities derivation. We use the polyhedral (a solid bounded by polygons) as 3D primitives, this can be for instance hexahedron (six-faced polyhedra), Tetrahedra, and many other simple polyhedra can be organized to provide 3D object models. Polyhedral objects are easily modeled by collections of polygons forming the objects’ faces (Reda, 1996). These faces are completely described by their vertices and the equations of their planes with respect to coordinate system. These approximations of 3D data produce models, which are useful for their simplicity in representing general object shapes and their efficiency in computing and storage. In addition to the suitability of triangular meshes to model 3D objects and scenes of various complexities, they possess a set of highly desirable properties, which are often difficult to ensure in other representations (Reda, 1996), among these is multiresolution modeling. Demographics Aggregation by Polyhedral Simplification As we highlighted, the model should be able to handle both micro demographic analysis and aggregated ones (section 2.3.1 and 2.3.2). The approach, which has been followed, is to develop a disaggregated model as the first basis and from it, we make aggregation as the need arises. One approach is to subdivide the bounding volume of a triangulated polyhedral model into a 3D grid. All vertices within each box are merged into a new representative vertex, and a new model is then synthesized from these vertices by forming triangles according to the original topology. The averaging effect of this algorithm, however, may remove possibly crucial high-frequency details (e.g., features on a face). Another weakness is that the results are not invariant to rigid body motion of the input model. It is better to use more polygons in areas of high surface curvature and fewer polygons in areas of low curvature. The other optional that has been taken is Triangulation decimation techniques. Here decimation variant of most mesh refinement algorithms (Reda, 1996) can be constructed and instead of selecting vertices for inclusion in the triangulation, vertices are selected for deletion. The same importance measures (e.g., local error, surface curvature, global error and other product measures) can be used to determine the least important vertices that are candidate for removal. In such techniques, a selection process determines one or more vertices whose removal produces minimal approximation errors. After the deletion of these vertices, and their connected edges, the remaining polygon is re-triangulated. Each such operation results in a maximum saving of two edges. Such small incremental simplification requires a large number of iterations. Independent sets of candidate vertices are selected for parallel removal to speed up the process (for explanation see Reda, 1996). If the need is to aggregate by creation of demographic boundaries, then polygonal aggregation is reinforced by employing the CDT and the techniques of demographic boundary generation as discussed in section 5.4.1 3D Iso-Surface Extraction The iso-surface extraction problem consists of generating a polygonal representation for the implicit surface. There are several methods to generate iso-surfaces (Lorensen, et al. 1987, Muller, et al., 1993; and Nielson, 1991). A popular one being the marching-cubes method (Lorensen, et al., 1987; see Baxa, et al. for illustration), One obvious problem with marching cubes is ambiguity in creating triangle patches in case four or more intersection points are to create two or more neighboring triangles, there is also a possibility of gaps in the isosurface. Here use the tetrahedra (Tetra-Cubes iso-surface) due to its advantages: easy interpolation, simple representation (especially for connectivity information), and the fact that any other grid can be interpolated to a tetrahedral by writing a converter to take that grid format into a tetrahedral complex to be used as input to tetra-cubes algorithm (Bloomenthal, 1988, Carneiro, et al. 1996). This technique is simpler than marching-cubes and does not have its nasty 113

ambiguity configurations, i.e. the tetra-cubes algorithm explores the correlation among hexahedra to solve ambiguities found in the marching-cubes algorithm and provides a very general, simpler, and fast way of creating/generating iso-surfaces (Carneiro, et al. 1996). Instead of marching-cubes algorithm the tetra-cubes algorithm is used (Carneiro, et al. (1996) that uses the technique of single iso-surface extraction that uses tetrahedral cells as its building block (see Carneiro, et al. 1996 tetra-cubes algorithm and implementation Details). The basic idea is that each cell is subdivided into several tetrahedra first, and then intersections of the isosurface and tetrahedra edges are computed. This partially solves the ambiguity problems, because maximum number of intersections between the isosurface and tetrahedra edges is four, that is, at most two triangles will be created. Volume Calculation The visualization presented in section 5.2 to understanding volume calculation. From Figure 5.26, assuming that the total mass of clay in box is proportional to the total population; we now wish to be in position to get mass (population) of a any portion of the clay at any location in the 3D space. The desired mass maybe on the base and stopping anywhere before reaching to top, or it may reach the surface, or not touching any of the surface like assuming we remove slice DD and using that space we can cut out on the side of removing clay take it out and replace DD in its position. We have to be able to determine the mass of the cut piece, thus being able to determine the corresponding population. This can be accomplished through following steps. Note: the size of the grid interval is determine by looking for the smallest distance between any two points in the 3D and also taking into consideration that the surface area is not proportional to the volume and the mass is considered as a solid. Elevation Differences The volume of complete cells (cells not bounding the edges and surface) i.e. rectangular units is computed by specifying elevations on the top and the bottom or employing the Manhattan distance which is also known as city block distance (Chou, 1997; DeMers, 1997, 2000) to get the distance between two data points’ location using the formula: Then find the area of one side and multiple it by the difference in the elevation. When it comes for the incomplete cell, we move on the trapezoidal rule. Trapezoidal Rule Trapezoidal rule or Trapezium rule is a method of approximating to an integral as the limit of a sum of areas of trapezia. It is equivalent to performing linear interpolation between the points. For the vertical surfaces, area of the top units (incomplete cells as presented in Figure C.58) is obtained as follows:

Figure C.58 Using trapezoidal rules For the area of the units (incomplete cells) at edge of the surface like the boundary of the study area is obtained by forming trapezium then the area of the trapezium is computed by following formula: The error in the trapezium rule depends upon the value of the derivatives at the end points, so if these derivatives vanish, or if the function is being integrated over one period, the trapezium rule gives good value (Cox, S. J. 1997). From the plot (Figure C.58a) it is clear that some of the area has been missed. We add more points along the range of interest, until the approximation is good enough (Figure C.58b) i.e. compound Trapezium Rule, and then use the formula Method of Ordinates The method of ordinates (Muehrcke, et al., 1992; DeMers, 2000) starts by generating iso-lines from the data points, slice them into equal parts guided by the intervals. Find the area of each slice using the trapezoidal rule as described from above, multiple each by the interval to get the volume of each slice. Adding those products gives the total volume. This is reinforced by the incremental volume computation below. Incremental Volume Using an incremental volume computation technique; means that solid volumes are added one at a time into an existing model and a new volume is calculated. Here we compute a new value for each location indicating the surfical volume associated with it and portion of an areal condition is represented by that location on the first layer. The ideal adopted form Tomlin (1990) but modified to incorporate the computation of multiple vertical values and incremental volume as shown in Figure C.59. This method 114

has been designed to fulfill the requirements of DC calculation in that as a characteristic is introduced into the model, we get its contribution to total volume to help in prediction

Figure C.59 Incremental volume calculations using polyhedron Each location surfical volume is computed as shown in Figure C.59a as the size of a polyhedron directly below its surfical facets (white) and above the cartographic plane (dark gray), minus the size of any polyhedron directly above those facets and below that plane. To get the incremental volume, start with a single polyhedron like the tetrahedra abcdf (Figure C.59b), then adding another tetrahedra the shape changes to abecd (Figure C.59c); the process continues with four forming a shape like Figure C.59d. Surface and Solid Volume Building of the 3D-DM After setting 3D basic structure, object representation, volume visualization and computation; the model has to be built before the extraction of DCs. Each DC being modeled as volume inform of 3D-DM is characterized by: 1) Volume name which identifies the volume; 2) Shape name that specifies one of the basic geometric shapes available. 3) Shape parameters that give the dimensions to the volume. 4) Local co-ordinate system whose origin and axes are the ones defined for the given shape. 5) Physical properties that are given by a set of constants for the homogeneous characteristic that fills the volume. 6) Additional properties and Set of attributes. As long as a volume is not positioned, it is an entity that has no spatial relation with the model. A 3D-DM is created by defining first a global mother volume (GMV); considered as workspace containing the entire model. Its coordinate system is considered to be the global one. Afterwards, the model is built by positioning volumes (daughter volumes- DV) inside other volumes (mother volumes (MV) which is either the GMV or DV which become MV as new volumes are put inside them); achieved by specifying the coordinates and rotation, or dividing a volume. DV are either explicitly positioned inside the mother, or implicitly defined by a division mechanism applied to it. This mechanism allows producing replicated volumes easily. Positioning a volume with given shape and dimensions inside a MV is achieved by specifying its translation and rotation with respect to the mother coordinate system. Make sure that no volume extends beyond the boundaries of its mother. When a volume is positioned, the user gives it a number. Multiple copies of a given volume, with different numbers, can be positioned inside a mother or inside different mothers and the contents of the volume are reproduced implicitly in all copies. If one of the DV dimensions is unknown (i.e. not given), then use the maximum value allowed by the MV i.e. the volume is limited by the dimensions of MV (study area) or it takes on the size unoccupied. Divisions can be performed along any of the axes and volume can be partially or totally divided. The division generates a division instance, which is considered as a new volume and should be one of the allowed shapes. Its dimensions are computed according to the declared number of divisions and/or step size. This division instance, as any volume, can again be divided along any of its proper axes, or have other volumes positioned into it. Volumes positioned within a division instance are reproduced implicitly in all instances. These operations permit to define a physical tree of volumes at different levels. It is assumed that the tracking medium properties of the contents replace the ones of the mother within the space region they 115

occupy. A volume is therefore defined not only by its intrinsic characteristics but also by the definition of its descendants, namely its contents, the contents of its contents, etc.

116

APPENDIX D FIELD SURVEY FORMS Designed in October, 1999 and used to collect data from the study area with other two master students Jennifer Tiong and Chong Chee Kit. Most of the data collected is not employed in this thesis, but it was needed by co-researchers for their theses73 KAJIAN BANDAR WARISAN LAMA GEORGE TOWN Pusat Pengajian Pebangunanan, Bangunan dan Perancangan UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA 11800, Pulau Pinang Maklumat yang diberi adalah SULIT No. Ruj.: Tarikh:
Waktu:
Mula-Pagi

/

/1999
- Petang Akhir -

BORANG A MAKLUMAT AR – Unit Struktur Bangunan 1. ID AR Sektor No. AU

9. Alamat Pemilik (No. Bangunan, Nama Jalan Bandar)

2. 12343. 1234.

Jenis Bangunan Bangunan Sesebuah Bangunan Berkembar Bangunan Berderet Unit Tambahan Taraf Binaan Kekal Separuh Kekal Sementara Bilangan Tingkat 10. Kegunaan Bangunan 1. Kediaman sahaja 2. Perniagaan/Perkhidmatan/Industri sahaja 3. Kediaman dan Perniagaan/Perkhidmatan/Industri 4. Lain-lain 11. Jumlah IR 12. Jumlah EU

5. Keadaan Fizikal 1- Baik 2- Sederhana 3- Buruk 6. Corak Bangunan 1- Moden 2- Tradisional 7. a. b. Alamat No. Bangunan Nama Jalan

8.

Nama Pemilik

KAJIAN PENDUDUK WARISAN PUSAT BANDAR LAMA GEORGE TOWN Pusat Pengajian Pebangunanan, Bangunan dan Perancangan UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA 11800, Pulau Pinang Maklumat yang diberi adalah SULIT
BORANG B

73

http://www.hbp.usm.my/thesis/heritage and http://www.hbp.usm.my/thesis/heritageDB 117

- IR (unit isi rumah) pemilik perniagaan) 1 ID IR/IE No. AU

- IE (unit

15 Adakah KIR/KIE tinggal/berniaga di sini semenjak dilahirkan? - Ya (terus ke soalan 16) - Tidak 16 Kenapa keluarga tuan/puan pindah ke kawasan ini?

No. IR/IE

Maklumat Ketua Isi rumah (KIR)/Perniagaan (KIE) 2 Status Penghunian

1-Pemilik (terus ke soalan 4) 2-Penyewa Utama 3-Penyema Kecil
4-Setinggan 3 Nama Ketua Isi rumah (KIR)/Perniagaan(KIE

17. 18. 19.

Adakah tuan/puan mempunyai ahli keluarga lain yang tinggal/berniaga dalam kawasan ini? (tunjuk kad 1) - Ada - Tidak Ada Adakah tuan/puan mempunyai kawan rapat yang tinggal/berniaga dalam kawasan ini? (tunjuk kad 1) - Ada - Tidak Ada

3 Warganegara Asing ___________ 4 Etnik

1 – Malaysia 2 – nyatakan

Adakah tuan/puan suka tinggal/berniaga di kawasan ini? - sangat suka -suka -tidak suka -sangat tidak suka 20. Adakah tuan/puan ahli persatuan atau kongsi? -Tidak (ke soalan 22) 21. Persatuan/K ongsi Jawatan Aktiviti dengan Persatuan/Kongsi - Ya

1 – Melayu 3 – India 2 – Cina

4 – Lain – lain nyatakan__________________ 5 Agama 1 – Islam 3 – Kristian 2 – Buddist /Taosist 4-Hindu 5 – Lain – lain yatakan__________________ 7. Asal usul geografikal keluarga 8.Negara 9.Daerah 10.Dialek Etnik 11.Dialek percakapan 12.Generasi keluarga tinggal/berniaga/berniaga dalam kawasan generasi. 13 Pekerjaan keluarga mengikut generasi (dikira balik – 1 ialah generasi semasa) Pekerjaan 1(semasa) 2(ibu bapa) 3(nenekmoyang) 4 5 14.Sudah berapa lama keluarga tuan/puan tinggal/berniaga di kawasan ini? (tunjuk kad 1) Tahun 22.

Aktiviti Kehidupan (Hanya Untuk IR)
Di mana tuan/puan pergi menjalankan aktivi berikut? Aktiviti Tempat Kekerapan/Mi nggu Sembayang Membeli belah harian Berekreasi Makan 23. Di mana keluarga tuan/puan merayakan hari raya (Cina/Muslim/Deepavali ____) - Di tempat tinggal/berniaga sini - di tempat lain Nyatakan_______________________

KAJIAN PENDUDUK WARISAN PUSAT BANDAR LAMA GEORGE TOWN Pusat Pengajian Pebangunanan, Bangunan dan Perancangan UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA 11800, Pulau Pinang Maklumat yang diberi adalah SULIT
BORANG C Soalan Pendapat 24. Nyatakan 5 perkara yang tuan/puan suka mengenai kawasan tinggal/berniaga ini?
1.

30.

Bolehkah tuan/puan rank peluang bagi tuan/puan untuk berpindah dari dari kawasan ini? - buruk - baik

118

2. 3. 4. 5.

- sangat baik Tempat Kediaman
31. Apakah pendapat tuan/puan tentang keadaan bangunan tuan/puan? - Baik - Buruk Sangat Buruk Nyatakan 5 perkara yang tuan/puan tidak suka mengenai kawasan tinggal/berniaga ini? 32. Apakah perlu dilakukan untuk memperbaiki tempat tinggal/berniaga tuan/puan? - Runtuh bangunan sediada dan bina semula - Tukar rupabentuk bangunan - Memperbaikkan bangunan sediada tanpa menukar rupabentuknya (ke soalan 34) - Tidak perlu lakukan apa-apa (ke soalan 34) 33. Kenapa tuan/puan merasa pertukaran ini diperlukan? - bentuk sekarang tidak sesuai - boleh menaikkan harga bangunan (ke soalan 35) - boleh meningkatkan kejayaan perniagaan ((ke soalan 35) - Penyelenggaraan ((ke soalan 35) 34. Kenapa tidak sesuai?

25.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

26. Bagaimana tuan/puan rasa keadaan kawasan tinggal/berniaga tuan/puan? Ranking Cantik Bersih Tidak berubah Kaya dengan budaya Selamat Menarik Hodoh Kotor Sentiasa Berubah Kurang Berbudaya 35. Bahaya Membosankan 36.

Adakah tuan/puan ingin keluarga tuan/puan terus tinggal/berniaga dalam bangunan ini? - Tidak (ke soalan 37) - Ya Kenapa tuan/puan ingin keluarga tuan/puan terus tinggal/berniaga dalam bangunan ini?

27.

Adakah kamu mempunyai keinginan untuk berpindah keluar dari kawasan pusat bandar lama George Town? -Ya -Tidak (terus ke soalan 31) Kenapa tuan/puasn ingin berpindah dari kawasan ini?

28.

37.
29. Bolehkah tuan/puan rank keinginan tuan/puan? - sangat ingin - sederhana ingin - ingin

Di antara dua bangunan yang ditunjukkan ini (tunjuk kad 2), bangunan mana yang tuan/puan hendak keluarga depan ada memiliknya? - Moden - Traditional

38.

39.
40.

Persepsi Warisan Adakah tuan/puan setuju bangunanbangunan pusat bandar lama George Town dikekalkan seperti masa kini? - tidak setuju - setuju sangat setuju Kenapa tuan/puan berkata demikian?

47. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 48.

Senaraikan 5 perkara yang dalam pusat bandar lama George Town yang mencerminkan budaya tuan/puan?

41.

Adakah tuan/puan faham tentang pemuliharaan warisan?

Adakah bangunan-bangunan praperang dalam kawasan ini mencerminkan budaya tuan/puan? - Ya - Tidak

119

- Ya 42. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

- Tidak

49.

Dalam 5 perkataan nyatakan apakah yang difahami oleh tuan/puan dengan perkataan pemuliharaan warisan?

Adakah tuan/puan merasa bahawa bangunan pra-perang ini unik? - Ya - Tidak Adakah tuan /puan akan berpindah apabila AKS dimansuhkan? - Ya (ke soalan 48) - Tidak - Tidak tahu lagi Kenapa? - Tidak mampu membayar sewa - Di halau - Lain-lain Nyatakan_______________________

50.

51.

43.

Adakah tuan/puan tahu kawasan ini merupakan kawasan pemulihan? -Tahu (ke soalan 43) -Tidak Tahu (ke soalan 44) Dari mana tuan/puan mendapat maklumat mengenai kerja-kerja pemuliharaan di kawasan ini?

44.

45.

Apa yang tuan/puan tahu mengenai kerja-kerja pemuliharaan di kawasan ini ?

46.

Bolehkah tuan/puan rank kekuatan ciri-ciri pusat bandar lama George Town mencerminkan budaya tuan/puan? - Sangat mencerminkan budaya saya - Hanya mencerminkan sedikit budaya saya - Tidak mencerminkan budaya saya (ke bahagian D)

KAJIAN PENDUDUK WARISAN PUSAT BANDAR LAMA GEORGE TOWN Pusat Pengajian Pebangunanan, Bangunan dan Perancangan UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA 11800, Pulau Pinang Maklumat yang diberi adalah SULIT
BORANG D 1. ID EU No. AU No. EU EU – Unit Perniagaan 11. BilanganTenaga Kerja Tenaga Kerja Ahli Keluarga Pengurusan Buruh

Bukan Ahli Keluarga

2.

Adakah tuan/puan tinggal dalam bangunan ini? - Tidak (ke soalan 4) -Ya Kod IR

12.

3.

Adakah tuan/puan menyediakan tempat tinggal untuk pekerja? -Tidak (ke soalan 13) - Ya Di mana?

13. 4. Nama Perniagaan/Perkhidmatan/Industri

120

14. 5. Nama Pemilik 15.

Adakah ahli keluarga tuan/puan mengikuti jejak tuan/puan dalam meneruskan perniagaan/perkhidmatan/industri? -Tidak - Ya Kenapa?

6.

Jenis Perniagaan/Perkhidmatan/Industri

7.

Eknik Pemilik 1-Melayu 2- Cina 4- Lain-lain Nyatakan_____________________ 3-India 16. Adakah peningkatan pelancung ke kawasan ini menguntungkan perniagaan tuan/puan? -Tidak - Ya Pada anggaran tuan/puan berapa peratus perniagaan tuan/puan datang dari pelancung? %

8.

Berapa lama sudah berniaga disini? Tahun

17.

9.

Adakah perniagaan tuan/puan diwarisi dari keluarga? - Tidak (ke soalan 12) - Ya Tuan/puan adalah generasi berapa yang menjalankan perniagaan ini? Generasi

10.

121

NG E Maklumat Ahli Isi rumah (Hanya untuk IR) Nama Jan Umur Bangsa Agama

Petalian dgn KIR

Taraf kahwin

Taraf Pendidikan

Jenis Kerja

Sektor Kerja

Tempat Kerja

P

ina laki rempuan

af kahwinan dah Kahwin lum Kahwin nda/Duda

Agama 1-Islam 2-Buddha 3-Taoism 4-Hindu 5-Christian 6-Lain-lain

Pertalian dgn. KIR 1-KIR 2-Isteri/Suami 3-Anak 4-Adik Beradik 5-Menantu 6-Cucu 7-Ibu/bapa 8-Lain-lain Tempat Kerja 1-Dalam Kawasan Kajian 2-Luar Kawasan Kajian tetapi dalam pusat bandar lama 3- Luar kawasan pusat bandar lam

Taraf Pendidikan 1-Belum Sekolah 2- S.Rendah 3-S. Menengah Rendah (Tgk. 1-3) 4-S. Menengah Tinggi (Tgk. 4-6) 5-Latihan Vokasional 6-Pusat Pengajian Tinggi (kolej/Universiti) 7-Tiada Pendidikan Formal 8-Lain-lain

Jenis Kerja 1- Pekerja Profesional, teknik dan berkaitan 2- Pekerja pentadbiran dan pengurusan 3- Pekerja pekeranian dan berkaitan 4- Pekerja jualan 5- Pekerja perkhidmatan 6- Pekerja pertanian, penternakan, dan perhutanan 7- Pekerja pengeluaran dan berkaitan 8- Pesara 9- Suri Rumah 10- Pelajar 11- Pekerja yang tidak diterangkan dengan lengkap

Sektor pekerjaan

1Pertanian, Perhutanan, pemburu Perikanan 2Perlombon Kuari 3Pembuatan 4Elektrik, G 5Pembinaan 6Perdagang Runcit, Restoran & Ho 7Pengangku Penyimpanan, Perhub 8Perkhidma Kewangan, Insuran, H Perniagaan 9Perkhidma Masyarakat, Sosial, Pe Persendirian

122

APPENDIX E Table E.9 Persons in the study area

DATA USED IN THE STUDY

(Collected from the study area – Heritage Area, Georgetown, Penang, Malaysia in October, 1999 with other two master students Jennifer Tiong and Chong Chee Kit)
I D
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75

Na me

Bldg_ no
302 315 315 315 315 315 270 270 270 270 270 44 44 44 44 44 44 234 234 234 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 52 52 52 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 143 143 143 143 81b 81b 81b 81b 250 250 250 250 250 275 275 295 295 295 295 295 282 282 282 282 282 282

Rd_bl dg
6-302 2-9 2-9 2-9 2-9 2-9 2-31 2-31 2-31 2-31 2-31 2-44 2-44 2-44 2-44 2-44 2-44 2-40 2-40 2-40 2-65 2-65 2-65 2-65 2-65 2-65 2-65 2-69 2-69 2-69 2-69 2-69 2-69 2-69 2-69 2-69 2-69 2-69 2-52 2-52 2-52 3-87 2-87 2-87 2-87 2-87 2-87 2-87 2-87 2-143 2-143 2-143 2-143 2-81b 2-81b 2-81b 2-81b 2-30 2-30 2-30 2-30 2-30 2-12 2-12 2-7 2-7 2-7 2-7 2-7 2-6 2-6 2-6 2-6 2-6 2-6

Ro ad
6 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Gen der
1 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1

Ag e
72 73 70 35 29 1 52 44 21 18 14 61 70 8 5 41 32 55 50 25 35 38 70 11 9 7 2 61 45 17 74 17 19 44 17 42 14 47 31 60 61 49 26 22 16 41 25 20 4 65 60 65 64 82 63 62 13 65 63 27 33 13 63 56 48 48 89 10 8 46 43 13 7 18 20

Ra ce
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Religi on
1 5 5 5 5 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Mari tal
1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2

Ed u
7 3 2 4 4 1 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 1 3 3 4 8 1 8 4 5 2 2 2 1 4 3 4 7 4 6 5 4 5 3 4 4 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 3 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 7 7 4 4 3 4 2 2 3 9 2 2 3 3 3 2 4 4

123

I D
76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 10 0 10 1 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 10 7 10 8 10 9 11 0 11 1 11 2 11 3 11 4 11 5 11 6 11 7 11 8 11 9 12 0 12 1 12 2 12 3 12 4 12 5 12 6 12 7 12 8 12 9 13

Na me

Bldg_ no
53a 53a 53a 53a 53a 53a 78 78 78 78 78 78 78 78 78 73 73 81 81 81 81 81 81 81 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 89 89 89 89 89 89 160 150 150 150 150 150 150 164 164 164 147

Rd_bl dg
2-53a 2-53a 2-53a 2-53a 2-53a 2-53a 2-78 2-78 2-78 2-78 2-78 2-78 2-78 2-78 2-78 2-77 2-77 2-81 2-81 2-81 2-81 2-81 2-81 2-81 2-83 2-83 2-83 2-83 2-83 2-83 2-83 2-83 2-83 2-83 2-83 2-83 2-83 2-83 2-89 2-89 2-89 2-89 2-89 2-89 1-160 1-150 1-150 1-150 1-150 1-150 1-150 1-164 1-164 1-164 1-147

Ro ad
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Gen der
1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2

Ag e
39 40 13 11 8 3 68 45 45 21 20 18 14 11 68 58 64 55 43 19 17 21 25 1 57 49 54 52 80 45 35 26 22 31 22 21 19 15 49 70 55 18 17 40 65 47 48 40 38 16 15 30 62 25 40

Ra ce
3 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Religi on
3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2

Mari tal
1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 1

Ed u
4 4 3 2 2 1 2 3 2 4 4 4 3 2 2 2 2 4 3 4 4 4 4 1 2 3 7 2 7 1 4 4 4 4 3 3 4 3 2 7 2 4 4 6 7 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 7 4 2

124

I D
0 13 1 13 2 13 3 13 4 13 5 13 6 13 7 13 8 13 9 14 0 14 1 14 2 14 3 14 4 14 5 14 6 14 7 14 8 14 9 15 0 15 1 15 2 15 3 15 4 15 5 15 6 15 7 15 8 15 9 16 0 16 1 16 2 16 3 16 4 16 5 16 6 16 7 16 8 16 9 17 0 17 1 17 2

Na me

Bldg_ no
147 93 93 108 302 302 302 302 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 108 108 108 108 114 114 114 114 114 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 95 73 73 130 130 130 130 55 55

Rd_bl dg
1-147 3-93 3-93 3-108 6-302 6-302 6-302 6-302 1-160 1-160 1-160 1-160 1-160 1-160 1-160 1-160 3-108 3-108 3-108 3-108 3-114 3-114 3-114 3-114 3-114 3-45 3-45 3-45 3-45 3-45 3-45 3-45 3-45 3-95 3-73 3-73 3-130 3-130 3-130 3-130 3-55 3-55

Ro ad
1 3 3 3 6 6 6 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

Gen der
2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2

Ag e
81 73 65 38 41 49 11 49 50 70 40 40 38 20 17 13 45 70 37 21 43 55 55 48 42 71 38 42 44 37 30 35 2 4 40 26 46 43 18 11 35 36

Ra ce
1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1

Religi on
2 4 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 5 2 2 2 2 2 2

Mari tal
1 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 1

Ed u
7 2 2 3 2 3 3 9 3 7 3 2 3 5 4 3 2 7 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 9 4 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 2 9 3 4 4 2 3 2

125

I D
17 3 17 4 17 5 17 6 17 7 17 8 17 9 18 0 18 1 18 2 18 3 18 4 18 5 18 6 18 7 18 8 18 9 19 0 19 1 19 2 19 3 19 4 19 5 19 6 19 7 19 8 19 9 20 0 20 1 20 2 20 3 20 4 20 5 20 6 20 7 20 8 20 9 21 0 21 1 21 2 21 3 21 4 21

Na me

Bldg_ no
55 53 53 53 53 80 80 45 45 45 106 106 106 106 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 209 209 209 209 100 100 100 149 149 149 149 149 148 148 148 148 148 148 148 148 113 113

Rd_bl dg
3-55 3-53 3-53 3-53 3-53 3-80 3-80 3-45 3-45 3-45 3-43 3-43 3-43 3-43 3-48 3-48 3-48 3-48 3-48 3-48 3-48 3-3 3-3 3-3 3-3 3-38 3-38 3-38 1-149 1-149 1-149 1-149 1-149 3-23 3-23 3-23 3-23 3-23 3-23 3-23 3-23 3-16 3-16

Ro ad
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

Gen der
1 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 2

Ag e
32 67 63 28 21 52 85 4 4 1 52 47 25 15 38 42 12 16 14 7 22 25 60 54 21 66 43 36 55 45 16 14 8 60 57 36 33 11 8 5 2 50 80

Ra ce
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Religi on
2 5 5 5 5 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Mari tal
2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1

Ed u
2 2 7 4 4 2 2 1 1 1 2 8 6 3 2 4 3 4 3 2 9 5 2 2 5 1 2 2 2 2 4 3 2 4 2 4 4 2 2 1 1 3 7

126

I D
5 21 6 21 7 21 8 21 9 22 0 22 1 22 2 22 3 22 4 22 5 22 6 22 7 22 8 22 9 23 0 23 1 23 2 23 3 23 4 23 5 23 6 23 7 23 8 23 9 24 0 24 1 24 2 24 3 24 4 24 5 24 6 24 7 24 8 24 9 25 0 25 1 25 2 25 3 25 4 25 5 25 6 25 7

Na me

Bldg_ no
113 113 113 95 95 95 95 95 95 80 80 80 80 80 80 89 89 89 89 89 89 59 59 59 59 59 59 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 314 314 314 314 314 314

Rd_bl dg
3-16 3-16 3-16 3-95 3-95 3-95 3-95 3-95 3-95 3-80 3-80 3-80 3-80 3-80 3-80 3-89 3-89 3-89 3-89 3-89 3-89 3-59 3-59 3-59 3-59 3-59 3-59 3-124 3-124 3-124 3-124 3-124 3-124 3-124 3-124 3-124 6-314 6-314 6-314 6-314 6-314 6-314

Ro ad
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 6 6 6 6 6 6

Gen der
1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 2

Ag e
55 80 48 68 61 33 27 16 6 56 30 29 27 25 24 49 70 55 18 17 40 50 42 22 16 11 38 67 60 41 17 20 36 19 30 28 85 73 47 42 18 16

Ra ce
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1

Religi on
1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 5 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 1 1 1 2 2

Mari tal
1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2

Ed u
2 7 3 7 2 2 3 3 1 4 4 6 6 6 6 2 7 2 4 6 6 3 2 6 3 2 4 2 9 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 4 4 4 3

127

I D
25 8 25 9 26 0 26 1 26 2 26 3 26 4 26 5 26 6 26 7 26 8 26 9 27 0 27 1 27 2 27 3 27 4 27 5 27 6 27 7 27 8 27 9 28 0 28 1 28 2 28 3 28 4 28 5 28 6 28 7 28 8 28 9 29 0 29 1 29 2 29 3 29 4 29 5 29 6 29 7 29 8 29 9 30

Na me

Bldg_ no
314 314 314 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 122 122 122 122 122 122 131 131 131 131 131 99 99 99 132 132 132 132 132 198 198 198 198 198 198 198 198 198 198 198 188 188 188

Rd_bl dg
6-314 6-314 6-314 4-10 4-10 4-10 4-10 4-10 4-10 4-10 4-12 4-12 4-12 4-12 4-12 4-12 4-14 4-14 4-14 4-14 4-14 4-4 4-4 4-4 4-7 4-7 4-7 4-7 4-7 5-27 5-27 5-27 5-27 5-27 5-27 5-27 5-27 5-27 5-27 5-27 5-29 5-29 5-29

Ro ad
6 6 6 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

Gen der
1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 2

Ag e
14 42 42 47 21 44 43 17 15 9 63 61 35 37 9 6 60 33 31 75 80 34 50 21 65 35 36 34 77 33 32 5 3 75 70 30 28 36 1 6 44 43 18

Ra ce
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Religi on
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 5 5 5 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 5 1 2 2 2

Mari tal
2 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 2

Ed u
4 4 4 9 5 2 2 4 3 2 3 2 4 9 2 1 2 4 4 9 9 5 2 6 2 2 7 3 9 4 3 1 1 9 9 4 4 4 1 1 3 3 4

128

I D
0 30 1 30 2 30 3 30 4 30 5 30 6 30 7 30 8 30 9 31 0 31 1 31 2 31 3 31 4 31 5 31 6 31 7 31 8 31 9 32 0 32 1 32 2 32 3 32 4 32 5 32 6 32 7 32 8 32 9 33 0 33 1 33 2 33 3 33 4 33 5 33 6 33 7 33 8 33 9 34 0 34 1 34 2

Na me

Bldg_ no
188 188 188 179 179 179 179 179 221 221 221 221 221 221 221 221 221 221 221 228 228 228 191 191 191 191 191 191 191 191 144 144 144 144 144 224 224 224 224 220 220 94

Rd_bl dg
5-29 5-29 5-29 5-31 5-31 5-31 5-31 5-31 5-24 5-24 5-24 5-24 5-24 5-24 5-24 5-24 5-24 5-24 5-24 7-21 7-21 7-21 7-7 7-7 7-7 7-7 7-7 7-7 7-7 7-7 7-2 7-2 7-2 7-2 7-2 7-19 7-19 7-19 7-19 7-17 7-17 3-40

Ro ad
5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 3

Gen der
2 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1

Ag e
14 10 4 50 40 18 16 48 46 46 21 18 15 9 55 55 24 19 22 60 30 28 25 55 27 2 4 6 22 21 35 48 35 7 3 60 55 41 27 27 25 60

Ra ce
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 1 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Religi on
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 3 3 4

Mari tal
2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1

Ed u
3 2 1 4 2 3 4 3 4 4 6 6 3 2 4 3 6 4 4 2 9 4 3 2 3 1 1 1 9 9 4 2 4 2 1 2 2 7 4 3 2 2

129

I D
34 3

Na me

Bldg_ no
94

Rd_bl dg
3-40

Ro ad
3

Gen der
1

Ag e
54

Ra ce
2

Religi on
4

Mari tal
1

Ed u
9

Table E.10: Penang population according to mukim (Penang population census data obtained at mukim level from Malaysia population and housing census of 1991 collected by Statistics Department of Malaysia)
Di st DB D DB D DB D DB D DB D DB D DB D DB D DB D DB D DB D DB D DB D DB D DB D DB D DB D DB D DB D DB D DB D DB D DT L DT L DT L DT L DT L DT L DT L SP S SP S SP S SP S SP S M- B- OC_20 I_20 M_20 B_20 O_20 T_20 T-91 AREA 91 91 91 00 00 00 00 00 00 MUKIM C - PERMATANG 267 2 109 2 0 1369 342 3 1395 3 0 1740 6927564. PASIR 8 835 MUKIM 9 - BUKIT 1597 143 544 13 12 7214 2029 182 6924 17 15 9167 9622673. GEMURUH 9 497 MUKIM 7 - BT. GENTING 932 8 897 0 0 1837 1183 10 1140 0 0 2335 5984973. 583 MUKIM J - DATARAN 174 0 109 1 1 1271 221 0 1391 1 1 1615 2267189. GENTING 5 878 MUKIM G - KG. PAYA 136 47 615 3 1 802 174 60 781 4 1 1019 996818.8 76 MUKIM H - SG. BURUNG 1 0 122 0 0 1221 1 0 1549 0 0 1552 3002174. 0 564 MUKIM 10 - BUKIT 1025 32 389 3 19 1468 1304 41 495 4 23 1865 11326033 RELAU .093 MUKIM F - KONGSI 701 237 118 3 9 2138 889 301 1510 4 11 2716 936737.7 8 24 MUKIM 11 - TELUK 363 175 626 9 7 6818 463 222 7959 11 9 8663 6667991. KUMBAR 4 667 MUKIM E - TITI TERAS 274 13 188 2 2 2175 347 17 2393 3 2 2764 3564836. 4 684 MUKIM 6 - PONDOK 1669 219 289 8 12 4805 2119 278 3681 10 15 5642 8886918. UPIH 7 826 MUKIM 5 - BT. BALIK 310 14 17 0 0 341 394 18 22 0 0 434 5136583. PULAU 421 MUKIM B - SG. RUSA 312 0 584 0 0 896 394 0 742 0 0 1138 5028186. 388 MUKIM 4 - BATU HITAM 1836 111 396 9 6 2358 2334 141 504 11 7 2995 10051799 .443 MUKIM 3 - SG. RUSA / 397 26 147 2 6 1905 505 33 1873 3 7 2421 6158838. BT. 4 963 MUKIM A - SG. PINANG 1108 2 142 1 1 2541 1409 3 1815 1 1 3227 2441215. 9 709 MUKIM 2 - TELUK 763 178 199 1 26 2964 967 226 2536 1 32 3766 20566942 BAHANG 6 .503 MUKIM 1 - PANTAI 1628 225 191 1 19 3789 2066 286 2435 1 23 4814 23844475 ACHEH 6 .134 MUKIM D - BAGAN AIR 817 6 155 2 5 2388 1036 8 1980 3 6 3034 3605980. HITAM 8 803 MUKIM 12 - BAYAN 2606 717 373 10 35 7103 3312 911 4744 128 436 9026 31854314 LEPAS 6 2 41 1 6 6 4 3 6 2 .72 MUKIM I - PULAU 45 4 113 2 0 1181 58 5 1436 3 0 1501 4477322. BETONG 0 175 MUKIM 8 - BT. PASIR 959 0 60 0 0 1019 1220 0 77 0 0 1295 5608547. PANJA 314 MUKIM 13 - PAYA 6441 114 303 29 74 1072 7612 134 3582 348 883 1265 35769710 TERUBUNG 0 38 71 5 9 63 5 92 9 47 .226 GEORETOWN 1440 203 412 22 13 2072 1700 239 4868 262 1623 2445 27184353 94 27 67 2 77 87 72 78 4 25 .619 MUKIM 16 (AYER ITAM) 2069 247 413 27 12 2745 2440 292 4878 32 152 3239 9151637. 0 5 6 9 7 8 0 2 274 MUKIM 15 (BUKIT AYER 27 0 0 0 0 27 30 0 0 0 0 34 4835522. ITAM 978 MUKIM 17 1554 767 147 2 49 3848 1843 905 1739 2 58 4539 26929274 (BT.FERINGGI) 6 .703 MUKIM 14 - BT. PAYA 1683 27 3 0 0 1713 1994 32 4 0 0 2020 4983907. TERUB 694 MUKIM 18 (TANJONG 2360 484 801 32 66 3716 2785 571 9452 38 789 4384 13807977 TOKONG) 9 4 2 7 4 2 6 4 .295 MUKIM 16 8 8 233 0 41 290 2881 512 3790 8 9 7201 1134352. 502 MUKIM 5 1012 677 321 6 18 4930 1189 144 7437 8 18 8793 10321961 7 .207 MUKIM 7 2805 188 202 7 59 6778 3321 223 2393 8 70 8023 17281573 5 2 1 .363 MUKIM 11 1191 476 489 9 57 2163 1409 564 5790 11 67 2561 47130820 6 6 1 9 0 2 3 .168 MUKIM 15 6804 133 868 5 15 9025 8051 157 1027 6 18 1067 19256732 3 8 8 .799 MUKIM C-91 I-91

130

Di st SP S SP S SP S SP S SP S SP S SP S SP S SP S SP S SP S SP T SP T SP T SP T SP T SP T SP T SP T SP T SP T SP T SP T SP T SP T SP T SP T SP T SP T SP T SP T SP T SP T SP U SP U SP U SP U SP U SP U

MUKIM MUKIM 12 MUKIM 6 MUKIM 4 MUKIM 9 MUKIM 10 MUKIM 8 MUKIM 1 MUKIM 14 MUKIM 13 MUKIM 2 MUKIM 3 MUKIM 10 MUKIM 18 MUKIM 5 MUKIM 4 BANDAR PRAI (MUKIM 1A) MUKIM 19 MUKIM 2 MUKIM 20 MUKIM 21 MUKIM 1 MUKIM 3 MUKIM 12 MUKIM 7 MUKIM 13 MUKIM 15 MUKIM 16 MUKIM 14 MUKIM 17 MUKIM 8 MUKIM 9 MUKIM 6 MUKIM 11 MUKIM 14 MUKIM 2 MUKIM 3 MUKIM 5 MUKIM 12 MUKIM 4

C-91 I-91

M- B- OC_20 T-91 91 91 91 00 1732 480 152 20 14 3770 6226 4 22 398 56 0 0 476 3702 2278 336 881 1 8 68 2 15 12 30 20 1

3447 186 451 10 0 6 2392 3 630 10 2 408 215 187 2 9 851 36 216 2 1 4396 714 108 1 1 358 785 586 0 59 160 4 115 7 15 248 3

2 12 13 40 1 1 3 5 3 8

1509 266 246 2 0 8 896 18 100 2 337 48 349 4 1968 148 551 9 3590 334 272 4 5 560 79 222 4 1855 65 312 5 2443 311 754 5 5 1 319 5 1798 954 177 3 4 21 652 46 459 0 441 285 335 1 49 25 265 9 2516 451 553

19 68 2 14 6 2 6 10 2 0 0

27 54 7 2 2 0 14 2 26 2 10

1649 367 663 19 96 0 8 5 2589 108 431 5 19 8 5559 920 585 8 33 8 1315 215 503 1 6 6492 8029 2989 1582 5 4218 9 560 727 1015 5329 937 0 352 4 607 337 2 120 867 4 4 345 465 7 6 748 112 6 29 0 553 8 18 823 7 123 636 1 164 113 4 31 143 554 3 5 6

5 21 15 79 8 97 31 16 1 3 4 13 19 7 15 12 23 5 27

I_20 M_20 B_20 O_20 T_20 AREA 00 00 00 00 00 192 1324 14 27 2144 8948225. 3 9 2 958 149 1074 19 98 1605 9245644. 1 2 1 083 3504 2437 183 6834 4 10 9469 12201516 .923 9901 9943 752 4175 6 26 1490 15958748 2 .795 8709 102 23 5037 7 1 5166 22726640 .198 2519 485 254 2224 2 18 2982 15549078 .774 3062 1006 43 2558 2 14 3624 6100201. 583 6222 6884 113 7254 10 41 1532 13032957 9 8 .887 1749 269 504 5840 1 4 6621 29385349 .168 1224 2297 80 3870 2 7 6257 4944894. 72 437 188 18 293 2 14 517 10248491 .694 2027 1869 329 3079 16 49 2512 5894070. 3 0 4 8 377 1922 1109 22 1241 1 6 2380 10944837 .074 3883 1199 801 3807 7 21 5835 6295251. 706 7646 1097 167 6428 6 32 7782 8047845. 213 9746 4446 414 3374 24 84 1206 5141089. 1 9 63 3011 694 98 2755 2 181 3729 15673547 .475 5053 69 5 1370 4 1 1449 8361655. 447 1030 3025 385 9343 12 20 1278 10199012 9 6 .963 3203 6 1 3956 2 0 3967 9477031. 315 4582 2227 118 2194 33 677 5673 18342253 2 0 19 2 4 .024 5292 836 21 9632 15 22 1053 4733471. 8 359 4091 547 353 4150 0 17 5067 15061615 .498 2761 2453 125 1011 9 89 1392 4225343. 2 9 2 205 3532 3115 558 685 2 12 4373 13785695 .159 2691 1412 784 1164 18 204 3381 15823680 8 5 5 1 2 .151 7039 9 4 276 0 48 337 17226194 .03 1237 4396 845 1280 1 35 7365 18713759 8 .44 2040 1629 266 623 1 7 2528 21742180 .966 1002 149 173 1108 16 8 1142 3360191. 7 0 4 355 1203 5789 238 9029 28 92 1732 2316015. 4 9 9 689 1296 6133 332 8215 16 89 1779 10852300 1 9 2 .385 2404 1022 186 1125 11 15 1249 10578974 3 4 8 .793 6109 4934 875 1312 36 188 7143 11854796 6 4 2 9 9 .988 6105 650 0 6475 4 5 7139 16188496 .218 9014 807 57 5685 2 3 6553 26569299 .472 7521 417 59 4372 1 4 4809 18798092 .243 1833 2049 568 1804 24 17 4467 37877288 9 .989 6655 2694 398 1043 1 9 4148 9762446. 013

131

Di st SP U SP U SP U SP U SP U SP U SP U SP U SP U SP U

MUKIM MUKIM 8 MUKIM 7 MUKIM 11 MUKIM 9 MUKIM 13 MUKIM 16 MUKIM 15 MUKIM 6 MUKIM 1 MUKIM 10

C-91 I-91 126 148 2097 107 1 883 159 4954 204 3 233 430 2466 438 1206 671 1 0 5253 284 7 563 16 84 20

M91 947 6 865 5 962 5 772 2 499 5 324 1 995 6 702 6 659 2 430 8

B- OC_20 I_20 M_20 B_20 O_20 T_20 T-91 91 91 00 00 00 00 00 00 14 7 9771 8040 394 4364 6 7 1281 2 8 76 1190 61 31 3293 2 32 3419 7 9 13 1068 1959 428 5766 10 120 2977 9 8 2 5 24 79 1482 4081 220 5345 12 81 1171 2 2 5 1 3 5662 425 929 694 0 24 2070 7 8 6160 3206 134 5347 6 24 0 7 12 23 8718 119 3334 4 0 563 13 8403 2 1030 9

AREA 12393408 .175 11706798 .577 15445922 .523 6501832. 036 27619160 .526 6825388. 598 4907603. 183 38130636 .797 9115335. 601 10747317 .291

15 17 2891 2042 455 8217 4 6 1 5 14 76 1521 27 471 66 6 6 11 7188 660 19 7708 6 1 4419 2836 4 7460

Table E.11: Building Information in the study Area (Collected from the study area – Heritage Area, Georgetown, Penang, Malaysia in October, 1999 with other two master students Jennifer Tiong and Chong Chee Kit)
Buildin Buildin Ro Geocodin Floo Are Perim g ID g No ad g ID rs a eter
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 45a 67 45b 85 111 81 79 77 113 110 115 116 120 117 112 114 119 108 118 150 122 106 121 104 152 126 124 102 127 118 96 154 94 92 100 88 127a 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 3 3 1 3 3 1 3 3 1 3 3 1 3 1 3 3 3 1 2 3 1 3 3 3 3 1 2-54a 2-67 2-45b 1-85 1-111 1-81 1-79 1-77 1-113 3-110 1-115 3-116 3-120 1-117 3-112 3-114 1-119 3-108 3-118 1-150 3-122 3-106 1-121 3-104 1-152 3-126 3-124 3-102 1-127 2-118 3-96 1-154 3-94 3-92 3-100 3-88 1-127a 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 74.30 92.73 71.87 15.03 113.9 6 10.52 18.25 15.66 185.1 9 144.8 4 38.34 127.7 6 173.9 9 41.09 73.39 92.93 40.16 72.91 116.5 8 39.43 147.5 6 39.80 43.65 32.25 38.53 166.5 1 155.0 1 23.45 65.04 175.0 1 37.17 39.19 41.98 56.90 25.23 90.48 66.03 45.67 38.75 45.77 19.03 52.10 13.51 17.16 15.69 58.81 51.86 32.57 62.55 75.05 32.49 43.78 49.00 32.40 39.29 55.53 30.88 66.63 29.26 33.05 26.91 30.21 74.46 66.98 24.10 42.09 80.95 33.66 30.69 37.09 39.63 20.11 46.07 39.12

132

Buildin Buildin Ro Geocodin Floo Are Perim g ID g No ad g ID rs a eter
38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 98 90 86b 129 86a 156 131 116 86 130 156a 133 89 160 91 135 128 87 93 85 162 137 95 139 164 81 141 77 79 75 143 73 145 147 youth 71 159 149 40 84 48 157 82 161 155 46 80 153 78 59 57 44 151 55 18 53 40 3 3 1 1 3 1 1 2 3 3 1 1 3 1 3 1 3 3 3 3 1 1 3 1 1 3 1 3 3 3 1 3 1 1 3 3 2 1 4 3 3 2 3 2 2 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3-98 3-90 1-86b 1-129 3-86a 1-156 1-131 2-116 3-86 3-130 1-156a 1-133 3-89 1-160 3-91 1-135 3-128 3-87 3-93 3-85 1-162 1-137 3-95 1-139 1-164 3-81 1-141 3-77 3-79 3-75 1-143 3-73 1-145 1-147 3-youth 3-71 2-159 1-149 4-40 3-84 3-48 2-157 3-82 2-161 2-155 3-46 3-80 2-153 3-78 3-59 3-57 3-44 2-151 3-55 3-18 3-53 3-40 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 25.98 20.46 65.17 37.77 46.76 29.63 52.46 37.57 77.11 39.87 22.11 20.67 47.14 39.32 104.0 55.28 0 69.62 38.84 342.1 112.46 8 30.09 22.85 49.61 39.26 31.75 23.82 33.50 23.79 33.31 27.74 46.44 38.78 33.83 26.09 79.78 49.40 44.86 31.57 110.9 56.92 2 32.35 23.47 49.71 39.98 48.45 31.90 62.05 40.26 25.63 21.44 82.18 40.98 67.98 40.06 48.68 33.54 62.80 38.24 48.13 33.80 67.81 40.01 39.96 33.55 70.89 48.93 51.33 35.64 503.3 122.37 5 355.0 83.60 8 304.3 69.99 3 64.79 41.27 117.7 54.52 7 70.26 37.09 138.3 66.08 2 186.2 93.71 0 69.07 36.55 270.5 75.60 3 148.5 92.20 1 146.2 68.01 8 67.95 36.46 226.6 94.42 0 69.52 36.34 53.22 36.24 47.66 30.18 126.8 68.89 1 276.3 97.68 3 38.49 29.64 333.6 111.25 9 35.37 28.59 151.2 73.91 9

133

Buildin Buildin Ro Geocodin Floo Are Perim g ID g No ad g ID rs a eter
95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 2 42 51 147 4 38 49 36 47 145 45 43 6 41 8 39 39a 143 16 14 141 1 10 37 57 3 139 12 35 12 5 78 33 10 76 31 14 7 1 70 29 93 9 27 3 74 5 91 2 25 11 89 23 4 7 6 4 3 3 2 4 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 2 3 3 2 4 4 3 3 4 2 4 3 3 4 2 3 3 2 3 4 4 5 2 3 2 4 3 5 2 5 2 7 3 4 2 3 7 5 7 4-2 3-42 3-51 2-147 4-4 3-38 3-49 3-36 3-47 2-145 3-45 3-43 4-6 3-41 4-8 3-39 3-39a 2-143 3-16 3-14 2-141 4-1 4-10 3-37 3-57 4-3 2-139 4-12 3-35 3-12 4-5 2-78 3-33 3-10 2-76 3-31 4-14 4-7 5-1 2-70 3-29 2-93 4-9 3-27 5-3 2-74 5-5 2-91 7-2 3-25 4-11 2-89 3-23 7-4 5-7 7-6 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 47.54 33.25 106.8 64.10 3 35.47 28.91 208.8 95.40 2 57.26 35.30 185.4 81.10 4 35.31 29.01 229.4 81.35 0 16.83 16.56 563.9 111.23 9 25.75 21.20 15.25 15.64 57.62 35.51 21.34 18.95 58.19 35.60 21.16 18.85 28.20 27.79 86.93 48.01 89.01 64.95 126.9 65.90 3 82.42 46.70 47.70 37.81 57.44 35.70 125.1 63.21 3 256.4 70.06 6 58.50 39.45 79.95 46.35 57.69 35.75 138.6 64.58 3 104.1 57.95 7 58.41 39.87 59.02 40.77 130.3 63.55 5 114.2 57.16 4 64.85 42.13 122.3 64.13 6 59.64 36.35 59.16 39.94 119.1 56.91 4 163.6 59.46 1 119.4 55.81 4 34.96 24.48 59.46 40.22 129.2 59.85 5 97.42 55.79 31.71 31.36 98.15 55.80 54.78 34.47 53.31 33.11 161.0 69.71 6 63.33 43.86 61.78 43.82 81.19 54.70 55.71 34.83 97.49 55.22 142.4 54.95

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Buildin Buildin Ro Geocodin Floo Are Perim g ID g No ad g ID rs a eter
152 153 154 155 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 9 87 21 13 68 11 19 85 6 66 13 15 17 4 83 15 15 17 64 2 33 3 81C 13 19 2 31 81b 11 262 5 81a 4 60 9 29 264 7 6 7 58 9 81 8 27 56 10 79 11 5 54 12 52 77 13 3 28 14 18 5 2 3 4 2 5 3 2 3 2 5 4 3 3 2 5 3 4 2 3 5 7 2 3 4 5 5 2 3 6 7 2 5 2 3 5 6 7 5 3 2 7 2 5 5 2 5 2 7 3 2 5 2 2 7 3 5 5 5 5-9 2-87 3-21 4-13 2-68 5-11 3-19 2-85 3-6 2-66 5-13 4-15 3-17 3-4 2-83 5-15 3-15 4-17 2-64 3-2 5-33 7-3 2-81c 3-13 4-19 5-2 5-31 2-81b 3-11 6-262 7-5 2-81a 5-4 2-60 3-95-29 6-264 7-7 5-6 3-7 2-58 7-9 2-81 5-8 5-27 2-56 5-10 2-79 7-11 3-5 2-54 5-12 2-52 2-77 7-13 3-3 5-28 5-14 5-18 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 8 97.46 88.75 137.8 1 60.28 73.01 95.15 137.8 0 95.11 38.74 68.75 94.79 60.12 137.7 4 66.16 73.20 100.9 5 131.8 2 59.63 73.59 60.62 76.29 35.84 54.50 111.0 5 63.86 83.47 102.2 9 55.43 140.7 9 121.7 5 32.35 115.0 9 78.79 79.57 136.5 7 94.74 120.3 8 29.83 75.64 148.9 8 69.14 35.22 29.10 83.78 85.31 71.55 84.05 29.96 31.27 64.34 70.90 88.74 68.56 26.76 30.82 59.16 68.20 76.32 166.8 55.27 43.62 67.78 40.13 42.66 54.66 71.43 43.62 29.56 42.18 54.35 39.78 71.08 34.23 39.68 55.08 66.68 40.02 43.25 33.12 55.45 29.29 36.17 58.09 40.70 47.66 54.36 35.44 70.48 55.21 28.57 47.45 47.35 42.72 70.04 54.30 55.09 25.39 48.07 70.65 41.68 28.76 21.84 48.91 47.41 41.90 49.69 22.08 25.43 37.35 41.91 50.79 41.48 20.90 25.22 36.29 49.23 46.39 54.71

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Buildin Buildin Ro Geocodin Floo Are Perim g ID g No ad g ID rs a eter
213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 50 266 26 15 16 268 masjid 17 24 276 270 19 22 44 278 21 280 30 42 23 282 40 32 25 282 38 36 34 34 284 49 32 36 286 47 20 30 288 26 43 28 41 73 39 37 20 290 292 18 35 294 65 33 16 296 45f 2 6 5 7 5 6 2 7 5 6 6 7 5 2 6 7 6 5 2 7 6 2 5 7 6 2 2 5 2 6 2 2 5 6 2 5 2 6 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 6 6 2 2 6 2 2 2 6 2 2-50 6-266 5-26 7-15 5-16 6-268 2-masjid 7-17 5-24 6-276 6-270 7-19 5-22 2-44 6-278 7-21 6-280 5-30 2-42 7-23 6-282 2-40 5-32 7-25 6-282 2-38 2-36 5-34 2-34 6-284 2-49 2-32 5-36 6-286 2-47 5-20 2-30 6-288 2-26 2-43 2-28 2-41 2-73 2-39 2-37 2-20 6-290 6-292 2-18 2-35 6-294 2-65 2-33 2-16 6-296 2-45f 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 50.00 38.26 97.41 54.35 120.9 63.93 6 32.21 28.37 76.00 41.22 85.54 53.54 1034. 138.80 87 38.07 29.38 104.0 52.83 6 156.6 70.17 2 132.9 57.38 2 39.07 30.42 104.8 53.15 8 73.95 42.01 155.2 69.99 8 55.84 35.08 154.6 70.42 5 47.68 27.75 71.22 41.86 46.62 33.33 121.3 65.47 6 68.53 39.43 54.20 29.46 52.51 35.32 110.4 64.68 2 75.94 45.29 69.76 46.04 46.91 27.55 94.05 50.20 145.9 67.46 7 45.41 33.33 106.6 57.14 1 87.85 41.97 122.3 66.18 5 50.07 34.90 421.6 123.71 4 96.49 53.06 118.5 65.76 0 9.77 12.76 44.50 32.52 92.45 48.58 51.32 38.62 116.9 48.43 5 57.74 36.92 40.12 32.21 78.14 45.59 74.06 41.85 85.44 49.58 56.90 42.90 47.09 33.13 87.56 49.14 97.90 39.71 44.57 32.62 54.05 42.73 81.75 48.82 43.82 46.25

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Buildin Buildin Ro Geocodin Floo Are Perim g ID g No ad g ID rs a eter
270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 302 303 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 313 312 314 315 31 14 45 27 298 12 300 10 25 302 8 45c 6 69 45d 4 2 15 306 11a 308 310 11 312 314 7 318 5 3 1 322 324 326 328 330 332 51 53 53A 55 108B 108A 81f 9 2 2 2 2 6 2 6 2 2 6 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 6 2 6 6 2 6 6 2 6 2 2 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 2-31 2-14 2-45 2-27 6-298 2-12 6-300 2-10 2-25 6-302 2-8 2-45c 2-6 2-69 2-45d 2-4 2-2 2--15 6-306 2-11a 6-308 6-310 2-11 6-312 6-314 2-7 6-318 2-5 2-3 2-1 6-322 6-324 6-326 6-328 6-330 6-332 2-51 2-53 2-53a 2-55 3-108b 3-108a 2-81f 2-9 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 47.47 56.08 70.98 164.0 6 82.49 59.35 80.92 55.52 306.8 9 83.55 55.34 73.04 55.21 185.7 3 69.04 55.50 56.99 113.2 1 105.4 0 111.7 3 108.0 0 103.6 6 109.2 1 101.6 8 102.4 9 68.78 106.4 7 109.2 2 100.9 0 92.88 122.5 9 77.67 72.54 69.74 73.07 79.22 36.47 29.89 35.41 24.07 36.86 38.30 69.79 56.34 32.94 43.04 45.28 65.33 48.85 43.47 48.65 42.68 78.79 51.87 42.76 45.91 42.72 65.96 45.74 42.90 42.97 49.25 57.42 49.06 54.60 54.10 48.75 54.03 54.05 55.29 53.42 59.50 54.53 47.12 58.47 49.89 49.33 48.15 48.46 48.70 29.20 28.19 29.06 20.60 31.27 27.57 40.58 42.89

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APPENDIX F DEMOGRAPHICS ANALYST ON THE WEB To access and to download the Demographics Analyst developed in this study, just go to URL http://gis.esri.com/arcscripts/scripts.cfm and search using key word “demographics” (see Figure F.60) and the result web page will appear like Figure F.61. Then just click on the word “Demographics Analyst”. The scripts used in the Demographics Analyst are available at http://www.hbp.usm.my/thesis/heritageGIS/DemographicsAnalystScripts.htm

Figure F.60 ArcScript web site interface for searching for scripts

Figure F.61 ArcScript web site interface showing search results

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APPENDIX G THESIS WEB SITE To access all the data, scripts, demographics analyst, presentations, related sites and the whole thesis, just go to URL http://www.hbp.usm.my/thesis/HeritageGIS (see Figure G.62 below). To download go directly to http://www.hbp.usm.my/thesis/HeritageGIS/downloads.htm

Figure G.62 This thesis web site interface on the Internet
Last modified 15 May 2010 by Wadembere (www.ismail.tripod.com) e-mail ismail@soon.com

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