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Original Title: Help-File Steel Axial Tension Members-Limit State Method-2007

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(LIMIT STATE METHOD)

1)

of the section in Tension (Td).

2)

tension (Td) is calculated by 3 methods and the lowest of all

methods is taken as design strength of section (member) in

Tension.

3)

1st Method:

The Design strength of member under axial tension due to

yielding of gross section (Tdg) is calculated as

Tdg = fy.Ag/mo

where,

fy = yield stress of the material (as per Table 1, IS 800:2007)

Ag = gross area of cross section

mo = partial safety factor for failure in tension by yielding

= 1.10 (as per Table-5 of IS 800:2007)

Sl.

No.

Definition

1

2

3

Resistance of member to buckling mo

Resistance, governed by ultimate stress m1

1.10

1.10

1.25

Resistance of connection m1

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

4)

Bolts Bearing Type, mb

Rivets

Welds

Shop

Fabrication

1.25

1.25

1.25

1.25

Field

Fabrication

1.25

1.25

1.25

1.50

2nd Method:

The Design strength of member under axial tension due to

rupture of critical section or net c/s area (Tdn) is calculated as

a) In case of plates sections:

Tdn = 0.9fu.An/m1

where,

fu = Ultimate stress of material (as per Table 1, IS 800:2007)

m1= partial safety factor for failure at ultimate stress

An = Net area of cross section after deduction for bolt holes

For multiple holes in staggered fashion, net area is given by

p2

An b nd

t

4 g

Where,

n = number of bolt holes

t = thickness of plate

p = pitch ; g = gauge

b = width of plate

d = diameter of bolt hole (2mm in addition to the diameter of

the hole, in case of directly punched holes)

(b)

1

(a)

2

g

(c)

(d)

b) In case of single angle, double angle, channels, I-sections and

Other rolled steel sections:

Tdn = 0.9.Anc.fu/m1 + .Ago.fy/mo

Where,

= 1.4-0.076.(w/t).(fy/fu).(bs/Lc) < (fu.mo)/fy.m1)

> 0.7

An = Net area of total c/s

Anc = Net area of Connected leg

Ago = Gross area of Outstanding leg

w = outstand leg width

t = thickness of the leg

bs = shear lag width, as shown in figure below

outermost bolts in the end joint measured along the load

direction or length of the weld along the load direction.

w

w1

bs = w + w1

bs = w

5)

3rd Method:

The Design strength of member under axial tension due to Block

shear (Tdb) is calculated as

a) In case of bolted connections:

Block shear strength of member (Tdb) for bolted connections

shall be minimum of

Tdb ( Avg f y /

3 mo 0.9 f u Atn / m1 )

or

Tdb (0.9 f u Avn /

3 m1 f y Atg / mo )

Where,

Avg and Avn = minimum gross and net area in shear along a line

of transmitted force respectively

Atg and Atn = minimum gross and net area in tension from the

hole to the toe of the angle perpendicular to the line of

transmitted force

Block Shear Failure

b) In case of welded connections:

Block shear strength of member (Tdb) for welded connections

shall be checked for welded end connections by taking an

appropriate section in the member around the end weld,

which can shear off as a block.

6)

tension member can resist) in Tension, Td, which is least of Tdg,

Tdn & Tdb.

7)

with Permissible Tensile strength of member (Td), T < Td.

8)

effective length, KL to appropriate radius of gyration, r). The

Maximum effective slenderness ratio shall not exceed the values

specified in Table-3 of IS 800:2007. Maximum slenderness ratio

permissible in a tension member is 400. Effective length can be

calculated as per Table-11 of IS 800:2007.

Sl.No.

Member

from dead loads and imposed loads

180

stress occurs due to loads other than wind or

seismic forces

180

resulting only from combination with

wind/earthquake

actions,

provided

the

deformation of such member does not adversely

affect the stress in any part of the structure

250

torsional buckling

300

truss or a bracing system but not considered

effective when subject to possible reversal of

stress resulting from the action of wind or

earthquake forces1

350

pretensioned members)

9)

Maximum Effective

Slenderness Ratio (KL/r)

400

achieved.

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