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STEPS FOR DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED

TENSION MEMBERS AS PER IS 800:2007


(LIMIT STATE METHOD)
1)

Assume a Trial section & calculate permissible design strength


of the section in Tension (Td).

2)

Permissible design strength of the section (member) in


tension (Td) is calculated by 3 methods and the lowest of all
methods is taken as design strength of section (member) in
Tension.

3)

1st Method:
The Design strength of member under axial tension due to
yielding of gross section (Tdg) is calculated as
Tdg = fy.Ag/mo
where,
fy = yield stress of the material (as per Table 1, IS 800:2007)
Ag = gross area of cross section
mo = partial safety factor for failure in tension by yielding
= 1.10 (as per Table-5 of IS 800:2007)

Sl.
No.

Definition

Partial Safety Factor

1
2
3

Resistance, governed by yielding mo


Resistance of member to buckling mo
Resistance, governed by ultimate stress m1

1.10
1.10
1.25

Resistance of connection m1
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

4)

Bolts Friction Type, mf


Bolts Bearing Type, mb
Rivets
Welds

Shop
Fabrication
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25

Field
Fabrication
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.50

2nd Method:
The Design strength of member under axial tension due to
rupture of critical section or net c/s area (Tdn) is calculated as
a) In case of plates sections:
Tdn = 0.9fu.An/m1
where,
fu = Ultimate stress of material (as per Table 1, IS 800:2007)
m1= partial safety factor for failure at ultimate stress

= 1.25 (as per Table-5 of IS 800:2007)


An = Net area of cross section after deduction for bolt holes
For multiple holes in staggered fashion, net area is given by

p2
An b nd
t
4 g

Where,
n = number of bolt holes
t = thickness of plate
p = pitch ; g = gauge
b = width of plate
d = diameter of bolt hole (2mm in addition to the diameter of
the hole, in case of directly punched holes)

(b)
1
(a)
2

g
(c)

(d)

Plates with Bolt Holes under Tension


b) In case of single angle, double angle, channels, I-sections and
Other rolled steel sections:
Tdn = 0.9.Anc.fu/m1 + .Ago.fy/mo
Where,
= 1.4-0.076.(w/t).(fy/fu).(bs/Lc) < (fu.mo)/fy.m1)
> 0.7
An = Net area of total c/s
Anc = Net area of Connected leg
Ago = Gross area of Outstanding leg
w = outstand leg width
t = thickness of the leg
bs = shear lag width, as shown in figure below

Lc = length of end connection, i.e distance between the


outermost bolts in the end joint measured along the load
direction or length of the weld along the load direction.

w
w1

bs = w + w1

bs = w

Fig - 3 Angles with end connection


5)

3rd Method:
The Design strength of member under axial tension due to Block
shear (Tdb) is calculated as
a) In case of bolted connections:
Block shear strength of member (Tdb) for bolted connections
shall be minimum of
Tdb ( Avg f y /

3 mo 0.9 f u Atn / m1 )

or
Tdb (0.9 f u Avn /

3 m1 f y Atg / mo )

Where,
Avg and Avn = minimum gross and net area in shear along a line
of transmitted force respectively
Atg and Atn = minimum gross and net area in tension from the
hole to the toe of the angle perpendicular to the line of
transmitted force

Block shear plane


Block Shear Failure
b) In case of welded connections:
Block shear strength of member (Tdb) for welded connections
shall be checked for welded end connections by taking an
appropriate section in the member around the end weld,
which can shear off as a block.

6)

Calculate Permissible Design Strength of member (Load that


tension member can resist) in Tension, Td, which is least of Tdg,
Tdn & Tdb.

7)

Calculate factored applied load on member (T) & compare it


with Permissible Tensile strength of member (Td), T < Td.

8)

Calculate Maximum effective slenderness ratio, KL/r (ratio of


effective length, KL to appropriate radius of gyration, r). The
Maximum effective slenderness ratio shall not exceed the values
specified in Table-3 of IS 800:2007. Maximum slenderness ratio
permissible in a tension member is 400. Effective length can be
calculated as per Table-11 of IS 800:2007.

Sl.No.

Member

A member carrying compressive loads resulting


from dead loads and imposed loads

180

A tension member in which a reversal of direct


stress occurs due to loads other than wind or
seismic forces

180

A member subjected to compression forces


resulting only from combination with
wind/earthquake
actions,
provided
the
deformation of such member does not adversely
affect the stress in any part of the structure

250

Compression flange of a beam against lateral


torsional buckling

300

A member normally acting as a tie in a roof


truss or a bracing system but not considered
effective when subject to possible reversal of
stress resulting from the action of wind or
earthquake forces1

350

Members always under tension (other than


pretensioned members)

9)

Maximum Effective
Slenderness Ratio (KL/r)

400

Repeat the above process till the most economic section is


achieved.