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# STEPS FOR DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED

## TENSION MEMBERS AS PER IS 800:2007

(LIMIT STATE METHOD)
1)

## Assume a Trial section & calculate permissible design strength

of the section in Tension (Td).

2)

## Permissible design strength of the section (member) in

tension (Td) is calculated by 3 methods and the lowest of all
methods is taken as design strength of section (member) in
Tension.

3)

1st Method:
The Design strength of member under axial tension due to
yielding of gross section (Tdg) is calculated as
Tdg = fy.Ag/mo
where,
fy = yield stress of the material (as per Table 1, IS 800:2007)
Ag = gross area of cross section
mo = partial safety factor for failure in tension by yielding
= 1.10 (as per Table-5 of IS 800:2007)

Sl.
No.

Definition

1
2
3

## Resistance, governed by yielding mo

Resistance of member to buckling mo
Resistance, governed by ultimate stress m1

1.10
1.10
1.25

Resistance of connection m1
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

4)

## Bolts Friction Type, mf

Bolts Bearing Type, mb
Rivets
Welds

Shop
Fabrication
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25

Field
Fabrication
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.50

2nd Method:
The Design strength of member under axial tension due to
rupture of critical section or net c/s area (Tdn) is calculated as
a) In case of plates sections:
Tdn = 0.9fu.An/m1
where,
fu = Ultimate stress of material (as per Table 1, IS 800:2007)
m1= partial safety factor for failure at ultimate stress

## = 1.25 (as per Table-5 of IS 800:2007)

An = Net area of cross section after deduction for bolt holes
For multiple holes in staggered fashion, net area is given by

p2
An b nd
t
4 g

Where,
n = number of bolt holes
t = thickness of plate
p = pitch ; g = gauge
b = width of plate
d = diameter of bolt hole (2mm in addition to the diameter of
the hole, in case of directly punched holes)

(b)
1
(a)
2

g
(c)

(d)

## Plates with Bolt Holes under Tension

b) In case of single angle, double angle, channels, I-sections and
Other rolled steel sections:
Tdn = 0.9.Anc.fu/m1 + .Ago.fy/mo
Where,
= 1.4-0.076.(w/t).(fy/fu).(bs/Lc) < (fu.mo)/fy.m1)
> 0.7
An = Net area of total c/s
Anc = Net area of Connected leg
Ago = Gross area of Outstanding leg
w = outstand leg width
t = thickness of the leg
bs = shear lag width, as shown in figure below

## Lc = length of end connection, i.e distance between the

outermost bolts in the end joint measured along the load
direction or length of the weld along the load direction.

w
w1

bs = w + w1

bs = w

## Fig - 3 Angles with end connection

5)

3rd Method:
The Design strength of member under axial tension due to Block
shear (Tdb) is calculated as
a) In case of bolted connections:
Block shear strength of member (Tdb) for bolted connections
shall be minimum of
Tdb ( Avg f y /

3 mo 0.9 f u Atn / m1 )

or
Tdb (0.9 f u Avn /

3 m1 f y Atg / mo )

Where,
Avg and Avn = minimum gross and net area in shear along a line
of transmitted force respectively
Atg and Atn = minimum gross and net area in tension from the
hole to the toe of the angle perpendicular to the line of
transmitted force

## Block shear plane

Block Shear Failure
b) In case of welded connections:
Block shear strength of member (Tdb) for welded connections
shall be checked for welded end connections by taking an
appropriate section in the member around the end weld,
which can shear off as a block.

6)

## Calculate Permissible Design Strength of member (Load that

tension member can resist) in Tension, Td, which is least of Tdg,
Tdn & Tdb.

7)

## Calculate factored applied load on member (T) & compare it

with Permissible Tensile strength of member (Td), T < Td.

8)

## Calculate Maximum effective slenderness ratio, KL/r (ratio of

effective length, KL to appropriate radius of gyration, r). The
Maximum effective slenderness ratio shall not exceed the values
specified in Table-3 of IS 800:2007. Maximum slenderness ratio
permissible in a tension member is 400. Effective length can be
calculated as per Table-11 of IS 800:2007.

Sl.No.

Member

180

## A tension member in which a reversal of direct

stress occurs due to loads other than wind or
seismic forces

180

## A member subjected to compression forces

resulting only from combination with
wind/earthquake
actions,
provided
the
deformation of such member does not adversely
affect the stress in any part of the structure

250

## Compression flange of a beam against lateral

torsional buckling

300

## A member normally acting as a tie in a roof

truss or a bracing system but not considered
effective when subject to possible reversal of
stress resulting from the action of wind or
earthquake forces1

350

## Members always under tension (other than

pretensioned members)

9)

Maximum Effective
Slenderness Ratio (KL/r)

400

achieved.