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Code No: R4101A R10

IV B.Tech I Semester Regular Examinations,

Set No. 1
December 2013


*********SCHEME OF VALUATION *******
What are the various treatment options available for boiler water treatment?
Ans: Safe and reliable operation of boiler is achieved through proper external treatment and


proper internal treatment.

External treatment: is the reduction or removal of impurities from water outside
the boiler. In general, external treatment is used when the amount of one or more of the
feed water impurities is too high to be tolerated by the boiler system in question. There
are many types of external treatment (softening, evaporation, deaeration, membrane
contractors etc.) which can be used to tailor make feed-water for a particular system.
Water is sometimes pretreated by evaporation to produce relatively pure vapor, which is
then condensed and used for boiler feed purposes.

Certain natural and synthetic

materials have the ability to remove mineral ions from water in exchange for others. For
example, in passing water through a simple cation exchange softener all of calcium and
magnesium ions are removed and replaced with sodium ions. Since simple cation
exchange does not reduce the total solids of the water supply, it is sometimes used in
conjunction with precipitation type softening. One of the most common and efficient
combination treatments is the hot lime-zeolite process. This involves pretreatment of the
water with lime to reduce hardness, alkalinity and in some cases silica, and subsequent
treatment with a cation exchange softener. This system of treatment accomplishes
several functions: softening, alkalinity and silica reduction, some oxygen reduction, and
removal of suspended matter and turbidity.
Internal treatment: is the conditioning of impurities within the boiler system. 4M
During the conditioning process, specific doses of conditioning products are added to the
water. The commonly used products include: Phosphates-dispersants-reacting with the
alkalinity of boiler water, these products neutralize the hardness of water by forming
tricalcium phosphate, and insoluble compound that can be disposed and blow down on a
continuous basis or periodically through the bottom of the boiler.Natural and synthetic
dispersants (Anti-scaling agents): increase the dispersive properties of the conditioning

products. They can be: Natural polymers: lignosulphonates, tannins Synthetic polymers:
polyacrilates, maleic acrylate copolymer, maleic styrene copolymer, polystyrene
sulphonates etc. Sequestering agents: such as inorganic phosphates, which act as
inhibitors and implement a threshold effect.Oxygen scavengers: sodium sulphite,





derivatives, hydroxylamine derivatives, ascorbic acid derivatives, etc. These scavengers,

catalyzed or not, reduce the oxides and dissolved oxygen. Most also passivate metal
surfaces. The choice of product and the dose required will depend on whether a
deaerating heater is used.Anti-foaming or anti-priming agents: mixture of surfaceactive agents that modify the surface tension of a liquid, remove foam and prevent the
carryover of fine water particles in the steam.
1. b) What are the quality requirements of process water for Brewery industry
[introduction-1M + any 3 kinds of water &their requirements 2M x 3=6M
Very often water is considered a utility in a brewery. As water is an important 1M
constituent of beer, though, making up more than 90% of the product, it is worth looking
at water from a raw material perspective. Historically the characteristics of different beer
styles were influenced by the composition of the water used in their manufacture
Filtered water/ washing water
The minimum requirement for water used in a brewery should be that it conforms
to potable water standards Filtered water of a suitable standard should be used for
cleaning. If water is not heated, there is no risk of scaling. There are limitations, though,
in the levels of chloride acceptable in filtered water. The chloride level should not
exceed 100 ppm to avoid corrosion of stainless steel.
Service water/ process water
This quality of water should be used whenever the water is heated but not used in
the brewing process It is important that hardness in this water is limited to prevent
scaling, which can, for example, lead to the blockage of spray nozzles in the bottle
washer. It is also important that the chloride content is limited to about 50 ppm. This is
to avoid corrosion of stainless steel. Furthermore, service water has to be free of
microbiological contamination.


Brewing water
As mentioned earlier, more than 90% of beer is water. Therefore it is of utmost
importance that the quality of the brew water is high. A very important ion in brew water
is calcium. During mashing it reacts with the phosphate buffer from the malt,
influencing the pH level. In order for the enzymes to work properly, a pH of 5.25.4 is
Dilution water
It is important that the calcium content of dilution water is not higher than the
calcium content of the concentrated beer to be diluted, in order to avoid oxalate
precipitation. There are also strict requirements regarding oxygen content, which should
mainly be less than 20 ppb. The microbiological composition of the dilution water is
very important as this water is not necessarily boiled. Treatment with a proper
disinfection system and a UV (ultraviolet) system prior to use is indispensable

water For the boiler house it is necessary that the feed water is of

adequate quality and free of hardness. It is important that the feed water contains HCO3
at a level of less than 50 ppm Boiler feed water must also be thoroughly deaerated to
achieve an oxygen content ideally of less than 20 ppb. It should also be conditioned
properly with caustic to adjust the pH, with phosphate for hardness scaling prevention
and with sodium bisulphite for oxygen scavenging.

Explain the various strength reduction techniques.

[introduction-1M + 7 reduction techniques 2M x 7=14M]
Waste Strength reduction is the second major objective for an industrial plant
concerned with waste treatment. The strength of wastes may be reduced by:
1.Process Changes
2.Equipment Modifications
3.Segregation of Wastes
4.Equilization of Wastes
5.By-Product Recovery
6.Proportioning of Wastes and
7.Monitoring Waste Streams
Process Changes:
In reducing the strength of wastes through process changes, the sanitary engineer is
concerned with wastes that are most troublesome from a pollution standpoint.
Equipment Modification: Changes in equipment can effect a reduction in the
strength of the waste, usually by reducing the amounts of contaminants entering the
waste stream. An outstanding example of waste strength reduction occurred in the dairy
industry. The new cans were constructed with smooth necks so that they could be
drained faster and more completely. This prevented a large amount of milk waste from
entering streams and sewage plants.
Segregation of Wastes: Segregation of Wastes reduces the strength and/or the
difficulty of treating the final waste from an industrial plant. It usually results in two
wastes: one strong and small in volume and the other weaker with almost the same
volume as the original un-segregated waste. The small- volume strong waste can then be
handled with methods specific to the problem it presents. In terms of volume reduction
alone, segregation of cooling waters and storm waters from process waste will mean a
saving in the size of the final treatment plant.
Equalization of Wastes: Plants, which have many products, from a diversity of
processes, prefer to equalize their wastes. This requires holding wastes for a certain
period of time, depending on the time taken for the repetitive process in the plant. For
example, if a manufactured item requires a series of operations that take eight hours, the

plant needs an equalization basin designed to hold the wastes for that eight hours period.
The effluent from an equalization basin is much more consistent in its characteristics
than each separate influent to that same basin.
Stabilization of pH and B.O.D and settling of Solids and Heavy Metals are
among the objectives of equalization. Stable effluents are treated more easily and
efficiently, than unstable ones by industrial and municipal treatment plants.
By-Product Recovery: All wastes contain by products, the exhausted materials
used in the process. Since some wastes are very difficult to treat at low cost, it is
advisable for the Industrial Management concerned to consider the possibility of
building a recovery plant which will produce a Marketable By-Product and at the same
time solve a trouble some Wastes problem.
Proportioning Wastes: By Proportioning its discharge of concentrated wastes into
the main sewer a plant can often reduce the strength of its total waste to the point where
it will need a minimum of final treatment or will cause the least damage to the stream or
treatment plant.
It may prove less costly to proportion one small but concentrated waste into the
main flow. According to the rate of the main flow, than to equalize the entire waste of
the plant in order to reduce the strength.
Monitoring Waste Streams: Accidental spills are often the sole cause of stream
pollution or malfunctioning of treatment plants and these can be controlled, and often
eliminated completely, if all significant sources of wastes are monitored.
3.a What are the various factors affecting stream sanitation?
Factors affecting stream sanitation:
1. Dilution: When wastewater is discharged into the receiving water, dilution
takes place due to which the concentration of organic matter is reduced and the potential
nuisance of sewage is also reduced. When the dilution ratio is quite high, large quantities
of DO are available which will accelerate the chances of purification and reduce
pollution effects. Aerobic condition will always exist because of higher dilution. This
will however, not be there if dilution ratio is small, i.e., when large quantities of oxygen
demanding effluent is discharged into a small stream supplementing little oxygen or

2. Dispersion due to Currents: Self-purification of stream largely depends upon

currents, (as rapids, whirlpools, waterfalls and turbulent flow) which will readily
disperse the wastewater in the stream, preventing local accumulation of pollutants. High
velocity accelerates reaeration and reduces the concentration of pollutants. High velocity
improves reaeration, reduces the time of recovery, though length of stream affected by
the wastewater is increased.
3. Sedimentation: If the stream velocity is lesser than the scour velocity of
particles, sedimentation will take place, which will have two effects. (i) The suspended
solids, which contribute largely the oxygen demand, will be removed by settling and
hence water quality of the downstream is improved. (ii) Due to settled solids, Anaerobic
decomposition may take place.
4. Temperature: At low temperature, the activities of bacteria is low and hence
rate of decomposition will also be slow, though DO will be more because of increased
solubility of oxygen in water. At high temperatures, the self-purification takes lesser
time, though the quantity of DO will be less.
5. Sunlight: Sunlight helps photosynthesis of certain aquatic plants (as algae) to
absorb carbon dioxide and give out oxygen, thus accelerating self-purification. Sunlight
acts as a disinfectant.
3. b

b) What are the problems in disposal of industrial wastes into lakes? [7]
Water movement in lakes is slower than in streams, so reaeration is more of a
problem in lakes than streams. Because of the slow movement of water in a lake,
sediments, and pollutants bound to sediments, tend to settle out of the water column
rather than being transported downstream.Water pollution affects the health of the
waterway, the health of the organisms living in and around the waterway, and,
eventually, the health of humans. The effects of water pollution can range from aquatic
deformities to contaminated fish to "dead" lakes.
Heavy metals such as mercury and lead, and human-made organic chemicals
such as pesticides, biomagnify as they move up the food chain, resulting in tumors and
death for predatory animals, such as lake trout, herring gulls, and even humans.
Toxic pollutants can also alter the genetic makeup of an organism, resulting in

either death or extreme deformities.

Human health issues
Persistent Organic Pollutants, or POPs, such as dioxin, PCBs and DDT, are
chemical substances that persist in the environment and bioaccumulate through the food
web; therefore, POPs can also cause sickness and disease in humans, who are at the end
of the food chain. People who regularly consume a lot of fish will have larger levels of
toxic chemicals in their bodies than those who only eat fish occasionally. While
scientists are still studying the effects of high chemical levels in humans, studies have
suggested that toxic chemicals can lead to reproductive problems, cancer and
neurological disorders.
People who are most at risk of health problems due to contaminated fish
consumption are those with weakened immune systems, including children, pregnant
women and the elderly. Other human health issues related to water pollution include
drinking water contamination and skin infection, caused by bacterial contamination.
Nutrient loading (more nutrients than the waterbody can handle) stimulates excessive
plant growth, which in turn decreases the amount of oxygen in the water and eventually
kills off certain species of animal life. Other pollution-tolerant species, such as worms
and carp, grow more rapidly; thus, the ecological balance of the lake is significantly
4. a a) Discuss the quality of water from ion exchange treatment? [7]
Ion exchange is a reversible reaction in which a charged ion in solution is
exchanged for a similarly charged ion electrostatically attached to an immobile solid
particle. The largest application of ion exchange in water treatment is for softening,
where calcium, magnesium and other polyvalent cations are exchanged for sodium. It is
used both in industrial and domestic systems. Ion exchange is also used to remove
specific contaminants such as arsenic, barium, nitrate, and radium.
In common practice the raw water is passed through a bed of resin. The resin is the
made by polymerization of organic compounds into a porous matrix. When the bed
becomes saturated with the exchanged ion, it is shut down and regenerated by passing a
concentrated solution of sodium back through the bed.

Ion exchange units that replace calcium and magnesium ions from water are known as
water softeners. They may also remove varying amounts of other inorganic pollutants
such as metals, but they will not remove organic chemicals, pathogens, particles, or
radon gas. Water softener units work most efficiently with particulate-free water. Ion
exchange systems effectively remove ions, but they do not effectively remove most
organics or microorganisms. Microorganisms can attach to the resins, providing a
culture media for rapid bacterial growth and subsequent pyrogen generation.
4. b

Explain the technique of Ultra-filtration. Discuss its applications in industrial

water treatment. [8]
[3M]Ultrafiltration (UF) is a variety of membrane filtration in which forces like
pressure or concentration gradients leads to a separation through a semipermeable
membrane. Suspended solids and solutes of high molecular weight are retained in the
retentate, while water and low molecular weight solutes pass through the membrane in
the permeate. This separation process is used in industry and research for purifying and
concentrating macromolecular (103 - 106 Da) solutions, especially protein solutions.
Applications: [5M]
UF can be used for the removal of particulates and macromolecules from
raw water to produce potable water
UF is used extensively in the dairy industry; particularly in the processing of
cheese whey to obtain whey protein concentrate (WPC) and lactose-rich
Filtration of effluent from paper pulp mill
Cheese manufacture, see ultrafiltered milk
Removal of pathogens from milk
Process and waste water treatment
Enzyme recovery
Fruit juice concentration and clarification
Dialysis and other blood treatments
Desalting and solvent-exchange of proteins (via diafiltration)
Laboratory grade manufacturing

5. a What are the effects of wastewater from Textile industries? [7]

The environmental issues associated with residual dye content or residual colour in

treated textile effluents are always a concern.

Dye concentrations in watercourses higher of 1 mg/L caused by the direct
discharges of textile effluents, treated or not, can give rise to public compliant. High
concentrations of textile dyes in water bodies stop the reoxygenation capacity of the
receiving water and cutoff sunlight, thereby upsetting biological activity in aquatic life
and also the photosynthesis process of aquatic plants or algae.
The colour in watercourses is accepted as an aesthetic problem rather than an ecotoxic hazard. Therefore, the public seems to accept blue, green or brown colour of rivers
but the non-natural colour as red and purple usually cause most concern.
The polluting effects of dyes against aquatic environment can be also the result of
toxic effects due to their long time presence in environment , accumulation in sediments
but especially in fishes or other aquatic life forms, decomposition of pollutants in
carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds but also low aerobic biodegradability.
Due to their synthetic nature and structure mainly aromatic, the most of dyes are
non-biodegradable, having carcinogenic action or causing allergies, dermatitis, skin
irritation or different tissular changes. Moreover, various azo dyes, mainly aromatic
compounds, show both acute and chronic toxicity.
High potential health risk is caused by adsorption of azo dyes and their breakdown
products (toxic amines) through the gastrointestinal tract, skin, lungs, and also formation
of hemoglobin adducts and disturbance of blood formation. Several azo dyes cause
damage of DNA that can lead to the genesis of malignant tumors.
Electron-donating substituents in ortho and para position can increase the
carcinogenic potential.
5. b

b) What are the various treatment alternatives for Paper and Pulp industries? [8]
Pulp and paper industry is considered as one of the most polluter industry in the
world. The production process consists two mainsteps: pulping and bleaching. Pulping is
the initial stage and the source of the most pollutant of this industry. Bleaching is the last
step of the process, which aims to whiten and brighten the pulp. The wastewaters
generated from production processes of this industry include high concentration of
chemicals such as sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium sulfide, bisulfites,
elemental chlorine or chlorine dioxide, calcium oxide, hydrochloric acid. The major

problems of the wastewaters are high organic content (20-110 kg COD/air dried ton
paper), dark brown coloration, adsorbable organic halide (AOX), toxic pollutants, etc.
Physicochemical and biological treatment technologies are used extensively for
the pulp and paper mills. Sedimentation, floatation, coagulation and precipitation,
adsorption, chemical oxidation and membrane filtration were carried out. Biological
treatment both aerobic and anaerobic technologies are preferred for treatment of pulp
and paper mills because of wastewater composition consisting of high organic
compounds and economical aspects. Additionally, some fungi species are used to
remove color and AOX from the effluents.

6. a What are the special characteristics of wastewater from Fertilizer Plants? [7]

Waste streams consist of spills and leakages, cooling waters, product washing
water, condensate stripping, vacuum condenser water, scrubbing water, boiler blow
downs, and phosphoric acid production pond water discharges. Storm water runoff is
also regulated. Depending on the subcategory, the wastewater constituents may include
the conventional pollutants BOD5, pH, and TSS; and ammonia, fluoride, nitrate,
organic nitrogen, and total phosphorus. In some cases, aluminum, potassium, and
sulfur may be present. Treatment processes may include neutralization with lime and
sedimentation in retention ponds to remove TSS, phosphorus, and fluoride; and air
stripping, biological nitrification & de-nitrification, ion exchange, or breakpoint
chlorination to remove ammonia.

6. b What are the various treatment alternatives for Distillery Wastes? [8]


The 295 distilleries in India produce 2.7 billion litres of alcohol and generating 40
billion litres of wastewater annually. The wastewater from distilleries, major portion of
which is spentwash, is nearly 15 times the total alcohol production. This massive
quantity, approximately 40 billion litres of effluent, if disposed untreated can cause
considerable stress on the water courses leading to widespread damage to aquatic life.

For recovery from the treatment of distillery spentwash, depending on the

availability and cost of land in a particular area, simple treatment in
anaerobic lagoon to generate biogas followed by treatment in aerated
lagoon or oxidation ditch may be considered.

Where the availability of land is a severe constraint, evaporation and

incineration of distillery spent wash to recover potash

Anaerobic digestion of spent wash in a closed digester followed by its

treatment under an activated sludge process, especially in an oxidation
ditch to reduce costs, might be adopted as the most cost-effective system
for the distilleries which are located away from sugar factories.
Moreover, the treated effluent can be conveniently used for irrigation of
cane fields or other crop lands, subsequently.

Biogas generated from the distillery effluents, can be effectively utilized

in production plant boilers thus saving about 50 to 60 percent fuel/steam.
The treated effluent having almost all the potash retained in it may be
utilised for irrigation purposes.

The utilisation of the distillery effluent in agricultural fields will not only
enrich these further with essential plant nutrients like nitrogen,
phosphorous and potash but also compensate the expenditure on
fertilizers for crop growth.

Similarly spentwash utilization in bioearth composting, where adequate

land is available, being a simple process and not involving any heavy
machinery is also one of the cost effective methods of disposal.

7. a a) Explain the manufacturing process and origin of wastewater from Sugar mills?
Generally, water is used in the sugar factory for spraying water on the crushed


cane i.e. imbibition for




extraction of remaining





also being used for

cooling bearings, juice
heaters, condensers and
for good house keeping







wastewater from mill

house, clarification house, lime house, sulphur house and floo; washings. The quantity
of wastewater discharged from all the units of mill including boiling house discharge,
spray pond overflow is around 800 - 1400 m3/ day. The source of wastewater generation
in manufacturing process is shown in Fig
Cane Wash Water: This is generated when the cane is washed before crushing. C
me washing is carried out only if it is mechanically harvested. The suspended solids .
ontent in cane wash water is high.
Mill House Wastewater:Wastes from the mill house include the water used as
spla-hes to extract maximum amount of juice and those used to cool the roller bearings.
The mill house waste is large in volume and contains high BOD due to the presence of
sugar juice and oil from the machineries.
Boiler House Wastewater:The periodic blow of the boiler produces another
intermittent v aste discharge. this waste is high in suspended solids, low in BOD and
usually alkaline.
Leakages And Spillages:Additional waste originates due to the leakages and
spillages of; rice, syrup and molasses in different sections and also due to the handling
of molasses The periodical washings of the floor also contribute a great volume and are
discharged intermittently, which is having very high BOD.

7.b b) What are the various treatment alternatives for Steel Mill Wastes? [8]
Treatment of coal washer waste:
The major pollutants of the coal washery waste is the suspended solid. As, such
this waste is usually treated in a clarifier with or without coagulant.
The froth floatation" is also suggested as a very efficient method of treatment
for the removal of ultra fine coal particles.
Treatment of Blast furnace waste:
1. As observed from the above characteristics of the waste can be treated in a
clariflocculator even with out the addition of coagulants.(Sedimentation with
coagulation). However, the flocculation time can be reduced to a great extent when
certain coagulants like alum or lime is added.
2. The efficiency of the clari-flocculator can be increased alternative by a judicious
mixing of this waste with me other wastes of the steel plant.
Treatment of Roll Milling Waste:
The effluent from the scale pits still contains considerable amounts of fine scale,
oil and grease and requires secondary treatment.
The above effluent contains about 170 mg/t to 440 mg/1 of suspended solids,
and can be treated well in the clari-flocculator using either NaOH or the oxygen plant
waste as coagulant..
The iron content of the clarifier sludge is as high as 46%. As such, the sludge is
thickened, dewatered using vacuum filters and then sent to the sintering plant. So mat it
can be fed back to blast furnace. (Thickening can accomplish almost complete removal
of oil and grease from the sludge and thus prepares it for dewatering and caking in
vacuum filters).
Treatment of Pickling Waste:
Treatment of this waste includes neutralization, using lime.
The ferrous sulphate recovery
The process of electrolysis of spent liquor is gaining importance in the matter of
regeneration of acid and recovering of iron.
Treatment of coke oven waste: the recovery of phenol by extraction methods.
The chemical oxidation of ammonical liquor with potassium permanganate,

sodium dichromate, chlorine, ozone, etc., to recover the phenol.

using trickling filter, activated, .sludge, .process. and..waste .stabilization pond
maintain optimum pH, and temperature, proper loading of this Phenolic substrate to the
reactor may result in the desirable reduction.
The biological treatment of the coke oven effluent can be carried out
economically in a three-stage process, with isolated or cultured bacteria, appropriate in
each stage.
8. a a) What are the advantages of common effluent treatment plants? [7]

Saving in Capital and operating cost of treatment plant. Combined treatment is

always cheaper than small scattered treatment units.

Availability of land which is difficult to be ensured by all individual units in the

event they go for individual treatment plants. This is particularly important in
case of existing old industries which simply do not have any space.

Contribution of nutrient and diluting potential, making the complex industrial

waste more amenable to degradation.

The neutralization and equalisation of heterogeneous waste makes its treatment

techno-economically viable.

Professional and trained staff can be made available for operation of CETP
which is not possible in case of individual plants.

Disposal of treated wastewater & sludge becomes more organised.

Reduced burden of various regulatory authorities in ensuring pollution control


8. b b) List the groups of industries for which common effluent treatment plants are
highly advantageous. [8]

Drug & Chemicals

Textile, Distillery, Pharmaceutical, Chemicals

Dye & Dye Intermediate, Textile, Pharmaceutical, Pesticides, Pigments

Chemical, Plastic, Pharmaceuticals, Paper, Garments, Engineering

Dyeing & Printing ,Textile units, Tannery

Chemicals, Dyes & Dye Intermediate

Dyes & dye Intermediates, Pharmaceuticals, Chemicals, Drugs & Drug


Chemicals, Pharmaceuticals, Dyes & dye Intermediates, Paint & Textiles

Sugar mills, distilleries, fertilizer, food processing, domestic sewage