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Unit-I

Lecture Notes I

Units and conversion Factors

II Year I Sem

This unit gives the basic fundamentals and different systems of units. The

concept of weight, volume and mole is also introduced. It also covers the basic property of

density and Specific gravity. In addition, mass relations of stoichiometric chemical relations are

also covered and is divided into 5 modules 1 to 5. The problem related to these five modules

were given in section 1.6 and 1.7.

A physical quantity is always expressed as the product of a number and unit. The number

by itself has no meaning without units. For example if one say the weight of an object is simply

100, without units it can be 100 gms. or 100 kg. Hence the unit should be stated. Unit is a any

measure or amount used as a standard for measurement. The table-1.1 gives the different

fundamental quantities and their units. While the table 1.2 gives units of derived quantities.

Most of the physical or chemical data available in literature are expressed equivalently

with a variety of units. Operating manuals of equipment and instruments using different systems

of units are in use in process plants. It is imperative that the chemical engineering stuents or

practicing chemical engineers be well versed with the conversionof units from one system to

another. Conversion factors which relates different systems of units are given in table 1.3.For

example

Convert the heat transfer coefficient of value 100 BTU/hr.ft2 . 0F into W/m2 . 0C

Solution:

h (Heat transfer coefficient ) = (100) [(1/3.412) W] [(10.7639) m2] [(1.8) 0C]

= 567.8 W/m2 . 0C

Note: 1W = 3.412 BTU/hr

Table 1.4 gives the list of SI prefixes that are used to form decimal multiples and

submultiples of SI units. They allow very large or very small numerical values to be avoided. A

prefix directly attached to the name of the unit or a symbol to the symbol of the unit.

Table 1.1. Fundamental Quantities

Fundamental

Quantity

Unit-I

Lecture Notes I

Units and conversion Factors

System of Units

Symbolic

Abbreviation

______________________________

SI

Metric

Metre

Metre

Kilogram Kilogram

Kelvin

Celsius

Length

Mass

Temperature

Time

Electric Current

Amount of substance

Intensity

Units in

SI/mks/cgs System

Area

Square meters

Square centimeters

Cubic meters

Cubic centimeters

m2

cm2

m3

cm3

Cubic decimeters

Litres

dm3

l

m/s

Volume

Capacity

Linear

Velocity

Linear

Meter per second per

Acceleration second

Density

Specific

Volume

Force

Force

Pressures

Metre

Grams per milliliter

Cubic meters per

kilogram

Newtons

Kilograms-force*

(kilopounds)

Dynes

Newtons per square

Meter (pascals)

Dimension

____________________________

fps

SI

Foot

m

Pound

kg

Fahrenheit K

Metric

m

kg

0

C

Second Second

Second

s

s

Ampere Ampere Ampere A

A

Mole

_

_

mol

_

Candela

_

_

cd

_

Table 1.2. Derived Quantities

Derived

Quantity

II Year I Sem

Abbreviated

Units

Symbol

fps

ft

lb

0

F

s

A

_

_

L

M

T

I

n

Dimension

A(S)

L

L

L3

L3

V(v)

L3

L3

1

L

V

v

u,v,

m/s2

a,g

kg/m

ML-3

g/ml

m3/kg

ML-3

L3M-1

N

kgf

(kp)

v

F

dyn

N/m2(Pa)

ML

F

ML

ML-1

Unit-I

Lecture Notes I

Units and conversion Factors

Kilogram-force or

kgf/cm2

Kilopounds per

(kp/cm2)

Square centimeter

Work/energy Joules

Ergs

Meters kilogram force

Heat/Enthalpy Joules

Power

Heat flow

Specific/

Absolute

Humidity

Relative

Humidity

Saturation

Ratio

Flow rate

J

kcal

Kilowatts

kw

Horsepowers

HP

J/s or W

kcal/h

kilogram dry air

kg/kg

Nil

Nil

Nil

Q.H

H,x

RH

Nil

kg/h

Liters per second

Kilocalories per

Kilogram per degree

Celsius

qm

qv

ML2

ML2

MF

2

2

ML

2

2

ML

3

2

ML

1

MF

3

2

ML

3

ML2

M 0 L0 0

M 0 L0 0

M 0 L0 0

M 1

L3 1

L3 1

l/s

C

L2T 1

L2 2T 1

kcal/(kg.deg C)

FL-2

Degree Kelvin

Molar heat

erg

m/kgf

Kilocalories

Volumetric

II Year I Sem

cp

ML2 2 n 1T 1

Capacity

Unit-I

Lecture Notes I

Units and conversion Factors

II Year I Sem

Kilocalories per kilogram kcal/kmol.deg C)

Mole per degree Celsius

ML2 2 n 1T 1

Length:

Area:

Volume:

Capacity:

Mass:

Density:

Force:

1 m = 1.093613 yd

= 3.28084 ft

1 cm = 0.393701 in

1 km = 0.62137 miles

= 0.53996 international nautical miles

2

1 m = 10.76391 ft2

= 1.19599 yd2

2

1 cm = 0.155 in2

1 km2 = 0.386102 mile2

1 ha = 10000m2

= 2.47105 acre

= 0.003861 mile2

1 m3 = 1000 dm3 = 10001

= 35.31467 ft3

= 1.30795 yd3

= 6.2898 barrels (oil)

3

1 cm = 0.061024 in2

1 l = 0.219969 Implerial gal

= 0.264172 US gal

= 0.0353147 ft3

1 kl = 10001

= 0.00081071 acre. Ft

1 kg = 1000 g

= 2.204623 lb

1 t = 1000 kg

= 0.98421 T

= 1.102311T (short, used in USA)

= 2204.623 Ib

1 g = 15.4324 grain

1 kg/dm3 = 1 kg/l

= 70156.8 grain/imperial gal

= 58417.82 grain /US gal

3

1 g/cm = 62.42795 lb/ft3

= 10.0224 lb/imperial gal

= 8.345405 lb/us gal

= 119.8265 US gal /lb

1 N= 0.101972 kgf

= 0.224809 lbf

Pressure:

Energy:

Power:

Heat capacity:

Temperature:

Unit-I

Lecture Notes I

Units and conversion Factors

1 kPa = 0.010197 kgf/in2 or psi

= 0.145038 lbf/in2 or psi

1 bar = 0.1 Mpa

= 1.019716 kgf/cm2

= 14.50377 lbf/in2

1 torr (1 mm Hg) = 133.3224 pa

= 0.03937 in Hg

1 J = 0.238846 cal (IT)

= 2.777778 X 10-7kWh

= 9.478172 X 10-4 Btu (IT)

= 0.101972 kgf.m

= 0.737562 lbf.ft

= 9.869233 X 10-31.atm

1 kWh = 859.8452 kcal (lT)

= 3412.142 Btu (IT)

1 kgf.m = 7.233 lbf.ft

1 kW = 1.35962 metric hp

= 1.34102 hp (British)

= 859.8452 kcal/h

= 3412.142 Btu / h

1 (m.kgf)/s = 7.233 (ft.ibf)/s

1 J/kg.k) = 2.38846 X 10-4 kcal/(kr.deg C)

= 2.38846 X 10-4 Btu / (lb.deg F)

0

C = 5/9 ( 0F-31)

0

F = (9/5) 0C+32

Table 1.4 SI Prefixes

Factor

Prefix

Symbol

1024

1021

1018

1015

1012

109

106

103

102

101

10-1

10-2

10-3

10-6

10-9

10-12

yotta

zetta

exa

peta

tera

giga

mega

kilo

hecto

deka

deci

centi

milli

micro

nano

pico

Y

Z

E

P

T

G

M

k

h

da

d

c

m

n

p

II Year I Sem

10-15

10-18

10-21

10-24

Unit-I

Lecture Notes I

Units and conversion Factors

femto

atto

zepto

yocto

II Year I Sem

f

a

z

y

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