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Chemical Process Calculations

Unit-I
Lecture Notes I
Units and conversion Factors

II Year I Sem

Objectives and Introduction


This unit gives the basic fundamentals and different systems of units. The
concept of weight, volume and mole is also introduced. It also covers the basic property of
density and Specific gravity. In addition, mass relations of stoichiometric chemical relations are
also covered and is divided into 5 modules 1 to 5. The problem related to these five modules
were given in section 1.6 and 1.7.

A physical quantity is always expressed as the product of a number and unit. The number
by itself has no meaning without units. For example if one say the weight of an object is simply
100, without units it can be 100 gms. or 100 kg. Hence the unit should be stated. Unit is a any
measure or amount used as a standard for measurement. The table-1.1 gives the different
fundamental quantities and their units. While the table 1.2 gives units of derived quantities.
Most of the physical or chemical data available in literature are expressed equivalently
with a variety of units. Operating manuals of equipment and instruments using different systems
of units are in use in process plants. It is imperative that the chemical engineering stuents or
practicing chemical engineers be well versed with the conversionof units from one system to
another. Conversion factors which relates different systems of units are given in table 1.3.For
example
Convert the heat transfer coefficient of value 100 BTU/hr.ft2 . 0F into W/m2 . 0C
Solution:
h (Heat transfer coefficient ) = (100) [(1/3.412) W] [(10.7639) m2] [(1.8) 0C]
= 567.8 W/m2 . 0C
Note: 1W = 3.412 BTU/hr
Table 1.4 gives the list of SI prefixes that are used to form decimal multiples and
submultiples of SI units. They allow very large or very small numerical values to be avoided. A
prefix directly attached to the name of the unit or a symbol to the symbol of the unit.
Table 1.1. Fundamental Quantities

Dr. M.Krishna Parasad, Professor,Dept. of Chemical Engineering, GMRIT, Rajam

Chemical Process Calculations

Fundamental
Quantity

Unit-I
Lecture Notes I
Units and conversion Factors

System of Units

Symbolic
Abbreviation

______________________________

SI
Metric
Metre
Metre
Kilogram Kilogram
Kelvin
Celsius

Length
Mass
Temperature
Time
Electric Current
Amount of substance
Intensity

Units in
SI/mks/cgs System

Area

Square meters
Square centimeters
Cubic meters
Cubic centimeters

m2
cm2
m3
cm3

Cubic decimeters
Litres

dm3
l

Metres per Second

m/s

Volume

Capacity
Linear
Velocity

Linear
Meter per second per
Acceleration second
Density
Specific
Volume
Force

Force
Pressures

Kilograms per cubic


Metre
Grams per milliliter
Cubic meters per
kilogram
Newtons
Kilograms-force*
(kilopounds)
Dynes
Newtons per square
Meter (pascals)

Dimension

____________________________

fps
SI
Foot
m
Pound
kg
Fahrenheit K

Metric
m
kg
0
C

Second Second
Second
s
s
Ampere Ampere Ampere A
A
Mole
_
_
mol
_
Candela
_
_
cd
_
Table 1.2. Derived Quantities

Derived
Quantity

II Year I Sem

Abbreviated
Units

Symbol

fps
ft
lb
0
F
s
A
_
_

L
M
T

I
n

Dimension

A(S)

L
L
L3
L3

V(v)

L3
L3
1
L

V
v
u,v,

m/s2

a,g

kg/m

ML-3

g/ml
m3/kg

ML-3
L3M-1

N
kgf
(kp)

v
F

dyn
N/m2(Pa)

ML
F
ML

ML-1

Dr. M.Krishna Parasad, Professor,Dept. of Chemical Engineering, GMRIT, Rajam

Chemical Process Calculations

Unit-I
Lecture Notes I
Units and conversion Factors
Kilogram-force or
kgf/cm2
Kilopounds per
(kp/cm2)
Square centimeter

Work/energy Joules
Ergs
Meters kilogram force
Heat/Enthalpy Joules

Power

Heat flow

Specific/
Absolute
Humidity
Relative
Humidity
Saturation
Ratio

Flow rate

J
kcal

Kilowatts

kw

Horsepowers

HP

Joules per second

J/s or W

Kilocalories per hour

kcal/h

Kilograms water per


kilogram dry air

kg/kg

Nil

Nil

Nil

Q.H

H,x

RH

Nil
kg/h

Cubic meters per hour m3/h


Liters per second

Kilocalories per
Kilogram per degree
Celsius

qm
qv

ML2

ML2
MF
2
2
ML
2
2
ML
3
2
ML
1
MF
3
2
ML
3
ML2
M 0 L0 0

M 0 L0 0

M 0 L0 0
M 1

L3 1
L3 1

l/s
C

L2T 1
L2 2T 1

kcal/(kg.deg C)

Joules per kilogram mole J/(kmol.k)

FL-2

Heat capacity Joules per kilogram per J/(kg.k)


Degree Kelvin

Molar heat

erg
m/kgf

Kilocalories

Mass flow rate Kilograms per hour


Volumetric

II Year I Sem

cp

ML2 2 n 1T 1

Dr. M.Krishna Parasad, Professor,Dept. of Chemical Engineering, GMRIT, Rajam

Chemical Process Calculations


Capacity

Unit-I
Lecture Notes I
Units and conversion Factors

II Year I Sem

per degree Kelvin


Kilocalories per kilogram kcal/kmol.deg C)
Mole per degree Celsius

ML2 2 n 1T 1

Table 1.3.Condensed Table of Conversion Factors


Length:

Area:

Volume:

Capacity:

Mass:

Density:

Force:

1 m = 1.093613 yd
= 3.28084 ft
1 cm = 0.393701 in
1 km = 0.62137 miles
= 0.53996 international nautical miles
2
1 m = 10.76391 ft2
= 1.19599 yd2
2
1 cm = 0.155 in2
1 km2 = 0.386102 mile2
1 ha = 10000m2
= 2.47105 acre
= 0.003861 mile2
1 m3 = 1000 dm3 = 10001
= 35.31467 ft3
= 1.30795 yd3
= 6.2898 barrels (oil)
3
1 cm = 0.061024 in2
1 l = 0.219969 Implerial gal
= 0.264172 US gal
= 0.0353147 ft3
1 kl = 10001
= 0.00081071 acre. Ft
1 kg = 1000 g
= 2.204623 lb
1 t = 1000 kg
= 0.98421 T
= 1.102311T (short, used in USA)
= 2204.623 Ib
1 g = 15.4324 grain
1 kg/dm3 = 1 kg/l
= 70156.8 grain/imperial gal
= 58417.82 grain /US gal
3
1 g/cm = 62.42795 lb/ft3
= 10.0224 lb/imperial gal
= 8.345405 lb/us gal
= 119.8265 US gal /lb
1 N= 0.101972 kgf
= 0.224809 lbf

Dr. M.Krishna Parasad, Professor,Dept. of Chemical Engineering, GMRIT, Rajam

Chemical Process Calculations


Pressure:

Energy:

Power:

Heat capacity:
Temperature:

Unit-I
Lecture Notes I
Units and conversion Factors
1 kPa = 0.010197 kgf/in2 or psi
= 0.145038 lbf/in2 or psi
1 bar = 0.1 Mpa
= 1.019716 kgf/cm2
= 14.50377 lbf/in2
1 torr (1 mm Hg) = 133.3224 pa
= 0.03937 in Hg
1 J = 0.238846 cal (IT)
= 2.777778 X 10-7kWh
= 9.478172 X 10-4 Btu (IT)
= 0.101972 kgf.m
= 0.737562 lbf.ft
= 9.869233 X 10-31.atm
1 kWh = 859.8452 kcal (lT)
= 3412.142 Btu (IT)
1 kgf.m = 7.233 lbf.ft
1 kW = 1.35962 metric hp
= 1.34102 hp (British)
= 859.8452 kcal/h
= 3412.142 Btu / h
1 (m.kgf)/s = 7.233 (ft.ibf)/s
1 J/kg.k) = 2.38846 X 10-4 kcal/(kr.deg C)
= 2.38846 X 10-4 Btu / (lb.deg F)
0
C = 5/9 ( 0F-31)
0
F = (9/5) 0C+32
Table 1.4 SI Prefixes

Factor

Prefix

Symbol

1024
1021
1018
1015
1012
109
106
103
102
101
10-1
10-2
10-3
10-6
10-9
10-12

yotta
zetta
exa
peta
tera
giga
mega
kilo
hecto
deka
deci
centi
milli
micro
nano
pico

Y
Z
E
P
T
G
M
k
h
da
d
c
m

n
p

Dr. M.Krishna Parasad, Professor,Dept. of Chemical Engineering, GMRIT, Rajam

II Year I Sem

Chemical Process Calculations


10-15
10-18
10-21
10-24

Unit-I
Lecture Notes I
Units and conversion Factors
femto
atto
zepto
yocto

II Year I Sem
f
a
z
y

Dr. M.Krishna Parasad, Professor,Dept. of Chemical Engineering, GMRIT, Rajam