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Chemical Process Calculations

Unit I
Lecture notes-2
Stoichiometric Calculations

II Year I Sem

The relationship of mass and volumetric compositions of a chemical reaction designated as


stoichemetric relationship. Consider the reaction

N2 + 3H2  2NH3
A system is referred to a substances or a group of substances under consideration and process is
to the changes take place within that system. Thus nitrogen, hydrogen and ammonia may
constitute a system.

The reaction of nitrogen, hydrogen to form ammonia considered as a

process. Within a isolated system, the mass of a system remains constant regardless of the
changes taking place within the system. This statement is known as the law of conservations of
mass and it is the basis of the so called material balance of a process.

The state of a system is defined by numerous properties. These properties are divided into three
types (i) intensive properties (ii) extensive properties and (iii) special properties.

The intensive properties are independent of mass. Ex: temperature.


The extensive properties depend upon on mass under consideration, Ex: volume.

The special properties consists of molar properties and partial molar properties. Molar
property is the one which defined as the ratio of intensive properties to number of moles
considered whereas partial molar property is the one which accounts for non-ideality of the
system. For ideal systems, molar property and partial molar properties both are equal.

In the system of nitrogen and hydrogen under went chemical reaction to form ammonia the total
mass of system remains the same.

The word weight is entrenched in engineering literature as synonymous with mass, the common
practice will be followed as frequently referring to weights of material instead of using the more
exact term mass as a measure of quantity. Weights and masses are numerically equal only at a

Dr. M.Krishna Prasad, Professor, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, GMRIT, Rajam

Chemical Process Calculations

Unit I
II Year I Sem
Lecture notes-2
Stoichiometric Calculations
location where the gravitational constant as the standard value of 980 cm/sec2. The variation in
the weight of a given mass over the earths surface is negligible for ordinary engineering work.

All the atoms of given element are of the same mass but the atoms of different elements have
different masses. The individual mass of atoms of various elements vary and it is called atomic
weight of the element.

The composition of a chemical compounds can be expressed by a formula which indicates the
element that comprises the compound and relative proportions of atoms of various elements
presented.

Example: N2 + 3H2  2NH3


Atomic Weights:

Nitrogen 14.008
Hydrogen 1.008

Molecular Weights
NH3 = 14.008+ 3 x 1.008 = 17.032
N2 = 2 x 14.008 = 28.016
H2= 1.008 x 2 = 2.016
The relative weights of reactants and products is given by in the formula
Example: N2

+ 3H2

28.016

3x2.016

2NH3
2x17.032

Weight of reactants

Nitrogen

28.016

Hydrogen

6.048
-------34.064
--------

Weight of products
Ammonia = 2 x 17. 032 = 34.064

Dr. M.Krishna Prasad, Professor, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, GMRIT, Rajam

Chemical Process Calculations

Unit I
II Year I Sem
Lecture notes-2
Stoichiometric Calculations
Thus 28.016 parts by weight of nitrogen will react with 6.048 parts by weight of hydrogen to
form 34.064 parts by weight of ammonia.

The above equation indicate not only the relative weights involved the chemical reaction but also
the relative volumes of those reactants and products that are in gaseous state.

Thus the three volumes of hydrogen, one volume of nitrogen produces two volumes of ammonia
when all the materials are reduced to same temperature and pressure. This volumetric relation
follows from Avogadros law which states that equal volume of gases at the same condition of
temperature and pressure

contains the same number of molecules regardless of nature of gas.

This relation is applied only for ideal gases but not for liquids and solids. The mass in grams of
given element that is equal numerically to its atomic weight is termed as gram atom.

The formula of a chemical compound indicates the relative numbers of atoms that unite to form a
compound. For example: The formula for NH3 indicate that Nitrogen and Hydrogen Atoms are
present in the compound in a 1:3 ratio and this is called one gram mole.
One gram mole represents weight in grams of all gram atoms which in the formation of
compound combined in the same ratio as the atoms themselves.
G-atoms of an elementary substance = mass in grams / atoms weight
Grams of an elementary substance = g-atoms x atomic weight
G-moles of a substance = mass grams / molecular weight
Grams of a substance = g-moles x molecular weight
It is observed that all the substances in ideal gaseous state one gram mole of material at standard
contents occupies 22.414 liters.

The standards conditions are 0oC and 760 mmHg which

indicates that 34.064 grams of ammonia contains two gram moles and will occupy 2 x 22.4 liters
of volume at standard conditions.

Dr. M.Krishna Prasad, Professor, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, GMRIT, Rajam