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Yenkapally (v), moinabad (m), R.R. Dist

INTRODUCTION: Language has a very important social purpose, because it is mainly
used for linguistic communication. Linguistics is a systematic study of language.
Phonetics is a branch of linguistics and it is the branch dealing with the medium of
speech. It deals with the production, transmission and reception of the sounds of human


To speak we use a special mechanism which produces sound with the help of energizer, a
vibrator and resonators. The energizer in reality is the exhaled breath, the vocal cords act
as the vibrators and the resonators are the passages of the throat, mouth and nose. Sound
is produced by allowing the air to pass from the lungs through the wind-pipe to the mouth
or the nose, and by using the tongue and lips in various positions letting it escape. When
the air escapes through the nose either wholly or partially, nasal sounds are produced or
when it.

Most sounds of most languages are produced with a pulmonic aggressive air stream
mechanism. The air that we breathe out comes out of the lungs. Before it gets out into the
outer atmosphere, various organs in our body convert it into speech sounds. These organs
are called the organs of speech.
The organs of speech can be divided into the following three groups.
1.The respiratory system: This comprises the lungs, the muscles of the chest and
windpipe or trachea.
2. The phonatory system: This comprises the larynx.
3.The articulatory system: This comprises the nose, the teeth, the tongue, the roof of the
mouth and the lips
Sounds during which the air escapes only through the nose are called nasal sounds. To
ascertain whether a sound is oral or nasal, we can block the nostrils while articulating the
sound. If the sound stops, the sound is nasal. If we can continue to produce the sound
even after the blocking the nostrils then the sound is oral. Egg sss, mmm
Sounds that are not vowels are called consonants. In their production there is an
audible friction or modification at some place in the mouth. Consonants are classified
on the basis of

a. place of articulation
b. manner of articulation

A consonant is usually, described taking into account place of articulation and its
manner of articulation. Manner of articulation refers to the stricture involved and
plosive, affricates, nasal, fricatives etc, are labels given to consonants according to
their manner of articulation.


Place of articulation means the two articulators involved in the production of

a. Bilabial : The two lips are the articulators
Eg: /p/ ,/b/ ,/m/ as in pile, bile, mile are bilabial sounds

b. Labio-Dental : The active articulator is the lower lip and the passive articulators
are the upper front teeth eg: /f/,/v/ as in fine and vine.
c. Dental : The tip of the tongue is the active articulator and the upper front
teeth are the passive articulator eg: as in thin and them
d. Alveolar : The tip or blade of the tongue is the active articulator and the
teeth ridge is the passive articulator. Eg:/ t/,/d//,n/,/s,/ /z/ ,/l/
as in tin, nib, sin, zip, love
e. Post-Alveolar : The tip of the tongue is the active articulator and the part of the
roof of the mouth that lies immediately behind the teeth ridge is
the passive articulator eg:/ r/as in try, dry

f. Palato-Alveolar: The tip of the tongue is the active articulator and the teeth ridge is
the passive articulator. Simultaneously, the front of the tongue is
raised in the direction of the hard palate. eg: as in chin,sheep,
jeep and cheap

g. Palatal: The front of the tongue is the active articulator and hard palate is
the passive articulator eg: /j/ as in yes.
h. Velar: The back of the tongue is the active articulator and soft palate is
the passive articulator eg: final sound as in back, bag, bang.
i. Glottal: Glottal sounds are produced at the glottis and the two cords are the
articulators; eg: / h / as in hat.

Manner of articulation refers to the stricture involved and plosive, affricates, nasal,
fricatives etc, are labels given to consonants according to their manner of articulation.

a. Plosive or Stop:
Plosive are articulated with a complete closure and slow release of the air passage.
E.g.: /p/ -pin: / b/ -bin: / t / -tin: /d / -din: / k/ -kin:/ g/-gum
b. Affricate:
Sounds are articulated with complete closure and slow release of the air passage.
Eg: / ts/ - chain : /d3/ -jane
c. Fricative:
The air passage is narrowed at some place in the mouth so that the air, while
escaping causes audible friction. E.g.:/ f /-fine: /v/ -vine: / o/ -think: /d /-this: / s/
-seal: /z/ -zeal:/ / -sheep: / / -measure: / h/ -how
d. Nasal:
There is complete closure at some point in the mouth and the air is released
through the nose. E.g.: /m / -mat: / n/ -net: / n / -sung
e. Lateral:
There is complete closure of the mouth with the air escaping through the sides of
the tongue. E.g.: / l / -light
f. Approximants: An approximant is articulated with a stricture of open
approximation. That is, it is vowel-like in its articulation, but is classified as a
consonant because it always occupies the marginal c position in the structure of a
syllable. E.g.: / r/ -rat: / j / - year: / w/ - watch
Dental Alveolar Alveolar r
1 Plosive
Unvoiced p t k
Voiced b d g

2 Affricate

3 Fricative
Unvoiced f s h
Voiced v z

4 Nasal M n

5 Lateral

6 Semi – W j

7 Frictionless r


A vibrating sound is called a voiced sound (Whether high or low, produced by this
rapid opening and closing of the vocal cords is called ‘voiced’).


/p/ Pin Paper Stop

/t/ Tin Pattern Pot

/k/ Cot Packet Lock

/f/ Fall Reference: Proof

/o/ Thing Pathetic Breathe

/s/ Seen Specific Face

/h/ Heal Rehearse -

/ ts / Cheap Butcher Catch

/ / Ship - Mash

A sound without vibration is called ‘voiceless sound’ (Voiceless sounds are made
with the vocal cords drawn apart so that air can pass our freely between them and
there is no vibration)


/b/ Bin Able Job

/d/ Dear Model Build
/g/ Go Gargle Bag
/v/ Very Every Approve
/ / That Mother With
/z/ Zeal Puzzle Buzz
/d3 / Join Major Edge
/m/ Moon Family Calm
/n/ Night Concept Fine
/y/ - Bangle Sing
/l/ Love Follow Bull
/j/ Yes Accuse -
/w/ Why Quite -
/r/ Read Barrage Far(r)
/3/ - Pleasure Garage

Vowels are articulators with stricture of open approximation. That is active articulator
is raised in the direction of the passive articulator in such a way that there is sufficient
gap between them to allow the air to escape freely and continuously with out any
The tongue can assume a large number of positions during the articulation of vowels
sounds, but the upper surface of the main body of the tongue is usually convex. This
is because some part of the tongue, the front, back or center – is raised in the direction
of the roof of the mouth.

FRONT VOWELS: Front vowels are those during the articulation of which the front
of the tongue is raised in the direction of the hard palate. Eg: bee, bed, and bad.

BACK VOWELS: Back vowels are those during the articulation of which the back
of the tongue is raised in the direction of the soft palate in such a way that there is a
sufficiently wide gap between them for the air to escape without friction. Eg: cart,
cot, caught, push, pool.

CENTRAL VOWELS: Raising the centre of the tongue in the direction of that part
of the roof of the mouth where the hard and the soft palate meet produce central
vowels. Eg: cup, heard.


Symbol Initial Medial Final Symbol Initial Medial Final

/I/ Ill Fill City / / Aim Name Nay

/ I:/ Eel Seek See
/u/ - Put You / / Eye Mine Shy
/ u: / Ooze Pool Drew
/e/ End Ten - / / Oil Boil Boy
/ / Up Hut -
/ a: / Are Heart Car / / Air Caring Fair
/9/ About Towards Father
/ / Earn Firm Sir / / Ear Serious Beer
/ / Opt Shot -
/ / All Short Saw / / - During Cure
/ / Apple Cat -
/ / Over Spoke Know

/ / Out About Allow


STRESS means a distinctive sound. Not all syllables in an utterance in English are
spoken with equal emphasis. There are certain syllables which are stressed more than
others. Thus in the word “father” the first syllable / fa:/ is stressed and so it is spoken
more prominently that the second syllable . Similarly in the word “about: the
second syllable is stressed and so, is spoken prominently than the first syllable.


1. Two syllable nouns usually carry the stress on the first syllable.
Eg: `Window, `April, `problem.
2. Two syllable verbs usually carry the stress on the last syllable.
Eg: Be`gin, be`lieve, in`volve
3. Words ending with –tion or –sion carry the stress on the syllable before –tion &
Eg: revo`lution, dis`cussion, in`tention.
1. Words ending in –ic or –ical carry the stress before –ic/ical.
Eg: photo`graphic, e`lectrical, auto`matic
2. Words ending in –ity carry stress on the syllable before –ity
Eg: elec`tricity, se`curity, hu`manity
3. Words ending in –ogy, carry the stress on the syllable before –ogy
Eg: Bi`ology, psy`ology, tech`nology.
4. Compound words
a. if the compound is a noun the stress is usually on the first part of the
Eg: `waterfall, `credit-card, `greenhouse
5. If the compound is an adjective or a verb the stress is usually on the second part
of the compound.
Eg: middle-`aged, well-be`haved, over-`take.
6. If an adverb ends in in –ically, the main stress is on the fourth syllable counted
from the end.
Eg; em`phatically, eco`nomically
7. If a words ends in –ette, the main stress normally falls on the last syllable.
Eg: ciga`rette, ga`zette
8. If words with prefixes, the root is stressed.
Eg: a`head, a`lone, a`part, be`low.
9. If a words ends in –ee or eer the main stress is normally on the last syllable.
Eg: pa`yee, devo`tee, nomi`nee, engi`neer.
10. The inflexional suffixes –ed, -es and –ing do not affect the stress pattern.
Eg: Re`late re`lated
Sub`mit sub`mitted
14. In derivational suffixes –age, -ance, -en, -er, -ess, -ful, -hood, -ice, -ish, -ive, -less,
-ly, -ment, or –ship, -tor, -ure, -zen do not normally change the stress pattern.
15. In words ending in –ian or –ious the syllable preceding the suffix is stressed
Eg: Mu`sician, poli`tician, in`jurious.

INTRODUCTION: The rise and fall of the voice is called “intonation”. It is very closely
linked with stress because important changes of pitch occur with stressed syllables. These
changes generally take place on the last stressed syllable in an utterance and so this
syllable is called ‘nucleus’. Intonation performs the following main functions.

1. It distinguishes different types of utterance.

Eg: Statements, commands, questions, requests etc
2. It distinguishes speakers emotional attitude
Eg: curiosity, doubt, friendliness, formality etc.

3. It draws the attention of the listener to those parts of an utterance which the
speaker considers Importance.

Sequences of English speech fall into well defined intonation. L.E. Armstrong and
Ida.c. Ward point out that these patterns can be reduced to the following.

1. FALLING TONE: The pitch of the voice falls at the end.

a. Statements: eg: This is a good book.

b. Commands: eg: Come here
c. Questions with question words: eg: what’s this?
d. Choice questions: eg: do you want black or white coffee?
e. Exclamations: eg: How beautiful!
f. Question tags: (if they are extensions of statements. eg: it is a bright day, isn’t it?

RISING TONE: The pitch of the voice rises at the end. The rising tone usually
occurs in the following types of sentences.

a. Requests: eg: Come here, please.

b. Yes/No questions eg: Is he in the library?
c. Question tags(if the speaker has a doubt and wants confirmation or he asks a true
question) eg: They are coming to –night, aren’t they?
d. Protests eg: That wasn’t my idea.
e. Incomplete statements and enumeration. Eg: I went to the shop.

The following patterns should be kept in mind while using these intonation patterns.

1. Unstressed syllables at the beginning of an intonation pattern namely, before the first
stressed syllable in the utterance, are spoken on a low level tone.

2. If there are any stressed syllables before the nucleus, the first such syllable is spoken on a
fairly high level note and the test go down in pitch the nucleus is reached.

3. Unstressed syllables between the two stressed syllables are spoken on a level note at the
same pitch as the preceding stressed syllable.
The stressed and unstressed syllables from rhythm in English. We eel it clearly when we hear
the songs, rhymes or poems. In speech also we find certain rhythm in words, phrases and
sentences with stressed and unstressed words generally, the conjunctions, prepositions,
articles and auxiliaries are unstressed.

The Unstressed syllables accommodated between the stressed once in varying rhythmic
sequences. These are beats or presses in the music.

English poem contains a stress lined rhythm. That is strongly accented syllables have
tendency to occur at regular intervals of time, irrespective of the weak or unaccented

OBJECTIVE: To make students aware of the role of speaking in English and its
contribution to their success. To enable students to express themselves fluently and
appropriately in social and professional contexts.


Role play is a situation where people get the effective power of self expressing their
Ideas .There is three types of role plays.




• Take place between acquaintances, between elders, between new friends,

between colleagues at work place, between neighbors, between distant relatives
• Semi formal dialogues have a mixture of formal and informal expressions; and
the language used is not as rigid as that is used in formal dialogues.


• Take place between intimate friends, between relatives, between the members of a
family, between intimate colleagues
• Informal Dialogues are both short and lengthy depending up on the situation. Purpose
and persons involved in conversation; the language used is both simple and
unconventional; many colloquial expressions and words are used; they sometimes
begin abruptly and end abruptly.


Tina and rina were school friends and met each other after a long time!

Tina : Hai Reena, What a surprise! How are you?

Reena : Yeah! I am fine; we met after long time my dear.
Tina : What are you doing now? I’m very happy to see you.
Reena : Even me. I’m very much excited. I’m doing B.Pharm in J.B. Pharmacy.
Tina : Even I’m doing the same, but in Bhaskara pharmacy.
Reena : Where are you living and what about your parents.
Tina : I’m saying here, my parents shifted for me. What about your studies and where
are you living.
Reena : I’m studying well. I’m staying in hostel. We had very lovely days in our school
Tina : Really! I used to remember those days frequently.
Reena : Keep in touch with me. This is my address and phone no.
Tina : Take my phone no. I want to talk many more things but I have some work.
Reena : It’s okay! I’ll catch you afterwards.
Tina : Bye. Take care my dear.
Reena : Okay! By

Presentation and reports are ways of communicating ideas and information to a group. A
presentation carries the speaker’s personality better and allows immediate interaction
between all the participants.
A good presentation has
1. Content
2. Structure
3. Packaging
4. Human element
It contains information that people need. Presentations must account for how much
information the audience can absorb in one sitting.
It is a logical beginning, middle and end. It must be sequenced and placed so that the
audience can understand it. The speaker must be careful not to loose the audience while
discussing the main point of the presentation.
It must be well prepared. The audience is at the mercy of the presenter
A good presentation will be remembered because it has a person attached to it. But you
still need to analyze, if the audience needs would be better met by the presentation.

I.VOICE: the voice is probably the most valuable tool of the presenter. It carries most of
the content that the audience takes away. One of the oddities of the speech is that we can
easily tell others what is wrong with their voice. Eg.too fast, too high, too soft etc., but
we have trouble listening to and changing our own voices.
There are four main terms used for defining vocal qualities.
• VOLUME: how loud the sound is, good speakers lower their voice to draw the
audience in, and rise it to make a point.
• TONE: the characteristics of a sound. A voice that carries fear can frighten the
audience, while a voice that carries laughter can get the audience to smile.
• PITCH: how high or low a note is.
• PACE: this is how long a sound lasts. Talking too fast carries the words and
syllables to be short, while talking slowly lengthens them. Varying the pace helps
us to maintain audience interest.
II.THE BODY: your body communicates different impressions to the audience. People
not only listen to you, they also watch you. Slouching tells that you are indifferent or you
do not care even though you might care a great deal. On the other hand displaying a good
posture tells your audience that you know what you are doing and care deeply about it.
Also a good posture helps you to speak more clearly and efficiently.
Throughout the presentation display
 EYE CONTACT: this helps to regulate the flow of communication. It signals
interest in others and increases the speaker’s credibility. Speakers who make eye
contact open the flow of communication and convey interest concern warmth and
 FACIAL EXPRESSIONS: smiling is a powerful cue that transmits happiness,
friendliness, warmth and liking. So if you smile frequently you will be perceived
as more likable, friendly and approachable. Smiling is contagious and others will
react favorably. They will be more comfortable around you and will want to listen
to you more and more.
 GESTURES: if you fail to gesture while speaking, you may be perceived as
boring and stiff. A lively speaking style captures attention, makes the material
more interesting and facilitates understanding
 POSTURE AND BODY ORIENTATION: standing and leaning forward
communicates that you are approachable, respective and friendly. Interpersonal
closeness results when you and your audience face each other. Speaking with our
back turned or looking at the floor or ceiling should be avoided as it
communicates disinterest.
 PROXIMITY: cultural norms dictate comfortable distance for interaction with
others. You should look for signals of discomfort caused by invading others
space. Some of these are- rocking, leg swinging, tapping,, and gaze aversion.
Typically in large rooms space invasion is not a problem. In most instances there
is too much distance. To counteract this move around the room to interaction with
your audience. Increasing the proximity enables you to make better eye contact
and increases the opportunity for others to speak.
 VARY YOUR VOICE: one of the major criticisms of speakers is that they speak
in a monotone voice. Listeners perceive this type of speaker as boring and dull.
People report that they learn less and loose interest more quickly when listening
to those who have not learnt to modulate their voices.

III.TENSION; The main enemy of a presenter is tension which ruins the voice, posture
and spontaneity. First do not fight nerves, welcome them. Then you can get on with the
presentation instead of focusing in on being nervous. Performing some relaxation
exercises can reduce tension.

IV QUESTIONS: Always allow time at the end of the presentation for questions. Pause
for about six seconds to allow the audience to gather their thoughts. When answering
direct your remarks to the entire audience. To reinforce your presentation, try to relate the
question back to the main points.

PREPARING THE PRESENTATION: Great presentations require some planning. A

presentation follows the same basic guidelines as preparing for a meeting. Such as
acquiring a room, informing participants, etc. the second step is to prepare the
presentation. A good presentation starts out with introductions that needs an objective
that is, the purpose or goal of the presentation. Next, comes the body of the presentation.
Jotting down the main points on a set of index cards is the best method. After the body
comes the closing. This is where you ask for questions, provide a summary and thank the
participants for attending.

OBJECTIVE: To make student aware of the role of speaking in English and it’s
contributing to their success. To enable students to express themselves fluently and
appropriately in social and professional contexts.

Just a minute is an oral presentation. The participant is going to make a small
presentation on the dais before a group of audience. The participant makes a brief speech
on any one of the selected subjects. For a good just a minute presentation, the participant
is expected to possess the communication skills.

These communication skills may be broadly divided into three called

1, language competence
2. Eye-contact
3. Kinesics

1. LANGUAGE COMPETENCE; language competence deals with three aspects. They

are fluency, accuracy and appropriacy. Fluency is connected with vocabulary. So the
participant should be capable of using different kinds of word form in a correct manner.
Accuracy deals with grammar. The participant should learn the various rules and
regulations regarding the usage of words. Appropriacy is connected with coloration. The
participant should be capable of using the apt word for apt situation.

II.EYE-CONTACT: In any oral presentation, the eye-contact a major role. The

participant is expected to look into the eyes of his or her audience so that the audience
pays attention on his speech. Good eye contact would give a lot of confidence to the

3. KINESICS: kinesics, gestures or body language plays a major role in oral

presentation. The participant should possess an optimistic attitude. A short smile at the
start of the speech makes the participant confident and the audience will be interested.
The participant is free to move his limbs a bit to explain his subject effectively. But his
movements should be limited. Facial expressions too play a vital role in the success of a
JAM. Session.

The participant has to pay attention on the situation and the audience. His or her
preparation should be according to the audience. After all the audience satisfaction is the
most needed thing. JAM may consist of two stages. One is called preparation. Under
preparation the participant drafts the speech. The second stage is called execution. He
encodes his speech according to the needs of the audience. Finally, he would conclude
the summary of the speech. It is a time-bound presentation and therefore, the participant
should prepare meticulously before executing his plan of action

OBJECTIVE: to make the students aware of the role of speaking in English and its
contribution to their success. To enable students to express themselves fluently and
appropriately in social and professional contexts

• The subject of a description can be people and places, objects or processes and
• To write a good description we should know why it is written and whom it is
written for.
• Because describing something involves recreating your experiences and
impressions, it is important that you perceive accurately the subject of your
description before you begin writing.
• Be as specific as you can and give as many details as possible.
• Avoid using general, vague or abstract words in your description.
• In describing processes and mechanisms, remember to use the passive voice and
also follow a sequence that can be indicated by words such as firstly, secondly,
then, next and finally.

Introduction: how do we describe objects? We may start with physical description of the
object, such description that includes part of a more comprehensive description, which
includes information of the objects, characteristics and features. In other words it includes
particular description of he whole object. The objects may be anything, a pen, a book, a
computer, a car, a bike and many others.
The description of objects includes the description of the whole thing. We may start with
the invention of the thing, i.e. The person who invented the particular thing. Then going
for its physical description, its advantages and disadvantages. Let us consider the below
EXAMPLE OF OBJECTS. Pen, book, pencil, computer, car, some types of machines,
some cooking things, household things and others.

Description of a pen. Pen was invented by Germans. Pen consists of two major parts i.e.
Outer part and inner refill. The outer part provides good grip for writing. The refill
consists of ink it is for the purpose of writing. The principle of working of pen is mainly
due to capillary action, according to physics. In market now a days a wide variety of pens
are available according to our comfort. A student cannot be anywhere without pen. That
is the role of pen in, life of literates.

Describing a situation:
Describing a situation is called a collected report. Reporting to a person, public thorough
news channels through live telecast, through newspaper and some other modes of
communication. The situation may be any incident, accident or mishap that occurs in our
regular life.
To describe a situation one is very cautious, using exact vocabulary because the words
diffuse or show or manifest exact meaning of situation. E.g. shouldn’t use the word,
‘accident’ or ‘mishap’ because mishap = minor accident, accident= a severe accident.

Examples of situations: political issues, crime activities, natural disasters, accidents,

strikes, suicidal attempts, and family conflicts.
Sometimes to develop student’s communication in describing a situation one can be
given an imaginary situation.

Example: the train Delta Express from Secunderabad to Guntur that was derailed in
2006. This is the situation.
The train ran fast with uncontrollable energy and dashed the platform. Two bogies were
severely damaged and others were partially damaged. Nearly 40 people were killed in
this accident. Train drivers (railway) department said that owing to brake failure this
accident had occurred. Hospital people immediately responded to this situation and had
taken the bodies.


INTRODUCTION: how do we describe people? We may start wit physical description

of the person. Such description which includes part of a more comprehensive description
which includes the description of the characters of the person when you write your
curriculum vitae you are actually describing yourself.
A good description is to a great extent depends on accurate observation without
hackneyed phrases and clichés. When we describe someone we have to concentrate on
the unique characteristics of the persons. When we describe someone we should be
concerned with what makes a person different from others rather than giving a list of
what makes him similar.

Hair: a man of still faintly reddish hair flying gallantly behind his collar.
Red: without turning white, golden, grey, pepper and salt, tinge or brown
Eyes: the wideness of his eyes, yellow, blue, faded blue, virile electric blue, charcoal
black, sand stone grey.
Nose: large, color of strawberry, with brown freckles, walnut brown.
Lips: dark, mixture of pink and brown, tobacco stained, red brown.
Complexion: whitish brown golden, fair and dark, yellow, pink.
Words pertaining to shapes: broad and square shoulders, curves, s-shaped, perfect sphere,
rotundity, and straight lines.

EXAMPLE: Describing old man: The old man was a large framed man of more than
average height perhaps above 70 with a pink complexion and a mane of still faintly red
hair. It was, infact red hair which has lost a little of its ardyer, without turning white and
the result was remarkable shade, golden in some lights. He had beard and moustache,
which curled diligently, were of the same ting. Though the whites eyes were peculiarly
specked with yellow but his most remarkable feature was his nose. It was a large nose,
red and bulbous.


AIM: To expose the students to variety of self instructional, learner-friendly modes of

language learning.

1. Information in verbal form can be made clearer and easier to understand by
presenting it in graphic or pictorial form.
2. Pictorial representation has many advantages.
-Allows quickly and easy viewing of large amount of data.
-Quicker to locate required information in graphic than in a written text.
-Data relating to a long period of time or to a large number of people can
Be effectively summarized.
-Convenient to use in making comparisons involving large amount of data.
3. The different types of graphic representation you could use to supplement
your writing is: tables, bar charts, maps, graphs, pie charts, tree
Diagrams, flow charts, and pictograms.
4. When you need to use a graphic form of communication, choose form that
will present your data clearly, accurately and in an interesting manner.
5. When information is presented graphically, you should be able to I
interpret or analyze it.
6. Transferring information from textual to graphic form and, conversely,
from pictorial to verbal form are both important and useful skills.

I.TABLE: In its simple form, a table is a group of rows and columns of data. At the top
of each column is a column heading, which defines or identifies the contents of that
S.No Particulars 1995 1996 1997 1998 Total
1 Doctors 250 100 200 50 600
2 Engineers 300 150 100 20 570
3 Graduates 200 150 200 30 580
4 Technicians 100 150 200 10 460
column land often it indicates the unit of measurement. On the left of the table, may be
row headings, which defines or identify the context of the row. In short it is a systematic
manner or arrangement of data in columns and rows.

Interpretation of data through table:

The details are presented in the form of table. Many graduates were registered in the
employment exchange of Hyderabad. In 1995,250 doctors, 300 engineers, 200 graduates
and 100 technicians were registered. 100 doctors, 150 engineers, 150 graduates, and 150
technicians were registered in 1996. 200 doctors, 100 engineers, 200 graduates, and 200
technicians were registered in 1997. 50 doctors, 20 engineers, 30 graduates and 10
technicians were registered in 1998.

II. BAR GRAPH: A bar graph is a diagram showing a system of connections or interrelations
between two or more things by using bars. It can be used to display a wide variety of
information. To construct a bar graph determine the following elements.
-Title of the graph
-Label for each axis
-Scale for each axis
-Draw a set of axis that you will use to construct your graph.






Text: In the bar diagram the changing prices of a bag of rice in a town from January to
May s presented. In January the prices of bag of rice was only one thousand rupees. It has
increased to one thousand and hundred in February. The price is Rs.1250, Rs.1350 and
Rs.1400 in March, April and May respectively.

III.PIE CHART: A pie chart provides a visual representation of data as slice is. The
sizes of each slice are calculated such hat the total sum of all the data will represent the
full 360-pie circle. A pie chart is a circle, which is divided into parts. Each segment
represents a certain fraction or percentage of the whole

Slice 7 1st Qtr

Slice 6 0% 10%
2nd Qtr

3rd Qtr

4th Qtr
Slice 5

Text: The details of the expenditure of Mr.Gopal are shown in the pie chart. He earns
Rs.10, 000 a month. He spends Rs.3, 500 on food and clothing. It is equal to 35% of his
income, a major portion. He pays 10% of his income i.e. Rs.1000 towards rent. He
spends Rs.500 on entertainment. He gives Rs.1500 to his parents. He spends Rs.1000 on
other items. The total expenditure is Rs.7, 500. He saves Rs.2, 500. it is equal to 25% of
his income.
Tree Diagram: A tree diagram is an organizer to help us to list possible outcomes of an
experiment. It works as an if /then statement. It is a graphical representation of the
separation of the board, general information into increasing levels of detail. To make a
tree diagram:
-Identify the goal statement
-Subdivide the goal statement into major secondary categories.
-Break each major heading into greater detail
-Make sure that each sub heading and path has a direct cause and effect relationship with
the one before.
Text: The structure of the family of Dasaratha is shown in the tree diagram Dasaratha has
four sons. Rama, Laxmana, Bharatha and Shatrugna. He has no daughters. His eldest son
Rama married sita. He had two sons Lava and Kusha.

FLOW CHART: A flow chart illustrates the step in process. By visualizing the process,
a low chart can quickly help to identify bottlenecks where the process can be streamlined
or improved. To complete a flow chart:
-Describing the process to be charted making use of one-line statements.
-Start with ‘trigger’ event.
-N-Go with the main flow.
-Make cross-references to ‘the supporting information’.
-Follow the process through to a useful conclusion.

TEXT: first the ground must be leveled. Heavy machines called bulldozers are used for
this purpose. The road is made in layers. First a layer of hard core is put down.
The hard core consists of gravel, crushed stone and other similar materials. Then a thick
layer of asphalt mixed with crushed stone or gravel is put on top. Asphalt is rather like
tar. It must be put down and spread while it is hot. A machine called road maker spreads
the asphalt. A heavy roller then smooths the road surface.


DEFINITION: A debate is a line of argument where two groups of people participate
and try to prove their thoughts, ideas or objectives.

Time duration: speeches should be seven minutes in duration

1. Language- most debates are in English

2. Acknowledge the adjudicators and address them in an honorable language.
3. Speakers must use proper language- bad language is not permitted.
4. The use of props is not permitted.
5. The speakers are evenly divided on both sides equally. Speakers for the topic are
called the’ affirmative speakers’ and speakers against the topic are called’
‘negative speakers’.
6. The opening speaker has to define the topic. If the definition is unreasonable or
irrelevant, the opening opposition speaker may challenge the definition but if the
definition is relevant or just doesn’t suit the opening negative speaker attempting
to redefine may not go down well with the adjudicators? If a definition is given
and all the other speakers or teams completely ignore it then the defining speaker
is affectively out of the debate. Definitions must also be fair and debatable.
‘Truistic’ and self-proving arguments are not accepted.
7. The last speaker in each side is expected to sum up his/her side’s argument and
rebut or refute the arguments of the other side. Last speakers should not add any
new information to the debate.
8. Rebuttal basically involves rippling the opposing side’s argument apart and
exposing its weak points.
9. Be careful to avoid leaving statements hanging in mid-air.
10. Specialized knowledge should not be used to unfairly define a topic.
11. Heckling and barracking are common in debates but members of the audience
should respect the speaker while barracking.
12. Remember you do not necessarily have to believe the side of the topic you are on.
You just have to make appear as though you strongly believe in it.
13. Though the audiences heckle you, not matter how bad your speech is try to stay
for full time.

• 1st opening affirmative speaker
• 1st opening negative speaker
• 2nd affirmative speaker
• 2nd negative speaker
• 3rd closing affirmative speaker
• 3rd closing negative speaker


Research is vital to win the debate. Remember that argument is the most important part of
your speech and your research should back it up.
1. Internet. 2. Library 3.Books 4.Journals 5.T.V & radio 6. Brainstorming.

• Win the audience, perhaps with a joke
• Don’t rebut another speakers speech
• Define your speech(i.e.) say what you will address and how
• Ideally be able to state your argument in a single, short sentence.
• Define your team approach
• Lay out your argument as best to propose /oppose on 3 points.
• Sum up the point as quickly as possible without introducing any new point
• Restate the core sentence as the last thing you say in conclusion.

Speaking style is the most difficult aspects of debating. Always keep in mind the
following points.
1. Speak clearly and loudly enough so your voice can b e heard by everyone.
2. Try to avoid monotone and use proper stress and intonation.
3. Keep eye contact with the audience and don’t stare at the podium. Move your gaze
to different parts of the hall regularly.
4. Use your body language to back up your hands, which may distract the
5. Don’t stand strictly behind the podium but move around a bit and face different
sections of the audience.
6. Don’t be too complicated or too elaborate.,
7. Use humor to help to win over all the audience and make your speech stand out.
The best things to do is watching other speakers and see how they combine the
various elements.
 1ST affirmative opening speaker defines the topic of the debate, but it must
be clearly b e linked to the debate. While defining it is made sure that the
speaker has an argument.
 1st negative opening speaker outlines and develops his case and then deals
with the options made by the 1st affirmative speaker and states the reasons for
his opposition.
 2nd affirmative speaker backs up his teammate and clarifies in detail that his
teammate said.
 2nd negative speaker double the amount of time rebutting and supporting his
teammates rebuttal. Constructive opposition always looks better than mere
opposition for opposition’s sake.
 3rd affirmative speaker sums up his teams side line and rebuts the opposition
3 negative speaker rebuts and sums up. Ideally he uses a summary of what has
been said by the opposition till now as his rebuttal. He uses his last minute to sum up
the entire debate and not


To make the students aware of the role of speaking in English and its contribution to their
success. To enable students to express themselves fluently and appropriately in social and
professional contexts.

INTRODUCTION: Telephones are one of the most commonly used modes of

communication. It is also a difficult form of communication because the person at the
other end of the line cannot see the facial expressions and gestures. Your ability to
communicate clearly can make the difference in completing a successful conversation.

• Common method of communication

• Difficult because callers can’t see each other
• Success requires clarity.


Definition: answering the phone well is important for the simple reason for it makes a
good impression on the caller.
1. Answer a call in different situations
2. Skillfully handling simultaneous calls.

DEFINITION; while attending a call speak clearly, use polite words, and listen
attentively to the callers because voice makes the most impact while answering the call.
 If it is the first time caller, the first words you speak will make a lasting
 Warmth and helpful manner reflect well on the organization.
 Intonation of the caller is important.
Opening expressions:
1.’’Artspeak, Good morning”
2.”Art speak, how may I help you”
3.”Customer service, how can I direct your call?”
4.”Hello, this is Buro”.
5.“Sheila speaking”

Ending expressions:
1.”I’ll look forward to your call”
2.”It was nice talking to you”
3.”Good bye, or “Bye”
4.”I’ll see you on (a particular day)”
5.”Take care, bye”

There are some skills that are essential to have successful telephonic conversations.
o Managing your voice.
o Building confidence.
o Controlling the call environment.
Since the other person on the line can’t see your face, he/she interprets your moods or
feelings from your voice.
-Speak at a normal pace and volume.
-Try to smile while talking on phone.
The other person on the call may feel your smile even though he/ she can’t see

 Know your material
 Know your caller
 Involve the other person
 Smile
 Relax
 Establish credibility early
 Learn name and title
 Accept that some fear is good
 Try to be less formal
 Always be polite
 Don’t waste time
 Use an agenda
 Be natural
 Anticipate problem
How to let the person on the other end know that he/she has your underlined attention, it
is not always possible to control disturbances and call environment.
To make the call environment more pleasant:
 Handle one call at a time
 If conversation is of a sensitive matter, try to have it behind closed doors
 Focus your eyes on your notepad so that you don’t get distracted
 Concentrate on your call.

 Don’t respond to call waiting signals.
 Don’t let colleagues interrupt you.
 Don’t doodle top of a person or cap.



To make the students aware of the role of speaking in English and its contribution to their
success. To enable students to express themselves fluently and appropriately in social and
professional contexts.
INTRODUCTION: “Tone’ plays an important role in asking for and giving directions.
Asking for directions is a part of asking for information. So, the expressions you must use
must always be forms.
• Please tell me where the post office is?
• How far is your house from your office?
• Could you tell the way to the railway station, please?
• Would you mind telling me the way to the bus stand, please?
• I wonder if you could tell me how to reach the Andhra Bank head office.
• Do you, by any chance, know where HSBS Company is?


 T-junction
 Cross roads
 Round about
 Traffic lights
 Y-junction
 Across a railway crossing
 Under railway bridge
 Parallel to the canal
 Walk along the road
 Go by the street
 On the first floor
 Take turn to your right/left
 Go straight across.

A flat is in Habsiguda, Hyderabad. It is on the outskirts of the town. It is quite a long
way from the central bus station. It is just few kilometers fro the airport.
To find it from the bus station, you turn left out of the main gate, go straight on till
you reach the T-junction, turn left again follow the main road across the traffic lights,
over the next cross roads. Turn left here and go straight till you reach a cinema hall.
Ignore all the lanes and by lanes on your way. From the lake you take a small turning to
your left. As you do this you find yourself in Habsiguda street number 8.this road takes
you to Warangal highway. Turn left. It is opposite to CFTA. Our building is the last on in
the street. It is a stored building and my flat is on the 1 st floor. After you enter the main
gate of our complex, go up the first flight by stairs or take the lift up to the 1st floor.