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INTRODUCTION TO HRM

The philosophy of managing human beings, as a concept was founded and developed in
Ancient Literature in general and in Indian Philosophy in particular.

The HR function was enriched itself, over the years by including within it, a ‘Development
Dimension’ and thus moved itself from a ‘Reactive’ and ‘Maintenance Oriented’ function
to a ‘Proactive’, ‘Path-Breaking’, Development Oriented Function. In present
organizations, HR functions are viewed as ‘change agents.’

Sustained competitive advantage is possible through innovations, creativity and continued


improvement. This is possible only through people. Hence, focus is given to employees.
Ex. The Japanese Management.

The responsibility of the development of Human Resources and Management of Personnel


is not the sole responsibility of the HR Department. It is the concern of all the departments.
Good HRD practices can influence financial and other performance indicators of the
Corporation by generating employee satisfaction, which in turn can influence customer
satisfaction.

There is ample research and experimental data to suggest this. Any practices that deal with
enhancing competencies, commitment and culture building can be considered as an HR
practice. The activity can take the form of a system, a process, a norm, a rule, an expected
habit or just a way of doing things. Human Resource Development has been defined as
essentially consisting of the three C’s: Competencies, Commitment and Culture. All three
are needed to make an organization to function well.

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MEANING OF HRM

Human Resource Management is a series of integrated decisions that form the employment
relationship; their quality contributes to the ability of the organizations and the employees
to achieve their objective.

SCOPE OF HRM

The scope of HRM is indeed vast. All major activities in the working life of a worker, from
the time of his/her entry into an organization until he/she leaves, comes under the purview
of HRM. We can categorize the scope of HRM as Introduction to HRM, Employee Hiring,
Employee and Executive Remuneration, Employee Motivation, Employee Maintenance,
Industry Relations, Prospects of HRM etc.

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OBJECTIVES OF HRM

Social Objective

To be ethically and socially responsible to the need and challenges of the society while
minimizing the negative impact of such demands upon the organization. It includes legal
compliance, benefits, union-management relations etc.

Organizational Objective

To recognize the role of HRM in bringing about organizational effectiveness. It includes


human resource planning, employee relations, selection, training and development,
appraisal, placement, assessment etc.

Functional Objective

To maintain the department’s contribution at a level appropriate to the organization’s


needs. It includes appraisals, placement, assessment etc.

Personal Objective

To assist employees in achieving their personal goals, at least in so far, as these goals
enhance the individual’s contribution to the organization. It includes training and
development, appraisal, placement, compensation, assessment etc.

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INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY

“Mid career employees and managers who should be at their peak of productivity are the
most dissatisfied segment of the workforce. The companies need to find ways to rekindle
the fires of this vast neglected group of people – or risk losing them all together.”
(Managing Middlescence: Morrison, Roberts & Dychwalt, Ken. Harward Business
Review, March 2006.)

Hippock defines Job Satisfaction as, “any combination of psychological, physiological and
environment circumstances that causes a person truthfully to say, ‘I am satisfied with my
job’”

The Executive Satisfaction Survey is an important tool to help the management understand
the views and aspirations of its workforce. Most organizations conduct employee opinion
surveys at some time. The Senior Management will say that surveying their executives is
indicative of their concern for people, and that the survey process should result in well-
motivated, productive and quality conscious officials; these same managers are often
perplexed because, no matter how many surveys they conduct, productivity and quality do
not improve.

To improve executive morale and decrease their attrition, the executive satisfaction surveys
can be a useful management tool.

In addition to an interview with the management and the employees, we examine


professional journals to better understand the needs at hand.

Secondly, we develop a survey based on the requirements stated. In developing the survey,
we evaluate the questions that are necessary to assess a particular domain of satisfaction,
and reviewing sampling methodologies and question formats.

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Thirdly, administering the survey, write – up the findings, prepare an executive summary
and provide suggestions.

In constructing the survey, we are mindful of the reliability and validity of the instrument.
Reliability refers to the consistency of the responses and the effect on the measurement
error. For example, test-retest reliability or parallel forms of the survey may be employed
to assess the stability of the responses. Scales of high reliability distinguishes domains
more accurately than scales with low reliability; reliable assessment leads to an accurate
discovery of relationships among variables.

Validity refers to measuring what you think you are measuring. Content validity, criterion-
related validity, and construct validity assess the degree to which we can assure we can
measure what wee intend to measure.

People in the organizations are the most valuable assets. Most of the
organizations spend their resources in order to extract the best from them. As
it is rightly said, “man power is considered to be the dynamic factors because
without man power, things are just unimaginable to be done.”

JOB SATISFACTION SURVEY

Here, since the survey is concentrated on the middle management, its referred
to as Executive Satisfaction Survey. The development of customized surveys
help to assess the executive’s population’s attitudes and perceptions. This
feedback helps us to determine the organizational strengths and areas of
development for ongoing growth and profitability.

The information gathered from the Executive Satisfaction Surveys can give
the Management at large, knowledge that directly impacts the bottom line
employees which therefore triggers pressures in the managerial levels.

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These are some of the ways and means in which positive executive relations
are fostered:-

1. Identifying cost-saving opportunities


2. Curbing absenteeism
3. Strengthening supervision
4. Assessing training needs
5. Streamlining communication
6. Benchmarking the organization’s progress in relation to the industry

TEN REASONS FOR CONDUCTING AN EXECUTIVE


SATISFACTION SURVEY

1. It produces useful quantifiable information about issues of concern. It reveals where the
actions should be taken to generate immediate positive results.
2. It identifies areas where the organization is doing well. It identifies and ensures where
the organization is doing well in terms of its executive’s performance satisfaction.
It identifies the strengths one can build on, and offers opportunity for giving praise where
deserved.
3. It reinforces the organizational values.
4. It improves communication and trust.
5. It can promote greater commitment and reduce turnover.
6. An organization can use it to build better leaders.
7. It enables to measure change over time.
8. An organization can use it to float proposed corporate changes.
9. It offers a reality check.
10. It aims at improving the productivity.

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THE EXECUTIVE SATISFACTION PROCESS

 Determining the need to survey


 Setting the survey to the management
 Selecting the methodology
 When to require questioning
 Proofing and testing
 Marketing and survey
 Inviting the officials
 Obtain high response rates
 Selecting the norms to use
 Interpreting the results
 Action on the results

WHY MEASURE EXECUTIVE SATISFACTION?

Many organizations conduct executive satisfaction surveys. They are based on the premise
that happy, enthusiastic officials will perform more effectively. If the areas are found where
the they are not satisfied, initiatives can be taken to address the areas of dissatisfaction.
This should provide benefits in the areas of:-

 Retention
 Identifying reasons for unauthorized absence
 Executive performance level
 Product service quality
 Customer satisfaction
 Market share
 Profit

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So, an effort to improve the executive satisfaction should lead to an improvement in the
quality of the products or services, due to timely decisions taken, leadership ability, a
competitive advantage, increased market share and improved profits.

By conducting the survey, one can send a message to the executives that their views are of
interest to the management. This can effect their perceptions to a large degree and its most
important to remember that it creates expectations. Executives might conclude that the top
management would not ask about working conditions, if they were not willing to consider
to improving them. If the survey shows dissatisfaction about the working conditions,
however and you do nothing about them, and after a year has gone by, another survey
comes out asking about working conditions, the executive’s perception of an attitudes
towards them and the survey process will dramatically change. Typically, the response rate
will diminish and the cynicism of the response will increase.

This incidental effect of running the survey must not be overlooked but it is not the main
purpose of the survey, whose role is as a diagnostic tool, not part of the treatment.

If the company’s objective is to improve employee performance, we can help them to


measure and then target for improvement in the satisfaction measures, which do seem to be
related to the performance.

Measuring executive satisfaction

Executive satisfaction drives employee satisfaction and thus, customer satisfaction,


indirectly creating profit for an organization. Research on the service-profit chain shows
that satisfied executives are far better than unsatisfied ones at delivering excellent customer
service and hence enhancing customer satisfaction with the organization’s
products/services.

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ADMINSTRATION OF EXECUTIVE SATISFACTION SURVEY

Executive Satisfaction Survey is now easy to administer. With the Custom Insight Survey
Administrator, one can create online survey that executives in an organization can
complete. Employees will appreciate the convenience, case of use and the anonymity that
custom insight surveys provide. Once executives respond to executive’s survey, the
management can generate the full color reports that will highlight the strong and the weak
areas within the organization
Examples of executive assessments delivered with custom insight survey administrator.
1. Executive Satisfaction Survey
2. Executive Attitude Survey
3. Executive Performance Survey
4. Organizational Culture and Effectiveness Survey
5. Group Feedback and Team Building Surveys
6. 360-Degree Ratings

DIMENSIONS OF EXECUTIVE SATISFACTION SURVEY

Each item in an executive satisfaction survey is combined with other related survey
systems to produce dimensions. HR solutions survey solidly measures the following key
aspects of employee satisfaction.

• Overall job satisfaction


• Satisfaction with work
• Co – workers performance and their co-operation
• Pay satisfaction
• Promotions
• Supervisory considerations
• Communication
• Personnel policies

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• Concern for colleagues
• Productivity/efficiency
• Training and Development
• Physical working conditions
• Customer service
• Strategy/mission
• Job stress

HR solutions also give the choice to create own customized service dimensions, which
accurately measure topics of particular importance to the organization.
Organization and individual should develop and progress simultaneously for their survival
and attainment of mutual goals. So, every modern management has to develop the
organization through Human Resource Development.

SATISFACTION SURVEYS

Satisfied customers and employees ensure the business success. Knowing customer and
employee needs and achieving satisfaction are the basis for successful business activities.
The employees and customers’ feedback are the most important source of information for
improving products and services. Satisfied and convinced customers and employees ensure
the company’s success in the long term. Customer surveys and employee surveys provide
the company with this feedback:

• Motivate employees with higher levels of productivity


• Inspire employee trust, respect and loyalty
• Manage differences, including but not limited to gender, age, ethnicity, education,
personality, experience and values
• Hone presentation skills to influence and persuade

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• Manage conflicts constructively
• Help people think in new and innovative ways
• Manage performance, using the most current , updated tools and systems
• Develop win-win agreements with internal and external customers

1.1 INTRODUCTION OF THE RESEARCH TOPIC:

“ A Study on Job Satisfaction in the Software Industry with special focus to the Middle
Management Group” was carried out by me in Bangalore during the period of the
dissertation.

1.2 BACKGROUND OF THE RESEARCH TOPIC

When we conduct the research to ascertain how the executives feel about any organization
and their situation in it, we call it an “EXECUTIVE SATISFACTION SURVEY”

Every organization would probably agree that executives are most likely to be successful in
delivering customer satisfaction if they are themselves satisfied with their work and the
environment in which they work in. So, organizations take as much interest in executive
satisfaction as it will do in customer satisfaction and therefore term the survey as
“EXECUTIVE SATISFATION SURVEY”

Executive satisfaction survey allows an organization to understand executive perceptions.


Perceptions are reality. As employees at any organization act on the basis on their
perceptions, management must be keenly aware of the executives’ view.

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RESEARCH DESIGN

2.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

To study the job satisfaction of the middle management, working in the Software Industry.
Its imperative to understand the satisfaction of the executives because nowadays there is
increasing rate of attrition. Therefore, companies are doing their best to retain the best
talent pool within the organization.

2.2 NEED FOR THE STUDY

In these days, the job satisfaction of the employees is having a vital role in each and every
business sector because of its HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT. This study is very
helpful to know the management of human resources in practical concerns. This study will
help the top management to understand the mindset of the executives and make necessary
changes for a satisfied workforce to enhance productivity and efficiency.

2.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The study has the following objectives:


a. To identify the criteria for job satisfaction in an organization
b. To evaluate the employee’s job satisfaction level on the basis of the criteria identified
c. To study the level of responsibility of the middle management officials

2.4 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

The purpose of review of literature is analyzing the job satisfaction of the


middle management officials. It also assists in knowing the various attributes
which influences their behavior. It helped in finding the perceptions, and
precise and elaborate information required for the study.

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Some others who have made a study in this regard are:-
1. Hippock (1935): in his monograph ‘Job Satisfaction’
He proposed the following six major components of job satisfaction:-
- Individual’s reaction to unpleasant situations
- Facility of adjusting with other individuals
- Standing in the socio-economic group with which he has been
identified
- Relationship between demands of job and employee’s abilities,
interests and training
- Security
- Loyalty
2. Evans and Laseau (1950): Made a study on employee attitudes
Dissatisfaction arising from off-the-job factors frequently reacts to job
conditions and also that low job adjustment co-exists with low social and
personnel adjustment
3. Shaik (1994): Conducted and enquiry in to the relationship between
attitudes of management and job satisfaction
4. Srivatsava (1992): Conducted a study to evaluate the relationship between
job satisfaction and need satisfaction. Indicated that overall job satisfaction
was negatively correlated with the basic needs. The other four needs showed
no significant relationship with overall job satisfaction

BENEFITS OF REVIEW OF LITERATURE

The study undertaken here is to determine the job satisfaction of the middle
management officials in the software industry. It is very essential to understand the
industry at large before venturing into studying the specifics of it. Review of literature

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helps in understanding the industry and the topic in great detail. It further helped in the
documentation and thereby the successful completion of the study.

2.5 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

According to Clifford Woody research comprises of “defining, redefining problem,


formulating hypothesis or suggested solution, collecting, organizing and evaluating data,
making deductions and reading conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating
hypothesis”.
It is a way to systematic solution of the research problem. The encyclopedia of
social science defines research as the manipulation of generalizing to expand, correct or
verify knowledge. The researcher needs to understand the assumption underlying various
techniques and procedures that will be applicable to certain problem. This means that it is
necessary for the researcher to design its methodology.
There are various factors such as the personal factors as well as the organizational
factors that motivate a person to join this industry. Thus the questionnaire will be directed
towards the respondents to understand the factors and the preferences by the use of rating
scales.

The primary focus of the study was to measure the employee satisfaction and their
perception on their work, relations, career growth etc within the organization that leads to
their disengagement in their duties and responsibilities that trigger them to find for the best
suitable work place. These lead to attrition of employees in the organization. This will also
help in knowing the perception of the employees, towards their benefits given by the
company. The research design employed for the purpose of the study was directive in
nature and a simple survey was conducted for the purpose of generation.

SAMPLING
All items under study in any field of survey is known as a universe or population. A
complete enumeration of all items in the population is census enquiry, which is not

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practically possible. Thus sample design is done which basically refers to the definition
plan defined by any data collection for obtaining a sample from a given population.

SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
The sampling technique used in this study is purposive in nature as we are concentrating on
the factors that made employees to quit the firm due to various reasons and is trying to
draw a conclusion that compensation is the main factor.
This study is not based on any concept or the personal opinion of any individual. It is
recorded in the real environment with the actual employees to find out exactly the factors.
Thus the research is descriptive in nature.
Simple random sampling is the method adopted here, thus each unit has an equal chance of
being selected.

Sample size:
The sample size of 100 taken to analyze the above stated objectives.

Sample type:
The sample consists of Managers at different streams (HR Manager, Teamwork Manager,
Marketing Manager etc.

Sample design:
Sample design or sample procedure refers to a definite plan followed for the collection of
sample from as given population. The process followed was, firstly a questionnaire being
prepare with the objective in the mind. The respondent who includes the various
managerial cadre from the IT industry, Bangalore was determined. The second step
includes selection of sample and the questionnaire was administered.

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HYPOTHESIS:

• Ho: There is no job satisfaction for the middle management officials in the Software
Industry
• H1: There is job satisfaction for the middle management officials in the Software
Industry

Data collection:
The study was carried out by survey of the officials based on the needs and wants of
them in the organization with given roles and responsibilities.
• Primary data being collected afresh from the executives with the help of
questionnaire.
• Secondary data are used such as books, survey reports, internet etc.

2.6 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY:


• Only a percentage of total executives could be interviewed but the analysis is
generalized.
• The findings and conclusion drawn out of the study will reflect only existing trends
in the organization.
• The accuracy and authenticity of the observation made and conclusions drawn
largely depend upon the corresponding accuracy and authenticity of the information
supplied by the concerned organization authorities and employees.
• Study is conducted only in Bangalore.

2.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The main focus of this study is to assess executive satisfaction for which the survey broadly
includes questions on work environment, compensation, employee cooperation etc. this
study helps to understand the existing needs of the employees of Software firms. The scope
of the study is limited to officials in Bangalore working in the Software Industry.

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3.1 INDUSTRY PROFILE

Table 1:A recent survey shows the top 50 industries which have the highest employment:-

No.
INDUSTRY employed
1 Full-service restaurants 4,226,400

2 General medical and surgical hospitals, private 4,050,900

3 Limited-service eating places 3,726,700

4 Employment services 3,470,300

5 Grocery stores 2,447,000

6 Offices of physicians 2,053,900

7 Depository credit intermediation 1,761,200

8 Management of companies and enterprises 1,718,000

9 Religious organizations 1,697,700

10 Department stores 1,612,500

11 Nursing care facilities 1,575,300

12 Hotels (except casino), motels, and all other traveler accommodation 1,469,400

13 Colleges, universities, and professional schools, private 1,377,500

14 Automobile dealers 1,254,200

15 Other general merchandise stores 1,231,000

16 Legal services 1,161,800

17 Computer systems design and related services 1,147,400

18 Building material and supplies dealers 1,081,200

19 Clothing stores 1,008,300

20 Janitorial and all other services to buildings and dwellings 998,600

21 General freight trucking 950,200

22 Plumbing, heating, and air-conditioning contractors 897,300

23 Residential building construction 894,100

Engineering, surveying, mapping, building inspection, and drafting


24 887,300
services

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No.
INDUSTRY employed
25 Gasoline stations 864,250

No.
INDUSTRY employed
26 Electrical contractors 855,300

27 Elementary and secondary schools, private 829,300

Accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and payroll


28 816,000
services
Direct life, health, and medical insurance carriers and
29 795,700
reinsurance carriers
30 Postal Service 784,100

31 Management, scientific, and technical consulting services 779,000

32 Private households 779,000

33 Home health care services 773,200

34 Child day care services 767,100

35 Offices of dentists 759,600

36 Nonresidential building construction 738,100

37 Wholesale electronic markets and agents and brokers 698,800

38 Motor vehicle parts manufacturing 688,500

39 Grocery and related product wholesalers 687,600

40 Pharmacies and drug stores 683,800

41 Printing and related support activities 665,000

42 Insurance agencies and brokerages 644,900

Professional and commercial equipment and supplies


43 643,300
merchant wholesalers
44 Other specialty trade contractors 635,500

45 Plastics product manufacturing 633,600

46 Investigation, guard, and armored car services 624,900

47 Direct insurance (except life, health, and medical) carriers 607,700

48 Landscaping services 601,100

49 Lessors of real estate 600,700

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No.
INDUSTRY employed
50 Community care facilities for the elderly 582,600

These days, finding the right talent for any organization is only half the battle. As a
business owner, or senior manager, there’s tremendous pressure to conduct this activity
within the context of larger business goals. There is increasing pressure to reduce
administration, enhance productivity of staff, and reduce costs. In other words, do more
with less.

The need for customized solutions should be taken into account for the manager’s unique
requirements, internal capabilities, culture and existing processes.

The Problem behind the Problem

Some managers and HR consultants mistakenly treat the symptoms of attrition rather than
addressing the underlying causes. Like a pain killer, this merely delays the onset of
discomfort again.

The growth in the IT/ITeS sectors in India has brought in billions of foreign exchange and
created lakhs of job opportunities. India remains extremely bullish on the future. News
reports aver there are articles of over a lakh jobs being created by the top five in FY07 and
the projected PC and server growth at 25 per cent are amongst the highest in the world,
albeit on a small base.

This rapid growth has thrown some very interesting challenges in management, structuring
and, indeed, governance. First, the jury is still out on when and on what criteria a company
should choose to have a captive centre. When GE decided to dilute a portion of its equity
and allowed the captive centre to solicit work from other companies, there was intense
debate: would other companies with large captive presence in India take the cue and

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monetise? Remote processing is easy so long as there are well documented ‘desk
instructions’ with clear outputs, exception handing processes and escalation matrix. Try
getting into slightly grey areas like people management and it gets tricky. Remote
management is not a subject that is easily understood or well practised. But outsourcing
leads to frustration over jobs lost to India, which inhibits many uninitiated managers
overseas from picking up the phone and conversing when the situation demands. Unclear
as its role remains, local management’s role will remain contingent on the management
style of their business partner. There are many macro-managers out there who would like to
delegate to the ‘offshore’ units, and are happy to be ‘corrected’ by them. Then, there are the
micro-managers who like to interview every potential hiree, sign off on bonuses, deal
directly with the operations manager and do one-on-one meetings with the teams
supporting him. There is, thus, a continuous need for the management to find relevance and
add value.

If the time difference is a great asset to the industry, allowing a 24/7 operation, thus
facilitating a quick go-to-market option, it often hinders communication styles. Like many
of us, most managers get comfort out of proximity and would like to call in seeking status
during their work days. The options are: either mirror US timings — a huge deterrent to
attracting talent, or significantly align our communication styles and methods in order to
keep the customer ‘comfortable’. Finally, there is much to be done with right-skilling jobs
and then managing the expectations of employees. This is not getting helped by the severe
shortage of talent in the industry and, hence, unless the promises of exciting job and growth
are not in sync with reality or, indeed, expectations, an employee will choose to “walk”.

Indeed, setting up an IDC or a back office in India is not a slam dunk. That said, it is one of
the most compelling options for businesses to look at trimming their costs. And many are
gaining significantly from successfully moving work to India such as GE, Dell, Amex and
Microsoft to name a few.

So, what works? The key differentiator between success and otherwise in this business is
the presence of a clear, shared vision. It is no good looking at the lost cost of operations or
presence of enormous talent and deciding to move work. It is not a good idea for the CEO
of the company to think out his India operations as a part of global business and his teams

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shipping across some very low-end work. The IDC can indeed just be an “execution arm”
or a “sweat shop” so long as the stakeholders (including employees) are aware and
appropriate structures are created to support the cause. There will probably be no need to
hire an IITian for this set-up.

After articulating a vision, the defining piece is communication from the top,
conceptualisation of the strategy and, finally, honest and intense communication to all
stakeholders. To move work is always a tough call and many managers shy away from
direct conversation or communication around this. Here is where the top leadership in India
plays a key role. To understand the charter, scope and boundaries of the business being
created, and ensuring that there are defined deliverables, responsibilities and accountability,
it is critical to set up periodic check points and timelines. These will go a long way in not
only getting the much desired operating space, but also demystifying the expectations.

The role of management is critical here. To hire the right people, to set and manage
expectations, to continue to articulate the value propositions and solicit high-end work —
all require a lot of doing. Between risk and growth debate, there will be very few who will
take the leap of faith easily. Many fence sitters will wait and watch, and convert only when
fully convinced. All bad news will find its way to the key people without much effort. The
trick lies in finding and addressing the right forums in front of decision makers.

Finally, the God here is delivery. It is easy to get carried away and go beyond the brief to
recommend ideas like a new insurance product for India. While that kind of creativity
should never be discouraged, it is important to note that the moment of truth in the business
is flawless delivery on service level agreements, timely communication on progress or lack
of it and value-added suggestions on the assigned task. To get aligned to customer anxieties
is more important as that will get the much influential ‘word of mouth’ to make the fence
sitters move.

So, yes, it is not a ‘slam dunk’ option to move work but given the arbitrage benefits and the
talent, this option cannot be ignored. However, with a little bit of foresight, patience and
right people, it is certainly doable.

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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN KARNATAKA

INTRODUCTION

Majority of IT activity in Karnataka is concentrated in Bangalore. Bangalore is also


referred to as the Silicon Valley of India. For now we have clubbed IT, networking and
telecom companies together. Later on we will separate them.

NASDAQ opened its office in Bangalore on Feb 12, 2001. This was seen as a major
victory for Bangalore.

The Software Technology Park plays a big role in encouraging this industry in Karnataka.
Other STP centers in Karnataka are,

• Hubli
• Mangalore

For the year 2000-2001 software exports figures are as follows (Courtesy: NASSCOM and
Karnataka IT Secretariat):

1. Karnataka - Rs 7,475 crore - Infosys and Wipro account for over Rs 1,000 crore
each.
2. Delhi - Rs 4,350 crore
3. Tamil Nadu - Rs 2,956 crore
4. Maharashtra - Rs 2,688 crore
5. Uttar Pradesh - Rs 1246 crore

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6. Andhra Pradesh - Rs 1,990 crore
7. Kolkota - Rs 250 crore
8. Bhubaneshwar (Orissa) - Rs 200 crore
9. Mysore - Rs 30 crore (from 22 companies)

Bangalore attracts three foreign equity companies every fortnight. The number of
companies registered with STPI are as follows

1. 2001-02: 110
2. 2002-03: 116

As far as Bangalore is concerned, 94-96 per cent of exports were routed through the SPTI
centre in Bangalore. Karnataka software exports are as follows:

1. Rs 10,745 crore in 2001-2002: BPO/ITes Rs 264 crore, hardware Rs 838.09 crore


2. Rs 13,754 crore in 2002-03: BPO/ITes Rs 988 crore, hardware Rs 1,403.85 crore.
Mysore had registered exports of Rs 65 crore from 26 companies and Mangalore
recorded exports worth Rs 330 crore (TN: 6,315.51 crore, Andhra Pradesh: Rs
3,688 crore)
3. Rs 18,100 crore in 2003-04 (Bangalore: Rs 17,474 crore, Mangalore: Rs 456 crore,
Mysore: Rs 180 crore, TN: Rs 7,621.50 crore, Andhra Pradesh: 5,025 crore). The
entire state recorded Rs 19,400 crore (33% of India's software exports, 58% of
South India's software exports)
4. Rs 27,600 crore in 2004-05 contributing to 34% of the overall Indian IT exports.
5. Rs 37,600 crore in 2005-06 contributing to 37.6% of the overall Indian IT exports.
Around 125 foreign equity companies pumped in investment of Rs 1882 crore
while Indian companies invested Rs 879 crore. About four new companies are
coming to Karnataka every week. Some of the companies that are setting up a base
in Bangalore include JP Morgan Services, Target, Caterpillar, Apple Computers,
ABB, WS Atkins and Bearing Point. Mysore's exports to increase from Rs 400

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crore to Rs 600 crore and Mangalore to grow from Rs 570 crore to Rs 1000 crore by
2007. On the hardware front, Karnataka's exports grew from Rs 1768 crore last year
to Rs 2481 crore.

The above list clearly shows Karnataka is the leader when it comes to software exports.
SEI CMM Level 5 statistics are also very encouraging: World [40 companies], India [29
companies] and Bangalore a whopping 18 companies!

Organizations like TiE are playing an active role in encouraging entrepreneurship

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3.2 COMPANY PROFILES

KINFOTECH PRIVATE LIMITED

Kinfotech Private Limited was founded in 1990.Over the years, we have been
specializing in providing Technical Solutions.And consequently acquired over 750 man-
years of Experience in solving IT infrastructural Problems found by a large member of
clientele.

• Kinfotech Private Limited was founded in 1990. We have been specializing in


providing technical solutions for the past 15 years and consequently acquired over
750 man-years of experience in solving Customers in solving customers IT
infrastructural problems.
• Kinfotech was started with a minimum capital Rs.1.25 lakhs fifteen years ago. But
today the shareholders funds are Rs.100 lakhs. The first full year sales was Rs. 1.12
lakhs and it rose rapidly to 15 crores.
• Kinfotech, it faced, and still facing irresistible years to reach present status,
Because, from one product company it went on to offer a host of technological
solutions, from one customer to approximately a thousand customers, from one
supplier to dozen suppliers, from one principal to over twenty principals.
• Irresistible also because, it became a habit with the company to pick up awards for
its accomplishments from every principals. The company attended the award
ceremonies in cities such as Hyderabad, Agra, Delhi, Jaipur Udaipur, Mumbai,
cochin, Goa, Phuket, Bangkok, Dubai, Singapore, Morocco, Beijing, Cairo, Sydney
etc.

25
• Company believes that, its biggest asset is Human resource From 2 to 50. These are
thoroughbred professionals, highest paid gems in the partner community. It is a
matter of pride for us to say that Ex-Kinfocians are working in companies like
Wipro, Infosys, HP, GE and ….. the list is end less.

Nearly 3000 sq.ft of office space with latest infrastructure facilities located in Bangalore

Nearly 700+ dedicated and satisfied corporate clients base

Young and dedicated team of professionals certified by various vendors and having over
750 man-years of Experience

Partner for world's No.1 Solution in every segment

Over one and half decades of Experience

First point of reference in IT Security

A proof of concept center called Demo Lab has been setup to provide hands-on Experience

26
MANIPAL eCOMMERCE LIMITED (MeCOM)

Manipal eCommerce Limited (MeCOM), is India's pioneer in Internet and e-Business


services offering integrated end-to-end solutions with a comprehensive range of products
and services to customers ranging from multinationals, governments, large private and
public sector companies. Formed in 1996 with the goal of delivering quality e-Commerce
solutions that adds value to the customer.
MeCOM is part of Manipal Group of Companies, a major Financial and Industrial Group
in South India. The group has its activities spread over financial services, manufacturing,
Industry, Healthcare and Education. Our eSolutions services include Internet Consulting,
Solutions Architectures, Design, Development and Deployment of Solutions, Hosting and
Management Services and connectivity solutions like Electronic Data Interface, Virtual
Private Networks, Security Services and Network Management Services.

MeCOM Quality Policy


"We commit to provide total customer satisfaction by supplying quality software products
and services".

In today’s competitive and dynamic business world, quality is the most essential ingredient
for ensuring customer delight. Our quality culture is a journey to excellence with
innovation, institutionalization, and integrity in our operations. At Mecom, quality is a
major thrust in all functions we perform.

Our quality policy, focus, strategies and quality system enable us to maintain the quality
culture for our best performance and growth.

27
We are a ‘Continuously Learning and Improving Organization’
MeCOM Quality - " A Journey to Excellence"

Throughout its evolution, Mecom has constantly remained loyal to the guiding principles
that are the foundation of its practice. Mecom has many characteristics that make it a very
efficient business partner. These include: a guarantee of the highest level of competence;
rigorous planning; strict control over results, milestones and costs; a constant search for the
most advantageous solutions for each client and the assurance of follow-up procedures
after the completion of every engagement.

As part of our core competency, we provide the following services :


1. E-Business Solution
2. Managed Solutions
3. Application Maintenance Outsourcing Solutions
4. Professional Services
5. Custom Solutions

SERVICES

Professional Services
MeCOM delivers solutions customised for your specific business requirements. Our
professional services include the life cycle of a solution, from requirements analysis
through solution development, installation, rollout, end-user training, hand holding and
support to meet the defined objectives of your company. Our professionals are highly
experienced in delivering a broad range of systems integration solutions including custom
application development, package customization and integration, hardware and software
component integration, application maintenance/customization/enhancement, solution
deployment and project management. Our capabilities include integration of Oracle and
SAP based backend applications.
Some of our core competencies are :
1. Consultation

28
2. Project implementation and roll out
3. System Integration
4. Support services

Managed Services

MeCOM provides a host of managed services including shared/dedicated web hosting,


unified messaging, VPN and security services. We can build quickly an integrated,
scalable, flexible and secure solution and customize for your business needs allowing your
company to reduced time-to-market and increased competitive advantage.
MeCOM's range of managed services including hosting solutions can reduce the
complexity and risk associated with building an infrastructure for your Web applications.
Our packaged solutions provide the facilities, hardware, software, enhanced security
features and Internet connectivity for several hardware platforms of your choice. The result
is an integrated, redundant, scalable and secure network that is hosted and managed by
MeCOM. By taking advantage of our hosting expertise, you gain access to proven
methods, state-of-the-art facilities and experienced personnel allowing you to focus on your
core business objectives.
Firewall options can be customized to suit your requirements for security and performance.
Intrusion Detection system can also be customized based on policies defined by your
business needs.
All these services are backed by 24x7 technical support that is required for any business
critical applications.
Our Managed services include:
1. Web hosting solution
2. Unified messaging solution
3. Linux based mail and security solution
4. Server collocation
5. Application management service
6. Internet Access

29
7. Automated File transfer solution

MISTRAL SOLUTIONS PRIVATE LIMITED

Company Overview

Mistral Solutions Pvt Ltd. provides complete technology solutions and professional
services in the niche real time embedded solutions space. We offer a comprehensive
package of end-to-end services from front-end consulting and planning, to integrating and
even managing your technology solutions.

Guided by a strong commitment to quality and customer satisfaction Mistral caters to the
exacting specifications of clients from varied industry segments covering Defense,
Aerospace, Telecom, Multimedia, Wireless, Medical, Networking, Office Automation,
Automotive and Industrial/Process Control.

With more and more products of today being a combination of hardware and software,
Mistral responds to the needs of embedded systems design and development engineers by
providing software and hardware solutions that excel in quality and accelerate Time-to-
market.

Mistral has forged successful partnerships with leading providers of embedded solutions,
which has enabled us to provide our clients with the finest technology solutions based on
the world's best platforms. Mistral’s partners include, Wind River Systems, Motorola
Embedded Communications Computing (MECC), NMS Communications, Continuous
Computing Corporation (CCPU), General Standards Corporation, Dawn VME, MEN
Mikro Elektronik, Microsys Electronics, PSA Inc, DNF Storage, Targa Systems, Pentland

30
Systems, Hybricon & Curtiss-Wright Controls (CWC) Embedded Computing Organization
(Dy4 Systems, VISTA Controls, Systran, and Peritek).

Our broad and diversified clientele spans across several industries; these include Defense
R&D labs, Public Sector undertakings like Bharat Electronics, BHEL and ECIL and the
Corporate like Lucent Technologies, Hughes Software, Tata Power and Satyam.

In addition to operations in Bangalore, Hyderabad and Delhi, we also have a widespread


channel network ensuring efficient sales and support of the solutions offered.

Mistral's extensive portfolio of products combined with an efficient, well-defined work


methodology helps us to provide clients with significant reduction in "time-to-market" and
control of development costs. Our suite of products, reusable software and hardware
components can be plugged quickly and effectively into any system design.

Products

OMAP based Products


OMAP2430 Starter Kit
Accelerator for OMAP2430
Accelerator for OMAP5912

Customizable Product Designs


High-Speed Encoder
Digital RF Memory
Data Acquistion and Signal Processing
1.5 GSPS Data Acquisition System
Smart Handheld
Soft Radio

31
DaVinci Based Products

Windows®CE5.0 on DaVinci
WLAN Solution for DaVinci

Blackfin based Reference designs

Car Telematics Platform


Hands-free Car Kit
MOST Audio Platform
Automotive Digital Radio
Low-cost Navigation Unit
Middle-range Telematics
High-end Telematics

Hardware Products

12-SHARC VME Board


VME-ADC Board

32
SAP LABS INDIA

The High Energy Lab, Driving Innovation in Business Solutions

SAP: The World's Largest Business Software Company

Founded in 1972 as Systems Applications and Products in Data Processing, SAP is the
recognized leader in providing collaborative business solutions for all types of industries
and for every major market.

From Walldorf to Wall Street: The SAP Success Story

Serving more than 38,000 customers worldwide, SAP is the world's largest business
software company and the world's third-largest independent software provider overall. We
have a rich history of innovation and growth that has made us a true industry leader. Today,
SAP employs more than 39,300 people in more than 50 countries. Our professionals are
dedicated to providing the highest level of customer service and support.

We are SAP's second largest research and development center and strategic hub for
services and support in the Asian region. Since its inception in 1998, SAP Labs India
established itself across SAP's full value chain very quickly. Set to contribute over 20% to
global R&D and services and support by the end of 2006, over 3000 employees of SAP in
India are engaged in collaborative software engineering that facilitates the delivery of
innovative business solutions across Research & Breakthrough Innovation, Product and
Technology Development, Production, Global Services & Support, Sales Support, and
Customer Solutions & Operations. The center, an integral part of SAP's global
development network, focuses on key areas like ERP, CRM, SRM, NetWeaver,

33
Globalization, Emerging Solutions, Custom Development, Active Global Support, and
Installed Base Maintenance.

Employees of SAP Labs India spread across Bangalore, Gurgaon and Chandigarh are
leading the way in building solutions for businesses across the world. Thanks to SAP's
extensive employee learning system, management excellence and world class
infrastructure, we are among the best employers in the Indian IT industry. As an employee
of SAP Labs India – one of SAP's fastest growing subsidiaries - you would be part of an
organization that is a role model for globally distributed development organizations,
contributing effectively to the goals of SAP's business units. SAP Labs India researches,
designs, and delivers leading-edge software applications that enhance and extend SAP®
solutions. Over the next five years, SAP will invest USD 1 billion to leverage the
increasing value that SAP in India brings.

SAP Labs India is part of a dynamic community within SAP's global research and
development organization, sharing insights and promoting creativity on a worldwide basis.
Bridging the gap between local market demands and SAP's development organization, SAP
Labs set standards for excellence in innovation, efficiency, and reliability. They are
recognized centers of local talent and expertise, establishing a strong foundation for SAP
development in the future. Besides India, SAP Labs operates in Bulgaria, Canada, China,
Germany, Hungary, Israel and the United States. SAP Labs integrates ideas and leading-
edge technologies that address the needs of specific industries and geographic regions, and
keep SAP and its customers at the forefront of business success. By creating knowledge,
encouraging innovation and investing in people and technology, SAP Labs develops
solutions that enable SAP customers to improve their business processes and achieve their
business objectives.

SAP India

SAP, the world's leading provider of business software solutions, started its operations in
India in 1996. Headquartered in Bangalore, SAP India also has offices in Mumbai and New
Delhi, and various marketing associates in Sri Lanka and Bangladesh.

34
Its Asia Pacific headquarters is in Singapore, with APA offices in Australia, China, Hong
Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, Philippines, Taiwan and
Thailand.

With a staff strength of 450 supporting the Indian sub-continent, today SAP India is one of
the fastest growing SAP subsidiaries with more than 650 customers across the region with
strong footprints in India, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. Powered by the SAP NetWeaver™
platform to drive innovation and enable business change, mySAP™ Business Suite
solutions are helping enterprises around the world improve customer relationships, enhance
partner collaboration and create efficiencies across their supply chains and business
operations. SAP industry solutions support the unique business processes of more than 25
industry segments, including high tech, retail, public sector and financial services.

The company is listed on several exchanges, including the Frankfurt stock exchange and
NYSE under the symbol “SAP.”

SAP India offices are located at:

BANGALORE MUMBAI KOLKATA DELHI


SAP India Pvt. SAP India Pvt. Ltd SAP India Pvt.Ltd. SAP India Pvt Ltd.
Ltd. Lloyds Center 5th Floor Metro 2nd Floor, The
Vaswani Victoria Point, 1096-A Tower Great Eastern
No.30, Victoria Appasaheb Marathe No. 1 Ho Chi Minh Centre,
Road Maarg Sarani 70,Nehru Place ,
Bangalore 560 047 Prabhadevi, Kolkata - 700 071 New Delhi -
Tel: +91 80 4136 Mumbai 400025 Tel: +91 (33) 3058 110019
5555 Mumbai - 400 025 2424 / 16 / 17/ 18 Tel: + 91(11)
Fax: +91 80 4136 Tel: +91 (22) 6655 Fax: + 91 (33) 3058 41657700
5550 6888 2411 Fax: + 91(11)
Fax: +91 (22) 2432 41628919
6972

35
Corporate Governance

SAP sees effective corporate governance as critical to achieving corporate goals and
increasing the company's value. Naturally, openness about the company's corporate
governance principles, practice, and structure is itself an important element in SAP's
policy.

SAP's corporate governance structure follows Germany's system of corporate governance.


This structure separates management and supervisory functions into two distinct bodies: the
Executive Board and the Supervisory Board. Since governance in Germany includes
employee participation, the SAP Supervisory Board includes employee members. In
addition, the Executive Board also works with an Extended Management Board.

The German Stock Corporation Act also provides for a third body -- a shareholders'
organization known as the General Shareholders' Meeting.

36
SUBEX AZURE PRIVATE LIMITED

Subex Azure is a leading global provider of OSS solutions with a mission to empower
telecom operators to achieve competitive advantage and deliver new service experiences to
subscribers. The company pioneered the strategic concept of the Revenue Operations
Center (ROC) - a centralized and integrated infrastructure for end-to-end monitoring,
measurement and control of the operator's revenue chain - to foster operational dexterity
and hence sustained profitability.

Subex Azure's customers include 32 of the world's 50 largest telecom operators by revenue.
The company has more than 150 installations in over 60 countries.

Subex Azure is organized into three distinct Business Units (BUs)

• Revenue Maximization Solutions BU

37
• Fulfillment & Assurance Solutions BU (formerly Syndesis Limited)

• BT Business BU

Subex Azure's solution portfolio includes:

Mission Statement

Ensure creation of value by providing a differentiating edge to the activities of our


customers, investors, vendors and Subexian through technnovative solutions while
fulfilling our social obligations and maintaining high professional and ethical standards.

Vision
To be the leader in our areas of business through:
Total Customer Satisfaction
Commitment to Excellence & Determination to succeed.

History

38
Quality

Ensuring quality in Subex Azure is an obsession and the high quality standards set by us
are achieved through a rigorous quality assurance process. Quality assurance is performed
by an independent team of trained experts for each project.

Subex Azure has been following a systematic, structured, concurrent and standardized
approach to software development. The engineers at Subex Azure are well trained in the
quality processes so that they are able to adhere to the same in their projects. If need be,
they will be able to adapt clients' quality processes whenever required.

39
Quality Statement

"Subexians are committed to achieve total customer satisfaction by delivering high quality
products that meet the needs and expectations of our customers.

We commit ourselves to adhere to quality management system requirements and to


continually improve the same"

CUSTOMERS

32 of the world's largest 50 operators and over 150 customer installations across 60
countries

Partial Customer List

The Americas

EMEA

APAC

40
The Americas

41
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
1.

Table2: TABLE SHOWS THE PERCENTAGES OF FACTORS

SD D A SA TOTAL

1. Pleasant work environment


19 29 37 15 100

100
6. Performance-based 5 9 69 17
promotions

100
8. Benefits package 7 67 12 14

100
11. Professional development 17 35 32 16

TOTAL 48 140 150 62


400

42
4.1 LIKERT SCALING TECHNIQUE:
Table3: THE TABLE SHOWS THE PERCENTAGES OF FACTORS THAT THE
EXECUTIVES HAVE GIVEN

SD D A SA

1. Pleasant work environment


19% 29% 37% 15%

6. Performance-based promotions 5% 9% 69% 17%

8. Benefits package 7% 67% 12% 14 %

11. Professional development 17% 35% 32% 16%

SD D A SA

1. Pleasant work environment


19%

6. Performance-based promotions 69% 17%

8. Benefits package

11. Professional development 35%

(SD) Strongly Disagree (D) Disagree (A) Agree (SA) Strongly Agree

43
The above table showing the Likerts summation analysis, the interpretation for the same
are:-

1. According to the above analysis, 19% of the respondents strongly disagree with the
pleasant work place environment keeping in mind the general hygiene conditions which
should be provided.
2. 69% of the respondents agree and 17% strongly agree with respect to performance-based
promotions as there is tough competition in today’s global business scenario.
3. There is no conclusive outcome with respect to benefit package.
4. 35% of the respondents disagree with professional development within the organization
because they feel that exposure like training, seminars etc. are highly required.

Table4: TABLE SHOWS THE PERCENTAGES OF FACTORS

44
SD D A SA

1. Pleasant work environment


37%

6. Performance-based promotions 69%

8. Benefits package 67%

11. Professional development 35%

The above table showing the Likert’s profile analysis, the interpretation for the same are:-

1. According to the analysis, 37% of the respondents agree with regard to pleasant work
environment as this is a vital factor for any employee working in an organization.
2. 69% of the respondents agree with performance-based promotions. Majority agree that
promotions are given for higher responsibilities through a methodical performance
appraisal procedure. .
3. There were 67% of the respondents who disagreed with the benefit package as they felt
other companies were giving better benefit packages.
4. 35% of the respondents disagreed with respect to professional development as it was
stated earlier that they needed more exposure.

4.2 LIKERT SCALING TECHNIQUE:

45
Table5: THE TABLE SHOWS THE PERCENTAGES OF FACTORS THAT THE
EXECUTIVES HAVE GIVEN
2.

SD D A SA

3. Company valuing its


8% 32% 44% 16%
employees

4. Training and professional 17% 39% 39% 5%


development

7. Competitive salaries 6% 56% 21% 17%

10. Competencies of 22% 8% 46% 24%


colleagues

SD D A SA

3. Company valuing its


employees

46
4. Training and professional
development

7. Competitive salaries 56%

10. Competencies of 22% 46% 24%


colleagues

The above table showing the Likerts summation analysis, the interpretation for the same
are:

1. According to the analysis, 22% of the respondents strongly disagree, 46% agree and 24%
strongly agree regarding the competencies and quality of their colleagues as their expertise
in the field are not up to the standard.
2. 56% of the respondents disagree in respect to competitive salaries as they are satisfied
with the same.

SD D A SA

47
3. Company valuing its
44%
employees

4. Training and professional 39% 39%


development

7. Competitive salaries 56%

10. Competencies of 46%


colleagues

The above table showing the Likert’s profile analysis, the interpretation for the same are:-

1. According to the analysis, 44% of the respondents agree in respect to the company
valuing its employees as they feel they are treated as true assets of the organization.
2. 39% of the respondents disagree and 39% of the respondents agree with respect to
training and professional development. There are equal differences regarding this aspect.
3. 56% of the respondents disagree in respect to competitive salaries as they are more
concerned with their job recognition.
4. The respondents who agreed for competencies of their colleagues were 46% because
they were helpful in coordinating activities and working as groups.

4.3 LIKERT SCALING SCALE:


Table6: THE TABLE SHOWS THE PERCENTAGES OF FACTORS THAT THE
EXECUTIVES HAVE GIVEN
3.

48
SD D A SA

2. Clear understanding of
27% 24% 36% 13%
company objectives

9. Management problems 24% 16% 43% 17%

12. Company’s acceptance of 9% 29% 47% 15%


mistakes with employees

13. Feedbacks from superiors 9% 31% 53% 7%

14. All officials treated equally 16% 43% 24% 17%

SD D A SA

2. Clear understanding of
27%
company objectives

49
9. Management problems 17%

12. Company’s acceptance of


mistakes with employees

13. Feedbacks from superiors 53%

14. All officials treated equally 43% 17%

Table7:The above table showing the Likerts summation analysis, the interpretation for the
same are:-

1. According to the analysis, 27% of the respondents strongly disagree with the clear
understanding of the company’s objectives as their orientation programme was not
conducted in a proper manner.
2. 43% of the respondents disagree that all officials are treated equally as there are certain
bias towards female employees and high-end personnel.
3. 53% of the respondents agree that there is feedbacks from the superiors which act as a
motivating factor for better productivity.
4. 17% of the respondents agree that there is management problems which hampers the
overall growth of the organization and 17% strongly agree that all officials are treated
equally.

SD D A SA

50
2. Clear understanding of
36%
company objectives

9. Management problems 43%

12. Company’s acceptance of 47%


mistakes with employees

13. Feedbacks from superiors 53%

14. All officials treated equally 43%

Table8:The above table showing the Likert’s profile analysis, the interpretation for the
same are:-

1. According to the analysis, 36% of the respondents agree that there is clear understanding
of the company’s objectives as they are directed through every detail regarding the
operations of the organization and its goals and objectives.
2. 43% of the respondents agree that there is management problems as stated earlier.
3. 47% of the respondents agree that the company accepts any mistakes it makes with the
employees, if any as ethics here play a big role.
4. 53% of the respondents agree that there is feedback from the superiors as stated earlier.

51
5. 43% of the respondents disagree that all officials are treated equally as they feel that they
are not motivated enough when compared to other employees.

Table 4.4
15. What is important for job satisfaction?

Regular feedback on performance 26

Good employee benefit package 32

Clear equality shown among workforce 24

Pleasant work environment 18

52
Job satisfaction

18, 18%
26, 26% Regular feedback on
performance
Good employee benefit
package
Clear equality shown
24, 24% among workforce
Pleasant work
environment
32, 32%

Table 4.5
16. What is important for a company’s success?

Strong emphasis on motivation 37

Clear organizational vision 32

Good communication within the organization 13

Flow of instructions from the superiors must be clear 18

53
Importance of Co's Success

Strong emphasis on
18, 18% motivation

37, 37% Clear organizational vision

13, 13%
Good communication
within the organization

Flow of instructions from


32, 32% the superiors must be
clear

FINDINGS

1. The middle management officials feel that more attention is required for corporate
objectives
2. The deadlines set are unrealistic
3. A positive opinion that communication is free enough
4. Individual’s initiatives are encouraged
5. The top management is more open to ideas and suggestions given by the Managers and
the Heads of various departments
6. The initial training and induction programs are good

54
7. The companies settle work-related problems satisfactorily
8. The benefit packages are on par with the industry standards
9. Professional development is given high importance
10. There is mutual respect for one another
11. The management does not say one thing and do something else

SUGGESTION
1. In order for any organization’s smooth flow of business operations, the middle
management play a crucial role which always has to be kept in mind by the top
management and the employees.
2. The middle management act as a bridge between the top management and the employees
of the organization, therefore keeping them satisfied is of prime importance.
3. The executives need more than just monetary benefits to keep them satisfied. Ex.
Authority & responsibility, recognition in the organization can motivate them to a great
extent.
4. ‘Care for Personnel’ is very essential. This means both physical as well as mental care
which makes them feel that they are given importance by the organization.
5. Being on par with the industry standards is another major factor which can curb attrition
and maintain job satisfaction.

CONCLUSION
Regarding the hypothesis, there are varied opinions regarding job satisfaction of the
executives. But with the analysis conducted along with the survey, there is no job
satisfaction with the middle management in the software industry which has lead to high
rate of attrition.
With the IT industry in full swing, it is evident that human capital is of utmost importance
for maintaining this upward trend. With so many software companies entering the industry,
there is also employment opportunities. But along with it comes the most important factor –
retaining them. Making the employees feel comfortable in any organization would
improve the employees’ productivity which would benefit the organization at large.

55
Therefore, an employee’s satisfaction of his job and the company in which he is employed
is an important issue to the organization. Keeping the employee happy and satisfied in the
organization creates positive results, and by not keeping them comfortable results in a dip
in the company’s performance and increase in the attrition rate.
“It is the employees who make an organization”
It is the Top Management who make critical decisions
It is the Middle Management who create different paths for obstacles faced
It is the Employees who are delegated the work.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Cramer D, Job Satisfaction and Organizational Continuance, Commitment. A two-wave


panel study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 1996 Vol. 117 Pg. 389.

2. Hodson, Work Place Behavior, 1991 Pg. 271-290

3. Srivatsava, SK & Roy, Work Adjustment and Job Satisfaction among Pro& Anti
Management Workers (Management & Labour Studies No.4), 1996 Pg.237-241

56
4. Akhtar S.S & Pestongee DM,Blair B. Organizational Structure and Employee’s
Adjustment (Indian Journal of Social Work, xviii)

5. Blair B. An Occupational Study of Job Satisfaction & Need Satisfaction, 1967 Pg. 297-
301.

57