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Load Equalisation

In some drive application load torque fluctuates widely within short intervals of
time. Examples of loads are,
1) In pressing machine
2) Electrical hammer
3) Steel rolling mills
4) Reciprocating pumps
In such drives if motor is required to supply peak torque demanded by load
following problems may arrives,
1) Motor with high rating should be use
2) Motor will draw a pulsed current from the supply, it gives rise
to the voltage fluctuations
3) Reduces System Stability
In above mentioned problems of fluctuations of loads are overcome by mounting a
flywheel on motor shaft in a non-reversible drives.
During high load period load torque will be much higher than motor torque.
Deacceleration occur producing large dynamic torque component. Because of
Deacceleration motor speed falls during light load period .The motor torque
exceeds the load torque acceleration speed is brought back to original value before
the next high load period. It show that peak torque required from the motor has
much smaller value than peak load torque hence a motor with small rating than
peak load can be used. Fluctuations in motor torque and speed are also reduced
since power drawn from the source fluctuates very little. This is called load
equalization.
The moment of inertia of the fly wheel required for load equalization is
calculated as follows.
Assuming a linear motor speed-torque curve in the region of interest
(drooping characteristic AC)


T
(1)
Tr
m= m 0

( m 0 mr )

Where,
m 0

- no- load speed in rad/sec

mr
Tr

- Rated speed in rad/sec


- Rated torque in N-m

Differentiating equation (1) and multiplying both sides by J gives

( m 0 mr )

dT
/T
dt r

Jd m
=J
dt

m dT
(2)
dt

( m 0 mr )/T r
m=J

Where

Term

(3)

is defined as a mechanical time constant of the motor. It is the time

required for the motor speed to change by


mentioned constant at rated value

Tr

( m 0 mr )

From fundamental torque equation & equation (2)


m

dT
+T =T l
dt

when motor torque is

Consider now a periodic load torque, a cycle of which consists of one high load
Tlh

period with torque


T

and duration

tl

and duration

T max=T l h 1e
T min

Where
Tlh

)+T

and one light load period with torque

For high load period (0<=t<=


th
m

th

t h
m

min

th

) the solution of above equation is

( 4)

is the motor torque at t=0 which is also the instant when heavy load

is applied and motor torque at the end of heavy load period is

T max

When operating in steady-state, motor torque at the end of the cycle will be the
same as at the beginning of the cycle Hence at t=
We get,

T min=T 1e

t l
m

)+T

max

t l
m

From equation (4)


th

m=
log

( T l hT min )
T l hT max

(6)

From equation (3) & (6)

m
0
(
m )(7)
th
J=
T r /
( T l hT min )
log
T l hT max

Also From equation (5)

(5)

tl

,T=

T min

tl

m=
log

( T max T )
T min T

( 8)

From equation (6) & (3)

( m 0 mr)(9)
tl
J=
T r /
( T maxT )
log
T minT

Moment of inertia of flywheel required can be calculated either from Eq. (6) or(7)
further
J =W R2 , Kgm 2 (10)

Where W is weight of flywheel (kg) and R is radius (m).