effective method for dynamic stress analysis of structural components
of bus systems or general mechanical systems

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effective method for dynamic stress analysis of structural components
of bus systems or general mechanical systems

© All Rights Reserved

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Commercial Vehicle Engineering & Research Center

Hyundai Motor Company

772-1, Changduk, Namyang, Whasung, Kyunggi-Do, Korea

ABSTRACT

This paper presents the effective method for dynamic stress analysis of structural components

of bus systems or general mechanical systems. The proposed method is the hybrid superposition

method that combined finite element static and eigenvalue analysis with flexible multibody

dynamic analysis. In the stress recovery, dynamic stresses are calculated through sum of

pseudostatic stresses and modal acceleration stresses, which are obtained by applying the principle

of linear superposition to the modal acceleration method. The proposed method is more effective

than conventional methods, that is, the mode displacement method or the mode acceleration

method. Numerical example of bus systems estimates the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed

method.

#

Coauthor

INTRODUCTION

In structural component design of bus systems, the appropriate criterion for fatigue failure should

be based on consideration of failure modes of the specific component being designed. If the structural

component is to withstand millions of cycles of load application, a criterion for fatigue failure must be

used. The fatigue damage caused by repeated dynamic loads depends on the number of cycles and the

frequency of the occurrence of significant stresses. Therefore, for accurate prediction of fatigue failure

in structural components, accurate prediction of dynamic stress time histories is required.

Experimental testing method may be the most exact for evaluation of dynamic stresses or strains in

components of bus systems. The experimental method, however, requires at least one prototype bus

system. The structural components in the prototype are then subjected to laboratory durability tests or

real vehicle durability tests on proving grounds or fields in which the loading life cycle is applied at an

accelerated rate.

Owing to growth in the power of digital computers, several analytical approaches for dynamic

stress calculation in structural components have been developed to speed design cycles. One method is

Quasi-static Method combined with Rigid Multibody Dynamic Simulation (1). In this method, a bus

system simulated by modeling its components as rigid bodies. From the rigid multibody dynamic

simulation of bus systems, loads in joints and DAlembert acceleration loads on structural components

of concern are generated. These loads are applied the finite element models of structural components,

so that quasi-static stress time histories that used for dynamic stress time histories may be computed.

However, it does not consider the flexibility of structural components and the effects of such flexibility

on dynamically induced loads, such as joint reaction loads and inertia loads. Therefore, this method

may be useful for very stiff systems but inaccurate for flexible systems

To consider flexibility effects in dynamic stress calculation, another method can be used ; i.e., Mode

Superposition Method combined with Flexible Multibody Dynamic Simulation (2),(3). In this method,

instead of full nodal coordinates, a few component modes are used to represent the deformation field

in each structural component for flexible multibody dynamic analysis. Dynamic stress time histories in

the structural component are then calculated by linear superposition of modal stresses, multiplied by

corresponding modal coordinate time histories that are generated from flexible multibody dynamic

analysis of the bus systems. When the modal stress superposition method are used for stress

calculation, accuracy of stress is dependent on the components modes that are used in flexible

multibody dynamic analysis. This means that inappropriate modes are selected, the resulting stresses

will be inaccurate. Therefore, this method must consider the selection of component modes in order to

improve accuracy.

To improve the accuracy of dynamic stress calculation, the other method can be used ; i.e., Mode

Acceleration Method combined with Flexible Multibody Dynamic Simulation(4). In this method,

dynamic stress time histor ies in the component are calculated by summing pseudostatic stresses and

modal acceleration stresses at each integration time step. Pseudostatic stresses are obtained from static

analysis of structural components using dynamic loads at each integration time step and modal

acceleration stresses are calculated by linear superposition. This method is more accurate than the

previous method because of static correction of deleted vibration normal modes, but less efficient than

the previous one because of increased computational cost; i.e. computational time and hardware space.

Therefore, new methodology must be considered in order to improve efficiency.

The above three conventional methods are combined to form the hybrid superposition method(4)

that improves the accuracy and efficiency of dynamic stress prediction. A brief theory and A

conceptual procedure of the hybrid superposition method are presented. Numerical example of bus

structures shows the effectiveness of the proposed method.

The hybrid superposition method is defined as a computational dynamic stress analysis that

employs hybrid sum of the pseudostatic stress and the modal acceleration stress, which are obtained by

the principle of linear superposition in order to improve the efficiency of the modal acceleration

method.

The structural component in bus systems can be modeled in equilibrium with body loads including

inertia loads, Coriolis loads, centrifugal loads, gravity forces by ignoring corresponding loads resulted

from elastic deformation and surface loads including joint reaction loads, externally applied loads, etc.

The so called dynamic equilibrium equation for a structural component is then obtained in the form

M&

u&+ C u& + K u = f

surface

body

+ frigid

(1)

where M , C and K are mass matrix, damping matrix, stiffness matrix. u , u& and &

u& are displacement,

body

velocity and acceleration vector as nodal coordinates. f rigid

and f surface are body loads and surface

If body loads and surface loads that act on the component at time t are known, stresses in the

component at time t can be calculated by the static analysis ; i.e., the dynamic problem is reduced to an

equivalent static problem, in the conventional manner, by the application of DAlemberts principle.

Therefore, the static equilibrium equation is converted from the dynamic equilibrium equation of Eq. 1

as

Ku = f

surface

&

&

+ f rigid Cu& M u

body

(2)

Consider a component that is in static equilibrium under DAlembert body loads and surface loads

at time t. Since the component is in statically equilibrium, stress in the component at time t can be

calculated by executing conventional finite element static analysis with DAlembert body loads and

surface loads. If boundary conditions of the component have free conditions, Static analyses with

inertia relief scheme are executed. Stress i at node i with viscous damping assumption at time t can

be written as

i (t ) =

Ns

S ij

surface

j =1

surface

fj

(t ) +

Nb

Sik

k =1

body

body

fk

(t )

Nr 2

r =1

Nr

1 mode

&r ( t ) (3)

S

q&

2 ir

r =1 r

r Sirmode q&r ( t )

r

where Ns and Nb are the number of surface loads and body loads, respectively. S surface

and S body

are

ij

ik

static stress coefficients that are the stresses at node i, due to unit load of f jsurface ( t ) which is j-th

component of surface loads and unit load of

f kbody ( t )

respectively. S mode

is the modal stress coefficients that are the modal stresses at node i and r and

ir

r are the modal damping factor and the natural frequency of r-th kept normal mode, respectively.

q&r ( t ) and &

q&r ( t ) are the velocity and acceleration of r-th modal coordinate, respectively.

In Eq. 3, the first and the second terms in the right hand side are pseudo static stresses that are

obtained by the principle of linear superposition in order to improve the efficiency of the modal

acceleration method. The third and the fourth terms are modal velocity stresses and modal acceleration

stresses. In the conventional modal acceleration method, pseudostatic stresses are obtained from static

analysis of structural components at each integration time step. In the proposed method, however, the

pseudostatic stresses are computed from (Ns + Nb) static analysis. Since the numbers of static analysis

are less than the numbers of the mode acceleration method, Computing time and hardware resources

are required less than the mode acceleration method.

Time histories of body loads, surface loads and modal coordinates are accurately predicted by

carrying out computer simulation of the bus system, using flexible multibody dynamic analysis codes

such as DADS(5). Static stress coefficients are calculated once through static analysis. Modal stress

coefficients are calculated once through eigenvalue analysis, using a finite element analysis code such

as MSC.Nastran(6).

IMPLEMENTATION

As discussed in the previous section, the hybrid superposition method obtains dynamic stress time

histories by the principle of linear superposition. To calculate dynamic stress time histories that consist

of pseudostatic stresses, modal velocity stresses and modal acceleration stresses as in Eq. 3, time

dependent terms; dynamic loads and velocities and accelerations of modal coordinates, and time

independent terms; stress coefficients are necessary. Therefore, two basic analyses are required. One is

flexible multibody dynamic analysis to calculate dynamic loads and modal coordinates of the

structural component. The other is finite element static analysis that is to calculate static stress

coefficients and finite element eigenvalue analysis that is to compute modal stress coefficients. Figure

1 shows an outline of the proposed method and its conceptual data flow, from structural finite element

analysis to stress history calculation.

Finite Element

Finite Element

Eigenvalue Analysis

Static Analysis

Hybrid Superposition

Fig. 1 Conceptual procedure and data flow of the hybrid superposition method

Using existing flexible multibody dynamic and finite element analysis codes such as DADS and

MSC.Nastran, the hybrid superposition method can be implemented as follows.

Step 1. For flexible multibody dynamic analysis, component deformation modes must be selected for

flexible bodies in the bus system that may require finite element vibration and static analysis

using finite element analysis codes. In flexible multibody dynamic analysis, the sub-structuring

technique may be used, if critical region can be modeled as a separated body from the

remaining structure.

Step 2. Using flexible multibody dynamic analysis code, the bus system of interest is simulated under

the specified scenario to obtain dynamic load time histories applying on each structural

component and modal coordinate time histories of each component.

Step 3. To calculated static stress coefficients in Eq. 3, finite element static analysis is carried out

through applying each unit load at the finite element node points where corresponding dynamic

load is applied. To calculate modal stress coefficients in Eq. 3, finite element eigenvalue

analysis is carried out. For a finite element model that is high dimensional, the conventional

sub-structuring technique may be used to calculate stress coefficients in local area.

Step 5. As in Eq. 3, static stress influence coefficients that are obtained in step 3 are multiplied by

corresponding to magnitudes of dynamic load time histories from step 2. Modal stress

influence coefficients that are obtained in step 4 are multiplied by corresponding to magnitudes

of modal coordinates time histories from step 2. Performing the multiplication and summation

at each integration time step yields dynamic stress time histories at every time step.

Step 6. Finally, fatigue lives of structural components are predicted by use of dynamic stress time

histories from step 2 or hybrid superposition of results from step 2 and step 3.

NUMERICAL EXAMPLE

To demonstrate the proposed method, a real bus system in Fig. 2 is chosen. Dynamic stress time

histories in the local area of the B-pillar joint structure are computed as the bus traverses a bump.

For dynamic simulations, The multibody model of the bus systems is modeled as in Fig. 3. To include

nonlinear effects of leaf springs and shock absorbers, bump stoppers, stabilizer bars and bushes in the

suspension system, nonlinear properties measured from component experiments are used. Mechanical

parts, such as engine, air conditioner and other nonstructural mass elements are lumped to nodes of the

body structure with spring and damper elements.

(b) Chassis

To consider the flexibility effect of the body structure, it is modeled as a flexible body. The

MSC.Nastran code is employed for eigenvalue and static analyses with free boundary conditions to

compute component modes. Component modes for the body structure are chosen as combination of

four vibration normal modes in Fig. 4 and eight static correction modes; i.e. residual inertia relief

attachment modes(3),(7). Static correction modes are defined at the joints between body structure and

leaf springs.

(a) Torsion

The flexible multibody dynamic simulations are carried out by using DADS code with the scenario

which the bus traverse a sinusoidal bump in Fig. 5 with a constant forward speed of 15km/hour.

The A-point in the B-pillar joint connected the waist rail in Fig. 6 is the crit ical area where a few

durability problems have occurred. When the bus traverses over the bump, large dynamic stresses are

anticipated in the joint.

Heig ht (m )

0.00

-0.25

-0.50

-0.75

-1.00

-10.50

-10.00

-9.50

-9.00

Distance (m )

-8.50

-8.00

-7.50

Dynamic load and modal coordinate time histories are calculated from flexible multibody dynamic

simulation and stress coefficients are obtained from finite element static analyses.

Figure 7 shows the dynamic stress time histories at the A-point, which are obtained using the mode

superposition method with vibration normal modes to 27Hz ; (MSM<27Hz) in (a) and 50Hz ;

(MSM<50Hz) in (b) and the hybrid superposition method with only pseudostatic stresses ; (HSM

pseudostatic) in (a) and pseudostatic stresses and eight fundamental vibration normal modes under

50Hz ; (HSM : pseudostatic + 8N) in (b). The figure shows that the modal superposition method will

be improved by addition of more vibration modes in the dynamic simulation. On the other hand, the

hybrid superposition method shows almost the same trend regardless of the number of vibration modes

and will converge to the exact solution by addition of more vibration modes.

3.0E+8

3.0E+8

Von Mises Stress (Pa)

MMAM (50Hz)

MDM (27Hz)

MSM

( < 27 Hz)

2.5E+8

(pseudostatic

8n )

HSHSSM

M (pseudostatic

++

8N)

3.5E+8

MMAM

(p seu dostatic)

HSM

(pseudostatic)

2.0E+8

1.5E+8

1.0E+8

2.5E+8

2.0E+8

1.5E+8

1.0E+8

5.0E+7

5.0E+7

0.0E+0

0.0E+0

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

Time (sec)

(a) Case 1

3.0

3.5

4.0

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

Time (sec)

(b) Case 2

3.0

3.5

4.0

Fig. 8 shows FFT(Fast Fourier Transformation) of dynamic stress time histories in terms of

frequencies, which are obtained using the mode acceleration method with vibration normal modes to

50Hz ; (MAM<50Hz) and the hybrid superposition method with pseudostatic stresses and eight

fundamental vibration normal modes under 50Hz ; (HSM : pseudostatic + 8N). The figure shows that

FFT of the hybrid superposition method are similar to that of the modal acceleration method. Using

SGI Indigo R10000 engineering workstation, total solving time and hardware space of the hybrid

superposition method, however, required 970.7 sec and 7.2 GB, respectively. On the other hand, them

of the modal acceleration method required 2223.6 sec and 12.5 GB.

1.0E+8

1.0E+7

1.0E+6

1.0E+5

1.0E+4

0.0

10.0

20.0

30.0

Freq uency (Hz)

40.0

50.0

These imply that the hybrid superposition method is more accurate than the mode superposition

method and more efficient than the mode acceleration method. This figure clearly shows

improvements of the proposed method over the conventional methods in the computation of the

dynamic stress time histories in structural components of bus systems and the other mechanical

systems.

CONCLUSION

In this paper, the hybrid superposition method is compared with the conventional methods; i.e. the

mode superposition method and the mode acceleration method. In the mode superposition method,

stress can be computed only when vibration normal modes are defined for the component. Thus, if the

component is very stiff and is modeled as a rigid body, zero stresses will be obtained. Even for flexible

bodies, the accuracy of stress that obtained will depend on the selection of vibration normal modes. In

the hybrid superposition method, however, dynamic loads that are accurately predicted in flexible

multibody dynamic simulation are used in stress calculation, hence avoiding the dependence on

vibration normal modes. In the mode acceleration method, pseudostatic stresses are computed from a

great number of static analyses, where the number of static analyses is equal to the number of total

integration time steps. In the hybrid superposition method, however, the pseudostatic stresses are

computed from a small number of static analyses, where the number of static analyses is equal to that

of total dynamic loads, so that computing time and hardware resources are required less than the mode

acceleration method. Therefore the hybrid superposition method is more accurate than the mode

superposition method and more efficient than the mode acceleration method.

REFERENCE

1. Winfrey, R. C., Elastic Link Mechanism Dynamics, Transaction of ASME, Journal of Engineering

for industry, Vol. 93, N0. 1, pp. 268-272, Feb. 1971.

2. Liu, T. S., Computational Methods for Life Prediction of Mechanical Components of Dynamic

Systems, Ph. D. Thesis, The Univ. of Iowa, 1987.

3. Yoo. W. S., and Haug, E. J., Dynamics of Articulated Structures. Part I : Theory, Journal of

Structural Mechanics, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 105-126, 1986.

4. Kim, H. S., Dynamic Stress Analysis of a Flexible Body in Multibody System for Fatigue Life

Prediction, Ph.D. Thesis, Inha University, Incheon, Korea, 1999.

5. DADS Users Manual, Rev. 8.0, Computer Aided Design Software, Inc., IA 5221, 1995.

6. MSC/NASTRAN Users Manual, Ver. 70, The MacNeal-Schwendler Corporation, June 1997.

7. Craig. R. R., and Chang, C. J., On the Use of Attachment Modes in Substructure Coupling for

Dynamic Analysis, Dynamic & Structural Dynamics, AIAA/ASME 18th Structures, Structural

Dynamics & Material Conference.

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