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System Predicting-Aided State Estimation

Shyh-Jier Huang, Senior Member, IEEE, and Jeu-Min Lin

AbstractAn approach for predicting-aided state estimation including bad data mining in a power system is proposed in this

paper. In the method, the sliding surface-enhanced fuzzy control

and optimal cluster numbers estimation techniques are both employed for the enhancement of state estimation. This proposed approach has been applied to test systems. Test results reveal the feasibility of the method for the applications considered.

Index TermsBad data mining, cluster numbers estimation,

sliding surface-enhanced fuzzy control, state estimation.

I. INTRODUCTION

OLLOWING the open access and the operation of transmission networks, the patterns of power flows in a deregulated power system have become less predictable when compared to the vertically integrated systems [1]. Under such new

energy market rules, the need for real-time network modeling is

vitally important, yet the quality of the formulated model highly

depends on the effectiveness of state estimators. Besides, only

with the utilization of the previous estimate, then a state estimator can forecast the state vector one step ahead accordingly.

Thus, it will also provide system operator with more time allowable in making related decisions such as economic dispatch,

security assessment, and other related functions.

The process of a conventional state estimator is often carried out through two functions that include state predicting and

state filtering. State predicting is performed according to the

past information, and state filtering is applied to find the optimal

estimate considering all available measurements and predicted

states. Several algorithms have been proposed for the accomplishment of state estimation work. Among these methods, the

commonly recognized extended Kalman filter (EKF) was often

employed [2][4]. In such a method, when the system is operated normally, the EKF scheme is useful to provide an optimal

state estimate. However, once the system encounters a large load

variation, the estimation performance is often seen significantly

downgraded. This is mainly attributed to the shortage of the

large injection change considered in the model formulation. Recently, based on the human knowledge and experience, fuzzy

control theory was also suggested [5]. Through the fuzzy control system design, the formulated state estimator was expected

to be more robust because of a better management of uncertainty. Then, with the emergence of neural networks, it was also

deemed a favorite candidate in several electric power applications thanks to its fast response and efficient learning. By collecting the data generated from power system operation, neural

networks were seen of high potential to assist in the dynamic

tracking of system states [6], [7]. In aforementioned methods,

each of these techniques could improve the computation performance, but each has its drawbacks as well.

In this paper, a fuzzy control method enhanced with a sliding

surface is proposed for the predicting-aided state estimation of a

power system [8]. The predicting-aided state estimation is also

known as dynamic state estimation whose central concept is to

detect identify and eliminate the inconsistent data by use of the

difference between the latest acquired measurements and corresponding forecasted values. In the proposed approach, with the

embodiment of fuzzy decision capability, for those cases where

the large load changes occurred, the method would guide the

solution to a near-optimal trajectory [9]. In addition, rather than

the conventional fuzzy controller design, the proposed method

applies the concept of the sliding surface that combines the error

and the rate of error as an integrated input variable. Hence, the

number of fuzzy rules can be also largely reduced, thereby facilitating the computation performance.

In addition to coping with load variation scenario, the study

also investigates the possibility of gross measurement errors that

may lead to biased estimates. Fig. 1 outlines the framework of

the proposed approach. As seen from the figure, the predicted

state vector is first determined. Then, following the acquirement of a new set of measurements, the innovation vector can

be evaluated and used as the network inputs, where the innovation vector is defined as the differences between the latest acquired measurements and their corresponding predicted values.

Yet, once the abnormal data occurs, the related innovations will

be immediately replaced in anticipation of better reflecting the

correct values, assisting the predicting-aided state estimator toward reliable estimates of system states.

The organization of the paper is made as follows. Section II

introduces the modules of the proposed approach, Section III

describes the computation procedures, Section IV shows the numerical results, and Section V draws the conclusions.

II. PROPOSED APPROACH

Manuscript received April 15, 2003. This work was supported in part by the

National Science Council of the Republic of China under Contract NSC902213-E-006-104.

The authors are with the Department of Electrical Engineering, National

Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPWRS.2003.818726

A. Paradigm

A multidimensional state vector including node-voltage

and phase angles

is utilized to describe the

magnitudes

states of a power system, where is the node number. From the

HUANG AND LIN: ENHANCEMENT OF ANOMALOUS DATA MINING IN POWER SYSTEM PREDICTING-AIDED STATE ESTIMATION

611

the concept of sliding surface-enhanced fuzzy controller is motivated to employ in the framework of the proposed method.

B. Sliding Surface-Enhanced Fuzzy Controller

Fig. 1. Framework of predicting-aided state estimation with anomalous data

mining embedded.

,

optimally estimated at each time sample. At time instant

the incoming measurement vector

can be expressed by

(1)

where

represents the state vector,

indicates a

is a white

nonlinear measurement function vector, and

Gaussian measurement noise error vector with zero mean and

. By using a state transition equation,

covariance matrix

at the -th time sample can be written as

the state vector

has paved a systematic way of capturing the linguistic fuzzy information extracted from human experts. The fuzzy paradigm

can be deemed the generalization of probability theory, where

each variable is assigned a degree of membership for their possible values. The linguistic information can be, therefore, converted into a control decision suitable for describing nonlinear

or model-free scenarios. As for the sliding mode control, it is

commonly recognized as a robust approach that was widely applied in the control study. By integrating the sliding mode control with the fuzzy model, it forms the major theme of this paper,

which will be derived as follows.

be the tracking error between the current state and

Let

desired state , then a sliding surface defined by the scalar

can be selected as expressed by

function

(2)

(7)

In (2),

is a nonzero diagonal matrix,

is a nonzero

vector, and

is a white Gaussian sequence with zero mean

. Note that in this study, the meaand covariance matrix of

surement vector is formed by bus voltage magnitudes, power injections, and line flow measurements. All measurement data are

assumed to acquire at the fundamental frequency.

The state estimation process can be largely divided into two

stages that consist of state predicting and state filtering. In the

state predicting process, based on the conditional expectation

at time instant can be

theory, the predicted state vector

derived from (2) as shown below

where is the order of system, and is a strictly positive constant that is equivalently a magnification factor [11]. Now, for a

, it becomes

second-order system with

(3)

where

is an estimate of state vector at time sample

.

Then, in the state filtering process, by assuming that a latest

set of observed measurement is available, the predicted state

vector can be filtered such that a new estimate is obtained.

at time is

In such a process, the estimated state vector

formulated by

(4)

(5)

(6)

where

represents the innovation vector,

the

the covariance matrix of

predicted measurement vector, and

the predicted state vector. Under a normal operation scenario,

(3)(6) are considered reasonable. However, once the improper

predicted states or gross measurement errors happens, this estimator has been reported no longer reliable [1]. Such drawbacks were attributed that the predicted values of system state

variables fail to take the sudden injection changes into account,

downgrading the state estimation performance. For this reason,

(8)

where

is the rate of state error. As (8) indicates, the state

error and the rate of state error are seen linearly composed rather

than separated. The sliding surface defined by the scalar funcpassing through the

tion forms a straight line of the slope of

origin of the phase plane only if

. The achievement of

is, therefore, equivalent to maintaining the sliding surface with the initial condition given as below

(9)

Equation (9) also illuminates that the problem of following the

desired trajectory can be regarded as that of holding the scalar

quantity at zero. The rule in this sliding surface-enhanced

fuzzy controller can be formed through the integration of the

error and the rate of error as one; namely, the error and the rate

of error are both used in the antecedents of the fuzzy rules. In this

way, the dimension of the input space and the number of rules

can be reduced, by which increasing the computational performance. Main procedure of this controller is detailed as below.

1) Decision of Input and Output Variables: Similar to (8),

the input variable of fuzzy controller is first defined by

(10)

where is the state error, is the rate of state error, and is the

positive constant. Since can be seen as the difference of the

predicted and estimated values of state variable, the state error

at time step can be given by

(11)

612

where

and

indicate the th predicted and estimated

system states at time , respectively. Then, the rate of state error

at the th time sample can be expressed as

(12)

Now, by assuming the element of input vector , and that

of output vector , in order for the region of the universe of

and

are

discourse of and , the intervals of

individually assigned. In this study, the value of is set to be

0.25 for the state error of voltage magnitude as well as that of

phase angle. The value of is set to be 0.07 for the state error

of voltage magnitude, and 0.05 for that of phase angle. This

selection was considered feasible based on the discussions with

utility engineers.

2) Partition of Universe of Discourse and Rule Establishment: Let and be linguistic variables individually for and

, then the universe of discourse is ready to partition. The input

and output universes of discourses can be divided as Table I tabulates, then the diagram of a fuzzy sliding surface can be formed

as Fig. 2 depicts. In the figure, the sliding surface is seen to consist of a banding area in the phase plane. The width of 2 indicates the available range for the input universe of discourse.

3) Fuzzification: In the fuzzification process, the isosceles

triangle is selected as the shape of membership function, where

the crisp value is accordingly fuzzified.

4) Fuzzy Inference: In the inference process, the min-max

method is adopted [12]. The grade of membership of the anis first formulated as below

tecedent

(13)

where the value of input variable is equal to a singleton .

can be written

The grade of membership of the consequent

as

(14)

Therefore, the inference result obtained from the grade of membership of the consequent becomes

(15)

5) Defuzzification: In the defuzzification process, inference

results of each input variable need to be converted to a crisp

value. The centroid is computed as below

(16)

where

is the element of output vector

can be hence modified to be

(17)

When the system is in normal operation, the term in (17) is

almost zero; yet when the system is under a drastic load change,

this term will become significant, indicating the current state of

a power system.

Fig. 2.

TABLE I

FUZZY SETS AND FUZZY

RULES

When bad measurements take place, the squares of differences of the observed measurements and their corresponding

estimates often become significant. In the paper, a back-error

propagation neural network scheme has been developed to provide the forewarning signals, but input variables for this neural

network are innovation vectors that are the differences between

the latest acquired measurements and their corresponding predicted values. [13]. The reason of choosing this innovation as

network input lies in its white Gaussian distribution feature [14].

Hence, when the neural network is well trained, it would serve

as a useful extrapolator. Now, with an input variable , its corre, where

sponding output is the estimated value

stands for the number of measurements. Next, by setting the

, the bad data can

threshold to compare the value of

be flagged. This method was seen feasible in some example systems; however, the selection of threshold universally suitable to

different scenarios is hard to achieve. An inadvertent choice of

the threshold may contrarily degrade the diagnosis process. An

efficient method to improve this drawback is, therefore, urgently

required.

Based on the theory of cluster analysis, an optimal cluster

number decision strategy was proposed that is capable of

estimating the optimal number of clusters from a set of data.

This technique uses the output of any clustering algorithm, and

then compares the change in within cluster dispersion to that

expected under an appropriate reference null distribution [10],

[15]. In this way, the appropriate number of data clusters can

HUANG AND LIN: ENHANCEMENT OF ANOMALOUS DATA MINING IN POWER SYSTEM PREDICTING-AIDED STATE ESTIMATION

613

abnormal data. The concept and formulation of this proposed

approach is detailed as follows.

, where represents

Assume that there is a set of samples

the thsample,thenthesetofsampleshave well-separatedgroups

can be obtained as below

and its error measure

(18)

where is the center of group . By comparing the natural logawith a reference value, the optimal number

rithmic value of

of clusters is accordingly determined. If there is any significant

and its reference value, it will

gap difference between

be a good indicator to warn the existence of bad data. Note that by

employing the natural logarithmic representation of

in this data mining process, the curve of error measure is expected

to be more linear such that the gap quantity between successive

clusters is also easier determined. It is also worth noting that for

the discovery of the gap difference, the set of reference data is also

required to form. In view of the distribution of squared error data

for each dimension, we have adopted a uniformly distributedrandomnumbergeneratorsuchthateachreferencedataset

has its Monte Carlo samples. Therefore, the probability of occurrence for each squared error data will be mutually the same under

normal system operation scenario.

III. COMPUTATION PROCEDURES

Fig. 3 depicts the building blocks of the proposed approach.

The main procedures of these blocks are discussed as follows.

Step 1: Compute the Predicted State and Innovation Vectors: In this step, the predicted state vector is first evaluated.

Then, with the acquisition of the latest set of measurements,

the innovation vector can be calculated by grasping the difference between the new measurements and their related predicted

values. Next, the squares of differences of the innovations and

are determined and ready for

their estimated values

the subsequent clustering process.

Step 2: Cluster the Squared Error Data: In this process, the

squared error data are partitioned into groups via a clustering

can be evaluated via (18),

algorithm. Its error measure

where the subscript squ indicates the squared error.

Step 3: Cluster the Reference Data: To serve as the comparison benchmark, reference data are also required uniformly generated. The error measure for each reference dataset can be com,wherethesubscript

putedandtermedby

ref signifies the reference data, and B is the number of reference

datasets.Thesamealgorithmusedintheabovestepisthenusedfor

the clustering of reference dataset. After the clustering of square

error data and reference dataset, the next step is to determine the

optimal number of clusters of square error data.

Step 4: Determine the Optimal Cluster Numbers: In this

step, the optimal number of clusters is determined by the

following rule [10]:

(19)

(20)

(21)

(22)

where

represents the statistical expectation under an null

reference distribution of the squared error data. In (21)(22),

is utilized for the consideration of the statistical variance

of

is considered for the effects

of the number of reference datasets that may brought to the

is employed for the standard deviagap quantity, and

. In the study, the expectation value of

tion of

can be determined by an average of copies

, where each of which is computed from the

Monte Carlo samples. If (19) is satisfied with the calculated

cluster number of , it points outs that the set of squared error

data are appropriately divided into clusters.

Step 5: Detect and Identify the Anomalous Data: Following

the aforementioned steps, if the cluster number is estimated to

be 1, all observed measurements are identified as normal ones.

Yet, when the number of cluster is larger than 1, it implies that

the set of observed measurements has inconsistent data inside.

that is

Then, for each cluster whose average value of

calculated, a cluster with a smallest averaged value of

will be identified as the normal group while others are deemed

abnormal ones, therefore, accomplishing the separation of bad

data. This is followed by the update of the anomalous innovations by their estimated values in order to obtain the reliable estimate. Next, with the aid of the sliding surface-enhanced fuzzy

expressed in (17) will be obtained and used for

controller,

the re-estimate of system state vector. This completes the computation process of the proposed method.

614

scenarios.

TABLE II

PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT UNDER NORMAL SCENARIOS

Fig. 4.

The proposed approach has been tested on an IEEE 30-bus

system as depicted in Fig. 4, where six generators, 21 loads,

and 41 branches are included. A full set of 248 measurements is

collected from this test system, including 30-bus voltage magni, six pairs of active and reactive generations

,

tudes

, and 82 pairs of

21 pairs of active and reactive loads

active and reactive line flows

. For the measure, and

, each one was

ments of

individually assigned a number following the sequence of bus

indicates the voltage magnitude at

number. In other words,

the th bus,

is the active power produced by generator at

signifies the active power received by electrical

the th bus,

indicates the reactive power produced

load at the th bus,

denotes the reactive power reby generator at the th bus,

ceived at the th bus,

signifies the active power flowing

is the reactive

from the th bus to the -th bus, and

power flowing from the th bus to the th bus. The proposed

method was developed by Microsoft Visual C++ language

that runs on an IBM-compatible computer with Intel Pentium IV

1.7-GHz processor inside. In the numerical study, a linear trend

between 1.5 and 2.5% along with a random variation was added

to a load curve. The variation was represented by a normally

distributed random number with a standard deviation of 2% of

the trend component. For each time sample, power flow computation was carried out using the load and generation data obtained via load curve and generation participation factor under

a normal system operation condition. In the study, six test scenarios are employed to validate the performance of the proposed

method, involving normal operation scenario, large load variations, multiple measurement errors, coexistence of measurement errors and large load changes, network unobservability,

and topology errors. These cases are also simulated on an IEEE

118-bus system, where 118 buses and 179 branches along with

1116 measurements are included. For each scenario, the outcome of the load flow serves as the true values of measurements.

Then, the raw measurements were evaluated by incorporating a

normally distributed noise of 1% standard deviation for voltage

magnitudes, and 1.5% for power flow pairs.

methods are assessed by the following indices:

is ema) At filtering stage, the performance index

ployed as below

(23)

b) At predicting stage, the averaged absolute error

is used as follows:

(24)

In (23), at time step

, and

individually signify the th estimated, true, and observed meais the number of measurement varisurements, and

and

are the th preables. In (24),

dicted and true system state variables at time

, and

is the number of state variables. A smaller index

reveals that the algorithm can perform better estimates of

system states. Similarly, for a case of better prediction, the

will become smaller. In the following,

value of

four test cases are presented and discussed.

Test 1: Normal Operation Scenario: In this test, different

methods are applied to solve the problem, where the observed

measurements are assumed behaved normally. Fig. 5 plots the

results of optimal cluster numbers by the proposed method at

the 10th time sample. In the figure, the inequality of

expressed in (19) of Section III (namely,

) is satisfied when

, revealing that the

optimal number of clusters would be 1 for this case. In other

words, the whole observed measurements of the 30-bus system

are identified as normal ones. Table II tabulates the comparisons

between methods. As seen from the table, the performances

of the methods are mutually similar. As for the IEEE 118-bus

system, Table III lists the simulation results of normal condition. Results obtained from this case support the effectiveness

of the method.

Test 2: Large Load Variations: In this test, a large load variation scenario is assumed. It is known that when encountering

HUANG AND LIN: ENHANCEMENT OF ANOMALOUS DATA MINING IN POWER SYSTEM PREDICTING-AIDED STATE ESTIMATION

TABLE III

RESULTS OF NORMAL CONDITION IN THE 118-BUS SYSTEM

Fig. 6. D(c) and (c) versus the cluster numbers under large load variations

scenarios.

large load variations, the accuracy of state estimates is often significantly affected. This is mainly attributed that the predicted

system states in the previous methods often fail to take account

of sudden injections. To validate the feasibility of the method,

large load variations are assumed to occur at bus 14 and 18 at

the 13th time sample in this study. Fig. 6 is the plot of the numerical results by using the proposed approach. Based on the

is seen larger than that of

inequality of (19), the value of

, indicating that the appropriate cluster numbers can

be chosen to be 2. Table IV lists the clustered results, which indi(no. 14),

(no. 18),

cates that the measurements of

(no. 45),

(no. 49),

(no. 126),

(no.

127),

(no. 129),

(no. 136),

(no. 137), and

(no. 138) are identified as the anoma(say

lous data due to the relatively large value of

0.0242), implying that the detection result is in consistence with

the assumed scenario. Besides, Table V shows the comparison

results of the performance indices between methods. As tabuand

of the

lated in the table, the smaller values of

proposed approach also show that the proposed method is superior to the other method, confirming the suitability of the approach for the scenario considered.

While for the 118-bus system, at the 16th time sample, a

large load change is assumed to occur at bus 52. Table VI and

Fig. 7 show the simulation results, by which the feasibility of

the method is confirmed.

Test 3: Multiple Measurement Errors: In this test case, a scenario of multiple measurement errors is assumed. Among the set

of observed measurements collected from the 30-bus system,

four bad data have been randomly assumed to occur at the 20th

time sample, involving the measurements of

(no. 15),

(no. 42),

(no. 63), and

(no. 215). The error

size of these bad data is 20 times their measurement standard

deviations. By using the proposed method, Table VII lists the

clustered results. As the table indicates, because the inequality

is satisfied, the optimal number of clusof

ters will amount to two for such a scenario, hinting that all ob-

615

TABLE IV

CLUSTERED RESULTS FOR LARGE LOAD VARIATIONS

TABLE V

COMPARISON OF PERFORMANCE INDICES BETWEEN METHODS

TABLE VI

CLUSTERED RESULTS FOR THE 118-BUS SYSTEM

the cluster that comes with the lowest average value

of

is deemed the normal group, while other groups

covering the bad measurements (no. 15, 42, 63, and 215) are abnormal ones.

Fig. 8 delineates the performance assessments between

methods. Confirmed by smaller values of indices, the performance of the proposed approach is proved better than that of the

other method. In addition, Fig. 9 also depicts the comparison

results with and without bad data identification and correction

and

are

included. From this plot, the values of

seen large when the procedure of bad data identification

and correction was not carried out, helping emphasize the

importance of the mining of anomalous data.

In the test case of 118-bus system, five bad measurements are

assumed to occur at the 15th time sample, including the mea,

surements of

. Error of bad data is assumed to be 20 times

and

the standard deviation. Table VIII and Fig. 10 show the clus-

616

TABLE VII

CLUSTERED RESULTS OF MULTIPLE MEASUREMENT ERRORS

Fig. 11.

Fig. 12. D(c) and (c) versus the cluster numbers with both measurement

errors and load changes occurred simultaneously.

Fig. 13. Comparison results with both measurement errors and load changes

occurred simultaneously.

Fig. 9. Performance comparisons with and without bad data identification and

correction.

TABLE IX

CLUSTERED RESULTS WITH BOTH MEASUREMENT ERRORS AND LOAD

CHANGES OCCURRED SIMULTANEOUSLY

TABLE VIII

CLUSTERED RESULTS FOR THE 118-BUS SYSTEM

Fig. 10.

computation results support the proposed approach as well.

Test 4: Simultaneous Occurrence of Gross Measurement Errors and Load Changes:

In this case, the performance of

the proposed method is evaluated when the gross measurement

error and large load change are assumed occurred simultaneously. In the 30-bus system, two measurement errors of 10%

were assumed to occur at the 25th time sample, involving mea(no. 97) and

(no. 144). Besurements of

sides, the large load decrease in the following scenarios are simulated:

1) bus 16 at the 25th time sample;

2) bus 26 at the 25th time sample.

and bus 26. It can be seen that the voltage magnitude increases

due to the large decrease in load. Now, by use of the proposed

and

technique, Fig. 12 delineates the values of

versus the cluster numbers under this condition. As the figure

reveals, the squared error data are grouped into three clusters

as Table IX tabulates. In the list of table, the abnormal group

(no. 16),

(no. 26),

covering anomalous data of

Fig. 14.

617

Fig. 16. Performance comparisons of the methods under network

unobservability (a) 30-bus system. (b) 118-bus system.

TABLE XI

CLUSTERED RESULTS OF NETWORK UNOBSERVABILITY

Fig. 15.

TABLE X

CLUSTERED RESULTS FOR THE 118-BUS SYSTEM

(no. 47),

(no. 55),

(no. 97),

(no.

(no. 132),

(no. 133),

144),

(no. 135),

(no. 153), and

(no. 155), are

identified. Fig. 13 depicts the performance assessment results,

where the performance of the proposed approach is better than

that of the EKF scheme as well, solidifying the feasibility of

the method.

In addition to applying the method on the 30-bus system, the

method was also assessed through the 118-bus system, where

and

are assumed six times the

the errors of

standard deviation, while the large load decreases are assumed

to occurs at bus 83 at the 23rd time sample. Fig. 14 depicts the

evolution of voltage magnitude before and after the load change.

The results obtained from this 118-bus system are individually

shown in Table X and Fig. 15. As the outcome reveals, the feasibility of the proposed method is solidified.

Test 5: Network Unobservability: An electric power network may miss some measurements such that the network

becomes unobservable. For this scenario, the proposed method

is applied to investigate, where the pseudo-measurements is

assumed for the problem formulation [1]. Namely, once the

network becomes unobservable at the th time sample, the

lost one would be replaced with a corresponding pseudo-measurement obtained from the most recent estimate. Then, the

th

measurements determined by the estimated states at the

time sample will be served as the pseudo ones at the th time

sample in anticipating of reaching the network observability.

As for the test of IEEE 30-bus and 118-bus systems, they

are individually assumed to have missed some measurements

at the 15th and 22nd time samples. By using the method,

the clustered results are listed in Table XI, where the optimal cluster numbers of 30-bus and 118-bus systems are

both seen to be 2. For the 30-bus system, measurements of

30-bus system. (b) 118-bus system.

, and

, are identified

abnormal data; for the 118-bus system, measurements of

, and

are abnormal ones. Fig. 16 delineates the performance assessments of methods. This figure

shows that the performance of the proposed method is superior

to that of the other method.

Test 6: Topology Errors: In this case, the estimation performance of methods under the incorrectly reported topology is

assessed. Operation scenarios of difference power systems are

simulated as follows. For the IEEE 30-bus system, at the seventh time sample, the line connected between bus 25 and bus 26

is assumed to lose connection but reported linked. While for the

IEEE 118-bus test system, the status of breaker situated between

bus 21 and bus 22 is incorrectly reported at the 10th time sample.

With these assumed scenarios, Table XII tabulates the clustered

results using the proposed method. In the table, the abnormal

measurements are seen effectively identified. Fig. 17 plots the

performance comparisons of methods, implying a better performance revealed by the proposed algorithm.

In aforementioned approaches, they were completed by Visual C++ language and performed on a Pentium-IV 1.7-GHz

computer. Table XIII lists the averaged calculation time of four

methods under different test cases, where this computation time

618

TABLE XII

CLUSTERED RESULTS FOR TOPOLOGY ERRORS

the method is performed with or without the data mining. For

all scenarios considered, the performance index of Method 4

(the proposed method) is seen to be the smallest one; thereby

consolidating the feasibility of the proposed approach while the

contribution of data mining is also confirmed.

V. CONCLUSION

TABLE XIII

COMPARISONS OF CALCULATION TIME FOR VARIOUS METHODS

anomalous data mining is proposed to enhance the power system

state estimation. By embedding the sliding surface-enhanced

fuzzy control, the estimation performance under different scenarios is seen significantly improved. Moreover, the proposed

approach has been designed to intelligently search the clusters

of inconsistent data. Therefore, the robustness of the estimation work can be better ensured. Currently, with the financial

support, a research project is being carried out in anticipation

of embedding the proposed method into utility energy management software system. The results will be reported in the near

future.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors are greatly indebted to Taiwan Power Company

for providing their valuable operating experience.

REFERENCES

TABLE XIV

COMPARISONS OF ESTIMATED PERFORMANCE

is obtained by taking the average of 30 runs. It is found that although the proposed method (Method 4) has included the fuzzy

controller and data mining, its computation time is seen only

slightly increased under different scenarios. Note that because

Test 1 is assumed a normal operation scenario where the fuzzy

controller is not required to perform, the computation time of

Method 1 and 2 are of the same. As for Method 3, its computation time is found slightly longer than that of Method 1 and 2 as

the data mining is added. Then, in Method 4 where fuzzy controller and data mining are both included, the increased computation burden is very limited, yet the computation performance is improved significantly as Table XIV reveals. In the

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Cluster in a Dataset Via the Gap Statistic, Stanford University, Technical Rep., Mar. 2000.

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Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1991.

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CRC Press, 1994.

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1982.

[15] P. Arabie, L. J. Hubert, and G. de Soete, Clustering and Classification,

Singapore: World Scientific, 1996.

[16] S. J. Huang and J. M. Lin, Enhancement of power system data debugging using GSA-based data mining technique, IEEE Trans. Power Syst.,

vol. 17, pp. 10221029, Nov. 2002.

Shyh-Jier Huang (M95-SM01) received the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from the University of Washington, Seattle, in 1994.

Currently, he is Professor with the Department of Electrical Engineering and

is the Project Manager in Computational Intelligence Applied to Power (CIAP)

Laboratory at National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, R.O.C. He

worked on projects at the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer

Science at the University of California at Berkeley from 1989 to 1991. His

main areas of interests are power system analysis, power quality, and signal-processing applications.

619

Jeu-Min Lin is currently pursuing the Ph.D. degree at National Cheng Kung

University, Tainan, Taiwan, R.O.C.

His main areas of interest include power system analysis, statistical analysis,

and fuzzy system applications.

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