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IndiaGlobalSlaveryIndex

1.40%EstimatepercentageofpopulationlivinginModernSlavery
51.35/100VulnerabilitytoModernSlavery

Prevalence
HowmanypeopleareinmodernslaveryinIndia?
Indiaisundergoingaremarkable'tripletransition',inwhicheconomicgrowthisbothdrivingandis
beingaffectedbyrapidsocialandpoliticalchange.[1]Economicgrowthhasrapidlytransformedthe
countryoverthepast20years,includingthecreationofaburgeoningmiddleclass.[2]In1993,some
45percentofthepopulationwerelivinginpovertyby2011thathadbeenreducedto21percent.[3]In
additiontoeconomicgrowth,ambitiousprogrammesoflegalandsocialreformarebeingundertaken
rightacrosstheboard,fromregulationoflabourrelationstosystemsofsocialinsuranceforthemost
vulnerable.Evenwithsuchremarkablechange,givenIndiahasapopulationofmorethan1.3billion
people,therearestillatleast270millionpeoplelivingonlessthanUS$1.90perday.

CountryFindingsofPrevalence
18,354,700
Estimatenumberenslaved
Whilelaws,systemsandattitudesregardingkey'faultlines'suchasthecastesystem,genderand
feudalismarerapidlychanging,socialchangeofthisdepthandscalenecessarilytakestime.[4]Inthis
context,itisperhapsunsurprisingthatexistingresearchsuggeststhatallformsofmodernslavery
continuetoexistinIndia,includingintergenerationalbondedlabour,forcedchildlabour,commercial
sexualexploitation,forcedbegging,forcedrecruitmentintononstatearmedgroupsandforced
marriage.Quantificationofmodernslaveryinanycountryisdifficult,butisdoublysoinacountryas
largeandcomplexasIndia.Whereasinothercountries,anationalsurveywasusedtoestimate
prevalence,inIndia,wechosetoproceedwithsurveysattheStatelevel.In2016,randomsample
surveyswereconductedbyGallupin15States.[5]Collectivelythesesurveysaccountfornearly80
percentoftheIndianpopulation.Thesurveydatasuggestthattherearemorethan18millionpeople
or1.4percentofthetotalpopulation,whoarelivinginconditionsofmodernslaveryinIndia.
Industriesimplicatedinthesurveydataincludedomesticwork,theconstructionandsexindustries,
agriculture,fishing,manufacturing,manuallabour,andforcedbegging.

Bondedlabour

Whilebondedlabourhasbeenoutlawedfordecades,surveydataandpreexistingresearchconfirms
thatthispracticestillpersists.Narrativesavailablefrom2016surveyrespondentsidentifythatsome
respondentsperceivedtheirsituationtobeoneofbondedlabour,someofwhichisinter
generational:
"Sir,itisthesinofmyfatherthatIhavetorepaythedebtsunlessIshallhavetobeg.Ihaveathreat
againstmyfamily.Iampronetophysicalviolenceeveryday."(Surveyrespondent,2016)
"Thisisanolddiseaseinthevillagethatifyouarenotabletopayoffyourdebtsyouwillhavetowork
asabondedlaborinthefieldofapowerfulperson.Myhusbandwasemployedfarfromthevillageso
thathecannotrunaway."(Surveyrespondent,2016)
Inothercases,itappearedthatbondedlabourreflecteddebtlendingpracticesandcontinuationofa
feudalmindset:
"Therearemanypeopleinthevillagewhowereworkingwithmeasabondedlabor.Iwasphysically
andsexuallyassaultedwhenIwasworkinginthefield.Ihadalsothreatonmylifeandonmyfamily.I
wasalsothreatenedthatIhadtoleavethevillage."(Surveyrespondent,2016)
"It'sverycommoninthisvillagethatwehavetoworkforrepaytheamount,ourfamilyborrowed.I
wasoneofthem.MymottowasjustrepaytheamountassoonasIcould.Theythreatenedtoevict
usfromourhomeland,showntheirangerifIdeniedtoperformanytask.Sometimesthe
consequenceextendedtomyfamilyandtheyusedphysicaltortureinseveraltime."(Survey
respondent,2016).
Bondedlabourisnotonlyillegal,researchconfirmsthatithasseriousnegativehealthimpactsfor
thoseaffected,whotypicallyworkinunsanitaryanddangerousworkingconditionswithnoaccessto
healthcare.[6]

Domesticservice
Examplesofforcedlabourofdomesticworkersweredescribedbysurveyrespondents.Whilenotall
domesticworkersareabused,domesticworkersareaparticularlyvulnerablegroupasworktakes
placeinprivatehomesandlargelyoutofthereachofregulation.OfficialfiguresinIndiasuggestthat
therearemorethan4.2millionmen,womenandchildrenworkingascooks,cleaners,drivers,
gardenersandcaregiversacrossthecountry.[7]Theseestimatesarefrom2004 [8]andexperts
suggestthattheremaybemanymoreworkersunaccountedforinthesestatistics.[9]
Domesticworkersinsomestatesareexcludedfromlabourlawsandcanexperienceexcessive
overtime,withholdingofwagesorreceiveinsufficientremuneration.Itisreportedthatgirlsasyoung
astencontinuetobehiredinprivatehomes.[10]Domesticworkerscanbesubjecttothreatsofand
actualphysicalviolenceandin,somecases,sexualabuse.
"Youarewellawarethatifayoungladyworksasadomesticservantsheisalwaysasofttargetof

beingeasilymolested.Sowithme.IhavenotpaidasingleamountandinthenameofdebtIwas
madeavictimofthesexualviolence."(Surveyrespondent,2016)

Forcedbegging
StreetbeggingbyadultsandchildrenisaprominentfeatureofmanyIndiancities.Thoughmany
beggarsdosooutofeconomicdesperation,surveydataconfirmsthatcriminalsalsoforcepeopleto
beg:
"ThoughIambeggingIamnotpaidasingleamount.Ihavetodepositalltothem.Iamdeprivedof
foodandgoodsleep.Iamnotpaidmywagesonlyworkingasabondedlabor."(Surveyrespondent,
2016)
"Iwasforcedtodobeggingandstillbeggingwiththeothers.IcantsayanythingtoyoubecauseI
aminconstantfear.IamthreatenedbymyemployernottoopenmymouthtoanybodyotherwiseI
willbepunishedseverely."(Surveyrespondent,2016)

Commercialsexualexploitation
Existingresearchandthe2016surveydataconfirmtheexistenceofforcedprostitution.
Asonesurveyrespondentsaid:
"Mywifeiskeptinthelockedroomandsexuallyharassedandbeingforcedtoworkasaprostitute.
Sheisphysicallypunishedwheneversherefusetohavesex.Myfamilyisunderdeaththreat.Weare
alsothreatenedoflegalactionagainstus."(Surveyrespondent,2016)
Anotherreported:
"IwasforcedtoworkinthefleshtradeCanyouimaginethatIkeptinalockedroomforthewhole
daywhenIrefusedtoworkunderpressure?Itisbecausetheyhadalwaysthreatenedmeandmy
familyforphysicalviolenceandtortured."(Surveyrespondent,2016).
ExistingNationalCrimeRecordsBureaudataindicatetherewerealmost5,500casesacrossIndia
underexistinghumantraffickinglawsin2014.Asthelawdoesnotdifferentiatebetweenhuman
traffickingandsexwork,andtherearenoformalguidelinesonwhoisidentifiedinrescueandraid
situations,itisimpossibletoknowifeveryoneofthesecasesinvolvedforceorchildren,orwhether
someweresimplycasesofeconomicsurvival.[11]

Forcedmarriage
Morethan50percentofwomenaremarriedinIndiabeforethelegalageof18.[12]Despitethe
illegalityofsexselectiveterminationoffemalefoetuses,theintroductionofsexdeterminationby
ultrasound[13]hasseensomeareasofIndiaexperiencesignificantgenderdisparityandadearthof

availablebrides.Thesubsequentdemandforbrides,particularlyinruralcommunitieswheremany
girlsofmarriageableagehavemigratedtocitiesforemployment,hasfuelledthetraffickingofwomen
forforcedmarriage.Itisreportedthatinsomeinstances,girlsareforcedintomarriageandthen
usedasunpaidlabourerslocaldaylabourerscost$140USDforaseasonbutabridecancostonly
$100USDasaonceoffpayment.[14]ThenorthernstateofHaryanahasIndiasmostdistortedsex
ratio114malesforevery100females.[15]
TheWalkFreesurveyquestionshavebeencarefullydesignedtodrawaverycleardistinction
betweenarrangedmarriages(whicharenotinscope),andforcedmarriages(whichareinscope).
Casesofforcedmarriagewereidentifiedthroughthesurveyprocess.

Forcedrecruitmentforarmedservices
AnumberofregionsinIndiacontinuetoexperiencearmedviolenceandconflictbetweenstate
armedforcesandarmedoppositiongroups(AOGs).[16]Thereisongoingevidencetosuggestthat
childrenareforciblyrecruitedintoAOGsinJammu&Kashmir,Punjab,Rajasthan,Bihar,Orissa,
JharkhandandWestBengal,Assam,ManipurandTripura,UttarPradesh,ChhattisgarhandMadhya
Pradesh,Maharashtra,Kerala,TamilNadu,AndhraPradeshandKarnataka.[17]Somechildrenas
youngassixareusedbyNaxalitesasinformersandtrainedtofightwithcrudeweapons,suchas
sticks.[18]Oncechildrenreach12years,theyreceivetraininginweaponhandlingandtheuseof
improvisedexplosivedevices.Somewomenandgirlshavereportedexperiencingsexualviolencein
militantcamps.[19]
Uzbekistanistheworldssixthlargestproducerofcotton.Duringtheannualcottonharvest,citizens
aresubjectedtostatesanctionedforcedlabour.Monitoringbyinternationalorganisationshasmeant
thegovernmenthasbeguntotakestepstoimprovethesituation,however,reportsfromthe2015
harvestestimatethatoveronemillionpeoplewereforcedtowork.
Photocredit,SimonBuxton/AntiSlaveryInternational

Vulnerability
Whatfactorsexplainorpredicttheprevalenceofmodern
slavery?
Therearemorethan270millionpeoplelivingbelowthepovertylineinIndia.[20]Homelessness,
includingofchildren,remainsamajorconcern.Forexample,acensusofchildrenlivingonthestreet
inMumbaiin2013foundatotalofmorethan37,000children,primarilyconcentratedincommercial
areaswithabustlinginformaleconomy.Seventypercentwereboysandthirtypercentweregirls,and
18percentwereinthe1012yearoldagebracket.[21]

AverageVulnerabilityScore

51.35/100
Country
India

Civil&Political

Social,Health,&

Personal

Refugees&

Protections

EconomicRights

Security

Conflict

37.07

36.68

43.88

87.78

Mean
51.35

TheinformalnatureofmuchofIndiaslaboureconomyalsoimpactsonvulnerability.Accordingto
governmentstatistics,some75percentofruralworkersand69percentofurbanworkersareinthe
informaleconomy.[22]Theseworkersfacerisksassociatedwithahighlyunregulatedand
unmonitoredworkenvironment,particularlyinthecountrysmanybrickkilns.Thecountryssteady
populationgrowthandthecorrespondingdemandforimprovementofinfrastructureandincreased
dwellingshaveenabledthebloodbricksproducedintheseindustriestocontinue.[23]
VulnerabilitytoslaveryinIndiahassomecommonelements,withpovertyandthelackofcapacityto
absorbshocks,anddeepstructuralinequalitiesreflectinggender,casteandtribeallbeinghighly
relevant.[24]However,vulnerabilityisalsodistinctstatebystate.Forexample,inBihar,agricultural
shocks,highprevalencewithinthepopulationofmembersoftheScheduledCastes,combinedwith
borderstoNepal,resultinforcedlabourconnectedtomigrationforworkbothwithinandfromIndia.
Also,BiharisoneofthestatesaffectedbytheNaxaliteconflict.AccordingtotheUNSecurityCouncil,
NaxalitesinBihar,Chhattisgarh,JharkhandandOdishastatesrecruitedboysandgirlsbetweensix
and12yearsofageintospecificchildrensunits.UttarPradeshwhichhasthehighestproportionof
castesandtribesofallIndianstates,theissuesarequitedifferent.Forexample,socalledmanual
scavengingisreportedtobestillwidelypractised,inwhichmembersofacertaincastearerequired
tocleanoutdrylatrines.Whentheyseektoleaveorrefusetodothiswork,theyfaceviolenceand
abuse.[25]
WomenandgirlsfacesignificantdiscriminationandhighratesofsexualviolenceacrossIndia,and
thisisparticularlytrueforwomenandgirlsfromtheScheduledCastesandTribes.[26]WhilePrime
MinisterNarendraModireferredtoastringofrapesasanationalshame,andtherehasbeenaraft
oflegislativeandcriminaljusticereformssignallingsomeprogress,womenarestillatveryhighriskof
sexualassaultanddomesticviolence.
Whilefactorssuchasdowrypaymentsandadesiretoavoidsexualviolencearecommonlygivenas
reasonsforearlyandchildmarriage,recentresearchsuggeststhatthesearesymptomsofdeeper
riskfactors.Vulnerabilitytoearlyandchildmarriagehasbeenattributedtoacomplexmatrixof
underlyingriskfactors,reflectingtheinterplayofpatriarchy,class,caste,religionandsexuality,thatall
impactondecisionmaking.[27]Overlaidwiththisaretheeconomicsofmarriage,dominantconcepts
ofsexuality,widelyacceptedgendernormsincludingconceptsofmasculinity,educationaland
institutionalgaps,thecentralityofmarriageinIndiansociety,andthedesireforparentstoexercise
controlovertheirchildrenastheybecomeyoungadults.[28]
AcrossIndia,butparticularlyinsomesouthernstates,Indianmigrantworkersactivelyseekjobsin

constructionandcareindustries,primarilyintheGulf,EuropeandNorthAmerica.Therearereported
tobe14millionIndianmenandwomenworkingoverseas,primarilyintheGulf,manyofwhomwill
havesoughtworkthroughtheirnetworksratherthanformalchannels.[29]Officialmigrationprocesses
arecomplexandoftentaintedbycorruption,whichfurtherencouragesirregularmigration.These
channelsleavemigrantswithlittlerecourseagainstpracticessuchasunilateralcontracts,dangerous
workingandlivingconditions,limitedmovementandaccesstocommunications,withholdingof
passportsandwages,andphysicalandsexualabuse.[30]
Fromthe'LessthanHuman'series.AlargecargoboatisseeninSongklaPort,Thailand.
09/03/2014.PhotographerChrisKellyworkedundercovertoexposethelinkbetweenprawnsbeing
soldinbignamesupermarkets,andtheslaveswholiveandworkonThaifishingboatsmilesoutto
sea.
Photocredit,ChrisKelly

Howaregovernmentstacklingmodernslavery?
GovernmentResponseRating
B
ThegovernmenthasalsodraftedaNationalPolicyforDomesticWorkers,whichiscurrentlyawaiting
UnionCabinetapproval.Ifenacted,thePolicywouldsafeguardaminimumsalaryofRs9,000
(approximately$135USD)permonthforskilledfulltimedomesticworkers,paidleaveandmaternity
leave,socialsecurity,andtherighttocollectivelybargain.Italsoincludescallsforprovisionsagainst
sexualharassmentandbondedlabourfordomesticworkers.[32]Thefactthatdomesticworkerswere
identifiedinforcedlabourinthe2016WalkFreeFoundationstatesurveysunderscorestheurgency
ofpolicychangeonthisissue.
InJune2015,theMinistryofWomenandChildDevelopmentlaunchedKhoyaPaya,aLostand
Foundwebsite,whichoperatesinadditiontotheMinistryofHomeAffairsTrackChildsite.Track
Childprovidesaforumforpolicetoexchangeinformationonmissingchildren,whilethenewsite
extendstothepublic,allowingregistrationofmissingchildrenbytheirfamiliesincoordinationwith
policeefforts.[33]
Intermsofmorespecificresponsestomodernslavery,Indiahascriminalisedmostformsofmodern
slavery,includingtrafficking,slavery,forcedlabour,childprostitutionandforcedmarriage,aspartof
itspenalcodeorunderspecificlegislation.However,thereisnodistinctiondrawnundertheexisting
traffickinglegislationbetweenhumantraffickingandsexworkwhichmakesinterpretationofresults
difficult.Thereisalsonocurrentlegislationcoveringtheuseofchildreninarmedconflict.[34]
Responsibilityforthenationalgovernmentsresponseisdividedbetweenthreeministries:Ministryof
Labour,MinistryofHomeAffairs,andMinistryofWomenandChildDevelopment.Whileeachagency

hasdifferentmandatesandareastocover,theabsenceofstrong,continuingcoordinationacross
theseagencieshadledtoafragmentedandcomplexresponsetomodernslavery.Implementationof
antitraffickinglawsinthePenalCodeistheresponsibilityoftheMinistryofHomeAffairs,which
providesinformationaboutcrossgovernmenteffortsonitsantitraffickingportal.Theportalincludes
criminaljusticestatistics,detailsofantitraffickingpoliceunits,informationongovernmentandlaw
enforcementtraining,andinformationonantitraffickinglegislationandreportingmechanisms,
includingtheChildLinehotline.[35]Criminaljusticestatistics,bothonhumantraffickingandbonded
labourcrimes,arepublishedbytheNationalCrimeRecordsBureau.[36]
Lawsprohibitingbondedlabourhavebeenonthestatutebooksfordecades.[37]Theresponseto
bondedlabouriscoordinatedbytheMinistryofLabourwhilethedistrictandsubdivisionallevel
vigilancecommitteesprovideadvicetothecourtsonbondedlabourissues.[38]TheNationalHuman
RightsCommissionmonitorsthegovernmentresponse,regularlyreviewsexistinggovernment
policiesandpracticesfromahumanrightsperspective,[39]andprovidestrainingtodistrict
Magistrates,DeputyCommissionersandothergovernmentofficials.[40]Statisticssuggestthatmany
statesareyettoimplementtheSupremeCourtorderwhichrequireddistrictvigilancecommitteesto
undertakesurveystoidentifyandreleasethoseinbondedlabour,asmanystillsubmitanofficial
reportofzerocases.[41]ThestateofKarnatakahasmadeprogressontheOrder,asreflectedinthe
numbersofcasesofbondedlaboureridentifiedinofficialcrimestatistics.Outsidethis,thereare
concernsabouttheeffectivenessoftheresponsetobondedlabourinIndia.[42]
TheIndianNationalGovernmenthasundertakenanambitiousprogrammetoestablishspecialist
antitraffickingpoliceunitsthroughoutthecountry.Thesearemandatedtofacilitateinteragency
coordinationfortherescueofchildrenandpostrescuecareefforts,tomonitorinterventionsand
providefeedback,andtocollectandanalysedatarelatedtotraffickingtobesharedwithstate
governmentsandthemediaasappropriate.Thegovernmentcontinuedtoexpandthenumberof
unitsacrossthecountry,reaching225unitsbyDecember2014,withtheaimtoestablish330anti
humantraffickingunits.[43]Whiletheseeffortsarecommendable,itisalsoclearthatsomeunitsare
workingwellandothersarenot.Itisreportedthatoneissuerelatestobudget,buttherearealso
numeroussystemicissuesthatresultininvestigationsstoppingatstateboundaries.Reflectingthese
concerns,arecentNationalLegalServicesAuthoritysubmissiontotheSupremeCourtcalledfora
centralinvestigationsbureautobeestablishedtoinvestigatecrossbordercrimes.[44]
Boththejudiciaryandlawenforcementhavereceivedtrainingmorethan20,000policepersonnel
havebeentrainedonvictimidentification,implementationofthenewlegalframework,andvictim
centredinvestigations.Thegovernmentvictimcompensationschemealsoextendstovictimsof
humantraffickinghowever,theamountandefficiencyofdispersalislargelydependentonthestate
administrationandisnotavailablecountrywide.[45]Inarecentlandmarkcase,fourtraffickerswere
prosecutedfollowingathreedaytrialforkidnappinga14yearoldHaryanagirlandforcingherinto
domesticservitudeandsexualexploitationtheyweresentencedtobetweensevenandtenyearsin
jail,withhalfofthefinepaidtothevictimasrestitution.[46]
TheIndianGovernmentfundsvictimsupportservices,however,effortsneedtobedirectedat

improvingthesebothintermsofapproachandqualityofcare.TheUjjawalaprojectisoneofthe
primarysupportsystemsinIndiaforchildrenandyoungwomenatrisk,butthisdoesnotnecessarily
equatetospecialistservicesforvictimsoftrafficking.Mostsheltershavelimitedfacilitiesand
resourcestoprovideholisticsupport.[47]Governmentsheltersarerequiredtoregisterhowever,
servicesvaryastherearenostandardsattachedtoregistration,andnoinspectionsorfollowup.
Furthermore,underexistinglaws,survivorsundertheageof21canandaresubjecttoextended
periodsofcourtorderedcustodyinprotectivehomes,effectivelyresultingintheirdetention.[48]
Specificgovernmenttraffickingsheltersarecurrentlyavailableonlyforwomenandgirls.[49]
Indiacontinuedtotakestepstowardcollaboratingacrosstheregiontorespondtotransnational
traffickingcrimesandprovideprotectionforIndiancitizensmigratingoverseas.Indianpolicehave
cooperatedwithregionalcounterpartsontransnationalhumantraffickinginvestigations.In2014,
IndianandBangladeshipoliceundertookajointinvestigationtoidentifytwoBangladeshigirlssold
intocommercialsexualexploitationinIndia.Bothgirlswerefoundandsuccessfullyrepatriatedthe
offendersarebeingprosecutedundernewantitraffickingprovisions.[50]InMarch2016,Indiaand
Bahrainagreedtoincreasebilateralcooperationonhumantraffickingissues,especiallywomenand
childrenintheGulf.[51][52]Thisagreementprovidesprotectionforvictims,includingrepatriation,and
providesforclosecooperationandinformationexchangebetweenpoliceandotherconcerned
authorities.[53]InApril2016,mediareportssuggestedIndiawillsignasimilaragreementonanti
humantraffickingcollaborationwiththeUnitedArabEmiratesshortly.[54]
InDecember2015,inresponsetopublicinterestlitigationinitiatedbyanNGO,theSupremeCourtof
Indiatooknoteofevidenceofthedeficienciesoftheexistingvictimsupportnetwork.[55]TheSupreme
CourtofIndiadisposedofthelitigationwhentheMinistryofWomenandChildDevelopmentstated
thatitwastakingstepstoestablishtheOrganisedCrimeInvestigativeAgency(OCIA)andhad
establishedacommitteetopreparenewcomprehensiveantitraffickinglegislationtoensure,among
otherthings,thatvictimsarenottreatedascriminalsandprovidedwithadequateshelterhomes.The
SupremeCourtalsohighlightedtheneedforstrongervictimprotectionlegislationandprotocolsand
provisionofadequateshelters.[56]Thisiscriticalasrecentresearchsuggeststhatrescueefforts
involvingchildrenarenotalwaysoperatinginthebestinterestsofvictims,andarenotresultingin
appropriatecriminalactionagainstemployersortraffickers,leavingchildrenatriskofretaliationand
retrafficking.[57]
EarlyindicationsarethatmanystepshaveresultedfromthisSupremeCourtorder.Aninter
ministerialcommitteehasbeenformed,legislationhasbeendraftedandcertainoutcomesappear
closetocompletion.Forexample,effortstodevelopacomprehensivestandardoperatingprocedure
onrescue,rehabilitationandpreventionoftraffickingofwomenandchildrenforsexualexploitation
wasbeingfinalisedatthetimeofprint.[58]Itisnotyetclearhowthiswillimpactontheexistinglaws
andinfrastructure,suchastheantihumantraffickingunits,alreadyestablished.Partofthechallenge
willbetoensurethatgainsalreadymadearenotlostineffortstocreateanewsystem,whilethenew
systemdoesnotaddanotherlayerofcomplexitytoanalreadyovercrowdedsystem.
Rajshahi,Bangladesh,January2013.Dipais13yearsoldandhasbeenengagedinprostitutionfor

fivemonths.Sheusedtogotoschool,butstoppedinclassthreeafterherfamilycouldnolonger
affordtosendher.Hertwosistersarealsoengagedinprostitution,butclientsprefertovisitDipaas
sheistheyoungestofthethree.Shegetsbetweenfourorfiveclientsandearnsabout1,200Taka
(US$15)aday.
Photocredit,PepBonet/NOOR

Recommendations
Whatdowerecommend
Government
Withmanyofthenecessarylawsinplaceandunderdevelopment,thefocusmustbeon
implementationandtrackingimprovementsinimplementation.Forexample,giventhehighlevels
ofinternalmigration,thereisaclearneedtoensureStatepoliceareencouragedandenabledto
continueinvestigationsacrossborders.Thisneedstobeinadditiontoanycentralinvestigations
bureauwhichwilllikelyfocusononlythemostcomplexcases.Ratifyandimplementthe
ConventionontheWorstFormsofChildLabour.
RatifyandimplementtheConventionontheWorstFormsofChildLabour.
RatifyandimplementtheDomesticWorkersConvention.
ProactivelyrequireallstatestofollowupontheSupremeCourtJudgmentofOctober15,2012,to
identifyandreleasethoseinbondedlabour,andreportonprogress.RequireStateswhoreport
zerocasesofbondedlabourtoshowwhatstepshavebeentakentoactuallyfindandassist
bondedlabourers.
UpdateregulationsandprocessesfortheimplementationoftheBondedLabourAct,andreporton
itsimplementation.Focusonpracticalwaystoregulateandmonitorpracticesofplacement
agencies.
Focusonpracticalwaystoregulateandmonitorpracticesofplacementagencies.
ImplementanewNationalActionPlanthattargetsthefullspectrumofmodernslavery,while
recognisingthedifferencesbetweenhighlyorganisedcrime(whichislikelytobecrossborder)
andmorelocalisedpracticesofbondedlabour.
Ensurethatvictimsarenotcriminalisedordetainedbothbylawenforcementandintheshelter
system.Victimsmustbeprotected(includingprotectingtheiridentities)throughoutthedurationof
theircourtcases.Repeallawswhichpermitdetentionofvictims.
Increasetheproportionoffemalepoliceofficersinenforcement.Createandmonitor
implementationofstandardoperatingproceduresforshelterhomestosupportqualityandrights
basedpostrescuerehabilitationofsurvivors.
Createandmonitorimplementationofstandardoperatingproceduresforshelterhomesto
supportqualityandrightsbasedpostrescuerehabilitationofsurvivors.
PreventtherecruitmentofchildrenintoAOGsandprovidetargetedrehabilitativeservicesto
rescuedchildren.

Business
Partnerwithcivilsocietyorganisationstoprovidesafeworkandvocationaltrainingtosurvivorsof
modernslavery,undertheCompanyAct2013corporatesocialresponsibilityrequirements.
Exportorientedindustriessuchastextiles,agricultureandcarpetweavingshouldworkthrough
theirindustrybodiesandwithappropriatethirdpartiestocreateindustrywidesupplychainsthat
arefreeofmodernslavery.
Domesticindustries,suchasconstruction,manufacturingandbrickkilns,shouldworkwithstate
governmentsandlocalorganisationstofindinnovativewaysofeliminatingtheneedforchildand
bondedlabourintheirbusinesses.

Footnotes
1.RajivKumar,India2015:TowardsEconomicTransformation(TheLegatumInstitute,2015),2,last
accessedApril4,2016,https://lif.blob.core.windows.net/lif/docs/default
source/publications/india_nedtransitions_a4pweb.pdf?sfvrsn=4
2.Asabove,5.
3.Table162:NumberandPercentageofPopulationBelowPovertyLine,(ReserveBankofIndia,
2012),lastaccessedApril4,2016,https://www.rbi.org.in/scripts/PublicationsView.aspx?id=16603
4.SonaldeDesaiandAmareshDubey,"Castein21stCenturyIndia:CompetingNarratives"(2012)
46(11)EconomicandPoliticalWeekly,4049,accessedApril4,2016,
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3379882/
5.RandomsamplesurveyswereconductedbyGallupin2016inChhattisgarh,MadhyaPradesh,
Bihar,Jharkhand,Odisha,Punjab,UttarPradesh,AndhraPradesh,Telangana,Kerala,
Maharashtra,Rajasthan,HimachalPradesh,Karnataka,WestBengal.Surveysamplesizeineach
Statewas1000exceptforAndraPradeshandTelanganawhichwassplitintotwostatesduringthe
surveyprocess,whereasampleof500wasappliedtoeach.
6.A.Arunkumar,"Occupationalhealthhazardsandcausativefactorsofmaleadultbondedlabourers
ofSouthIndia:amixedmethodpilotstudy"(2016)3(3)InternationalJournalofCommunity
MedicalPublicHealth,735740,accessedApril6,2016,
http://www.ejmanager.com/mnstemps/109/1091453314813.pdf?t=1462509644
7."DomesticWorkersinIndia",WomeninInformalEmployment:GlobalizingandOrganizing,last
accessedApril4,2016,http://wiego.org/informal_economy_law/domesticworkersindia
8.Asabove.
9.Personalcommunication.
10.Asabove.
11.NationalCrimeRecordsBureau,Statistics2014,Table6A.1,Incidence&RateofCrimeRelating
ToHumanTraffickingDuring2014,page202,
http://ncrb.nic.in/StatPublications/CII/CII2014/Statistics%202014.pdf
12."EarlyandChildMarriage:ALandscapeAnalysis",NirantarTrustandAmericanJewishWorld
Service,lastaccessedApril6,2016,https://ajws.org/wp
content/uploads/2015/05/EarlyChildMarriageinIndia_Landscape

13.'TheMarriageBazaar:HowFemaleFoeticidehasMadeBrideTradeaRoaringBusiness',
HindustanTimes,December28,2014,accessed04/04/2016:
http://www.hindustantimes.com/india/themarriagebazaarhowfemalefoeticidehasmadebride
tradearoaringbusiness/storyU7egbgiWQnStSBjM4MZnmI.html
14.'India'sBrideTraffickingFuelledbySkewedSexRatios',TheGuardian,December17,2014,
accessed06/04/2016:http://www.theguardian.com/globaldevelopment/2014/dec/17/indiabride
traffickingfoeticide
15.'Barebranches,redundantmales',TheEconomist,accessed05/04/2016:
http://www.economist.com/news/asia/21648715distortedsexratiosbirthgenerationagoare
changingmarriageanddamagingsocietiesasias
16.IndiaReporttotheCommitteeontheRightsoftheChildinadvanceofIndia'sinitialreportonthe
OptionalProtocoltotheConventionontheRightsoftheChildontheinvolvementofchildrenin
armedconflict,(ChildSoldiersInternational,2013),p.2,accessed05/04/2016:
17.Asabove.
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