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Immovable Property

Immovable property is property that has a fixed location and cannot be moved or
transferred elsewhere. It can be built upon or affixed to the ground; the term legally
also refers to land or the premises upon which a home or building stands. In realestate law, immovable property has specific characteristics and ownership confers
certain rights upon those persons holding full or partial title to the property.
Section 3 defines immovable property as;" immovable property" does not include
standing timber, growing crops or grass. Trees not being excluded come within the
category of immovable property. It must be transferred by means of a registered deed.
Sec 3(26) of General Clauses Act:
"Immovable property" shall include land, benefits to arise out of land, and things
attached to the earth, or permanently fastened to anything attached to the earth.
Attached to the earth- means rooted to the earth as in trees and shrubs, imbedded in
the earth as in case of walls or buildings as property. The question whether a
machinery is movable or immovable property depends on the facts and circumstances
of each case and the intention of the parties when they decided to embed the
Doctrine of Fixtures
Sometimes movable property is attached or annexed to immovable property in such a
way that former becomes part of the latter.
When chattels (personal movable property) become fixtures (immovable) is a mixed
question of fact and law.
The enquiry in such a case is not whether the annexation is direct or indirect butWhat is the nature and character of attachment; what is the intendment and object of
such attachment.
Just because plant and machinery, which is embedded in the earth, is fixed for better
functioning it does not automatically make it immovable property.
* Real intentions of party must e judged from contents of the document as a whole
and not from use of any specific word or phrase used therein. Rule of harmonious
construction must be followed. All words and phrases must be considered keeping in
mind their legal effect.
Transfer of Property
Section 5 of the Transfer of Property Act defines Transfer of Property: In the following sections "transfer of property" means an act by which a living person
conveys property, in present or in future, to one or more other living persons, or to
himself and one or more other living persons; and "to transfer property" is to perform
such act.

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In this section "living person includes a company or association or body of

individuals, whether incorporated or not, but nothing herein contained shall affect any
law for the time being in force relating to transfer of property to or by companies,
associations or bodies of individuals.
The following acts are not transfer of property:

Execution Sales
Wills or Testaments
Family arrangement or bona fide settlement
Easement or Charge on Property

Section 6 defines what property can be transferred and what cannot be transferred.
Can be absolute interest in property (e.g. sale or gift) or it can be partial interest (e.g.
mortgage or lease). The property must be in existence at the time of transfer, although
the conveyance may be present or future.
Section 7 defines who can transfer property. The age of Majority in Indian Law is 18
years. A contract with a minor is not merely voidable but void. A transfer by a lunatic
is wholly void. A transfer by a person who is not the owner does not bind the real
owner, a person holding only limited estate is held not to be a transfer
Transfers with Conditions
Vested and Contingent Interest
Section 19: Where, on a transfer of property, an interest therein is created in favor of a person
without specifying the time when it is to take effect, or in terms specifying that it is to
take effect forthwith or on the happening of an event which must happen, such interest
is vested, unless a contrary intention appears from the terms of the transfer.
The transferee takes absolute interest from the date of transfer, only enjoyment is
Such interest is not defeated by the death of the transferee even before he takes
Such interest is transferable and heritable
If the transferee dies before taking possession, the interest will devolve upon the
heirs of such transferee
Section 21: Where, on a transfer of property, an interest therein is created in favour of a person to
take effect only on the happening of a specified uncertain event, or if a specified
uncertain event shall not happen, such person thereby acquires a contingent interest
in the property. Such interest becomes a vested interest, in the former case, on the
happening of the event, in the latter, when the happening of the event becomes
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In contingent interest neither the proprietary rights nor a right of enjoyment is given
to the contingent transferee;
Both the enjoyment and proprietary interest are dependent on a future uncertain
event, which might or might not happen
Conditional Transfer- Section 25: An interest is created on a transfer of property a dependent on a condition fails if the

Fulfillment of condition is impossible (mere difficulty is not impossibility)

Forbidden by law
Such nature that it could defeat the provisions of law
Involves or implies injury to person or property

A conditional transfer maybe:

1. Precedent
2. Subsequent
3. Conditional Limitation
Condition Precedent (A)
A legal term describing a condition or event that must come to pass before a
specific contract is considered in effect or any obligations are expected of either
There may also be condition precedents in the ongoing life of a contract, which
simply state that if condition X occurs, event Y will then occur. Condition X is the
condition precedent.
Condition Subsequent (B)
A condition in a contract or will that causes the contract to become invalid if a
certain event occurs. An event or occurrence of a specified thing that will lead to
an end of something else, this event can be said to a concluding in nature and it
completes the event.

Differences between the above

1. (A) Precedes the vesting (B) succeeds the vesting
2. Fulfilling (A) creates a contract or duty, whereas fulfilling (B) divests a
3. (A) Needs to be substantially fulfilled (Section 26) whereas (B) needs to
strictly fulfilled (Section 29).
Section 33
Transfer conditional on performance of act, no time being specified for

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Where, on a transfer of property, an interest therein is created subject to a condition

that the person taking it shall perform a certain act, but no time is specified for the
performance of the act, the condition is broken when he renders impossible,
permanently or for an indefinite period, the performance of the act.
Act becomes:

Indefinitely postponed

Section 34
Transfer conditional on performance of act, time being specified: The section exemplifies that no man should be allowed to take advantage of his own
Section 35: Where a person professes to transfer property which he has no right to transfer, and
as part of the same transaction confers any benefit on the owner of the property,
such owner must elect either to confirm such transfer or to dissent from it; and in
the latter case he shall relinquish the benefit so conferred, and the benefit so
relinquished shall revert to the transferor or his representative as if it had not been
disposed of,
Subject nevertheless,
Where the transfer is gratuitous, and the transferor has, before the election,
died or otherwise become incapable of making a fresh transfer,
In all cases where the transfer is for consideration, to the charge of making
good to the disappointed transferee the amount or value of the property
attempted to be transferred to him.
A person taking no benefit directly under a transaction, but deriving a benefit under it
indirectly, need not elect. A person who in his one capacity takes a benefit under the
transaction may in another dissent there from.
Exceptions: - Where a particular benefit is expressed to be conferred on the owner of
the property which the transferor professes to transfer, and such benefit is expressed
to be in lieu of that property, if such owner claim the property, he must relinquish the
particular benefit, but he is not bound to relinquish any other benefit conferred upon
him by the same transaction.
Acceptance of the benefit by the person on whom it is conferred constitutes an
election by him to confirm the transfer, if he is aware of his duty to elect and of
those circumstances, which would influence the judgment of a reasonable man in
making an election, or if he waives enquiry into the circumstances.
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Shall, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, be presumed, if the person on

whom the benefit has been conferred has enjoyed it for two years without
doing any act to express dissent.
May be inferred from any act of his, which renders it impossible to place the
persons interested in the property professed to be transferred in the same
condition as if such act had not been done.
First Rule
English Law: If the grantee (owner of the property) takes against the instrument, the court of
equity assumes jurisdiction over the benefit intended under the instrument and
gives compensation under the instrument to those who were disappointed by
the election. Based on rule of compensation.
No time limit.
If a person does not signify it is deemed to have been against the instrument.
Indian Law: The benefit conferred by the instrument reverts to the donor or his
representatives reason being it is regarded as a conditional transfer. Based on
rule of forfeiture.
Section prescribes a time limit of two years.
He is deemed to confirm transfer in similar circumstances
Second Rule
The transferor had some right over the property disposed of and was not absolutely
entitled to it. He intended to transfer more than he owned. The presumption is that
he intended to transfer only what belonged to him.
Knowledge: A person cannot be held to have elected unless it is clear that he knew that he was
bound to elect and he intended that his acts should have the effect of elections. That is,
he must have knowledge of the rights between which he has to elect and he intended
that his acts should have the effect of election.
Apportionment (Not applicable to transfers by operation of law)
It means distribution of funds among more than one claimant.
Section 36: -Apportionment of periodical payments on determination of interest
of person entitled
In the absence of a contract or local usage to the contrary, all rents, annuities,
pensions, dividends and other periodical payments in the nature of income shall, upon
the transfer of the interest of the person entitled to receive such payments, be

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deemed, as between the transferor and the transferee, to accrue due from day to day,
and to be apportionable accordingly, but to be payable on the days appointed for the
payment thereof. (Apportionment by time)
Section 37: -Apportionment of benefit of obligation on severance
When, in consequence of a transfer, property is divided and held in several shares, and
thereupon the benefit of any obligation relating to the property as a whole passes
from one to several owners of the property, the corresponding duty shall, in the
absence of a contract to the contrary amongst the owners, be performed in favour of
each of such owners in proportion to the value of his share in the property,
provided that the duty can be severed and that the severance does not substantially
increase the burden of the obligation; but if the duty cannot be severed, or if the
severance would substantially increase the burden of the obligation, the duty shall be
performed for the benefit of such one of the several owners as they shall jointly
designate for that purpose:
Provided that no person on whom the burden of the obligation lies shall be
answerable for failure to discharge it in manner provided by this section, unless
and until he has had reasonable notice of the severance.
Nothing in this section applies to leases for agricultural purposes unless and until
the State Government by notification in the Official Gazette so directs.
(Apportionment by Estate)

Section 53A
Week 11 of Seniors Slides-Important

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Section 54: "Sale" is a transfer of ownership in exchange for a price paid or promised or partpaid and part-promised.
Sale how made: Such transfer, in the case of tangible immovable property of the value
of one hundred rupees and upward, or in the case of a reversion or other intangible
thing, can be made only by a registered instrument.
In the case of tangible immovable property of a value less than one hundred rupees,
such transfer may be made either by a registered instrument or by delivery of the
Delivery of tangible immovable property takes place when the seller places the
buyer, or such person as he directs, in possession of the property.
Contract for sale: A contract for the sale of immovable property is a contract that a
sale of such property shall take place on terms settled between the parties.
It does not, of itself, create any interest in or charge on such property.
Difference between Agreement to Sell and Sale Deed:
Agreement to sale is the agreement entered prior to sale deed indicating the cost and
mode of payment etc., signed by both.
When the transaction is on the face of it a completed sale, it cannot be taken to be
merely an agreement to sale. The mere fact that the consideration is unascertainable
on the date of sale will not make the transaction of sale an agreement to sell.
Sale deed is the one, which is registered in the registrar office confirming the sale by
vendor in favour of purchaser.
1.Tangible Property: - Maybe a subject of possession, which can be delivered
from the vendor to the purchaser.
2.Intangible thing or Reversion: - Included under the head of immovable property
without involving possession, e.g. vested interest.
3.Price: - The transfer must be for money for if it were in the return of anything
else it would be exchange. It would be exchange even if there were part
payment of money and part payment of something else.
4.Transfer of Ownership how made: a) Registration: - Ownership passes on date of instrument (execution) not
date of registration. If vendor does not deliver property or registered deed it
is taken that there was no transfer of ownership as there was no intention to

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b) Delivery: - Delivery must be actual and not constructive. Where actual

delivery is not possible then delivery of title deeds is sufficient.
Sale or Gift
Whatever might be the original motive behind the deed if it purports to be a deed of
transfer and consideration has been paid for it, it must be treated as an effective deed
of transfer and not as a deed of gift, failure of sale deed for want of consideration, will
not make the transfer good as gift.
Sale or Lease
Where the parties never intended to enter into an outright sale of land but only to
create leasehold rights for a period of 95 years, the transaction was a lease and not
outright sale.
Sale or Mortgage
Where a sale and a contemporaneous agreement to reconvey the property were
executed on the same date and the seller continued in possession as a tenant and the
sellers name was not mutated it was held to be a transaction of mortgage.
If the condition for repurchase is embodied in the same document then it is presumed
to be a mortgage by conditional sale. It is for the other party to establish that it was a
sale and not a mortgage.
Sale or Exchange
In a sale the price is paid in money, in exchange by way of barter for other goods or
property. Where both are transferred money and goods, it is exchange. Exchange can
be affected by either one or more documents. Both parties have to execute a deed in
pursuance of agreement with each other. Mere exchange of possessions is not enough.
Sale is equivalent to a money consideration.
Sale or Hire Purchase
Hirer should have the right to terminate the agreement at his own pleasure and should
be bound to pay the full value of the goods by way of installments without any option
to cancel the agreement if he so wished before the full value of the goods is paid.
Mere fact that an agreement for sale is described as a reconveyance does not itself
mean that it is an option to repurchase nor does it in anyway alter the substance of the
Section 55: -Rights and liabilities of buyer and seller
In the absence of a contract to the contrary, the buyer and the seller of immovable
property respectively are subject to the liabilities, and have the rights, mentioned in
the rules next following or such of them as are applicable to the property sold:
(1) The seller is bound(a) To disclose to the buyer any material defect in the property or in the seller's title
thereto of which the seller is, and the buyer is not, aware, and which the buyer could

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not with ordinary care discover,

(b) To produce to the buyer on his request for examination all documents of title
relating to the property, which are in the seller's possession or power,
(c) To answer to the best of his information all relevant questions put to him by the
buyer in respect to the property or the title thereto,
(d) On payment or tender of the amount due in respect of the price, to execute a
proper conveyance of the property when the buyer tenders it to him for execution at a
proper time and place,
(e) Between the date of the contract of sale and the delivery of the property, to take as
much care of the property and all documents of title relating thereto which are in his
possession as an owner of ordinary prudence would take of such property and
(f) To give, on being so required, the buyer, or such person as he directs, such
possession of the property as its nature admits,
(g) To pay all public charges and rent accrued due in respect of the property up to the
date of the sale, the interest on all encumbrances on such property due on such date,
and, except where the property is sold subject to encumbrances, to discharge all
encumbrances on the property then existing.
(2) The seller shall be deemed to contract with the buyer that the interest, which the
seller professes to transfer to the buyer, subsists and that he has power to transfer the
PROVIDED that, where a person makes the sale in a fiduciary character, he shall be
deemed to contract with the buyer that the seller has done no act whereby the property
is encumbered or whereby he is hindered from transferring it.
The benefit of the contract mentioned in this rule shall be annexed to, and shall go
with, the interest of the transferee as such, and may be enforced by every person in
whom that interest is for the whole or any part thereof from time to time vested.
(3) Where the whole of the purchase-money has been paid to the seller, he is also
bound to deliver to the buyer all documents of title relating to the property,
which are in the seller's possession or power:
(a) Where the seller retains any part of the property comprised in such documents, he
is entitled to retain them all, and,
(b) Where the whole of such property is sold to different buyers, the buyers of the lot
of greatest value is entitled to such documents.
But in case (a) the seller, and in case (b) the buyer, of the lot of greatest value, is
bound, upon every reasonable request by the buyer, or by any of the other buyers,
as the case may be, and at the cost of the person making the request, to produce the
said documents and furnish such true copies thereof or extracts there from as he
may require; and in the meantime, the seller, or the buyer of the lot of greatest value,
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as the case may be, shall keep the said documents safe, uncancelled and undefaced,
unless prevented from so doing by fire or other inevitable accident.
(4) The seller is entitled(a) To the rents and profits of the property till the ownership thereof passes to the
(b) Where the ownership of the property has passed to the buyer before payment of
the whole of the purchase-money, to a charge upon the property in the hands of the
buyer, any transferee without consideration or any transferee with notice of the nonpayment, for the amount of the purchase-money, or any part thereof remaining unpaid,
and for interest on such amount or part from the date on which possession has
been delivered. (Does not apply to invalid sale or oral sale)
(5) The buyer is bound(a) To disclose to the seller any fact as to the nature or extent of the seller's interest in
the property of which the buyer is aware, but of which he has reason to believe that
the seller is not aware, and which materially increases the value of such interest,
(b) To pay or tender, at the time and place of completing the sale, the purchasemoney to the seller or such person as he directs:
PROVIDED that, where the property is sold free from encumbrances, the buyer may
retain out of the purchase-money the amount of any encumbrances on the property
existing at the date of the sale, and shall pay the amount so retained to the persons
entitled thereto,
(c) Where the ownership of the property has passed to the buyer, to bear any loss
arising from the destruction, injury or decrease in value of the property not caused by
the seller,
(d) Where the ownership of the property has passed to the buyer, as between himself
and the seller, to pay all public charges and rent which may become payable in
respect of the property, the principal moneys due on any encumbrances subject to
which the property is sold, and the interest thereon afterwards accruing due.
(6) The buyer is entitled(a) Where the ownership of the property has passed to him, to the benefit of any
improvement in, or increases in value of, the property, and to the rents and
profits thereof,
(b) Unless he has improperly declined to accept delivery of the property, to a charge
on the property, as against the seller and all persons claiming under him, to the extent
of the seller's interest in the property, for the amount of any purchase-money
properly paid by the buyer in anticipation of the delivery and for interest on such
amount; and, when he properly declines to accept the delivery, also for the earnest (if
any) and for the costs (if any) awarded to him of a suit to compel specific
performance of the contract or to obtain a decree for its rescission. (No charge is
available where sale is not genuine or it is an exchange)
An omission to make such disclosures as are mentioned in this section,
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paragraph (1), clause (a) and paragraph (5), clause (a), is fraudulent.

Section 58: - "Mortgage", "mortgagor", "mortgagee", "mortgage-money" and

"mortgaged" defined
(a) A mortgage is the transfer of an interest in specific immoveable property
for the purpose of securing the payment of money advanced or to be advanced
by way of loan, an existing or future debt, or the performance of an
engagement, which may give rise to a pecuniary liability. (It is essentially a
form of security for a debt; any document by which debt or liability is
discharged cannot therefore be a mortgage).
The transferor is called a mortgagor, the transferee a mortgagee; the principal
money and interest of which payment is secured for the time being are called the
mortgage-money, and the instrument (if any) by which the transfer is effected is
called a mortgage-deed.
(b) Simple mortgage-Where, without delivering possession of the mortgaged property,
the mortgagor binds himself personally to pay the mortgage-money, and agrees,
expressly or impliedly, that, in the event of his failing to pay according to his contract,
the mortgagee shall have a right to cause the mortgaged property to be sold and
the proceeds of sale to be applied, so far as may be necessary, in payment of the
mortgage-money, the transaction is called a simple mortgage and the mortgagee a
simple mortgagee.
(c) Mortgage by conditional sale-Where, the mortgagor ostensibly sells the mortgaged
propertyOn condition that on default of payment of the mortgage-money on a certain date the
sale shall become absolute, or
On condition that on such payment being made the sale shall become void, or
On condition that on such payment being made the buyer shall transfer the property
to the seller,
The transaction is called a mortgage by conditional sale and the mortgagee a
mortgagee by conditional sale:
PROVIDED that no such transaction shall be deemed to be a mortgage, unless
the condition is embodied in the document, which effects or purports to affect the
(d) Usufructuary mortgage-Where the mortgagor delivers possession or expressly or
by implication binds himself to deliver possession of the mortgaged property to the
mortgagee, and authorizes him to retain such possession until payment of the
mortgage-money, and to receive the rents and profits accruing from the property or
any part of such rents and profits and to appropriate the same in lieu of interest or in
payment of the mortgage-money, or partly in lieu of interest or partly in payment
of the mortgage-money, the transaction is called a usufructuary mortgage and the
mortgagee a usufructuary mortgagee.

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(e) English mortgage-Where the mortgagor binds himself to repay the mortgagemoney on a certain date, and transfers the mortgaged property absolutely to the
mortgagee, but subject to a proviso that he will re-transfer it to the mortgagor upon
payment of the mortgage-money as agreed, the transaction is called an English
Though it is termed as an absolute sale, it is not a sale under Sec 54 because the
relation of debtor and creditor subsists. It is also not a mortgage by conditional sale
because the sale is not ostensible but absolute. It is in between these two.

(f) Mortgage by deposit of title-deeds-Where a person in any of the following towns,

namely, the towns of Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay, and in any other town which the
State Government concerned may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify in
this behalf, delivers to a creditor or his agent documents of title to immovable
property, with intent to create a security thereon, the transaction is called a mortgage
by deposit of title-deeds.
(g) Anomalous mortgage-A mortgage, which is not a simple mortgage, a mortgage by
conditional sale, a usufructuary mortgage, an English mortgage or a mortgage by
deposit of title deeds within the meaning of this section is called an anomalous
Rights of Parties to Simple MortgageThe mortgagor continues to be the owner of the land before and after default of
payment. A simple mortgagee cannot satisfy his claims out of rents and profits on the
mortgaged land.
Mortgage by Conditional SaleThe transaction will be considered to be a mortgage only unless the person, who
asserts that it is not a mortgage, is able to prove, either from the language contained in
the document or from attendant circumstances that the transaction was intended to be
one of outright sale. The test is the intention of the parties has to be gathered from the
terms of the documents and from such surrounding facts so as to show how the
language of the documents is related to the existing facts.
A transaction, which is an ostensible sale, amounts in law to a mortgage by
conditional sale where there is not only a condition that on payment being made the
property should be transferred to the seller, but there is also a recital to the effect that
it is on the failure of the seller to pay back the amount after the expiry period of fifty
years that the sale should be absolute.
Mortgage by Conditional Sale and Sale with clause for Repurchase
Can be determined by facts and intention of parties, the relationship of debtor and
creditor and transfer being a security for the debt.
Mortgage or Sale
If the stipulations for retransfer of property is for payment of the same money without
any interest, its a sale but if interest is also to be paid then its a mortgage.
Possession: if remains with the transferor, its a mortgage;
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Section 100-Charge
Where immoveable property of one person is by act of parties or operation of law
made security for the payment of money to another, and the transaction does not
amount to a mortgage, the latter person is said to have a charge on the property; and
all the provisions hereinbefore contained which apply to a simple mortgage shall, so
far as may be, apply to such charge.
Charge v Mortgage
In a mortgage there is a transfer of interest in a specific immovable property but in a
Charge, there is no transfer of interest. There is a creation of a right of payment out of
property specified.
In a mortgage, a mortgagees title cannot be defeated even by a bona fide transferee
for value because of Sec 48. In case of a charge, however, a subsequent transferee for
value and without notice can take a better title than the charge-holder.
In every mortgage there is a charge but every charge is not a mortgage.
Though provisions applicable to simple mortgage applies to Charge under Sec 100
but only so far as possible. This clause does not change the nature of a charge and
make it a mortgage.
The words does not amount to mortgage does not imply that an invalid mortgage
becomes a charge.
Section 117 makes it clear that no provisions of the chapter apply or hold good to
leases for agricultural purposes unless of course the state government by notification
published in the official gazette make it so possible. Most agricultural leases are
subject to local state laws.
Section 105 defines the key terms of this Section of the Act, lease, lessor,
premium, and rent: A lease of immovable property is a transfer of a right to enjoy such property, made
for a certain time, express or implied, or in perpetuity, in consideration of a price
paid or promised, or of money, a share of crops, service or any other thing of
value, to be rendered periodically or on specified occasions to the transferor by the
transferee, who accepts the transfer on such terms.
Lessor, lessee, premium and rent defined: The transferor is called the lessor, the
transferee is called the lessee, the price is called the premium, and the money,
share, service or other thing to be so rendered is called the rent.
The essential characteristic of a lease is that the subject is one, which is occupied and
enjoyed, and the corpus of which does not in the nature of things and by the reason of
the user disappear.
Section 106: -Duration of certain leases in absence of written contract or local

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In the absence of a contract or local law or usage to the contrary, a lease of immovable
property for agricultural or manufacturing purposes shall be deemed to be a lease
from year to year, terminable, on the part of either lessor or lessee, by six months'
notice expiring with the end of a year of the tenancy; and a lease of immovable
property for any other purpose shall be deemed to be a lease from month to month,
terminable, on the part of either lessor or lessee, by fifteen days' notice expiring
with the end of a month of the tenancy.
Every notice under this section must be in writing, signed by or on behalf of the
person giving it, and either be sent by post to the party who is intended to be bound by
it or be tendered or delivered personally to such party, or to one of his family or
servants at his residence, or (if such tender or delivery is not practicable) affixed to a
conspicuous part of the property.
This section lays down the rule for construction where no time duration has been
agreed upon between the parties. Duration has to be determined by reference to the
object or purposes for which tenancy has been created.
The rule of construction applies not only to express leases of uncertain duration
but also implied leases as maybe inferred from possession and acceptance of rent
and other circumstances. Similarly contract to the contrary need not be an express
contract it could be an implied contract as well.
Section 107: -Leases how made
A lease of immovable property from year to year, or for any term exceeding one year
or reserving a yearly rent, can be made only by a registered instrument.
All other leases of immovable property may be made either by a registered
instrument or by oral agreement accompanied by delivery of possession.
Where a registered instrument, such instrument, makes a lease of immovable property
or, where there are more instruments than one, each such instrument shall be executed
by both the lessor and the lessee:
PROVIDED that the State Government from time to time, by notification in the
Official Gazette, direct that leases of immovable property, other than leases from year
to year, or for any term exceeding one year, or reserving a yearly rent, or any class of
such leases, may be made by unregistered instrument or by oral agreement
without delivery of possession.
Even a lease for a period of less than one year cannot be made by an unregistered
instrument, it can be made either by a registered instrument or an oral agreement
accompanied by delivery of possession.

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Lease v License: A person using land under a tenancy has a contract called a lease. He or she is called a
tenant and he/she has both exclusive possessions for the duration of the time agreed
upon, often referred to as the term of the lease. In the theory of law, a lease conveys a
legal interest in land; a license does not.
Under the general law, and apart from the rental regulations, the relationship of
landlord and tenant implies, as one of its essential features, the transmission of an
estate or interest from the landlord to the tenant. A license does not create any estate
or interest in the property to which it relates. It merely conveys a privilege in the use
of the property and makes an act lawful which without it would be unlawful.
The license has its own vocabulary: the user being called licensee and the owner,
licensor. There are law books on the common law of license but in a nutshell:

A license gives legal authority to the licensee to use the licensor's asset
without which the use would be unlawful (such as, were the property real
property, trespass).
Licenses can be implied from certain fact patterns;
A license can be granted by an agent on behalf of the owner;
Simple licenses, without more, are revocable at the will of the licensor upon
reasonable notice;
Licenses ought to be in writing if possible;
Government often issues privileges to qualified persons to engage in
otherwise prohibited conduct such as driving a motor vehicle or the sale of
alcohol or pharmaceutical products.

In commercial usage, though formally licensees, individuals using the real property of
others under a license, are often called occupants or guests but not tenants.
Notice: A notice to terminate, which is otherwise valid, does not become invalid merely
because something else is added to it. But it should not be conditional.
The Supreme Court has held that a notice to quit must expire with the end of the
month of the tenancy; it must terminate the tenancy with effect from the expiration
from the month of tenancy. If it terminates the tenancy with effect from an earlier
date, it would be invalid.
Section 111: Clause (d): - This is known as a merger, that is when there is a greater and a lesser
interest and they coincide. It is obvious that a man cannot be a landlord and a tenant.
If by purchase or inheritance the two rights get vested in one then the tenants interest
being lesser gets merged with that of the lessor. Conditional upon, the merger must be
in the interests in the lessor and the lessee in terms of the whole estate.

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Clause (e) and (f): - Express or implied surrender can be only from the lessee to the
lessor or his representative.
Section 112: - Waiver of forfeiture
A forfeiture under section 111, clause (g) is waived by acceptance of rent which has
become due since the forfeiture, or by distress for such rent, or by any other act on the
part of the lessor showing an intention to treat the lease as subsisting:
PROVIDED that the lessor is aware that the forfeiture has been incurred:
PROVIDED FURTHER that, where rent is accepted after the institution of a suit to
eject the lessee on the ground of forfeiture, such acceptance is not a waiver.
Section 113: -Waiver of notice to quit
A notice given under section 111, clause (h), is waived, with the express or implied
consent of the person to whom it is given, by any act on the part of the person giving
it showing an intention to treat the lease as subsisting.
Help with Section 114 & 114A and 115.
Gift is the transfer of certain existing moveable or immoveable property made
voluntarily and without consideration, by one person, called the donor, to another,
called the donee, and accepted by or on behalf of the donee- Section 122
Acceptance when to be made, such acceptance must be made during the lifetime of
the donor and while he is still capable of giving. If the donee dies before
acceptance, the gift is void. Acceptance by the donee is essential but it can be express
or implied.
The property gifted must exist and not future property, it must also be
transferable. Atleast two witnesses also require a registered instrument and
Section 126- The donor and donee may agree that on the happening of any specified
event which does not depend on the will of the donor a gift shall be suspended or
revoked; but a gift which the parties agree shall be revocable wholly or in part, at the
mere will of the donor, is void wholly or in part, as the case may be.
A gift may also be revoked in any of the cases (save want or failure of
consideration) in which, if it were a contract, it might be rescinded.
Save as aforesaid, a gift cannot be revoked.
Nothing contained in this section shall be deemed to affect the rights of transferees for
consideration without notice.

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(a) A gives a field to B, reserving to himself, with Bs assent, the right to take back the
field in case B and his descendants die before A. B dies without descendants in As
lifetime. A may take back the field.
(b) A gives a lakh of rupees to B, reserving to himself, with Bs assent, the right to
take back at pleasure Rs. 10,000 out of the lakh. The gift holds goods as to Rs. 90,000,
but is void as to Rs. 10,000, which continue to belong to A.
Onerous Gift- Section 127
Where a gift is in the form of a single transfer to the same person of several things
of which one is, and the others are not burdened by an obligation, the donee can take
nothing by the gift unless he accepts it fully.
Where a gift is in the form of two or more separate and independent transfers to
the same person of several things, the doneee is at liberty to accept one of them and
refuse the others, although the former may be beneficial and the latter onerous.
Onerous gift to disqualified person, donee not competent to contract and accepting
property burdened by any obligation is not bound by his acceptance. But if, after
becoming competent to contract and being aware of the obligation, he retains the
property given, he becomes so bound.
(a) A shares in X, prosperous joint stock company, and also shares in Y, a joint stock
company in difficulties. Heavy calls are expected in respect of the shares in Y. A gives
B all his shares in joint stock companies. B refuses to accept the shares in Y. He
cannot take the shares in X.
(b) A, having a lease for a term of years of a house at a rent which he and his
representatives are bound to pay during the term, and which is more than the house
can be let for, gives to B the lease, and also, as a separate and independent transaction,
a sum of money. B refuses to accept the lease. He does not by this refusal forfeit the
Exchange- Section 118
When two persons mutually transfer the ownership of one thing for the ownership of
another, neither thing or both things being money only, the transaction is called an
A transfer of property in completion of an exchange can be made only in manner
provided for the transfer of such property by sale.
Section 121On an exchange of money, each party thereby warrants the genuineness of the money
given by him.

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