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LESSON TOPIC: 4.

4 TITLE: TRIM AND DRAFT


Contact periods allotted this LESSON TOPIC:
Classroom: 2.0 Test: 0.0
Trainer: 0.0 Total: 2.0
MEDIA: Classroom lecture with visual
media
TERMINAL OBJECTIVES:
6.0 EVALUATE shipboard stability by analyzing
weight and moment considerations. (JTI 3.2.1, 6.0,
6.1, 6.2)
ENABLING OBJECTIVES:
6.19 EXPLAIN why trim and loading affect intact
stability.
6.20 COMPUTE the impact of longitudinal weight
shifts, additions, and removals on the ship's trim
and drafts.
6.21 Given a specified loading condition and draft
readings, CALCULATE the required movement of solid
or liquid loads to bring the ship to within
acceptable limits of trim.
6.22 Given a predetermined amount of flooding
damage, COMPUTE final trim and drafts.
6.23 DEFINE drag, trim, trimming moment, trimming
arm, longitudinal center of flotation, parallel
rise, parallel sinkage, and plunging.
6.24 DESCRIBE the movement of longitudinal
stability reference points caused by weight
shifts, additions, and removals.

LONGITUDINAL STABILITY AND TRIM


Design Waterline (DWL):

The waterline at which the ship


is designed to float in the
full load condition.
Corresponds to a line in the
middle of boot-topping of the
ship.

Forward Perpendicular (FP):

A vertical line drawn at the


point of intersection of the
DWL and the stem of the ship.
Important in the study of
longitudinal stability as well
as in frame numbering.

Aft Perpendicular (AP):

Length Between Perpendiculars


(LBP):

A vertical line drawn at the


point of intersection of the
DWL and the stern of the ship.

Distance from the FP to the AP.


Found in the DC Book Part 1(a),
and/or in the booklet of
general plans. When not found
there, use the Length Between
Draft Marks (LBD) usually found
on the Draft Diagram and
Functions of Form.

Midships Perpendicular (MP):

A vertical line intersecting


the ship's centerline, half the
distance between the FP and AP.
Symbol

Longitudinal Center of
Flotation (LCF):

Geometric center of the ship's


waterline plane. The ship trims
about this point.
May be forward or aft of the MP
depending on the ship's hull
shape at the waterline.

Center of Flotation Distance:


Distance from the LCF to the
MP. Found using the Draft
Diagram and Functions of Form,
as a function of displacement.
Used to distribute changes of
trim between the fwd and aft
drafts.

Center of Buoyancy (LCB):

The point through which the


forces of buoyancy act,
longitudinally.

Drag:
A design feature where the
draft aft is greater than the
draft forward.
Primarily done to increase
propulsion plant effectiveness.

The difference between the

Trim:

forward and after drafts, in


excess of design drag.

Parallel Rise/Sinkage (PR/PS):


When weight is removed/added
from/to a ship at LCF, the
forward and aft drafts will
change by the same amount.

Change in Trim (CT):

The sum total of the absolute


values of the change in forward
and after drafts. EXAMPLE:
DFWD DAFT Trim
Original: 20FT 18FT 2FT b/b
Final: 16FT 21FT 5FT b/s
Change: -4FT +3FT 7FT b/s

Trimming Arm (TA):

Trimming Moment (TM):

The distance from the center of


gravity of the weight to the
LCF. If the weight is shifted,
TA is the distance shifted.
Moment about the LCF produced by
weight additions, removals, or
shifts.
, where w is the
amount of weight added, removed,

or shifted.
The moment necessary to produce
Moment to Trim One Inch (MT1"): a change in trim (CT) of one
inch. Found using the Draft
Diagram and Functions of Form.

Tons Per Inch Immersion (TPI):

The number of Long Tons added or


removed necessary to produce a
change in mean draft of one
inch. (in salt water)

LONGITUDINAL WEIGHT SHIFTS


When a weight is shifted longitudinally (fore 'n' aft) the
net effect on a ship is similar to a see-saw, one end goes
up and the other goes down. The pivot of the "see-saw" is
located at the Longitudinal Center of Flotation (LCF).

To calculate the effect of shifting a weight longitudinally


on the ships drafts, follow these steps:
1. Calculate the Trimming Moment (TM):

2. Calculate the Change in Trim (CT):

3. Calculate the change in forward draft (dFWD):

The + or - sign depends on the location of LCF. If


LCF is aft of MP use "+" and if LCF is forward of
MP use "-".
4. Calculate the change in aft draft (dAFT):

NOTE: If the weight was shifted forward, dFWD will be


positive and dAFT will be negative. If the weight was
shifted aft, dAFT will be positive and dFWD will be
negative.
Example Problem
The FOWK just completed a transfer of 6500 gallons of diesel
fuel (diesel = 322 Gallons/LT). The fuel is now located 135
FT forward of its original position. Prior to transfer, the
ships drafts were 169" fwd and 173" aft. Design Drag is 0.
LBP is 450 FT, MT1"=825 FT-Tons/inch and LCF is 24 FT aft of
MP. The CHENG wants to know the new drafts and trim.
1. Calculate weight of fuel transferred:

2. Calculate the trimming moment:

3. Calculate the change in trim:

4. Calculate the change in forward draft:

5. Calculate the change in aft draft:

NOTE: Since the weight was shifted forward, the draft change
at the bow is positive, and at the stern is negative.

6. Determine the new drafts and trim:


Forward Aft Trim
Original: 16'9.00" 17'3.00" 6.0" b/s
Change: + 1.83" - 1.47" 3.3" b/b
Final: 16'10.83" 17'1.53" 2.7" b/s

LONGITUDINAL WEIGHT ADDITIONS AND


REMOVALS

When weight is added or removed to/from a ship, the effects


on longitudinal stability are evaluated as well. With the
weight change, two things will happen:
1. The ship will sink or rise a few inches
2. The ship will trim about the Center of Flotation (LCF)
The easiest way to calculate the draft changes due to a
weight addition/removal not located at LCF is to divide the
weight change into two steps. First, assume the weight is
added at LCF:

The added weight causes the entire ship to sink


symmetrically in the water. This is called Parallel Sinkage.
If the weight was removed, the ship would rise symmetrically
out of the water, called Parallel Rise. To calculate the
amount each draft changes due to parallel sinkage/parallel
rise (PS/PR) use:

Next, transfer the weight from LCF to it's actual location.


Although the weight was never really added at LCF then
shifted, the end mathematical result will be the same as
when the weight was added directly to its actual location.

This step of moving the weight to its actual location is


identical to a weight shift problem. Again, to determine the
change in the ships drafts due to trim:

1. Calculate the Trimming Moment (TM):

2. Calculate the Change in Trim (CT):

3. Calculate the change in forward draft (dFWD):

The + or - sign depends on the location of LCF. If


LCF is aft of MP use "+" and if LCF is forward of
MP use "-".

4. Calculate the change in aft draft (dAFT):

NOTE: If the weight was shifted forward, dFWD will be


positive and dAFT will be negative. If the weight was
shifted aft, dAFT will be positive and dFWD will be
negative.

The final step is to calculate the total change in draft


forward and draft aft by considering both Parallel
Rise/Sinkage and change in trim:

Example Problem
During VERTREP, all JP-5 in tanks 5-328-0-J and 5-344-0-J is
transferred. The Liquid Loading Report shows 57 LT in these
tanks prior to transfer. The center of gravity of the
combined tanks is 146 FT aft of MP. The CHENG wants to know
the new drafts and new trim of the ship. Design Drag is 16"
by stern.
LBP = 408FT MT1" = 775 FT-Ton/inch TPI = 32.4 LT/inch
DraftFWD = 146" DraftAFT = 150" LCF = 24FT aft of MP

1. Calculate parallel rise (PR):

2. Determine the Trimming Arm (TA):

3. Calculate the Trimming Moment (TM):

4. Calculate the Change in Trim (CT):

5. Calculate the change in draft forward due to trim (dFWD):

6. Calculate the change in draft aft due to trim (dAFT):

Since weight was removed aft, this is a forward trimming


moment. The forward draft will increase and the stern draft
will decrease.

7. Calculate the total change in draft forward (DRAFTFWD):

8. Calculate the total change in draft aft (DRAFTAFT):

9. Calculate the final drafts and ships trim:

FWD Draft

AFT Draft

Original:

14 6.00"

15 0.00"

Change:

+3.25"

-5.72"

New:

14 9.25"

14 6.28"

Trim
10.00" by the bow
8.97" by the bow
18.97" by the bow

EFFECT OF TRIM ON STABILITY


The Draft Diagram & Functions of Form and Cross Curves of
Stability are prepared for ships based on the design
condition: No Trim. For most surface ships, so long as trim
does not become excessive (more than 1% of the length) these
curves are still applicable.

RULES OF THUMB FOR TRIM

1. Maximum acceptable Trim is 1% LBP


2. Follow Liquid Loading Instructions

3. Watch for Hogging and Sagging Stresses

PLUNGING
Definition: When the Trimming Moment exceeds the
Longitudinal Righting Moment, and the ship sinks by the bow
or the stern.
Loss of ships by plunging occurs more often in the merchant
or auxiliary type ship than in the combatant type, although
some destroyers have been lost in this manner. Merchant
ships have much larger compartments, and the flooding of
these compartments at the bow or stern trims the ship
heavily.

TRIM CALCULATION SHEET


It is often desirable to consider the effects of several
weights at once when computing draft changes. The Trim
Calculation Sheet is a tabular form used to calculate the
net trimming moment created by several weight movements.

DIRECTIONS FOR USE

1. In columns 1 and 2, describe the weight, tank


number, flooded compartment, etc. and determine
the weight (Long Tons) of each object.
2. Sum total the weights in column 2 to calculate
the net weight addition or removal.
3. In column 3, determine the Trimming Arm (TA),
the distance from the center of gravity of the
weight to the ships LCF.
4. In either column 4 or 5, calculate the Trimming
Moment by multiplying each weight by its Trimming

Arm. A weight change causing the bow to sink lower


in the water is a forward trimming moment, a
weight change causing the stern to sink lower in
the water is an aft trimming moment.
5. Sum total the forward trimming moments and aft
trimming moments in columns 4 and 5. Take the
difference between these totals as the NET
Trimming Moment (will either be forward or aft
based on the greater column total.)
6. Calculate Parallel Rise or Parallel Sinkage
(PR/PS). Divide the net weight addition/removal by
Tons per Inch Immersion (TPI, found using Draft
Diagram and Functions of Form and ORIGINAL
DISPLACEMENT.)
7. Calculate the Change in Trim (CT). Divide the
net trimming moment by the Moment to Change Trim
by 1" (MT1", found using Draft Diagram and
Functions of Form and FINAL DISPLACEMENT.)
8. Calculate the change in draft forward due to
trim (dFWD) and change in draft aft due to trim
(dAFT) using the equations. If the net trimming
moment was forward, dFWD is positive and dAFT is
negative. If the net trimming moment is aft, dAFT
is positive and dFWD is negative.
9. Fill in the box in the lower right corner by
applying all changes to the original conditions.

Example Problem:

USS STEPHEN W. GROVES (FFG

29)
Original Drafts: Fwd: 15'0" Aft: 15'3" LBP = 408 FT
1. 200 LT is added 20 FT forward of MP
2. 20 LT is removed 80 FT forward of MP

3. 50 LT is removed 30 FT aft of MP
4. 40 LT is shifted forward 20 FT