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You are on page 1of 15

Contact periods allotted this LESSON TOPIC:

Classroom: 2.0 Test: 0.0

Trainer: 0.0 Total: 2.0

MEDIA: Classroom lecture with visual

media

TERMINAL OBJECTIVES:

6.0 EVALUATE shipboard stability by analyzing

weight and moment considerations. (JTI 3.2.1, 6.0,

6.1, 6.2)

ENABLING OBJECTIVES:

6.19 EXPLAIN why trim and loading affect intact

stability.

6.20 COMPUTE the impact of longitudinal weight

shifts, additions, and removals on the ship's trim

and drafts.

6.21 Given a specified loading condition and draft

readings, CALCULATE the required movement of solid

or liquid loads to bring the ship to within

acceptable limits of trim.

6.22 Given a predetermined amount of flooding

damage, COMPUTE final trim and drafts.

6.23 DEFINE drag, trim, trimming moment, trimming

arm, longitudinal center of flotation, parallel

rise, parallel sinkage, and plunging.

6.24 DESCRIBE the movement of longitudinal

stability reference points caused by weight

shifts, additions, and removals.

Design Waterline (DWL):

is designed to float in the

full load condition.

Corresponds to a line in the

middle of boot-topping of the

ship.

point of intersection of the

DWL and the stem of the ship.

Important in the study of

longitudinal stability as well

as in frame numbering.

(LBP):

point of intersection of the

DWL and the stern of the ship.

Found in the DC Book Part 1(a),

and/or in the booklet of

general plans. When not found

there, use the Length Between

Draft Marks (LBD) usually found

on the Draft Diagram and

Functions of Form.

the ship's centerline, half the

distance between the FP and AP.

Symbol

Longitudinal Center of

Flotation (LCF):

waterline plane. The ship trims

about this point.

May be forward or aft of the MP

depending on the ship's hull

shape at the waterline.

Distance from the LCF to the

MP. Found using the Draft

Diagram and Functions of Form,

as a function of displacement.

Used to distribute changes of

trim between the fwd and aft

drafts.

forces of buoyancy act,

longitudinally.

Drag:

A design feature where the

draft aft is greater than the

draft forward.

Primarily done to increase

propulsion plant effectiveness.

Trim:

excess of design drag.

When weight is removed/added

from/to a ship at LCF, the

forward and aft drafts will

change by the same amount.

values of the change in forward

and after drafts. EXAMPLE:

DFWD DAFT Trim

Original: 20FT 18FT 2FT b/b

Final: 16FT 21FT 5FT b/s

Change: -4FT +3FT 7FT b/s

gravity of the weight to the

LCF. If the weight is shifted,

TA is the distance shifted.

Moment about the LCF produced by

weight additions, removals, or

shifts.

, where w is the

amount of weight added, removed,

or shifted.

The moment necessary to produce

Moment to Trim One Inch (MT1"): a change in trim (CT) of one

inch. Found using the Draft

Diagram and Functions of Form.

removed necessary to produce a

change in mean draft of one

inch. (in salt water)

When a weight is shifted longitudinally (fore 'n' aft) the

net effect on a ship is similar to a see-saw, one end goes

up and the other goes down. The pivot of the "see-saw" is

located at the Longitudinal Center of Flotation (LCF).

on the ships drafts, follow these steps:

1. Calculate the Trimming Moment (TM):

LCF is aft of MP use "+" and if LCF is forward of

MP use "-".

4. Calculate the change in aft draft (dAFT):

positive and dAFT will be negative. If the weight was

shifted aft, dAFT will be positive and dFWD will be

negative.

Example Problem

The FOWK just completed a transfer of 6500 gallons of diesel

fuel (diesel = 322 Gallons/LT). The fuel is now located 135

FT forward of its original position. Prior to transfer, the

ships drafts were 169" fwd and 173" aft. Design Drag is 0.

LBP is 450 FT, MT1"=825 FT-Tons/inch and LCF is 24 FT aft of

MP. The CHENG wants to know the new drafts and trim.

1. Calculate weight of fuel transferred:

NOTE: Since the weight was shifted forward, the draft change

at the bow is positive, and at the stern is negative.

Forward Aft Trim

Original: 16'9.00" 17'3.00" 6.0" b/s

Change: + 1.83" - 1.47" 3.3" b/b

Final: 16'10.83" 17'1.53" 2.7" b/s

REMOVALS

on longitudinal stability are evaluated as well. With the

weight change, two things will happen:

1. The ship will sink or rise a few inches

2. The ship will trim about the Center of Flotation (LCF)

The easiest way to calculate the draft changes due to a

weight addition/removal not located at LCF is to divide the

weight change into two steps. First, assume the weight is

added at LCF:

symmetrically in the water. This is called Parallel Sinkage.

If the weight was removed, the ship would rise symmetrically

out of the water, called Parallel Rise. To calculate the

amount each draft changes due to parallel sinkage/parallel

rise (PS/PR) use:

Although the weight was never really added at LCF then

shifted, the end mathematical result will be the same as

when the weight was added directly to its actual location.

identical to a weight shift problem. Again, to determine the

change in the ships drafts due to trim:

LCF is aft of MP use "+" and if LCF is forward of

MP use "-".

positive and dAFT will be negative. If the weight was

shifted aft, dAFT will be positive and dFWD will be

negative.

forward and draft aft by considering both Parallel

Rise/Sinkage and change in trim:

Example Problem

During VERTREP, all JP-5 in tanks 5-328-0-J and 5-344-0-J is

transferred. The Liquid Loading Report shows 57 LT in these

tanks prior to transfer. The center of gravity of the

combined tanks is 146 FT aft of MP. The CHENG wants to know

the new drafts and new trim of the ship. Design Drag is 16"

by stern.

LBP = 408FT MT1" = 775 FT-Ton/inch TPI = 32.4 LT/inch

DraftFWD = 146" DraftAFT = 150" LCF = 24FT aft of MP

moment. The forward draft will increase and the stern draft

will decrease.

FWD Draft

AFT Draft

Original:

14 6.00"

15 0.00"

Change:

+3.25"

-5.72"

New:

14 9.25"

14 6.28"

Trim

10.00" by the bow

8.97" by the bow

18.97" by the bow

The Draft Diagram & Functions of Form and Cross Curves of

Stability are prepared for ships based on the design

condition: No Trim. For most surface ships, so long as trim

does not become excessive (more than 1% of the length) these

curves are still applicable.

2. Follow Liquid Loading Instructions

PLUNGING

Definition: When the Trimming Moment exceeds the

Longitudinal Righting Moment, and the ship sinks by the bow

or the stern.

Loss of ships by plunging occurs more often in the merchant

or auxiliary type ship than in the combatant type, although

some destroyers have been lost in this manner. Merchant

ships have much larger compartments, and the flooding of

these compartments at the bow or stern trims the ship

heavily.

It is often desirable to consider the effects of several

weights at once when computing draft changes. The Trim

Calculation Sheet is a tabular form used to calculate the

net trimming moment created by several weight movements.

number, flooded compartment, etc. and determine

the weight (Long Tons) of each object.

2. Sum total the weights in column 2 to calculate

the net weight addition or removal.

3. In column 3, determine the Trimming Arm (TA),

the distance from the center of gravity of the

weight to the ships LCF.

4. In either column 4 or 5, calculate the Trimming

Moment by multiplying each weight by its Trimming

in the water is a forward trimming moment, a

weight change causing the stern to sink lower in

the water is an aft trimming moment.

5. Sum total the forward trimming moments and aft

trimming moments in columns 4 and 5. Take the

difference between these totals as the NET

Trimming Moment (will either be forward or aft

based on the greater column total.)

6. Calculate Parallel Rise or Parallel Sinkage

(PR/PS). Divide the net weight addition/removal by

Tons per Inch Immersion (TPI, found using Draft

Diagram and Functions of Form and ORIGINAL

DISPLACEMENT.)

7. Calculate the Change in Trim (CT). Divide the

net trimming moment by the Moment to Change Trim

by 1" (MT1", found using Draft Diagram and

Functions of Form and FINAL DISPLACEMENT.)

8. Calculate the change in draft forward due to

trim (dFWD) and change in draft aft due to trim

(dAFT) using the equations. If the net trimming

moment was forward, dFWD is positive and dAFT is

negative. If the net trimming moment is aft, dAFT

is positive and dFWD is negative.

9. Fill in the box in the lower right corner by

applying all changes to the original conditions.

Example Problem:

29)

Original Drafts: Fwd: 15'0" Aft: 15'3" LBP = 408 FT

1. 200 LT is added 20 FT forward of MP

2. 20 LT is removed 80 FT forward of MP

3. 50 LT is removed 30 FT aft of MP

4. 40 LT is shifted forward 20 FT

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