traversing

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traversing

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- Code of Practice for Mine Surveyors
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Closed Traverse

a. Closed Traverse the lines return to the starting point, forming a closed

figure that is both geometrically and mathematically closed. Closed traverses

provide checks on the observed angles and distances, which is an extremely

important consideration.

b. Link Traverse the lines on a link traverse finish upon another station that

should have a positional accuracy equal to or greater than that of the starting

point. The link type (geometrically open and mathematically closed), as

illustrated in the figure below, It must have a closing reference direction, line

E Az Mk2.

These two types of traverse are used extensively in control, construction,

property, and topographic surveys.

If the distance between stations C and E in Figure 1 (a) were observed, the

resultant set of observations would become what is called a network. A

network involves the interconnection of stations within the survey to create

additional redundant observations. Networks offer more geometric checks

than closed traverses. For instance, in figure 1 (a), after computing

coordinates on stations C and E using elementary procedures, the observed

distance CE can be compared against a value obtained by inversing the

coordinates (this will be discussed further on the next lesson).

2. Open Traverse

An open traverse (geometrically and mathematically open) shown in the

Figure 2 are consists of a series of lines that are connected but do not return to the

starting point or close upon a point of equal or greater order accuracy. Open

traverses should be avoided because they offer no means of checking for

observational error and mistakes. If they must be used, observations should be

repeated carefully to guard against mistakes.

OBSERVATION OF TRAVERSE ANGLES AND DIRECTIONS

The methods used in observing angles and directions of traverse lines vary and

include the following:

a.

b.

c.

d.

Interior angles

Angles to the right

Deflection angles

Azimuths

Interior-angle traverses are used for many types of work, but they are especially

convenient for property surveys. Although interior angles could be observed either

clockwise or counterclockwise, to reduce mistakes in reading, recording, and

computing, they should always be turned clockwise from the backsight

station to the foresight station. The procedure is illustrated in the Figure 1(a). In this

course, except for left deflection angles, clockwise turning will always be assumed.

Furthermore, when angles are designated by three station letters or numbers, the

backsight station will be given first, the occupied station second and the foresight

station third. Thus angle EAB of Figure 1(a) was observed at station A, with the

backsight on station E and the foresight at station B.

Interior angles may be improved by averaging equal numbers of direct and

reversed readings. As a check, exterior angles may also be observed to close the

horizon. In the traverse shown on figure 1(a), a reference line A-Az MK of known

direction exists. Thus, the clockwise angle at A from Az MK to E must also be

observed to enable determining the directions of all other lines. This would not be

necessary if the traverse contained a line of known direction.

station to a foresight on the forward traverse station are called angles to the

right. According to this definition, to avoid ambiguity in angle-to-the-right

designations, the sense of the forward traverse direction must be established.

This is normally done by consecutive numbering or lettering of traverse stations so

that they increase in the forward direction. Depending on the direction of the

traversing, angles to the right may be interior or exterior angles in a polygon

traverse. If the direction of traversing is counterclockwise around the figure, then

clockwise interior angles will be observed. However, if the direction of traversing is

clockwise, then exterior angles will be observed. Data collectors generally follow

this convention when traversing. Thus in the figure 1(b), for example, the direction

from A to B, B to C, C to D, etc., is forward. By averaging equal numbers of direct

and reversed readings, observed angles to the right can also be checked and their

accuracy improved. From the foregoing definitions of interior angles and angles to

the right, it is evident that in a polygon traverse the only difference between the

two types of observational procedure may be ordering of the backsight and

foresight stations since both procedures observe clockwise angles.

Traversing by Deflection Angles

Route surveys are commonly run by deflection angles observed to the right or

left from the lines extended, as indicated in Figure 2. A deflection angle is not

complete without a designation R or L, and, of course, it cannot exceed 180. Each

angle should be doubled or quadrupled, and an average value determined. The

angles should be observed an equal number of times in face left and face right to

reduce instrumental errors. Deflection angles can be obtained by subtracting 180

from angles to the right. Positive values so obtained denote right deflection angles;

negative ones are left.

Traversing by Azimuths

With a total station instruments, traverses can be run sing azimuths. This

process permits reading azimuths of all lines directly and thus eliminates the need

to calculate them. In the figure below, azimuths are observed clockwise from the

north end of the meridian through the angle points. The instrument is oriented at

each setup by sighting on the previous station with either the back azimuth on the

circle (if angles to the right are turned) or the azimuth (if deflection angles are

turned).Then forward station is sighted. The resulting reading on the horizontal

circle will be the forward lines azimuth.

OBSERVATION OF TRAVERSE LENGTHS

The length of each traverse line must be observed, and this is usually done

by the simplest and most economical method capable of satisfying the required

precision of a given project. Their speed, convenience, and accuracy makes the

EDM component of a total station instrument the most often used, although pacing,

taping, stadia distance measurement and any other methods can be employed. A

distinct advantage of traversing with total station instruments is that both angles

and distances observed both forward and back will provide increased accuracy, and

the repeat readings afford a check on the observations.

In a closed traverses, each course is observed and recorded as a separate

distance. On long link traverses for highways and railroads, distances are carried

along continuosly from the starting point using staioning. In figure 2, which uses

stationing in feet, for example, beginning with station 0 + 00 at point A, 100-ft

stations (1 + 00, 2 + 00, 3 + 00) are marked until hub B at station 4 + )) is reached.

Then stations 5 + 00, 6 + 00, 7 + 00, 8 + 00, and 8 + 19.60 are set along course

BC to C, etc. The length of a line in a stationed link traverse is the difference

between stationig at its end points; thus, the length link traverse is the difference

between stationing at its end points; thus, the length of line BC is 819.60 400.00 =

419.60 ft.

SELECTION OF TRAVERSE STATIONS

Positions selected for setting traverse stations vary with type of survey. In

general, guidelines to consider in choosing them include accuracy, utility, and

efficiency. Of course, intervisibility between adjacent stations, forward and back,

must be maintained for angle and distance observations. The stations should also

ideally be set in convenient locations that allow for easy access. Ordinarily, stations

are placed to create lines that are as long as possible. This not only increases

efficiency by reducing the number of intrument setups, but it also increases

accuracy in angle observations. However, utility may override using very long lines

because intermediatehubs, or stations at strategic locations, may be needed to

complete the surveys objectives.

Each different type of survey will have its unique requirements concerning

traverse stations placement. On property surveys, for example, traverse stations

are placement. On property surveys, for example, traverse stations are placed at

each corner if the actual boundary lines are not obstructed and can be occupied. If

offset lines are necessary, a stake is located near each corner to simplify the

observations and computations. Long lines and rolling terrain may necessitate extra

stations.

On route surveys, stations are set at each angle point and at other locations

where necessary to obtain topographic data or extend the survey. Usually the

centerline is run before construction begins, but it will likely be destroyed and need

replacement one or more times during various phases of the project. An offset

traverse can be used to avoid this problem.

A traverse run to provide control for topographic mapping serves as a

framework to which map details such as roads, buildings, streams, and hills are

referenced. Station locations must be selected to permit complete coverage of the

area to be mapped.

TRAVERSE FIELD NOTES

Since a traverse is itself the end on a property survey and the basis for all

other data in mapping, a single mistake or omission in recording is one too many. All

possible field and office checks must therefore be made. A partial se of field notes

for an interior angle traverse run using a total station is shown in the figure below.

Notice that details such as date, weather, instrumnet identifications, and party

members and their duties are recorded on theright-hand page of the notes. Also a

sketch with a north arrow is shown. The observed data is recorded on the left hand

page. First, each station that is occupied is identified, and the heights of the total

station instrument and reflector that apply at that station are recorded. Then

horizontal circle readings, zenith angles, horizontal distances, and elevation

differences observed at each station are recorded. Notice that each horizontal angle

is measured twice in the direct mode, and twice in the reversed mode. As noted

earlier, this practice eliminates instrumental errors and gives repeat angle values

for checking.

ANGLE MISCLOSURE

The angular misclosure for an interior-angle traverse is the difference

between the sum of the observed angles and the geometrically correct total for the

polygon. The sum, , of the interior angles of a closed polygon should be

= (n 2) 180

where n is the number of sides, or angles, in the polygon. This formula is easily

derived from known facts. The sum of the angles in a triangle is 180; in a

rectangular, 360; and in a pentagon, 540. Thus, each side added to the three

required for a triangle increases the sum of the angles by 180. If the direction

about a traverse is clockwise when observing angles to the right, exterior angles will

be observed. In this case, the sum of the exterior angles will be

= (n + 2) 180

Figure 1(a) shows a five-sided figure in which, if the sum observed interior

angles equals 5400000, the angular misclosure is 5. Misclosures result from the

accumulation of random errors in the angle observations. Permissible misclosure

can be computes by the formula

c = Kn

where n is the number of angles, and K a constant that depends on the level of

accuracy specified for the survey, Values of K can be 1.7, 3, 4.5, 10, and 12,

respectively.

equals 360, clockwise (right) deflections being considered plus and counterclockwise (left) deflections, minus. This rule applies if lines do not crisscross, or if

they cross an even number of times. When lines in a traverse cross an odd number

of times, the sum of right deflections equals the sum of left deflections.

A closed-polygon azimuth traverse is checked by setting up on the starting

point a second time, after having occupied the successive stations around the

traverse, and orienting by back azimuths. The azimuth of the first side is then

obtained a second time and compared with its original value. Any difference is the

misclosure. If the first point is not reoccupied, the interior angles computed from the

azimuths will automatically check the proper geometric total, even though one or

more of the azimuths may be incorrect.

Some sources of error in traversing are:

1. Poor selection of stations, resulting in bad sighting conditions caused by (a)

alternate sun and shadow (b) visibility of only the rods top, (c) line of sight

passing too close to the ground, (d) lines that are too short, and (e) sighting

into the sun.

2. Errors in observations of angles and distances.

3. Failure to observe angles an equal number of times direct and reversed.

MISTAKES IN TRAVERSING

Some mistakes in traversing are:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Incorrect orientation.

Confusing angles to the right and left.

Mistakes in note taking.

Misidentification of the sighted station.

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