This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

1

**Chapter One (Basic Concepts of Algebra)
**

CONTENTS The Language of Algebra 1-1 Real Numbers and Their Graphs 1-2 Simplifying Expressions Operating with Real Numbers 1-3 Basic Properties of Real Numbers 1-4 Sums and Differences 1-5 Products 1-6 Quotients Solving Equations and Solving Problems 1-7 Solving Equations in One Variable 1-8 Words into Symbols 1-9 Problem Solving with Equations

This particular set of notes is from Algebra and Trigonometry Structure and Method - Book 2. All credit is to be given to the authors and publishers of said book. The study guide made from the book contains definitions, diagrams, and notes taken directly from the book.

Chapter One, Section One (Real Numbers and Their Graphs) The set of real numbers consists of all rational and irrational numbers. Some important subsets of the real numbers are shown in the chart below. Real Numbers Natural numbers: Whole numbers: Integers: Rational numbers: Irrational numbers: {1, 2, 3, ...} {0, 1, 2, 3, ....} {..., -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, ...} numbers, such as -5/3, 7/9, .5, and 4/1 that result when an integer is divided by a nonzero integer numbers, such as √3 , - √7, and π, that are not rational

When using a number line, the following facts are taken for granted: 1. Each point on the number line is paired with exactly one real number, called the coordinate of the point. 2. Each real number is paired with exactly one point on the line, called the graph of the number. The graph of 0 (zero) is the origin origin.

ALGEBRA II BIBLE – Chapter One On a number line, the graphs of opposites are on opposite sides of the origin but are the same distance from the origin. The absolute value of a number is the distance between the graph of the number and the origin on a number line. Vertical bars | | are used to denote absolute value. In general: 1. The absolute value of a positive number is the number itself. 2. The absolute value of a negative number is the opposite of the number. 3. The absolute value of zero is zero. Chapter One, Section Two (Simplifying Expressions) Numerical expression, or numeral: a symbol or group of symbols used to represent a number Value of a numerical expression: the number represented by the expression Equation: Equation a sentence formed by placing an equals sign = (read “equals” or “is equal to”) between two expressions, called the sides of the equation. The equation is a true statement if both sides have the same value. symbol: Inequality symbol one of the symbols <, >, ≠ (read “does not equal” or “is not equal to”), ≤ (read “is less than or equal to”), ≥ (read “is greater than or equal to”) Inequality: Inequality a sentence formed by placing an inequality symbol between two expressions, called the sides of the inequality Sum: the result of adding numbers called the terms of the sum

2

Difference: the result of subtracting one number from another Product: the result of multiplying numbers, called the factors of the product. Multiplication is sometimes shown by a raised dot instead of a times sign . Quotient: the result of dividing one number by another. Division is indicated by the symbol or by a fraction bar. Power, base, and exponent: A power is a product of equal factors. The repeated factor is the base. A positive exponent tells the number of times the base occurs as a factor. Grouping symbols: pairs of parentheses ( ), brackets [ ], or a bar ---- used to enclose part of an expression that represents a single number.

To simplify an expression you replace it by the simplest or most common symbol having the same value. The following principle is used in simplifying expressions. Substitution Principle An expression may be replaced by another expression that has the same value. Order of Operations 1. Simplify the expression within each grouping symbol, working outward from the innermost grouping. 2. Simplify powers. 3. Perform multiplications and divisions in order from left to right. 4. Perform additions and subtractions in order from left to right.

ALGEBRA II BIBLE – Chapter One Variable: a symbol, usually a letter, used to represent any member of a given set, called the domain or replacement set of the variable set, Values of a variable: the members of the domain of the variable Algebraic expression: a numerical expression; a variable; or a sum, difference, product, or quotient that contains one or more variables

3 The process of replacing each variable in an expression by a given value and simplifying the result is known as evaluating the expression, or finding the value of the expression.

Chapter One, Section Three (Basic Properties of Real Numbers) A set of numbers that has all the properties listed in the chart on the next page is called a field. The set of real numbers is a field. Note that when we say a unique real field. number has a certain field property we mean that one and only one real number has this property. Field Properties of Real Numbers For all real numbers a, b, and c: Closure Properties a + b and ab are unique real numbers. Commutative Properties a+b=b+a ab = ba Associative Properties (a + b) + c = a + (b + c) (ab)c = a(bc) Identity Properties Property of Opposites: For each a, there is a unique real number –a such that a + (-a) = 0 and (-a) + a = 0. (-a is called the opposite or additive inverse of a.) Property of Reciprocals: For each a except 0, there is a unique real number 1/a such that: a • 1/a = 1 and 1/a • = 1. (1/a is called the reciprocal or multiplicative inverse of a.) Distributive Property (of multiplication with respect to addition) a(b + c) = ab + ac and (b + c)a = ba + ca Logical Symbols: Quantifiers The real number properties can be used to change a given expression into a simpler equivalent equation. Two expressions are equivalent when they are equal for every value of each variable they contain.

ALGEBRA II BIBLE – Chapter One Statements about the properties of real numbers often include phrases that express the idea of “how many” or of quantity. Such a phrase is called a quantifier quantifier. Symbol ∀x ∃x ∃! x Differences) Chapter One, Section Four (Sums and Differences) Definition of Subtraction For all real numbers a and b, a – b = a + (-b). (To subtract any real number, add its opposite. Distributive Property (of multiplication with respect to subtraction) For all real numbers a, b, and c, a(b – c) = ab – ac (b – c)a = ba – ca. Remember that similar terms contain the same variable factors. Similar terms are sometimes referred to as like terms terms. Chapter One, Section Five Multiplicative Property of 0 For every real number a, a•0=0 Multiplicative Property of -1 For every real number a, a(a(-1) = -a

4 Meaning “for all x,” for every x,” “for each x,” and so on “there exists an x,” “for some x,” and so on “there is a unique x”

and

0 • a = 0.

and

(-1)a = -a.

Rules for Multiplication 1. The product of two positive numbers or two negative numbers is a positive number. 2. The product of a positive number and a negative number is a negative number. 3. The absolute value of the product of two or more umbers is the product of their absolute values. 1. A product of nonzero numbers positive if the number of negative factors is even. 2. The product is negative if the number of negative factors is odd. 3. The product is zero if any one of the factors is 0.

ALGEBRA II BIBLE – Chapter One Property of the Opposite of a Product For all real numbers a and b, (-ab = (-a)b

5

and

a(-ab = a(-b)

Property of the Opposite of a Sum For all real numbers a and b, -(a + b)

and

((-a) + (-b).

Chapter One, Section Six (Quotients) Definition of Division The quotient a divided by b is written a/b or a ÷ b. For every real number a and nonzero real number b, a/b = a • 1/b, or a ÷ b = a • 1/b. To divide by any nonzero number, multiply by its reciprocal. Since 0 has no reciprocal, division by 0 is not defined. Rules for Division 1. The quotient of two positive number or two negative numbers is positive number. 2. the quotient of two numbers when one is positive and the other negative is a negative number. For all real numbers a and b, and nonzero real numbers c, a + b = a + b and a – b = a – b. c c c c c c Chapter One, Section Seven (Solving Equations in One Variable) An equation or inequality that contains a variable, such as 2t – 1 = 5 and x + 3 > 0, is called an open sentence Any value of the variable that makes an open sentence a sentence. true statement is called a solution or root of the open sentence and is said to solution, root, satisfy it. For example, 3 is a solution of 2t – 1 = 5, because 2 • 3 – 1 = 5 is true, but 2 is not a solution, because 2 • 2 – 1 = 5 is false. The set of all solutions of an open sentence that belong to a given domain of the variable is the solution set over that domain.

ALGEBRA II BIBLE – Chapter One The properties of real numbers guarantee that if the first statement in either sequence is true for some value of x, then the last statement in the sequence is true for that value of x. Equations having the same solution set over a given domain are called equivalent equations To solve an equation you usually change, or equations. transform, it into a simple equivalent equation whose solution set is easy to see. Transformations That Produce Equivalent Equations 1. Simplifying either side of an equation. 2. Adding to (or subtracting from) each side of an equation the same number or the same expression. 3. Multiplying (or dividing) each side of an equation by the same nonzero number.

6

When solving an equation with one variable, you cannot assume that it has exactly one root. The set with non members is called the empty set, or the null set, and is set set denoted by Ø. An equation that is satisfied by all values of the variables is called an identity tity. identity The solution set of an identity is the set of al real numbers. A formula is an equation that states a relationship between two or more variables. Chapter One, Section Eight (Words Into Symbols) Formulas from science and technology are used in many applications. For example, to describe uniform motion that is, motion at a constant speed, you use the formula motion, distance = rate × time, or d = rt. Consecutive Numbers Integers ..., -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, ...

n – 1, n, n + 1, n + 2 are four consecutive integers if n is an integer. n – 2, n, n + 2, n + 4 are four consecutive integers if n is even and four consecutive odd integers if n is odd.

Even Integers

..., -6, -4, -2, 0, 2, 4, 6, ...

Odd Integers

..., -5, -3, -1, 1, 3, 5, ...

ALGEBRA II BIBLE – Chapter One Chapter One, Section Nine (Problem Solving with Equations)

7

Plans for Solving a Word Problem Step 1 Read the problem carefully a few times. Decide what numbers are asked for and what information is given. Making a sketch may be helpful. Step 2 Choose a variable and use it with the given facts to represent the number(s) described in the problem. Labeling your sketch or arranging the given information in a chart may help. Step 3 Reread the problem. Then write an equation that represents relationships among the numbers in the problem. Step 4 Solve the equation and find the required numbers. Step 5 Check your results with the original statement of the problem. Give the answer.

Chapter Summary

1. The set of real numbers has several familiar subsets. 2. Each point on a number line can be paired with exactly one real number, which is the coordinate of the point. The point is called the graph of the number. 3. The words and symbols used in algebra have specific mathematical definitions. 4. A numerical expression can be simplified by following the rules for order of operations. 5. An algebraic expression can be simplified using the field properties of real numbers along with the definitions of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. 6. An algebraic expression can be evaluated by replacing each variable by a given value and simplifying the result. 7. An equation can be solved by applying transformations. The solution set of an equation is the set of values the variable that make the equation a true statement. 8. Word problems can be solved algebraically after translating the given information into an equation.

- Guides by Julie 2010-2011 Survey Results
- Senior Bulletin
- English, Beloved, Review
- IB Chem, Kinetics, Handouts
- IB Chem, Kinetics, Data Analysis
- IB Chem, Treatment of Error and Uncertainty
- Spanish, El Mundo Profesional, Vocabulario, Part Two
- IB Chem, Energetics, Handouts
- IB Chem, Periodicity Worksheets
- English, World Literature Paper Submission, Guidelines
- Integrated Science, Chapter Twenty-Six Outline
- Integrated Science, Chapter Twenty-One Outline
- Integrated Science, Chapter Twenty, Outline
- Integrated Science, Chapter Ten, Outline
- Integrated Science, Chapter Three, Outline
- Integrated Science, Chapter Six, Outline
- Integrated Science, Chapter Seven, Outline
- Integrated Science, Chapter Four, Outline
- Integrated Science, Chapter Five, Outline
- Integrated Science, Chapter Eight, Outline
- Pre-IB Chemistry, Chapter Two, Vocabulary
- Pre-IB Chemistry, Chapter Twelve, Vocabulary
- Pre-IB Chemistry, Chapter Three, Vocabulary
- Pre-IB Chemistry, Chapter Thirteen, Vocabulary
- Pre-IB Chemistry, Chapter Ten, Vocabulary

- Topic 1 - Algebra
- 6.1 - Key Concepts of Statistics
- 2.1 - Functions
- 12B - Geometric Functions With Vectors
- Maths SL Data Booklet Explained - Vectors
- Vectors
- Maths SL Data Booklet Explained - Presumed Knowledge
- Maths SL Data Booklet Explained - Algebra
- 4.1 - Matrices
- Maths SL Data Booklet Explained - Circular Functions and Trigonometry
- How to Study Math
- Algebra II Notes, Chapter Two, Inequalities and Proof
- Algebra II Notes, Chapter Three, Linear Equations and Functions
- Math IB Revision Vectors SL
- Algebra II Notes, Chapter Four, Products and Factors of Polynomials
- Topic 3 - Thermal Physics
- Mechanics
- Topic 6 - Fields and Forces
- SCASI
- Literary Devices
- Literary Elements
- Le Subjonctif
- 1.2 - Elasticity
- The Imperative Mood
- Key Questions for Understanding Poetry
- Algebra II Notes, Chapter Six, Irrational and Complex Numb…
- Algebra II Notes, Chapter Five, Rational Expressions
- A Guide to Analysing Short Stories
- Linking Words
- Extended Essay Checklist
- Algebra II Notes, Chapter One, Basic Concepts

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd