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This is a group study session.

Please update the chart

with concepts you know are absolutely correct. DO
NOT guess on these for we all will be studying off this
guide. Good luck everyone, pitch in, and let's rock this
exam. I have started putting in a few but will continue
to update. Thanks everyone!
GCU 364 - Energy in the Global Arena
First Study Guide
Spring 2016
Terms and Concepts
Arab/Israeli Wars (1967, 1973)- Six Day War (1967): preemptive strikes by Israel against Egypt
and Syria who were planning attacks on Israel leads to the taking of parts of the Sinai peninsula
from Egypt and the Golan Heights from Syria; Yom Kippur War (1973): when Egypt and Syria
surprise attack Israel in Sinai and the Golan Heights respectively on the Jewish holy day Yom
Kippur (also during the Muslim holy month of Ramadan), Cold War tensions ensue, OPEC using
export embargos to raise the price of oil for the West, causing the 1973 energy crisis
Boiler- Heats water in tubes that is converted into steam and feed into the turbines (important
process in converting the chemical energy of combusted fuel source into mechanical energy (of
turbine) which can produce electricity through a generator)
Capacity factor (def and examples)- Ratio of net electricity generated at a plant
over a given time versus potential electricity generated at continuous max.
operation of the plant over same amount of time. i.e. ratio (actual/potential)
Chokepoints (location and significance)- Three major ones are strait of Hormuz off coast of
Oman, UAE, and Iran in which is very restricted. Another is Strait of Malacca off coast of
Singapore and Malaysia. Last is Cape of Good Hope by the south tip of South Africa.
Oil chokepoints:

Coming full circle-I think what he means by this is that we started off using renewables and we

are heading in that direction again.

Condenser (location, purpose)- is located under the turbine to catch the water vapor that has
cooled back to liquid. It then refeeds the water back into the boiler.
Conservation of energy (1st Law)- Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. It transforms
from one form to another.
Desert Storm- Operation Desert Storm was the coalition response to the Iraqi invasion of
Kuwait in 1991. This iraqi invasion was problematic because Kuwait was a major supplier of oil
to the US. The iraqi invasion also posed an immediate threat to Saudi, another major exporter of
oil. If Saudi fell to Saddam, iraq would control one-fifth of the worlds oil supply.
Energy and geopolitics, implications of - Because the global economy is so dependent on oil, it
will be difficult to move away from it onto better fuel sources.
Energy resources (types, contributions)Solar, wind, hydropower (solar energy lifts water up, gravity pulls water down),
biomass/biofuels (either burned directly wood or converted to liquids ethanol), geothermal
energy (thermal energy from radioactive decay in upper layers of earths surface for electric and
nonelectric use)

Energy trade (coal; countries)-Russia, China and U.S. have the three biggest coal reserves in
the world. Indonesia is the world's leader in exports while China is the leader in imports. (world
coal, slides show Japan top importer, Australia is top exporter).
Energy transitions (when and what)World energy consumption by fuel in 2013:
Petroleum 32.36%
Coal 30.06%
Natural Gas 23.73%
Hydroelectric 6.72%

Nuclear 4.42%
Wind 1.12%
Other .86%
Biofuel .51%
Solar .17%
1st Solar, wind, hydropower, biomass/biofuels, geothermal
2nd Fossil fuels
* 13th-16th century wood shortage (coal/coke saved the iron industry) transition from
charcoal to coke is the first time fossil fuel replaces a biofuel, global consumption of fossil
fuels 10^12 W in 1900 (surpasses biomass),
* 1750-Ironbridge (Rise of Industrialization) transition for Europe from charcoal to coal.
* COAL 1698 Thomas Savery invented a steam pump to raise water out of mines via
vacuum lift and high-pressure steam expulsion dangerous, 1705 Thomas Newcomen
invented practical steam pump, adopted by coal miners improved by James Watt, 1709
Abraham Darby perfects making coke from coal, heating value 29.2 MJ/kg
* Industrial Revolution powered by coke, coal and steam engine, although in 1850 5 x
work from wind and water wheels, would take 20 years to be equal, by 1920 coal
production was 60x greater that in 1850 and supplied 80% of total fuel needs in US
* OIL rise of oil Pennsylvania 1860s, Texas 1901, California 1920s, heating value 4345.6 MJ/kg
Advantages greater diversity, liquid, higher energy density,
Consequences facilitated horizontal expansion of cities, decline of mass transport,
expanded areas of energy development, greater concentration of political power,
* Electrical Age 1882 Pearl Street Station NY considered worlds first central electricity
generating station by Thomas Edison
* Natural Gas heating value 37.3 MJ/kg
3rd Nuclear power
* Average American uses 93,000 kWh/year ~16 tons of coal ~nickel sized ball of uranium
* Attractions no sulfur, nitrogen, carbon emissions, acid rain, global warming, odors,
large fuel storage yards, fuel transport system, displaces need for coal
* Drawbacks proliferation civilian > military, public perception of risk, accidental release
of radiation, long life of waste risks, terrorism target, electric energy only, low thermal efficiency,
high consumptive use of water, geographic and temporal inequities, centralized control for
security, just 5% of total energy in the world

Flaring- is the process of burning off natural gas that can not be processed or sold.
Fertile Crescent-Middle Eastern territory or the Cradle of Civilization. Possible area of first
irrigation and writing. One of the first areas of plant and animal domestication.
Fire (historical significance)- Allowed the cooking of meat, the settling of civilizations, and
expanded population growth. Development of language. Migration to colder climates. Provided
protection from wildlife at night and herding animals off cliffs with fire drives.

Fires of Kuwait- After the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq, Saddam Hussein lit fire to nearly 600 wells
while being forced from the country. This was the biggest oil spill and air pollution event in
Fossil fuels (production and consumption)- Carbon based fuels generated over long periods of
time in the earths crust from high pressure and biological decay of organisms. Primary fuel
source due to high energy yield per unit of fuel. High energy density. Produced by pumping up
from wells in large fields and refining. Oil is refined into multiple types of fuels, i.e. kerosene,
gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, etc Natural gas was burned off as a by-product of oil production until
we developed the technology to use it for energy production. It is primarily composed of
methane, CH4, the simplest hydrocarbon, which is why it so much cleaner than other fossil
Fracking (define, plus significance)- The use of wells and water, chemicals, and sand to exert
more oil out of the ground. Increasing pressure through injection of water fractures rock. This
allows free movement of gas or oil to come to the surface allowing easier pumping and higher
Generator (defined and purpose)-The generator collects the energy produced by the turbine and
converts it into electricity using a magnetic field.
Geography of energy (trends)-

Energy is so vital, it can motivate military conflict

o The geography of energy supply and demand dictates which areas of the
world are hot spots; they can change over time
o Example: The South China Seas (abundant in fish and oil reserves)
geopolitical location causes 10 states to all lay claims to parts of it - China,
Taiwan, the Philippines, Malaysia, Brunei, Vietnam, Indonesia, Singapore,
Thailand and Cambodia.
Heat Rate (BTU/kWh)-British Thermal Unit It is the amount of work needed to raise the

temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit

Heat Rate = Thermal Energy IN / Electrical Energy OUT (Amount of fuel reqd to generate one
unit of electricity)
History of energy (3 transitions)- 1st(Hunters and Gatherers, Wood (Renewable)), 2nd
(renewables> fossil fuels) Concentrated energy (oil, gas, coal) 3rd (fossil fuels >nuclear).
History of energy (sequence of resources)Kilo- 10^3, Mega-10^6, Gigawatt-10^9

Mountain-top removal-Type of coal mining happening primarily in the Appalachian Mountains in

West Virginia, Kentucky, Virginia, Tennessee.

Mountaintop removal: A type of mining technique. It involves blasting open a mountain

down to the level of the coal seam, which is typically hundreds of feet below the surface.
The access rock/rubble is deposited in adjoining valleys.
This is used widely across the Appalachia
Damages: freshwater aquatic ecosystems and the surrounding environment by
burying streams and headwaters
Also pollutes the air, land, ecology/biodiversity in the area, groundwater, and
removal of vegetation
Levels the land - breaks mountains down and fills valleys
Oil (major locations)- Venezuela, Saudi Arabia, Russia, Canada
Oil imports to US (top 5 countries)- Canada, Saudi Arabia, Mexico, Venezuela, Nigeria
PADDs- Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts; PADD1: East Coast; PADD2: Midwest;
PADD3: Gulf coast; PADD4: Rockies; PADD5: West coast, AK, HI. PADD3 most important.

Power plant design (basic, for coal)-

Primary regional energy consumption- This is the use of modern day energy in which we
consume in order 1. oil/gas 2. coal and lastly 3. nuclear. The primary regions of energy
consumption are: Asia, North America, Europe/Eurasia.
Pulverizes- Smashing of coal to finer pieces to help evenly distribute the coal for better burning.
Powdered for more surface area.
R/P ratio- Reserves and production of given resource. This is in ordinance of how much the
country is producing to how much they have in reserves. A small production and big reserves
calls for a big R/P ratio. U.S has highest coal R/P as of 2012, followed by Europe/Eurasia.

Reserves (compare size and frequency)- Reserves in Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Canada,
Nigeria, Russia, US. Saudi Arabia is second largest, but has highest frequency and production.
Venezuela has largest reserves, but the frequency is not as high as Saudi Arabia.
Steam engine influence on coal mining- Steam engine allowed water to be pumped out of mines
to allow for deeper mines. Also allowed greater amounts of coal to be transported from mines
by rail.
Trade of energy (coal, oil, uranium)Turbine (defined and purpose)-A turbine is a simple device with few parts that uses flowing
fluids (liquids or gases) to produce electrical energy. Fluid is forced across blades mounted on
a shaft, which causes the shaft to turn. The energy produced from the shaft rotation is collected
by a generator which converts the motion to electrical energy using a magnetic field.
Waste compared to efficiency-The more efficient an object is the less waste that object will
output. This is also opposite in that if something is very inefficient, than it will be very wasteful.
Water wheels (functions)- Renewable energy source in creating electricity both with new and old

Alberta- oil sands
Appalachia (location, significance)- U.S. states: Kentucky, west Virginia, Tennessee. Coal
mining and production.
Australia- Queensland and New South Wales produce coal. Major exporter to China.
Azerbaijan (including Baku)- An old and continuing oil producer. Has to bargain with Jordan,
Turkey, Georgia, and Russia to get oil out via the black sea to the ocean in pipelines.
Black Sea- Entry point to Europe for Asian pipelines from Russia, Kazakhstan etc.
Caspian Basin (significance and countries)- lots of oil, with no direct route to open ocean. Area
of tension because of oil reserves and many bordering countries; Kazakhstan, russia, iran,
Azerbaijan, and Turkmenistan.
China (and its role in energy demand and price)- Major importer of coal and uranium, from
Australia, and natural gas. Chinas claimed ownership of South China sea.

Chokepoints (what, why, where)- Three major ones are strait of Hormuz off coast of Oman,
UAE, and Iran in which is very restricted. This is the only access to the Persian Gulf, so it
controls Kuwait, Iraq, etc... Another is Strait of Malacca off coast of Singapore and Malaysia.
Last is Cape of Good Hope by the south tip of South Africa. Suez canal which leads from Red
Sea to the mediterranean sea, the Bab el-Mandab which goes from the Red Sea to the Indian
ocean. There is also the Bosphorus through Turkey, specifically Istanbul, to the Black Sea and
western Europe.
Crimea- peninsula on the border of Ukraine occupied by Russia. Has some important pipelines
out of Russia.
Fossil fuels (where, what, why)- Useful because of higher energy density. They come in three
states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas. Fossil fuels in order of use are: coal, oil, natural gas.
Global energy reserves (locations)Strait of Hormuz- The most critical chokepoint, 17 million barrels of oil a day. Needs lots of
protection (navy seals and such) because of piracy.
Indonesia- Produces a lot of oil and coal. Imports coal (lignite) to China.
Iran- has oilfield and it is nuclear relative site. Many nuclear plants.
Iraq- was the world's eighth largest producer of total petroleum liquids in 2012, and it has the
world's fifth largest proven petroleum reserves after Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Canada, and Iran.
Ironbridge (location, significance)- area between Wales and England. Birthplace of the industrial
Kuwait- Site of gulf war; The peak output of the Burgan oil field (the worlds second largest) will
now be around 1.7 million barrels per day, and not the two million barrels per day forecast for
the rest of the field's 30 to 40 years of life.
Matewan, West Virginia- Matewan Massacre between the mining corporation and the miners of
the town.
North Dakota- Fracking for shale gas and oil.
North Sea- The North Sea region is the second largest supplier of natural gas to continental
Europe, after Russia, via an undersea network of pipelines.
Persian Gulf- Located: between Iran, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Oman. Highly volatile region of large
oil reserves.

Plant and animal domestication, sites of first- Fertile Crescent

Queensland- NE Australia, coal producer
Saudi Arabia- Major oil producer; has the largest oil field in the world (Ghawar); burns oil to
produce electricity. It has 26% of the proven oil reserves in the world, ranks as the largest
exporter of petroleum, and plays a leading role in OPEC. The petroleum sector accounts for
roughly 75% of budget revenues, 45% of GDP, and 90% of export earnings.
South China Sea- Majorly contested area with significant underwater oil reserves. China claims
ownership and built a military base on an atoll, Fiery Cross Reef. The Spratly Islands and
Paracel Islands are two of the mostly contested areas.
South Sudan- Conflict and genocide over oil reserves. Thousands of people murdered,
displaced, and dying. Major oil companies, government, and islamic extremists to blame.
Sudan- In conflict with South Sudan over fuel reserves. Conducts genocide of south sudanese
on behalf of oil companies. The oil is largely in South Sudan, but the delivery and processing
apparatus is largely in Sudan. China aiding war on Darfur for oil.
U.A.E- united arab emirates oil reserves are the 7th largest in the world. Dubai was built on oil.
Abu Dhabi and Dubai are now diversifying their power sources.
Vavilov centers- Origin of many plants because of crosspoints of trade and physical
environment. First sites of plant domestication; Mxico-Guatemala, Per-Ecuador-Bolivia,
Southern Chile, Southern Brazil, Mediterranean, Middle East (fertile crescent), Ethiopia, Central
Asia, Indo-Burma, Siam-Malaya-Java, China.
West Virginia- Site of mountaintop removal for easier coal mining operations.
I think maybe there could be some map questions on the middle east so heres a map

Readings (and Power Points)

Pasqualetti- The Geography of Energy and the Wealth of the World on BlackBoard
Kuzemko (Introduction, Chapters 1 & 2 )
Chapter 1
Perspectives on Energy


Political Perspectives

Structural Realism
Power is a zero sum game - if one
state gains, than other states are losing in relative terms
States are the only actors of
significance in world politics

States are centralized, unitary, and

rational actors that act in their national self interest.
The international system is in a
condition of anarchy (insecurity)
Geopolitical/economic Realism
Emphasizes the international role of the state in energy in terms of
securing supply, engaging in strategic alliances, and existing military
power, with excess energy resources seen as a zero sum game.
Mercantilism is economic realism
State power is underpinned by economic policy and international
economic relations
Appel- (Chapter 1 Oil for Life-The Bureau of Mines and the Biopolitics of the Petroleum
Market-Matt Huber, Department of Geography, Syracuse University):
I found similar one: