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1. WILLIAMA family fable gives the origin of the Douglas family in the 8th century during the reign of Solvathius, King of Scots. Donald Bane of the Western Isles invaded Scottish territory and routed the King's forces. An unknown warrior with his followers came to the King's aid and in the ensuing battle Donald was killed. When the King asked who the warrior was the stranger was pointed out to him with the Gaelic words "Sholto Dhu-glas" or "Behold the dark man". The King supposedly rewarded him with a large tract of land in Lanarkshire which was called Douglas after him. Another theory states that the founder of the family was a Fleming named Theobald who came to Scotland about 1150 and as a servant of Arnald, Abbot of Kelso received from him a grant of land on "Dhu-glas" or Douglas water. William of Dufglas witnessed a charter from Joceline, Bishop of Glasgow to the monks of Kelso between 1175 and 1199. He also attended the court of William the Lion and his name often occurs as a witness to William's charters. William was either the brother or brother-in-law of Sir Freskin de Kerdale in Moray. In his "Cronykil" Wyntoun states: "Of Murrawe and the Douglas How that thare begynnyng was, Syn syndry men spekes syndryly I can put that in na story. But in thare armeyis both thai bere The Sternys (stars) set in Iyk manere; Til mony men it is phit sene Apperand Iyk (seeming as if) that thai had bene Of kyn be descens Igneale Or be branchys collaterele." Issue 2I. ERKENBALD or ARCHIBALD- m.? MARGARET De CRAWFORD, d.c.1240 II. Brice- prior of Lesmahago and in 1203 Bishop of Moray III. Fretheskin- parson of Douglas and later Dean of Moray IV. Hugh- Canon of Spynie and Archdeacon of Moray
V. Alexander- Canon of Spynie, Vicar of Elgin VI. Henry- Canon of Spynie Ref: "The Scottish Nation"- William Anderson, A. Fullarton & Co., Edinburgh, 1880 "History of the House of Douglas"- Rt. Hon. Sir Herbert Maxwell, Freemantle & Co., London, 1902, Vol.I, pp.9-16 "Cronykil"- Wyntoun, B.VIII, c.7 "History of the Douglasses"- David Hume of Godscroft, 1643-4 "Caledonia"- George Chalmers, Vol.I, p.579 "Origines Parochiales Scotiae"- Vol.I, p.155 2I. ARCHIBALD (WILLIAM 1) m.? MARGARET De CRAWFORD d. 1240 He was a witness to a confirmation by Jocelyn, Bishop of Glasgow of a toft of land in Glasgow to the monks of Melrose (1179-1199). He acquired the lands of Livingstone & Herdmanston in Lothian and must have been knighted before 1226 as he is called dominus Archibald de Dufglas in a charter.
Douglas Castle Issue-
3I. WILLIAM- m.1. ?, 2. ? Constance Battail of Fawdon, Northumberland, d. 1276 23II. ANDREW- of Dufglas Ref: "The Scottish Nation"- William Anderson, A. Fullarton & Co., Edinburgh, 1880 "History of the House of Douglas"- Rt. Hon. Sir Herbert Maxwell, Freemantle & Co., London, 1902, Vol.I, pp.16-7 "Liber Collegii Nostre Domine de Glascii"- Maitland Club, 1846, X, 235 "Liber de Melros"- I, 214 3I. WILLIAM (WILLIAM 1, ARCHIBALD 2) m.1. ? 2. ? Constance Battail of Fawdon, Northumberland d. 1276 In the absence of documentary proof it must be assumed that William "Long-leg" was the son of Archibald as he was the third recorded owner of the lands. William was a witness to charters in 1240 and 1248 and is mentioned in the Pipe Rolls in 1241 as a surety for a payment by Michael Fitz Michael of Ryhulle. In 1256 he granted the lands of Warentham of Warndon, Northumberland to his second son William. (1) About 1264 William purchased the house and lands of Fawdon, Northumberland. These he held as a vassal of the Earl of Angus who was the English knight Gilbert de Umfraville, Lord of Redesdale who asked Prince Edward to return the manor of Fawdon. The case was tried before a jury and Douglas was acquitted and Fawdon was restored to him. Umfraville then attacked the house of Fawdon with 100 men on 19 July 1267 captured it and took 31 1/2 marks in cash, silver spoons, cups, clothes, arms jewels, gold rings, etc. to the value of £100, carried William off and imprisoned him in Harbottle Tower. In the battle young William was wounded in the neck and almost died. A second trial followed in 1269 where Douglas was judged owner of Fawdon and Umfraville was fined.(3) Issue I. Hugh- m. Margery de Abernethy, d.s.p. before 1288. The indenture between Sir Hugh de Abernethy and Sir William de Douglas for this marriage is the earliest charter of the Douglases which survives. "Pattane Purdie brack a chaise/ Upon the Lord Douglas;/ Hugh Lord Douglas turned againe,/And there was Patton Purdie slaine."(2) 4II. WILLIAM- m.1. ELIZABETH STEWARD (d. before 1288), 2. 1288 ELEANOR LOVAINE (m.1. William de Ferrers, Lord of Groby), d. 1302 Ref: (1) "Calendar of Documents Relating to Scotland 1108-1509"-Joseph Bain, H.M. Gen. Reg. House, Edinburgh, 1881-8, Vol.I, p.394 (2) Maitland's MS, Hamilton Palace, quoted by William Fraser in "The Douglas Book", 1885 (3) "Placitorum Abbreviatio"- p.166; Bain- Vol.I, p.485 "The Scottish Nation"- William Anderson, A. Fullarton & Co., Edinburgh, 1880 "History of the House of Douglas"- Rt. Hon. Sir Herbert Maxwell, Freemantle & Co., London, 1902, Vol.I, pp.18-9
4II. WILLIAM (WILLIAM 1, ARCHIBALD 2, WILLIAM 3) m.1. ELIZABETH, daughter of Alexander the Steward (d. before 1288) 2. 1288 ELEANOR, daughter of Matthew, Lord of Lovaine (m.1. William de Ferrers, Lord of Groby) d. 1302
At the assize held at Newcastle upon Tyne in 1256 his father reported that he had granted William a carucate of land at Warendon in Northumberland for his homage and service.(1) William then succeeded his brother in 1288. Also in 1288 Duncan, Earl of Fife was murdered by Sir Hugh de Abernethy who was subsequently captured and handed over to William by Sir Andrew de Moray to be imprisoned in the vaults of Douglas castle. In 1291 Edward I as overlord of Scotland ordered the transfer of Abernethy to a royal prison but his command was not obeyed and Hugh died at the castle in 1293 not being able to survive the rigors and filth of this mediaeval dungeon.(2)
Ruins of Douglas Castle In 1289 William sent a messenger from Glasgow to the Abbot of Kelso to receive his family charters which had been stored in the cell of Lesmahagow for safety.(3)
A certain wealthy widow, Eleanor, widow of William de Ferrers had obtained from King Edward a handsome dowry from her husband's English lands and also from his possessions in five Scottish counties. While coming north to collect her rents in 1288 she stayed at Tranent castle with Eleanor de Zouch, widow of Alan de Zouch. One morning William along with John Wishart arrived with a large force and carried off Dame Eleanor to be his wife. King Edward was not pleased and on 28 Jan. 1289 he ordered the sheriff of Northumberland to seize all of William's Northumberland possessions and to imprison him if he could find him. The sheriff reported in April that he had seized all of William's lands within his jurisdiction as well as those of John Wishart and wanted a special mandate to seize Wishart's land within the jurisdiction of Thomas de Normanville. On 27 March Edward demanded the immediate arrest of William and Eleanor from the Guardians of Scotland, but they did not reply perhaps because William had powerful friends at court, two of the Regents being his brothers in law James Stewart and Comyn, Earl of Buchan. William however was captured and imprisoned in Leeds castle but he was released in May 1290 and his and John Wishart's lands were returned on condition that they appear before the King within 15 days from 27 Jan. 1291. Eleanor was fined £100 for marrying without the King's leave, but she was not able to pay and Edward confiscated her estates in Essex and Hereford in 1296.(4) William signed the treaty of Salisbury in Nov. 1289 which approved of the marriage between the Prince of Wales and Queen Margaret. He was a M.P. 18 July 1290 at Birgham. On 5 July 1291 William "the Hardy" swore allegience to Edward I in the chapel of Thurston in East Lothian. At the end of 1291 William's land in Douglasdale was forfeited to King Edward for some unknown transgressions.(5) William failed to attend the Parliament at Scone on 10 Feb. 1293 and was proclaimed a defaulter. He however attended the second Parliament of King John Balliol at Stirling 3 Aug. 1293 when he was imprisoned by John. While in prison under King John's warrant he should have been on his lands in Essex on the service of King Edward who fined him £20 for his absence, but the fine was remitted "whereas our beloved and faithful William of Douglas was in our prison by our instruction."(6)
William later attacked the English and in 1296 was governor of the castle of Berwick when the town was besieged be Edward on 29 March 1296 with 35,000 men. The town was taken by storm 30 March 1296 and 7,500 were killed, the massacre leaving a dark stain on Edward's memory: "Thus thai slayand ware sa fast All the day, qwhill (until) at the last
This Kyng Edward saw in the tyde A woman slayne, and off hyr syde A barne (child) he was fall out, sprewland Besyd that woman slayne Iyand. 'Lasses, lasses!' (laissez) than cryid he; 'Leve off,- Leve off!' that word suld be."(7) After the garrison had surrendered and was allowed to March out with military honors William was detained as a prisoner in one of the towners of the castle called Hog's Tower. His lands in Essex were seized and the sheriff of Essex reported that he had arrested at Stebbing William's son Hugh who was nearly two years old.(8) In the same year he renewed his oath to Edward in Edinburgh when he signed the Ragman Roll and on 30 Aug. 1296 his land in Scotland was restored to him by order of the King but his English possessions were forfeited thus destroying all reason for William to remain faithful to England.
Berwick Castle In May 1297 he joined Sir William Wallace and had his estates invaded by Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick and his wife and children were carried off to Lochmaben. William was released at Berwick but failing to produce the stipulated hostages was imprisoned again. On 24 July the Constable of Berwick wrote to King Edward: "Sir William de Douglas is in your castle of Berwick in irons, and in safe keeping, God be thanked, and for a good cause, as one who has well deserved it. And I pray you, if it be your good pleasure, let him not be liberated for any profit or influence, until you know what the matters amount to in regard to him personally." (9) In a later letter the Constable says" "Sir William de Douglas has not kept the covenants he made with Sir Henry de Percy; he is in your castle of Berwick in my keeping, and he is still very savage and very abusive, but I shall keep him in such wise that if it please God he shall not escape." After Wallace's victory at Stirling 11 Sept. 1297 the English evacuated Berwick taking William with them. He was taken to the tower of London and died there before Jan. 1299 when Edward restored Eleanor's dower lands but the lands of Douglasdale were given to Sir Robert de Clifford. There was still £81 due in regards to the fine for abducting Eleanor, this was taken out of William's estate of Fawdon.(10)
The Tower of London Issue- first child by Elizabeth, last two by Eleanor 5I. JAMES- d. 25 Aug. 1330, Spain II. Hugh 6III. ARCHIBALD- m. BEATRICE LINDSAY, d. 22 July 1333 Ref: (1) "Calendar of Documents Relating to Scotland 1108-1509"- Joseph Bain, H.M. General Register House, Edinburgh, 1881-8, I, 394 (2) "The Douglas Book"- William Fraser, C.B. 1885, IV, I (3) Liber de Calchou- I, 168 (4) Cal. of Doc.- II, 92-3, 123 (5) Rotuli Scotiae- I, 7 (6) "Documents Illustrative of the History of Scotland 1286- 1306"- Rev. J. Stevenson, H.M. Gen. Reg. House, Edinburgh, 1870, I, 403 (7) "The Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland"- Andrew of Wyntoun, VIII, 9 (8) Cal. of Doc.- II, 173 (9) "Documents Illustrative of the History of Scotland 1286- 1306"- Rev. J. Stevenson, H.M. Gen. Reg. House, Edinburgh, 1870, II, 205 (10) Cal. of Doc.- II, 269, 437 "History of the House of Douglas"- Vol.I, pp.20-8 "The Scottish Nation"- William Anderson, A. Fullarton & Co., Edinburgh, 1880
5I. JAMES (WILLIAM 1, ARCHIBALD 2, WILLIAM 3, WILLIAM 4)
d. 25 Aug. 1330, Spain "The Good Sir James" had taken refuge in Paris where he lived for 3 years returning to Scotland after his father's death in 1302 and was appointed page in the household of Lamberton, Bishop of St. Andrew. While Edward was besieging Stirling in the spring of 1304 James was brought to the King by Lamberton who asked that James might be permitted to do homage and receive back his lands. "What lands doth he claim?", said the King. "The lordship of Douglas, under your pleasure, sire; whereof his father was lord." "Sir bishop!", said the King "you cannot by your fealty speak of this to me. His father was a traitor; let him seek land where he may; he shall not have these, for Clifford, who holds them, has ever served me loyally." After Comyn's murder James joined the Bruce. His estate having been given to Lord Clifford by the English King he was determined to het them back. James then went to Lamberton to inform him of his decision: "thou hast seen how these English have spoiled me of my paternal property. Thou hast heard too how the Earl of Carrick has openly asserted his claim to the crown whilst these trangers are leagued against him and have determined to avenge the slaughter of Comyn and disinherit him as they have done me. Therefore since these things are so I have resolved with your good leave to join my fortunes to Bruce and share with him both weal and woe; nor do I despair, through his help to gain my lands in spite of Clifford and all his kin." "Grateful should I be in God my sweet son that thou went there!", replied the Bishop, "yet were I now openly to give thee the means of joining him, it would work my ruin. Go then secretly and take from my stable my own horse. Should the groom make any resistance spare not a blow to quell it. This will exculpate me and thou mayest then obey they will." James followed these directions and rode to Errickstane to meet Bruce on his way to Scone and swore allegience to him. On Sunday 26 June 1306 Aymer de Valence attacked the Scots in the woods near Methven. King Robert was unhorsed by Sir Philip de Mowbray and was rescued by Sir Christopher de Seton and escaped accompanied by his brother Edward, the Earl of Athol, Gilbert De La Haye, Nigel Campbell and James Douglas. They then wandered throughout the Highlands relying on James for their food: "But worthy James of Douglas Ay travaland (industrious) and besy was for to purchas the ladyis met (meat), and it on many wis (wise, manner) wald get. For quhile (sometimes) he venesoun tham brocht, And with his handis quhile he wrocht Gynnis (snares) to tak geddis (pike) and samounis, Troutis, elis and als menounis."(1) They were attacked by John of Lorn at Dalry and James received a serious wound. This incident was confirmed by a letter from King Edward to the Prince of Wales 14 Sept. acknowledging John of Lorn's services.(2) The fugitives arrived at Loch Lomond and were not able to go around the loch as it was guarded by the enemy. James found a sunken boat which he patched up, but it would only hold three passesngers so they spent the whole night crossing the water. The group then proceeded to Rathlin island where they spent the winter.
Rathlin Island In the spring Sir Robert Boyd and James went to attack Brodick castle in Arran which was held by Sir John Hasting. James and Robert landed at night near the castle and concelaed their galley, oars and tackle. Hastings had several guests staying with him and that night several boats had arrived with food, drink and weapons and the garrison was involved in unloading the cargo. While they were taking the provisions up to the castle the Scots overpowered them. The people in the castle did not attempt to rescue them but closed the gates letting Boyd and James make off with the booty.
During all the struggles of that period James was a staunch supporter of Bruce subduing the forests of Selkirk and Jedburgh and recovering his castle of Douglas. James then went to Hazelaide to the home of Thomas Dickson an old servant of his father who told them that the cruelty of the English garrison at castle Douglas had paved the way for revolt. On Palm Sunday 19 March 1307 he surprised the English garrison at the castle while they were at St. Bride's church. Douglas and his men disguised themselves and took their places in the congregation and when one of the followers cried "A Douglas! A Douglas!" they attacked and defeated the English. Not being able to keep the castle himself James removed all the valuables he could carry, gold, silver, ammunition and armour. He then had all the meat, grain, ale and wine to be put in a pile, he then killed all the prisoners and threw the bodies in the pile and created what his men called "the Douglas Larder": "For mele and malt and blud and wyn (wine) Ran all togidder in a mellyn, That was unsemly for to se: Tharfor the men of that cuntre, for sic thingis thar mellit (mingled) wer, Callit it the Douglas lardener."(3) James then threw all the dead horses into the well to make it useless. He then set fire to the place and nothing was left standing.
St. Bride's Church- Douglas The castle was rebuilt by the English and commanded by captain Thirlwall. James attacked the castle but failed to capture it. James vowed that he would take revenge on anyone who would take possession of it. It was afterwards known as the Perilous Castle of Douglas. Aymer de Valence sent Sir John de Mowbray to attack King Robert, however near Kilmarnock he was ambushed by James. On 10 May 1307 de Valence attacked Robert the Bruce at Loudon Hill and was badly defeated. A letter written five days later by one of Edward's officers in Carlisle states that James de Douglas had sent messengers to ask to be admitted to the King's service but he changed his mind when Pembroke began to retreat.(4)
James next tried to recapture his castle:
"The aventurous castell of Douglass, That to kep sa peralous was." James sent 14 of his men dressed as peasants to lead horses carrying sacks stuffed with grass in view of the castle. The English thought they were carrying corn to the Lanark fair and saw a chance for easy plunder. Sir John de Wanton and his men left the castle to capture the convoy but as he approached the "peasants" pushed off the sacks, mounted the horses and attacked while James and some other men attacked from the rear completely destroying all resistence. The castle was again razed to the ground. This assault upon castle Douglas was the main event in Scott's romance "Castle Dangerous". Arriving at a house on the Water of Lyne where he meant to spend the night he found it occupied by the English. He then surrounded the house, broke open the door and surprised the English most of whom escaped. However King Robert's nephew, Thomas Randolph and Sir Alexander Bonkill were captured.
James then assisted Robert the Bruce in the battle against John of Lorn in Aug. 1308 with James attacking the flank and rear of the Highlanders and scattering them in every direction. James then laid siege to Dunstaffnage which was surrendered by Alexander of Argyle in time for James to take his seat at the Parliament held at St. Andrews on 16 Mar. 1308/9.
Dunstaffnage Castle The Scots then continued to raid northern England and in Sept. 1311 James looted Hartlepool. On 6 March 1313 he took Roxburgh castle while the English garrison were making merry on the eve of Lent. Sym of the Ledhouse had made rope ladders with grappling hooks to scale the walls and James with 60 men dressed in black shrouds crept up to the castle and went over the walls. They had surprised the garrison at their dance in the great hall however Sir William de Fiennes held out in the castle keep until the next day, but being mortally wounded in the face he surrendered. Because of this and other exploits the English called James the "Black Douglas" while the Scots called him "the Good Sir James".
At the battle of Bannockburn 23 June 1314 he was in command of the centre division of the Scottish army, but upon seeing that Randolph Moray was in trouble he requested the King's permission to go to his aid, but was refused. James replied: "My heart will not suffer me to stand by and see Randolph perish and therefore with your leave I must go and aid him." The King consented and James went to his aid, but upon approaching the battle he saw that the English were loosing and therefore he stopped his advance saying: "Randolph has gained the day, let us not diminish his glory by sharing it." The next morning with Walter the Steward and others he received the accolade from the King in the presence of the whole army and was created the Lord of Douglas, a knight banneret which can only be done on the field of battle.(see Vol. I, pp. 272-5) After winning the battle James with 60 horsemen chased Edward as far as Dunbar where he escaped in a fishing skiff to England: "Alwais by tham ner He let tham nocht haf sic laser (leisure) As anis watir for to ma."(5) The same year James along with Edward Bruce raided England and returned loaded with plunder. In August they wasted Northumberland, penetrated Yorkshire as far as Teesdale, spared Durham after payment of a heavy indemnity and returned by way of Westmorland. James was at the Parliament at Cambushkenneth in Nov. 1314 and at the Parliament of Ayr on 25 Apr. 1315.(6) James raided the bishopric of Durham and Hartlepool in June 1315. At the end of July he joined King Robert in his attack of Carlisle but the seige was raised on 1 Aug.(7)
King Robert and James were involved in an unsuccessful attack on Berwick on 10 Jan. 1316 when James narrowly escaped in a small boat. On 14 Mar. some Gascon mercenaries raided Tweeddale but were attacked by Sir William de Soulis, Sir Henry de Baliol and James at Scaith Moor in Coldstream parish. James was appointed guardian of the kingdom while Robert the Bruce was in Ireland. The English took advantage of this situation and sent the Earl of Arundel to Scotland. James was involved in the construction of Lintalie castle and waited in ambush for Arundel at Jedwater and destroyed his army. Upon returning to Lintalee James found the English making merry in the unfinished house. They were surprised and captured. Sir Robert de Nevill, the Peacock of the North said that he was sick of hearing about James' valour and vowed that he would attack him wherever he should see his banner. James then marched to Berwick where he met the Peacock in single combat as this was considered most chivalrous. They charged at each other with lances and the Peacock was killed. During the ensuing battle the English were defeated and Nevill's three brothers were captured and held for a ransom of 2000 marks each.(8) Another attack on Berwick was made on 28 March 1317 by King Robert, the Earls of Moray and March, and James and they easily took possession of the town. That night most of the men slipped away to loot the town and at dawn James and Moray found themselves without any guards. The army in the castle took advantage of the opportunity and drove the Scots back, but the English were eventually repulsed and Sir Roger de Horsley surrendered 16 weeks later on 20 July 1317.(9) Edward II then attacked Scotland on 24 July 1319 and King Robert sent James and Moray to create a diversion by invading England and to try to capture the Queen at York. They did not get the Queen but they did overrun all the northern counties and defeated Archbishop Melton and his army of monks at Myton-on-Swale 20 Sept. 1319 capturing the Archbishop's plate and valuables. Because of the "Chapter of Myton" Edward II withdrew from Scotland. On 6 May 1320 James received the lands, castle and forest of Jedburgh and the barony of Stabilgorton in Eskdale. In the next year James received the barony of Watstirker (Westerkirk) in Eskdale as well as Ettick Forest, the barony of Bedrule in Berwickshire and the lands of Cockburn.(10) In Jan. 1321/2 Moray, Walter the Steward and James swept through Durham and Yorkshire and collected a large amount of revenue for the Scottish exchequer. The king of England retaliated but he was compelled to retreat due to starvation and James attacked the English at Melrose. In Oct. James and Moray attacked Sir Ralph de Cobham who was defending an important pass in the ridge between Biland and Rielvaux. The ground was very steep and the English rolled boulders down the sides followed by volleys of arrows. King Robert ordered his Highlanders and Islesmen to scale the cliffs and scattered the English "like hares before greyhounds" (Com du leuer devant leuereres).(11) The Earl of Richmond, Henry de Sully, Grand Butler of France and several French knights were captured. Three of the knights had surrendered to James who was therefore entitled to their ransom of 4400 marks. Instead of this King Robert granted to him a charter 8 Nov. 1324 giving him the criminal jurisdiction of all the Douglas possessions and freeing him from all feudal services except the universal obligation for the defence of the realm: "And in order that this charter may have perpetual effect, we in our own person and with our own hand have placed on the hand of the said James and his heirs for ever."(12) James also received a grant of Baliol's lands of Buittle in Galloway subject to the yearly tribute of a pair of gilded spurs.(13) Moray and James crossed the border again on 15 March 1327 with 20,000 cavalry burning, spoiling and slaying through Northumberland and Westmorland and camped at Weardale.(14) The English approached from the north with seven columns. As the Scots lay on th south bank of the Wear the English offered to let them cross enmolested so as to fight it out on a fair field or if they preferred they would be allowed to cross for the same purpose. Moray wanted to accept the offer but James argued that there was nothing dishonorable in using strategy against a superior force, so for several days the two enemies faced each other across the river molesting each other at every opportunity. One morning 1000 English archers and cavalry attacked the Scots but James placed a squadron of cavalry in ambush under his brother Archilbald, Earl of Mar and rode back and forth himself in full view of the archers with a cloak concealing his armour hoping to lure them to destruction. Robert de Ogle recognised James and rode back to his countrymen: "For God's sake, have a care! Yon rider is the Black Douglas and he will have you in some trap presently." It was too late, James blew his horn and the hidden squadron galloped forth and scattered the English. The Scots then
secretly moved camp and James rode across the river with 200 men and approached the English camp. Coming to one of the outposts he was mistaken for an officer going his rounds and said: "Ha! St. George! No watch here!" and he and his men dashed into the camp and cut the tent ropes and created great confusion. They came to the royal pavilion and almost captured the king but the alarm was sounded by that time and James and his men fled back to their camp. Moray wanted to fight the English but James replied: "A certain fisherman returning to his cottage one night found a fox eating a fine salmon which he had left there. The fisherman put himself in the only exit- the doorway and stood, sword in hand waiting for the fox. But the fox was no simpleton, he was quite equal to the dilemma. The fisherman's cloak lay on the bed, this the fox seized and drew it across the fire. The owner seeing his cloak burning started forward to save it and the fox immediately boltetd through the unguarded door. Now we Scots are the fox, the King of England the fisherman. He stands in the door and bars our return to our own land. He shall fare no better than the fisherman whose salmon was eaten, whose cloak was burnt and from whom the fox escaped. I have planned a way of escape, somewhat wet to be sure, but we shall not lose a single page in taking it." On 4 Aug. the Scots made a great show of preparation in their camp. A soldier was allowed to be taken prisoner and told the English that Moray had issued orders for all troops to be ready to do battle an hour after sunset. The English were alerted for a night attack, but as soon as it was dark the Scots marched back to Scotland leaving several trumpeters behind to blow deceptive calls during the night. However the Scots attacked England one month later and placed Northumberland at their mercy but a peace treaty was signed. During the next two years James was in almost constant attendance of the ailing King at Cardross on the Clyde. Upon the death of Robert the Bruce James as his oldest and most trusted companion was commissioned to carry his heart to the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. This act was in defiance of a Bull of Pope Boniface VIII issued in 1299 fobidding such mutilation of the dead and decreeing excommunication as the penalty. Two years later due to the pleas of the Earl of Moray Pope John XXII granted absolution to all who had part "in the inhuman and cruel treatment" of King Robert's body.
Teba, Spain James sailed from Scotland in June 1330 and arrived in Sluys in Flanders where he learned that Alphonso XI, King of Leon and Castile was at war with Osmyn, the Moorish King of Granada. Sir James and his knights decided to help Alphonso fight against the infidels and sailed to Seville where they rode to Alphonso's camp.(15) On 25 Aug. 1330 they defeated the Moors at Tebas a castle on the frontiers of
Andalusia, but James pursued them too eargerly and in attempting to rejoin the main force he saw that Sir Walter St. Clair of Roslin was surrounded by the enemy. With what few men he had left he attempted to go to his aid, but was overrun with the Moors. James took the silver casket which contained the embalmed heart of Bruce and threw it among the enemy saying: "Now pass thou onward before me, gallant heart, as thou wert wont: Douglas will follow thee or die!" The "Good Sir James" was killed along with most of his followers and his body and the silver casket containing Bruce's heart which was found on the battle field were taken back to Scotland by Sir William de Keith and Sir Simon Lockhart. Bruce's heart was buried at Melrose although his body was buried at the Royal tomb at Dunfermline and James' body was interred in the tomb at St. Bride's church in Douglas where his son Archibald erected a monument to his memory.
James Douglas' Tomb- St. Bride's Church Barbour wrote a portrait of the Black Douglas less than 50 years after his death: "Bot he was nocht sa far (fair) that we Suld spek gretly of his beaute. In visage was he sumdele gray, And had blak har, as I herd say; Bot of limmis he was wele mad (well made), With banes gret and schuldris brad; His body was wele mad and lenyhe (lean), As tha that saw him said to me. Quhen he was blith he was lusty, And mek and suet in cumpany. Bot, quha in battale micht him se, All othir contenans had he, And in spek ulispit he sumdele (lisped a little), Bot that sat him richt wondir wele."(16) At Douglas castle lies a sword blade said to have been given to the Good Sir James by King Robert which contains some inscriptions of later date:
"So mony guid as of the Douglas Beine, Of ane surname was never in Scotland Seine. I Wel ye charge, efter that I depart, To Holy gravfe and thair bury by hart; Let it remain ever, both tyme and hour, to the last day I sic my saviour. So I protest in tyme of al my Ringe (reign), Ye lyk subjects had never ony Keing." Issue 7I. ARCHIBALD- d. 1401 37II. ?JOANNA- m.1. c.1345 HUGH GIFFARD (b.c.1322, d. before 16 Mar. 1366), 2. c.1366 Nigel Cunningham, d. after 1400 38III. WILLIAM- unmarried, killed at the battle of Halidon Hill 19 July 1333 Ref: (1) "The Brus"- Barbour, XVII (2) Bain- II, 490 (3) "The Brus"- Barbour, XLII (4) Bain- II, 526 (5) "The Brus"- CIX, 55 (6) Act. Parl. Scot.- I, 14 (7) Lanercost- 230, 232 (8) Bain- III, 101 (9) Ibid- 115 (10) Fraser- III, 10 (11) "Scalacronica"- 150 (12) Fraser- III, 11 (13) Ibid- 2 (14) Bain- III, 34, 167 (15) Ibid- 179 (16) "The Brus"- V, 107 "History of the House of Douglas"- Vol.I, pp.29-66 "The Scottish Nation"- William Anderson, A. Fullarton & Co., Edinburgh, 1880 7I. ARCHIBALD (WILLIAM 1, ARCHIBALD 2, WILLIAM 3, WILLIAM 4, JAMES 5) d. 1401
Sir Archibald "the Grim" succeeded his cousin James who was killed at Otterburn in 1388 as 3rd Earl of Douglas. Archibald's succession was disputed by Sir Malcolm Drummond, husband of Sir James' sister Isabel, but Drummond's claim was set aside by Parliament at Holyrood in Apr. 1389 and Archibald became the Earl of Douglas. It is said that he surpassed all his peers in wisdom, prowess, in the extent of his acquisitions and in his wealth. It is stated that "he was dark and ugly, more like a coco (cook boy) than a noble."(1) In 1356 he went with William, Earl of Douglas to France and was taken prisoner by the English at the battle of Poictiers 19 Sept. 1356. Then known as "Blac Archibalde" he was little regarded by his comrades because of his bastardy.(2) He escaped with the help of Sir William Ramsay of Colluthie who treated him as a lacquey who had put on his dead master's armour stating: "You treacherous hound, how dared you to steal my cousin's armour. Cursed be the hour of your birth! For he sought you all day and for want of his armour was slain by an arrow in camp, as I myself saw. Come!- pull off my boots." Ramsay then ordered him to go to the battle field to search for his master's body stating: "go you rascal and seek your master's body among the slain, so that we may at least give it honourable burial."(3) Before returning to Scotland Archibald stayed at Bordeaux long enough to begin a clan of Douglases there. "Sir Archilbald Douglas was a good knight and much feared by his enemies, when near to the English he dismouted, and wielded before him an immense sword whose blade was two ells long, which another could not have lifted from the ground, but he found no difficulty in handling it, and gave such terrible strokes that all on whom they fell were struck to the ground."(4) "He was callit Archibald Grym be the Englishmen, becaus of his terrible countenance in weirfair."(5) In 1361 he was appointed Constable of Edinburgh Castle at a salary of 200 marks, an office which he held with that of Sheriff of Edinburgh until about 1364."(6) In the autumn of 1364 he was Warden of the West Marches, Annandale being in English hands. He was in regular attendance in Parliament and in 1369 he was an embassador to France concerning the appeal which David II's divorced wife Margaret Drummond had lodged with Pope Urban V at Avignon.(7) On 18 Sept. 1369 King David appointed Archibald to rule the turbulent region of Galloway and gave him all the lands between the Nith and the Cree "becaus he tuke grit trawell to purge the cuntrey of Englis blude."(8) In March 1371 two days after the coronation of Robert II he was sent to Paris "to swear on the King's soul the renewal of the ancient alliance between Scotland and France."(9) Thomas Fleming, Earl of Wigtown sold the lands and Earldom of Wigtownshire to Archibald the sale being confirmed by Robert II 7 Oct. 1372.(10) Archibald built a hospital at Devorguille's Abbey at Holywood near Dumfries and endowed it with the lands of Crossmichael and Troqueer. Archibald increased the size of his estate by marrying Joanna daughter and heiress of Sir Thomas Moray, Lord of Bothwell. The Castle of the Thrieve in Galloway on an island in the Dee was built by Archibald and during its construction he lived in Loch Fergus near Kirkcudbright. As Warden he brought order to the tangled web of Border law which was codified by his grandson.
Threave Castle In 1385 Archibald joined Robert II in his invasion of England and again in 1388 along with the Earl of Fife. While near Carlisle his son William joined him with a small force and made an unsuccessful attempt upon Ireland.(11) Upon Sir James' death at Otterburn Archibald became the Earl of Douglas and Robert, Earl of Fife became Guardian of Scotland and was a devoted friend of Archibald: "he luifit this Erle sa weill tht thai never syuerit (severed) cumpanye fra other during the tyme of his government."(12) They marched together into England in 1389 and pillaged the countryside. Afterwards a truce was agreed to which lasted until 1399. Archibald was an umpire at the duel between Thomas Struthers, an Englishman who had challenged William Inglis, a Scot to combat at Rulehaugh in Bedrule. The two fought in the presence of the two Wardens the Earls of Douglas and Northumberland until the Englishman was killed. In 1399 the Duke of Rothesay was betrothed to Elizabeth, daughter of Dunbar, Earl of March for which March paid a large sum to the King. Hearing this Archibald protested that the betrothal had not received the consent of the Estates and supported by the council he offered his own daughter Marjorie as Rothesay's bride together with a larger sum than March had paid. The king consented and Rothesay threw off Elizabeth Dunbar and married Marjorie Douglas in Feb. 1400. March demanded the fulfilment of his pledge or the return of his money. The king did not want to offend the powerful Douglas and he had spent all of the money. He thus returned an evasive answer and March promptly went to the English court. Henry IV then invaded Scotland.(13) Sir Archibald and his new son-in-law the Duke of Rothesay successfully defended Edinburgh castle against the English king in Aug. 1400. Archibald witnessed a charter at Renfrew on 5 Oct. 1400 but he must have died before 9 Feb. 1400/1 when his widow Joanna made a grant to her son Archibald, 4th Earl of Douglas. Grey's manuscript states that he died on Christmas Eve 1400 at Thrieve Castle and was buried at Bothwell.(14) "He wes a lord off gret bownte, Off stedfastness and clere lawte (loyalty); He wes off gud devotionne; Off justice he bare gret renown.
But (without) dout he endit graciously, And lyvis in joy perpetualy."(15) Issue- first three children by Joanna I. Archibald- 4th Earl of Douglas, m. Princss Margaret Stewart, d. battle of Verneuil, Normandy 1424 8II. JAMES- m.1. ? Lady Beatrix Stewart (d.s.p.), 2. before Mar. 1426 BEATRIX SINCLAIR, d. 24 Mar. 1443 Abercorn III. Marjorie- m.1. David, Duke of Rothesay, 2. Sir Walter Haliburton of Dirleton, Treasurer of Scotland 9IV. WILLIAM- m. Princess EGIDIA STEWART, murdered 1390 Danzig (Gdansk) Ref: (1) Bower (2) Pluscarden- I, 300 (3) Fordun- II, 358; Pluscarden- I, 300 (4) Froissart- II, c.10 (5) Registrum Magni Sigilli- I, 106 (6) Rotuli Scotiae- I, 957; Charters of St. Giles- pp.11, 15, 19 (7) Exchequer Rolls- II, 356 (8) Reg. Mag. Sig.- I, 69; Maitland MS- quoted by Fraser- I, 328 (9) Exchequer Rolls- II, 363 (10) Reg. Mag. Sig.- I, 114 (11) Wyntoun- IX, c.8; Fordun- II, 404 (12) Maitland MS- quoted by Fraser- I, 342 (13) Pluscarden- II, 255 (14) Antiquities of Aberdeen & Banff- II, 290; III, 363; The Swintons of that Ilk- appendix X, XI; Fraser- I, 347 (15) Wyntoun- IX, c.21 "History of the House of Douglas"- Vol.I, pp.114-26 "The Scottish Nation"- William Anderson, A. Fullarton & Co., Edinburgh, 1880 8II. JAMES (WILLIAM 1, ARCHIBALD 2, WILLIAM 3, WILLIAM 4, JAMES 5, ARCHIBALD 6) m.1. ? Lady Beatrix Stewart (d.s.p.) 2. before March 1426 BEATRIX SINCLAIR, daughter of Henry, Earl of Orkney d. 24 March 1443 Abercorn, bur. St. Bride's Church in Douglas
Called James the Gross of Balvany, Banffshire he was a prudent and peaceable man and succeeded his grand- nephew after his execution. Isabella, Countess of Douglas & Mar bestowed upon Archibald Douglas the barony of Cavers, but because this had been done without the King's consent Robert III cancelled the gift and gave the barony to Sir David Fleming in Aug. 1405.(1) James the Gross undertook to wipe out this affront in blood. In Feb. 1406 when Fleming was returning from North Berwick, James attacked him as he rode across Lang Herdmanston Moor. Fleming was killed and his men captured. James' possessions were very extensive and included Balvany and Bocharn in Banff, Avoch, Edderdan, Stratherne and Brachly in Inverness, Aberdour and Rattray in Aberdeen, Kilmalaman and one third of Duffus in Elgin, Abercorn in Linlithgow, Avondale and Pettinain in Lanark and Stewarton in Ayr.(2) James was Warden of the Marches and was one of the jury in the trial of Murdock, Duke of Albany in 1425. In 1437 he was made Earl of Avondale and Lord Balvany by James I and was appointed Justice General of Scotland. As a judge his progress was not without problems as Egidia Douglas, Countess of Orkney complained to the council in May 1438 of the destruction of her lands in Nithsdale by James's followers. The contess stated that if any attempt were made to hold another court on her lands she would stop the proceedings.(3) James had the habit of helping himself to the public funds. Many occasionsn are on record when he extorted money from the King's collectors to which he was not entitled or compelled them not to place a duty on his wool.(4) After the battle of Shrewsbury, Percy, Earl of Northumberland sought refuge in Berwick and entered a friendly relationship with James as Warden of the Marches, but no sooner had Percy left the city than James' soldiers burned it to the ground. King Henry accused James of a breach of truce and violation of his oath as Warden to which James replied: "And quhar yhe say that Berwike that standis in Scotlande, the qwhilk toun yhe call yhouris in yhour sayde lettres, and certayne landis of yhouris wythin Inglande was brende be my men, my will and myn assent, brekand the trewis, and nocht in yhouris, and in the contrar of myn athe, tharto I answer in this maner, that qwhat tyme it like to our lige Lorde the Kynge, and to yhour hee Excellent, to ordaine redress to be made be his commissaris and yhouris of all attemptatis done of aythir syde, I sall, with the help of Gode, make it well kennyt that I haff trewly kepit myn athe and the trewis, as afferys to me of resoun. And qwhawer enfurmit yhour Excelence that I hade brokyn myn athe it had bene fayrar for him to haffe sende me that querelle into wryt undir his selle (seal), and til haff tane answere greable as afferit to him under
my seelle agayne, than sua untrewly in myn absence till enfourme yhour Excellence, for I trayst he has saide mar in myn absence than he dar avow in my presens, for-nocht displece yhour honour-learys (liars) sulde be lytill alowit wyth ony sic worschipfull kynge as yhe are... Hee, almychty prynce, the Haly Gast yow haff in his yhemsall (in himself) evermar- Wrytyn at Eddynburghe, under my selle, the XXVI day of Julii. James of Douglas, Wardane of the Marche. To ane excellent and a mychty prynce, Kynge of Inglande." James was at the General Council at Edinburgh in April 1441.(5) He had grown so obese that he probably lived very much a retired life: "To the takin (token) thai said he had in him four stane of talch (tallow) and mair."(6)
Issue I. William- m. Lady Margaret Douglas, "The Fair Maid of Galloway", murdered by King James 13 Feb. 1452 II. James- 9th and last Earl of Douglas, d. 15 Apr. 1488 III. Archibald- Earl of Moray IV. Hugh- Earl of Ormond V. John- Lord of Balveny VI. Henry- Bishop of Dunkeld VII. Margaret- m. Henry Douglas of Borgue, Galloway VIII. Beatrix- m. Sir William Hay, Constable of Scotland and Earl of Errol 10IX. JANET- m. ROBERT FLEMING X. Elizabeth- m. Sir John Wallace of Craigie Ref: (1) Fraser- I, 434- quoting a charter at Cavers (2) Ibid- 437-8 (3) Ibid- 440- quoting original protest at Crookston (4) Exchequer Rolls- III, 567; IV, 113, 115, 193, 216, 244, 270, 296, 301, 365 (5) Acta Parl. Scot.- II, 56 (6) Auchinleck Chronicle "History of the House of Douglas"- Vol.I, pp.157-61 "The Scottish Nation"- William Anderson, A. Fullarton & Co., Edinburgh, 1880
9IV. WILLIAM (WILLIAM 1, ARCHIBALD 2, WILLIAM 3, WILLIAM 4, JAMES 5, ARCHIBALD 6) m. 1387 EGIDIA STEWART, daughter of Robert II murdered 1392, Danzig (Gdansk) Sir William "the Black Douglas", Lord of Nithsdale was the illegitimate son of Archibald "the Grim". He was a famous warrior and his name was a terror to the English. He was at the attack of Carlisle in 1385 and greatly distinguished himself in battle. "A yhowny joly bachelere Prysyd gretly wes off were, for he wes enyr traveland Qwhille be se and qwhille be land To skathe his fays rycht besy Swa that thai dred him grettumly."(1) By his marriage to Egidia, William obtained the lands of Nithsdale. On 8 Nov. 1388 Archibald gave William the lands of Herbertshire in Stirling. He also received £300 from the Royal Exchequer. The Irish had been attacking the coast of Galloway and William landed at Carlingford with 500 men. The mayor offered to buy a treaty and sent to Dundalk for help. The Scots were surprised by 800 men at night, but they drove them off, captured and burned the town and captured the castle and 15 ships in the harbor. William then returned to Scotland and was involved in the battle of Otterburn. In 1389 with some Scottish knights he went to Germany and under Waldenrodt, Grand Master of the Order of Teutonic Knights he defended Gdansk against the pagans of Prussia under Udislaus Ingello. William and his men attacked the Prussians and defeated them for which he was made Prince of Danesvick (Gdansk), Duke of Spruce and Admiral of the fleet. From then on all Scots were declared freemen of Gdansk and in memory of the event the arms of the country and the arms of Douglas were placed over the city gate where they remained until it was rebuilt in 1711. A part of the suburbs is called Little Scotland and near it Sir William was murdered on a bridge by the English Lord Clifford and his assassins in 1392.(2) Issue I. William- disappeared about 1408 (3) 11II. EGIDIA- m. HENRY SINCLAIR Ref: (1) Wyntoun- IX, c.7 (2) Pluscarden- II, 248; Exchequer Rolls- III, 332 (3) Fraser- I, 358; Morton- II, 204 "History of the House of Douglas"- Vol.I, pp.126-8 "The Scottish Nation"- William Anderson, A. Fullarton & Co., Edinburgh, 1880 6III. ARCHIBALD (WILLIAM 1, ARCHIBALD 2, WILLIAM 3, WILLIAM 4) m. BEATRICE LINDSAY of Crawford d. 22 July 1333 Halidon Hill
Archibald received a charter in 1320 from King Robert to Morebattle in Roxburghshire and Kirkandrews in Dunfriesshire. In 1324 he received a grant to Crimond and others in Buchan being already in possession of Cavers in Roxburghshire, Drumlanrig and Terregles in Dumfriesshire and West Calder in Midlothian. After King Robert's death Edward Baliol attempted to take the throne with the aid of Edward III. The English defeated the Scots at Dupplin 12 Aug. 1332 and moved to Perth where Archibald and the Earl of March had a large force and were stopped there, but March had to quell a rebellion in Galloway which had always been sympathetic to the Baliol cause. Baliol was crowned King at Scone on 27 Sept. 1332 and then he began to progress through the west and south. Archibald should have captured Baliol near Jedburgh but the ambush he had set was detected and Baliol proceeded to Kelso and then to Annandale with Archibald and the Earl of Moray after him and was attacked 16 Dec. and narrowly escaped. Baliol attacked Scotland again on 9 March and Archibald "the Tineman" (the loser) raided Gilsland in retaliation. The Regent Sir Andrew Moray was captured by the English and Archibald was chosen to succeed him. The Tineman's next disaster was his attempted relief of Sir Alexander de Seton who had been beseiged at Berwick by Baliol and Edward III. Archibald left supplies and reinforcements and then went off raiding across the border. He was again summoned to relieve the garrison and the Regent crossed the Tweed and camped near Duns park while Edward took position on Halidon Hill. Archibald ignored the advice which Robert the Bruce had always given to never risk a pitched battle or to face the fire of English archers where it was possible to fall back and make a desert of the country before the invading army. As surely as his brother had never failed the Tineman was never to succeed and he decided to attack the English. The enemy filled the sky with arrows as the Scots attempted to cross the marsh and then climb the hill and were completely defeated due to their leader's blunder. The Earls of Lennox, Ross, Sutherland, Carrick, Menteith and Athol, the three Fraser brothers, William, Lord of Douglas, the Tineman himself and countless knights were killed, but the greatest loss was the most coveted town and seaport in Scotland, Berwick, which has remained an English borough ever since except for 21 years during the reign of Henry VI.
Issue I. John- d. before 1342, France 12II. WILLIAM- m. Lady Margaret Mar (m.2. 1388 Sir John de Swinton), mistress Lady MARGARET STEWART (m. Thomas, 13th Earl of Mar, (d. 1377), d. before 23 March 1418), d. 1384 III. Eleanor- m.1. Alexander, Earl of Carrick, 2. Sir James de Sandilands (d. before 1358), 3. Sir William Tours of Dalry, 4. before 1368 Sir Duncan Wallace of Sundrum, 5. 1376 Sir Patrick Hepburn of Hailes Ref: "History of the House of Douglas"- Vol.I, pp.71-5 "The Scottish Nation"- William Anderson, A. Fullarton & Co., Edinburgh, 1880 12II. WILLIAM (WILLIAM 1, ARCHIBALD 2, WILLIAM 3, WILLIAM 4, ARCHIBALD 5) m. Lady Margaret Mar (m.2. 1388 Sir John de Swinton) mistress- Lady MARGARET STEWART (m. Thomas, 13th Earl of Mar (d. 1377), d. before 23 March 1418) d. 1384
At the time of his father's death William was a minor and a ward of the Knight of Liddesdale and was being educated in France.(1) William returned to Scotland about 1348 and summoned his retainers and took up quarters in the forests of Ettick and Jedburgh where he carried on a guerrilla war with the English. He was one of the people to talk with the English Commissionners concerning the release of King David in 1351. Edward Baliol was living on the lands of Buittle which rightfully belonged to William who in the summer of 1353 attacked and made the chiefs of Galloway submit to King David. In July 1352 the Knight of Liddesdale was released from the Tower of London after agreeing to most treasonable conditions and upon returning to Scotland he was called to account for these crimes. In Feb. 1342 Robert the Steward demanded sasine for the lands of Liddesdle because of a crown grant made to him upon being knighted. This was opposed by the Knight of Liddesdale as he claimed the lands in virtue of his guardianship of William, son and heir of Sir Archibald Douglas in support of which he showed a charter of infiftment in favour of Sir Archibald.(2) The objection was overruled on the grounds that Archibald was guardian of the realm at the time of the grant and could not bestow lands on himself and the grant was made to the Stewawrd who two days later granted Liddesdale to Sir William Douglas who compensated the Steward by giving him the lands of Athol. The young lord of Douglas returning home was unhappy to find part of what he considered his rightful heritage in the possession of his godfather and overrun with English partisans. Young William was also angry over the foul murders by his godfather of Sir Alexander de Ramsay and Sir David de Barclay.(3) In Aug. 1353 young William found the Knight of Liddesdale hunting in Ettrick forest where William claimed exclusive rights. During the ensuing argument the Knight of Liddesdale was killed. The place where this occurred is now called William's Hope in commmemoration. In Feb. 1354 King David gave William a charter of all the lands possessed by his uncle the Good Sir James and his father Sir Archibald including Liddesdale.(4) Hostilities then broke out again with the English and William attacked Norham castle. William sent out some foragers under Sir William de Ramsay and drew out the English squadron towards Nisbet where Douglas was hiding his army and the English were surprised and defeated.
Norham Castle William arranged a truce witih the English at Roxburgh and in June 1356 he obtained a safe-conduct from King Edward to allow hm to visit King David. William then fought at the battle of Poictiers under the King of France against the Black Prince 19 Sept. 1356: "he fought very valiantly for a while but when he perceived that the French were hopelessly defeated he made off as fast as he could, for so much did he dread being taken by the English that he had preferred to be slain."(5)
Before the battle he received knighthood by King John of France. William returned to Scotland and seized Hermitage castle from the English.
At about this time William married Margaret Mar and received the barony of Drumlanrig. Sir William was made the Earl of Douglas by David II on 26 Jan. 1358. William was taken prisoner with David II at the battle of Durham, but was ransomed soon after. King David after being released by the English had the bad habit of embezzeling the money appropriated for his ransom to have for his own private use. William entered a bond with the Steward and the Earl of March to right these affairs and seized the King's castle of Dirleton. They then presented a petition to the King complaining of the misused funds.(6) From Dirleton he looted Inverkeithing and in retaliation the King surprised William at Lanark and the Earl barely escaped. On 14 May 1363 the barons submitted to the King.(7)
On 6 Oct. 1363 King David signed a treaty at Westminster with King Edward. The 17th article provided that: "the Earl of Douglas should be restored to the estates in England to which his father and uncle had right or to receive an equivalent in a suitable place." But the treaty was rejected by Parliament. On 6 Dec. 1363 King Edward made gifts: "to divers lords and others who came to England in the retinue of the King of Scotland about a treaty of peace between the Kings." The first on the list of these lords is the Earl of Douglas who received a gilt cup and 100/9. Two days later the goldsmith was paid £6/17/3 for the two cups given to the Earl of Douglas and Sir Robert Erskine.(8) Another treaty was drafted and submitted to Parliament in Jan. 1365 and not long after William affixed his seal in consent and swore to use his whole power against any persons who should resist it. In 1370 William executed a renunciation of the barony of Dalkeith.(9) It is not clear what rights he possessed in these lands seeing that they had belonged to the Knight of Liddesdale and passed to his daughter Mary and then to his nephew James. William, nevertheless resided at Dalkeith sometime between 1361 and 1366 because the historian Froissart was his guest there for 15 days.(10)
Dalkeith Castle David II died in 1371 and was succeeded by Robert the Steward who was a friend of William. However Wyntoun says that he opposed the accession of Robert by force and assembled his followers at Linlithgow but was attacked by the Earl of March and persuaded him to give up his opposition to the Steward and his pretensions to the throne provided that his son James should marry one of the King's daughters: "And the King to this mariage Gave silver and land in heritage. Thus efftere a royd harsh begynnyng Happynyt a sofft and gud endyng."(11) William was restored to favor and was appointed Justiciar of Scotland south of the Forth and was at the Parliament at Scone in Apr. 1373.(12) In 1374 William received the lands of his brother-in-law Thomas, Earl of Mar who died without any children.
The truce with England was to expire in 1383 but the Earl of March attempted to claim his lands of Annandale which were held by the English. The Earl of Northumberland appealed to William as Warden of the Marches but he was unwilling to interfere and Northumberland ravaged Tweeddale. William was at Hondebray (Humbie) where he heard that Sir Thomas Musgrave was holding Melrose. He gave Northumberland the slip and arrived at Melrose at midnight: "They were full seven hundred lances, and two thousand others whom I call lusty varlets, armed with hunting spears, dirks and pointed staves."(13) Musgrave rode forth the next day to give battle. William knighted his son and Musgrave did the same. The English were defeated and Musgrave was captured. On 25 Nov. 1378 fifty Scots captured Berwick and held out for eight days against the Earl of Northumberland. William and his cousin Archibald found the English too strong and fled to the Lothians. The English stormed Berwick and killed all the Scots. In the spring of 1380 he entered England with an army and after burning Penrith he returned home laden with spoil. The war with England continued and Douglas recovered Annandale and drove the English from Teviotdale. After returning from Teviotdale in May 1384 he contracted a fever and died at Douglas castle and was buried at Melrose.
In 1379 Robert II granted confirmation of an agreement whereby Margaret's sister Elizabeth surrendered all her claim to the Comitatus and Margaret thereafter assumed the style of Countess of Angus and Mar.(14) Margret lived at Tantallon Castle as shown by charters granted by her at that place.(15) Her relations with her late husband's sister's husband were fully recognised. In 1388 Robert, Earl of Fife visited the castle and found her still living there and gave her permission to remain as long as she chose and that: "In the men tyme, we haf heft trewly we sal manteyn hir, hir men, hir landys and al hir possessons aganys ony that wald wrang thaim, in als tendir maner as wr awyn propir."(16) There is no record that the church condemned the private life of the Countess of Angus, but when she infringed upon the temporal rights of the ecclesiastics she was threatened with excommunication. A dispute arose between her and the monks of Durham about possession of land in Berwickshire. The countess held these lands by force, but yielded to the threat of excommunication and the Prior of Durham directed the Prior of Coldingham to grant her absolution upon her giving up the land which she did 4 Jan. 1416.(17) Issue- first two children by first wife, last two by Margaret I. James- b.c.1358, m. Princess Isabel Bruce, d. Aug. 1388 II. Isabel- m.1. Sir Malcolm Drummond, 2. Alexander Stewart (d. 1435), d. 1408 13III. GEORGE- b.c.1378, m. 1397 MARY STEWART (2. Sir James Kennedy, 3. William, Lord of Graham, 4. Sir William Edmonstone of Culloden), d. 1402 IV. Margaret- m. 1404 Thomas Johnson Ref: (1) Morton- II, 46 (2) Ibid- 46-7 (3) Fordun- II, 360 (4) Fraser- I, 226 (5) Froissart- CLXI (6) Exchequer Rolls- II, pp. 57,136,167,174 (7) Bower- XIV, 27 (8) Bain- IV, 22 (9) Morton- II, 72 (10) Froissart- III, c.126
(11) Wyntoun- IX, 1 (12) Exchequer Rolls- II, 394,462 (13) Froissart- II, c.9 (14) Antiquities of Aberdeenshire, etc.- IV, 160; Fraser- III, 400 (15) Fraser- III, 34 (16) Ibid- 32,35 (17) Priory of Coldingham (Surtees Society)- p.88; Antiquities of Aberdeenshire, etc.- IV, 733 "History of the House of Douglas"- Vol.I, pp.76-94 "The Scottish Nation"- William Anderson, A. Fullarton & Co., Edinburgh, 1880 13III. GEORGE (WILLIAM 1, ARCHIBALD 2, WILLIAM 3, WILLIAM 4, ARCHIBALD 5, WILLIAM 6) b.c.1378 m. 1397 MARY STEWART, daughter of Robert III, (m.2. Sir James Kennedy, 3. William, Lord of Graham, 4. Sir William Edmonstone of Culloden) d. 1402 Sir George obtained a grant of the Earldom of Angus 9 Apr. 1389 upon his mother's resignation of it in Parliament but he did not assume the title until after his betrothal in 1397 to Mary, daughter of Robert III, a marriage doubtless brought about by the adroit management of his mother. The countess arranged with the King the terms of the marriage contract on 24 May 1397 and confirmed to "Jorge of Douglas" the earldom of Angus and the lordship of Abernethy and Boncle, the justiciary fees of Forfar, to ratify all gifts, entails and leases made by Isabel, Countess of Mar (widow of his brother James), "to the sayde Jorege his brothir" and all that were made by Sir James of Sandilands, Lord of Calder (his uncle) and finally to maintain the countess in all her possessions within the "kynryc".(1)
George's paternity is fully set forth in a charter to him by his uncle James of Sandilands, Lord of Cawdor conveying the lands of Cavers, Roxburgh castle, the sheriffship of Roxburgh, the town, castle and forest of Jedburgh, the lands of Bonjedworth, the town of Selkirk, the regality of Buittle in Galloway, Dumlanrig and the lordship of Liddesdale, Tillicoultry in Clackmannan as well as extensive lands in Banffshire. What means of persuasion the countess employed to get Sandilands to part with his inheritance is unknown. She also obtained for him possession of the castle of Calder for 5 years in exchange for land of the value of 200 marks. All this was done and the masterful countess set her seal "in defaute that the saide George had na seil propir of his awyn." (2)
Roxburgh Castle George was taken prisoner with his cousin the Earl of Douglas at the battle of Homildon in 1402 and died the same year in England of the plague.(3) Issue 14I. WILLIAM- b.c.1398, m. 1425 MARGARET HAY of Yester (d. after 1484), d. Oct. 1437 15II. ELIZABETH/MARY- m.1. ALEXANDER FORBES, 2. Sir David Hay of Yester Ref: (1) Fraser- III, 38 (2) Ibid- 35,37 (3) Bower- XV, 14 "History of the House of Douglas"- Vol.II, pp.5-7 "The Scottish Nation"- William Anderson, A. Fullarton & Co., Edinburgh, 1880
14I. WILLIAM (WILLIAM 1, ARCHIBALD 2, WILLIAM 3, WILLIAM 4, ARCHIBALD 5, WILLIAM 6, GEORGE 7) b.c.1398 m. 1425 MARGARET HAY of Yester (d. after 1484) d. Oct. 1437
His grandmother the Countess of Angus betrothed William to Margaret Hay in 1409 and added the lands of Easter Cluny in Perthshire to his possessions. In 1421 William was nominated one of the 21 hostages for the payment of James I's ransom, the annual value of his estate estimated at 600 marks.(1) However William's name does not appear among those finally appointed to be hostages. William was one of the nobles that met the king at Durham after his release and escorted him back to Scotland where William was knighted by the king at the coronation at Scone in May 1424.(2) William was one of 21 jurors during the trial of the Duke of Albany, his two sons and the Earl of Lennox on 24 May 1425. The Duchess of Albany was imprisoned in William's castle of Tantallon.(3)
William went with the king in July 1429 to avenge the burning of Inverness by Alastair, Lord of the Isles and after being captured he was imprisoned in Tantallon castle. In 1430 William was one of the commissioners to negotiate an extension of the truce with England. It was prolonged for 5 years and William was appointed one of the 12 conservators to enforce its observance. On 10 Nov. 1430 William was made Warden of the Middle Marches.(4) In 1434 William was ordered by the king to take charge of Durham castle which belonged to George, Earl of March. After the truce expired the Earl of Northumberland's son Henry crossed the border with 4,000
men in Sept. 1435. William along with Adam Hepburn of Hailes and Alexander Ramsay of Dalwolsey attacked them at Piperdean on 10 Sept. and defeated them.(5)
Durham Castle James I was assassinated on 20 Feb. 1437 and William took part in the pursuit and capture of Walter, Earl of Athol and his conspirators. Issue I. James- b.c.1426, d.s.p.1446 16II. GEORGE- m. ISABELLA SIBBALD of Balgony, Fife (m.2. Robert Douglas of Lochleven), d. 14 Nov. 1462/3, bur. at Abernethy III. William- d.s.p. before 1475 18IV. ELEANOR- m. WILLIAM GRAHAM Ref: (1) Foedera- X, 307 (2) Ibid- 309,344; Bain- IV, 170; Pluscarden- II, 299 (3) Bower- XVI, 10; Reg. Mag. Sig.- II, #127 (4) Fraser- III, 65 (5) Bower- XVI, 24 "History of the House of Douglas"- Vol.II, pp.8-11
16II. GEORGE (WILLIAM 1, ARCHIBALD 2, WILLIAM 3, WILLIAM ,4 ARCHIBALD 5, WILLIAM 6, GEORGE 7, WILLIAM 8) m. ISABELLA SIBBALD of Balgony, Fife (m.2. Robert Douglas of Lochleven) d. 14 Nov. 1462/3 bur. Abernethy
The 4th Earl of Angus "the Red Douglas" has often been declared to have been the second son of George the 1st Earl, but that he was the son of the second earl is proved by a reference to his father in a document of 26 June 1450 as "Willielmus Douglas comes de Angus, pater comitis moderni" that is William Douglas, Earl of Angus, father of the present earl.(1) In 1448 after Percy and Ogle burned Dunbar castle and Salisbury had burned Dumfries, George joined his kinsmen the Earls of Douglas and Ormond in a raid into Northumberland. In June they burned Alnwick and in July they burned Warkworth to the ground.(2) Sir George in 1449 was appointed Warden of the Middle Marches and in 1451 he was sent as ambassador to England. He had the chief command of the King's forces against his kinsman the Earl of Douglas in 1454. George was probably with the king during the siege of Abercorn in 1455. The Earl of Douglas advanced, but with the defection of Lord Hamilton he lost the battle and fled to England. George then proceeded to the Borders and met the Douglas rebels at Arkinholm (Langholm) 18 May 1455 and routed them. To the great Act of Forfeiture which followed, George affixed his seal in token of consent.(3) After the forfeiture of the Earl of Douglas' estate Sir George was granted all his land and the Lordship of Douglas 16 Apr. 1457.(4) George was wounded by a splinter of the cannon which killed James II at the siege of Roxburgh on 3 Aug. 1460, but not so seriously as to prevent him from capturing the castle on the next Friday or from being at the coronation of James III at Kelso on 10 Aug. 1460. In his manuscript at Hamilton Palace Godscroft states that at the coronation some fuss arose concerning points of precedence and George supposedly ended the dispute by pushing aside all the great men of Scotland and claimed the privilege of bearing the crown. Then placing it upon James' head he said: "There! Now that I have set it upon your Graces head, let me see who will be so bold as to move it."
Roxburgh Castle Parliament decreed that the Douglases should no longer be hereditary Wardens of the Marches, but George continued to be the Warden of the East and Middle Marches and was appointed Lieutenant of the Realm by the Queen Mother and the Council.(5) In 1462 George received from the Crown a gift of all the lands, rents, and goods of the forfeited Earl of Douglas in Roxburghshire except those which had already been given to William of Cluny.(6) On 22 Nov. 1462 George signed a treaty with Henry VI obliging him to aid the king in the expulsion of Henry's Yorkist enemies. Henry was "to make the saide erle sufficiantly and suerly after the lawes of England a duke withynne the said reaume of England, with stile, astate, honure, and name of a duke" together with a castle and land to the value of 2000 marks as well as a special provision for not interfering with George or his heirs should war break out between Scotland and England without any prejudice to their English property and title. The document was to be submitted to "our holy Fader the Pope, and by hym approved, ratefied, and confermed perpetuelly to endure."(7) This agreement was also sanctioned by King James, but this license has since disappeared from the Douglas charter chest.(8) In 1462 King Edward IV advanced with a large army against Alnwick when Sir George and Pierre de Breze, High Steward of Normandy marched into town and relieved the French garrison there.
Issue 17I. ARCHIBALD- b.c.1449, m.1. ELIZABETH BOYD, 2.1500 Catherine Sterling of Keir (divorced 1512, m.2. Lord Home), d. 1514 Priory of Whithorn, Galloway II. John- probably d.s.p. III. Isabella- m. Sir Alexander Ramsay of Dalwolsey (killed at Flodden) IV. Elizabeth- m. Sir Robert Graham of Fintry 19V. MARGARET- m. Sir DUNCAN CAMPBELL of Glenurchy VI. Janet- m.1. David Scott of Buccleuch VII. Egidia VIII. AlisonRef:
(1) Priory of Coldingham- Surtees Society, p.165 (2) Auchinleck- 27, 40 (3) Acts of Parl. Scot.- II, 42, 75-7 (4) Fraser- III, 86 (5) Acts of Parl. Scot.- II, 43; Pitscottie- I, 153 (6) Fraser- III, 91 (7) Ibid- III, 92 (8) MS at Hamilton Palace- Quoted by Fraser- II, 60, note "History of the House of Douglas"- Vol.II, pp.14-21 "The Scottish Nation"- William Anderson, A. Fullarton & Co., Edinburgh, 1880 17I. ARCHIBALD (WILLIAM 1, ARCHIBALD 2, WILLIAM 3, WILLIAM 4, ARCHIBALD 5, WILLIAM 6, GEORGE 7, WILLIAM 8, GEORGE 9) b.c.1449 m.1. ELIZABETH BOYD 2. 1500 Catherine, daughter of Sir William Stirling of Keir (divorced 1512, m.2. Lord Home, Great Chamberlain of Scotland) d. 1514 Priory of Whithorn, Galloway bur. monastery of St. Ninian at Whithorn, his heart bur. at St. Bride's church, Douglas
Sir Archibald succeeded his father when he was only 14 years old. In 1461 a contract was made between Archibald's father George and the Earl of Huntly to arrange a marriage between Huntly's daughter Katherine Gordon and Archibald.(1) However the union never took place because a more desirable match appeared in Elizabeth, daughter of the powerful Lord Boyd. However Lord Boyd fell from favor and young Archibald was at the November Parliament in Edinburgh where his father in law was condemned and estates forfeited to the Crown. In Apr. 1481 the Estates appointed Archibald Warden of the Marches. In July 1482 when James III was preparing to invade England a group of Scottish nobles met secretly in the kirk of Lauder to plot the downfall of the favorites of the King. In the conference Lord Gray talked of how the mice took care of their tyrannical enemy the cat by placing a bell around the cat's neck, but which mouse had the courage to put the bell on the cat? Sir Archibald replied: "I shall bell the cat" and accordingly Cochrane the most obnoxious of the favorites was captured by Archibald when he entered the church and he and the others were hanged over the bridge at Lauder. From that time on Sir Archibald became the leader of the rebellious barons and they took the King to Edinburgh and to regain his freedom James had to come to terms with Albany. On 12 Jan. 1483 Albany appointed the Earl of Angus, Andrew
Lord Grey and Sir James Liddell his commissioners to negociate with Edward IV. On 11 Feb. the treaty was signed at Westminster and this brought out all of King James' friends and on 19 March Albany surrendered to his brother. Archibald was deprived of his offices of Justiciar south of the Forth, Steward of Kirkcudbright, Keeper of the Thrieve and Sheriff of Lanark. On 3 June 1483 King James appointed: "oure welebelovit cousing and consalour Archibald erle of Anguse" keeper of the royal castle of Newark in Ettrick Forest for five years along with the lands of Hartwood and Berybuss.(2) In 1486 Archibald was Warden of the Marches and conservator of the peace with Henry VII. (3) In order to finance his royal chapel at Stirling King James took the revenues of Coldingham Priory to which the Homes had a hereditary claim. The Hepburns supported them and both families were the recipients of vigorous outbursts from the crown and were summoned to appear before the Council. Archibald and six others were appointed to carry out the decree. The king's son however supported Homes and King James received Archibald at Edinburgh castle to elicit his support. The Earl of Angus initially supported him, but he then joined the rebels. A bargain was struck between the two parties with Archibald being a representative for the rebels and the King was to maintain his authority but his counsellors were to be men of worth without the fiddlers and bricklayers as before. However on 11 June 1488, the battle of Sauchie followed with the King fighting against his son and Archibald. The King was then murdered while escaping the field.
The Battle of Sauchieburn- engraving c.1877 Archibald was guardian of James IV for a short time and was paid 100 Rose nobles for a hawk.(4) He was held in high esteem by James IV and continued to be Warden of the Eastern Marches.
However Archibald was not content with his position in the government and he entered into a pact with Henry VII along with Ramsay, Lord Bothwell. Archibald and his son George signed an agreement to deliver the castle of Hermitage and the Lordship of Liddesdale into English hands, to give no service to the Scottish King without permission of the King of England and to: "labor and requyre othir of his frendes in Scotland to be bounden to hym (King Henry) in like wise." Archibald was to receive land in England and no truce was to be signed with the Scots unless it was acceptable to Archibald and failing such a truce the King of England was: "to mak sharpe warre upon the Scottis, and speciallie suche as be enemyes and adversaries to the said erle."(5) This agreement was signed 16 Nov. 1489 at Berwick while Archibald was on a pilgrimage to the shrine of St. John at Amiens. However King Henry never signed the agreement and Archibald returned to Scotland in Apr. 1490. He was playing dice with King James at Linlithgow on 18 Apr., 29 June and on 26-8 Nov. The secret negociations must have become known before July 1491 when Archibald received an order to stay at Tantalolon castle. This he did but proceeded to defend himself in October against the King's men.(6) James and Archibald were soon reconciled for the King sent him a Christmas present of a black velvet gown lined with lamb's wool and: "with bukram to the tail of it".(7) However James forced him to exchange the strategicly important lands of Hermitage and Liddesdale for the Lordship of Kilmarnock on 2 Dec. 1491.(8) In July of the next year he received a grant of the barony and castle of Bothwell.(9) He was sworn a Privy Councillor in 1492 and in 1493 he was appointed Lord High Chancellor of Scotland until he resigned in 1498.(10) In 1496 Archibald received a grant of the lands and Lordship of Crawford in Lanarkshire and received the lands of Braidwood in 1497.(11) Also in 1497 he was appointed Warden of the Middle Marches and Justiciar of Eskdale and Ewesdale. In 1498 Archibald made a marriage contract with Janet, daughter of John, Lord Kennedy, but Janet became the mistress of James IV. In 1500 Archibald married Katherine Stirling to whom he made a grant of the Earldom of Angus and Lordship of Kirriemuir.(12) Archibald was under arrest in Dunbarton castle for a few months from Dec. 1501 and was not released until he complied with the King's demand for the resignation of Eskdale which James was determined to reduce to law and order.(13)
Dunbarton Castle In 1510 the barony of Crawford-Lindsay was forfeited because Archibald had given it to Janet Kennedy without the King's consent, but in the next Jan. it was given to the Master of Angus.(14) Archibald divided
his estates among his sons giving William the Lordship of Bothwell in 1504 and Braidwood in 1510 and giving George Abernethy in 1511 thus leaving himself landless for George already had possession of Douglas and Angus.(15) In March 1513 John Forman, a priest of Glasgow supported by Archibald and the Earl of Glencairn tried to force his installation as Abbot of Kilwinning by appearing in force before the monastery and compelling the Abbot to surrender his office to Forman who bore Papal letters as his authority.(16)
Kilwinning Abbey Archibald accompanied the King to Flodden and tried to disuade him from fighting. James answered: "Angus if you are afraid you may go home." The Earl left the field, but his two sons George and William and all their followers fought in the battle. Both sons and 200 of the Douglas clan were killed. However there is scarcely any evidence that Archibald marched with the Army to Flodden as at his age he could honourably stay at home. Archibald was at the coronation of James V on 21 Sept. 1513 at Stirling and was appointed one of the advisers of the Queen Mother as Regent. He then became Provost of Edinburgh and was at the General Council at Perth 21-9 Oct. 1513 where he was charged with suppressing all disorders between the Forth and Whithorn. Sir Archibald retired to the priory of Whithorn in Galloway where he died the next year.
Whithorn Priory Issue 20I. GEORGE- b.c.1469, m. before 31 Jan. 1488 ELIZABETH DRUMMOND (m.1. Sir David Fleming), d. 9 Sept. 1513 II. William- killed at Flodden III. Gavin- Bishop of Dunkeld and a poet IV. Archibald- "Greysteil" of Kilspindie V. Marion- m. 1492 Cuthbert, Lord Kilmaurs, Earl of Glencairn VI. Elizabeth- m. 1493 Robert, Lord Lyle VII. Janet- m. 1495 Andrew, Lord Herries Ref: (1) Fraser- III, 89 (2) Ibid- 114-5 (3) Acts of Parl. Scot.- II, 153, 167, 169, 175 (4) Treasurer's Accounts- I, 102 (5) Bain- IV, 416 (6) Treasurer's Accounts- I, pp. 107, 180 (7) Ibid- I, 188 (8) Fraser- III, 127 (9) Ibid- I, 134 (10) Acts of Parl. Scot.- II, 231-7 (11) Fraser- III, 164 (12) Reg. Mag. Sig.- II, No. 2539 (13) Fraser- III, 176-9 (14) Ibid- 200 (15) Ibid- 202 (16) Diocesan Registers of Glasgow- Grampian Club, II, 477- 80, quoted by Fraser- II, 102 "History of the House of Douglas"- Vol.II, pp.22-47 "The Scottish Nation"- William Anderson, A. Fullarton & Co., Edinburgh, 1880 20I. GEORGE (WILLIAM 1, ARCHIBALD 2, WILLIAM 3, WILLIAM 4, ARCHIBALD 5, WILLIAM 6, GEORGE 7, WILLIAM 8, GEORGE 9, ARCHIBALD 10)
b.c.1469 m. before 31 Jan. 1488 ELIZABETH DRUMMOND (m.1. Sir David Fleming) d. 9 Sept. 1513
In 1485 George's father contracted a marriage with Margaret, oldest daughter of Laurence, Lord Oliphant. This contract was never carried out as in 1488 he married Elizabeth Drummond. This marriage was discovered to be within the prohibited degrees of consanguinity through George's kinship to David Fleming. This was set right by a Papal dispensation 3 Dec. 1495.(1) On 31 Jan. and 1 Feb. 1489 George received a grant of his father's lands of Tantallon, Douglasdale, Liddesdale, Ewesdale, Eskdale, Selkirk, Jedburgh Forest, Boncle and Preston.(2) George was at the last Parliament of James III in Jan. 1488 and the Parliament of James IV in Feb. 1490.(3)
In 1499 George was appointed Warden of Eskdale by the King and on 16 Jan. he met his English counterpart Lord Dacre: "for the gude of peax and reformyng of attemptatis done on either side."(4) George, however was not able to restore order in his wardenry and for failing to deliver Sym Scott of Arkyn to justice George was compelled to surrender the lands of Fawside to the injured party Ralph Ker of Primsideloch in Oct. 1502.(5) In Nov. George was fined £10 for not arresting the notorious criminal Davidson alias "Grace-behind him".(6) Finally because of George's undue leniency towards his vassals the King deprived him of the Lordship and wardenry of Eskdale and of Ewesdale in 1506.(7) In 1510 George obtained from his father the barony of Crawford-Lindsay and the estate of Kirriemuir and Abernethy with Horsehopcleugh in Berwickshire.(8)
Godscroft in his manuscript says that during the battle of Flodden when King James dismounted he saw George still on horseback and asked if it was his custom to remain mounted while the king fought on foot. George replied by asking if it was the habit of the king to wear his mail and armorial bearings when fighting on foot. After bringing up this point of chivalry the King took off his armour and said: "I dare fight upon my feet as well as you or any subject I have, and that without coat-armour or royal cognisance." Both George and his king were killed along with 12 Earls, 17 lords and 200 of the Douglas clan.
Memorial at the site of the Battle of Flodden For a wonderful account of the Battle of Flodden go to the Flodden 1513 Club web site at: http://www.flodden1513club.com/history_flodden.html Issue 21I. ARCHIBALD- m.1. Lady Margaret Hepburn (d. 1513), 2. 6 Aug. 1514 Margaret of England, divorced March 1525 (m.2. Sir William Baillie of Lamington, d. 1593), 3. 1543 Margaret Maxwell, d. 1556 Tantallon castle II. George- of Pittendreich III. William- d. 1528, Prior of Coldingham, Abbot of Holyroodhouse IV. Elizabeth- m. before 17 Sept. 1509 Sir John Hay of Hoprew V. Alison- m.1. Robert Blackadder (d. Flodden), 2. Sir David Home of Wedderburn (d. 1524) VI. Jean- m.1. John, Lord Glammis, 2. Archibald Campbell of Skipnish. Jean was indicted for poisoning her husband and was summoned to stand trial at the Justice Ayre of Forfar 31 Jan. 1532, but the charges were dropped because of lack of evidence. She was burnt at the stake on Castlehill in Edinburgh 17 July 1537 on the charge of conspiring to poison the King and for having assisted her brothers Archibald and George after they had been declared traitors and rebels. VII. Margaret- m. 1513 Sir James Douglas of Dumlanrig, divorced before 4 Jan. 1540 Ref: (1) Fraser- III, 437; original at Drummond castle (2) Ibid- 121-3; original at Douglas castle (3) Acts Parl. Scot.- II, 216 (4) Fraser- III, 170 (5) Reg. Mag. Sig.- II, No. 2676
(6) Pitcairn- II, 34 (7) Reg. Mag. Sig.- III, No. 2962 (8) Fraser- III, 200 "History of the House of Douglas"- Vol.II, pp.48-53 "The Scottish Nation"- William Anderson, A. Fullarton & Co., Edinburgh, 1880 21I. ARCHIBALD (WILLIAM 1, ARCHIBALD 2, WILLIAM 3, WILLIAM 4, ARCHIBALD 5, WILLIAM 6, GEORGE 7, WILLIAM 8, GEORGE 9, ARCHIBALD 10, GEORGE 11) m.1. Lady Margaret Hepburn (d. 1513) 2. 6 Aug. 1514 Margaret of England, divorced March 1525 (m.2. Sir William Baillie of Lamington, d. 1593) 3. 1543 Margaret Maxwell mistress- daughter of STEWART of Traquair d. 1556 Tantallon Castle
On 29 Nov. 1513 Archibald received the estates of his father and before 31 Jan. 1514 he bacame the Earl of Angus and received Tantallon and Bothwell.(1) At his marriage to the Queen Dowager Archibald was described by Dacre the English ambassador in Scotland as: "childish, young, and attended by no wise councillors." At was stated that: "his person and countenance were beautiful, his accomplishments showy and attractive whilst his power as the head of the house of Douglas was equal if not superior to that of any baron in the kingdom."
With Huntly, Arran and Archbishop Beaton he was appointed to advise Queen Margaret in her guardianship of James V. After rejecting the Emperor Maximillian, Louis XII and John, Duke of Albany she married Archibald. In Nov. 1514 Queen Margaret appointed Archibald's uncle Gavin Douglas to the Archbishopric of St. Andrews. The Prior of St. Andrews besieged Gavin in the castle and Archibald went to his aid leaving Margaret at Stirling castle. Arran and Home then went to Stirling and took the Queen to Edinburgh. At Albany's insistence Parliament appointed four lords who presented themselves before Stirling castle, but the Queen mother refused to admit them. On 4 Aug. Albany and his army appeared at Stirling and Margaret surrendered. In 1515 due to the Regent, Duke of Albany's efforts to obtain custody of the Royal children and to suppress a rebellion by the English faction led by Archibald, the Queen Mother and Lord Home, Sir Archibald and Margaret went to England where they along with Home, Arran and their supporters plotted to overthrow the Regent and obtain possession of the infant sovereign. Albany wrote letters to Margaret asking for her return or to send her husband and brother-in-law as her hostages to whom he promised a pardon. Margaret insisted upon being allowed the custody of her sons because she was the King of England's sister and that one of her sons was King of Scots and the other heir presumptive. As soon as Albany received her answer he issued a proclamation against Archibald and Sir George Douglas as traitors and seized the castles of Tantallon and Bothwell. Arran withdrew from this league and Sir Archibald finding himself neglected by his brother-in-law, Henry VIII, made peace with the Regent and leaving Margaret very ill at Morpeth he returned to Scotland in Apr. 1516. In June 1517 after Albany left for France, Archibald was nominated to the Council of Regency and when the Queen returned to Scotland she tried to have him appointed Regent, but without success. Enraged at the disappointment Archibald's violence and turbulence knew no bounds and his treatment of Margaret led her to sue for a divorce. Margaret wrote to her brother Henry VIII expressing her intention to get a divorce and declaring she would never marry again without his consent.(2) King Henry opposed his sister's intention to separate from Archibald for which the Earl expressed his gratitude:
"Maist excellennt and redoutit prince it lyis not in my little possibilite to rendir thankis unto your maist nobill hyenes, that has intendit and procurit sa excedand wiselye this my pure (poor) causs, quhilk elikewiss is Goddis causs, and alsua the honour and weillfare of youre deirest sister, the Quenys grace forsaid, and, with that, richt weiray (very) acceptable till every wele myndit personage of gude zele within this realme. Quhairfor, besyde the rewarde of God, quhilk I doute nocht bot youre grace sall resaif for sa meritable labour, I sall endevour and abandoune perpetually my pure service in every behalf and sort to me possible, unto youre maist nobill excellence, abufe all uther prince or creature levand (living), myne allegeance to oure soverane lord, your deirest nevo, alanerlie (only) exceppit; and salbe all tymes reddy eftir my pure power, allthoucht it war sua that youre hienes commandit me furthwith to pas one fute to Jerusalem, and fecht with the Turkis to the dede (to death) for youre causs."(3)
In Oct. 1519 Archibald met the queen once more and escorted her into Edinburgh with 400 horsemen.(4) In 1520 the Earl of Arran with his allies met at Edinburgh and decided to apprehend Sir Archibald and on 29 Apr. a battle known as "Cleanse the Causeway" took place on High St. in Edinburgh between the two parties. Archibald killed Sir Patrick Hamilton, Arran's brother and Arran's force was compoletely routed after fierce fighting with about 70 of Arran's men killed. For the next year Scotland existed under a dual government, Archibald holding sway in the south and east, Arran in the north and west while Albany stayed in France. Archibald began loosing his supporters and the queen was now completely for Albany. Albany returned to Scotland on 21 Nov. 1521 and dismissed many officials appointed by Archibald. On 9 Dec. Archibald and his brother William were ordered to appear before Parliament to stand trial for high treason. Archibald then went to France in March 1522. In 1524 he secretly went to the English court and then returned to Scotland greatly improved in experience, talent and political skill having entered into a secret treaty with Henry VIII to support the English interests. Queen Margaret begged King Henry to: "consyder that thys gret thyng that we have dwn, hath ben dwn wythout the helpe of the sayd Erl of Angus". The time was ripe for Archibald's return as Albany had left and the Queen had alienated many powerful people. Henry VIII wanted Archibald to get back with his wife and on 1 Nov. the Earl of Angus wrote to his estranged wife from his brother's manor at Boncle: "Madame, In my mooste humble and lowly maner I commende my service to your grace. It woll pleas your grace to knowe that I have beene with the Kingis grace your brother, the whiche is oone of the moost Cristened princis, and his grace hath entreated me so mervelous wille that he hath addetted me, and all that woll do for me, to do his grace service and honour, in so farre as lyeth in my poure, myne allegeaunce exceptit to the Kingis grace my Soverane. Madame, I am comme into this realme to do the Kingis grace, my master, and your grace, honour and service, in so ferre as lyes in my poure, and shall do the same as gladly as any other in all the realme of Scotland; beseching your grace ye wold exept it, for there is no maner of thing that may be wele to the Kingis grace my soverain, nor to your graces honour and pleassour, but I shalbe glad to fulfill the same. Madame if there by any unfrendis that in my absence have made senestre informacion of me unto your grace, I wold beseche your grace that ye wold stand so good and gracious lady unto me that ye wold be contente that I may speke with your grace, and if I have offended to your grace any maner of waye, I shall refourme it at the sight and plessour of your seid grace; beseching your grace that ye woll advertise me of
your myende in writing, as that I shalbe redy to fulfill the same, as knoweth God, who preserve your grace eternally. At Boncle, the first daye of November, by the hand of your humble servant."(5) Early in the morning of 24 Nov. 1524 he and his forces took possession of the capital and joined by Chancellor Bethune quickly acquired control of the government and the young King then 14 years old. On 23 Feb. 1524/5 Parliament was held under King James V with Archibald bearing the crown and the acts of forfeiture against the Douglas were repealed. Margaret sent a message to Albany in France promising to support his interests and those of France and to oppose England.(6) Sir Archibald however, failed to make a treaty with his wife and in March 1525 they were divorced. The case was tried by the Cardinal of Ancona and dragged on for three years and ended on 11 March 1528.
On 15 March 1524/5 Archibald was appointed Warden of the East and Middle Marches which pleased Henry VIII so much that he directed Dr. Magnus to give the Earl £100. Archibald saw trouble from the Hamiltons and therefore entered into an alliance with the Earls of Lennox and Argyll for the defence of King James.(7) In the July Parliament it was decreed that Archibald should have custody of the King until 1 Nov., but he realized that if he let the King out of his keeping it was certain that he would loose his influence so he refused to let him go. The Queen assembled her followers at Linlithgow, but upon his arrival with the King her followers dispersed or gave their submission to the King. On 15 Jan. 1525/6 Archibald ratified a treaty with England at Berwick as the representative of Scotland.(8) In 1526 he obtained a remission for himself and his friends for all crimes and treasons committed by them for the past 19 years. He talked Bethune into resigning the Great Seal and was appointed Lord Chancellor. By this time all the offices of Scotland were filled by either a Douglas or one of their allies and Sir Archibald defeated two attempts to rescue the King, one by Scott of Buccleuch near Melrose and the other attempt by the Earl of Lennox at Linlithgow in which Lennox was killed. Archibald then went to work to put down the chronic brigandage along the Border. He also continued to support the English alliance and wrote the following letter as Chancellor of Scotland to Wolsey on 29 Dec. 1527: "My lord, plesit your grace be rememberit how my forebearis in all tymes bipast has bene about to foster and futhebeir gud luff, peax and rest betwix this twa realmes and athir of the princes therof, as is notourly knawin to all and sindry in thir partis succeding efter thame; and giff I wald presume to be so bald or foilhardy, nocht followand the futsteppis of wysmenn past of before, to attempt to do ocht in contrair ther wysdomys, I micht wele be reput and haldin rycht unwyss, and, mare attour, baith unthankfull and unkynd, considering the nerines of blud the twa princes standis in at this tyme, the greit knydnes and humanite, speciall favoris and diverss gratitudes done to me be the Kingis hienes of England and your grace, sa that my haill mynd and intencioune has evir bene, sen I grew to ony perfectioune, and mekill mair sen I was constitut in office and auctorite, and ane hevy cure laid one me, to study alwayis possibil for the interteyning and uphalding of gud peax, amite and concord betwix thir twa realmes, punising of
trespassouris, and puttin of justice to dew execucioune, and to do that thing mycht be acceptabill or plesand to the Kingis hienes, your soverane, and your grace, above all erdly prince, his derrest nephew my soverane allanerly exceptit. Bot as for the favouris of France or ony therin, salffand the plessour of the Kingis hienes your soverane and of your grace, I set it at litill, or ellis rycht nocht, bot in gudlynes (I reckon it of little or no use in value) for I fand na favouris thare bot collusioune and dissait, as is wele kend. And now the noyis is the Duk of Albanie procuris saulff-conduct and licence of the kingis hienes your soverane to return here, allegeand he has my soverane's consent therto; the contrary tharof is verray threw, as his hienes has declarit before Leonard Musgraiff, gentilmann. And I traist fermly the kingis hienes of Eingland and youre grace has providit sa surely and substantiously for the wele and indempnite of his derrest nephew, enduring his lessage (during his miinority), that ye will now continew and persevere quhen his grace is growin to consider the sammyn be perfit intelligence. And (if) I ma knaw the kingis hienes your soveranis gud mynd and your gracis in that behalff, I sall, with Goddis grace, resist the said Duk, and do his hienes mare steid and plessour with lefull service than he ma do."(9) In July 1528 King James escaped and in the disguise of a yeoman of the guard rode during the night from Falkland Palace to Stirling. At this point Sir Archibald, his brother and uncle were declared rebels and traitors and after being deprived of their offices all of their property was forfeited. King James made a proclamation that neither Archibald nor any other Douglas should come within seven miles of him. He also forbid anyone to communicate with Archibald, his two brothers or his uncle Archibald of Kilspindie upon punishment of death and that none of the Douglas party were to remain in Edinburgh and Archibald was deprived of the chancellorship. Archibald then locked himself up in his castle of Tantallon before proceeding to Norham. Archibald went to the border and the King unsuccessfully attempted to capture the castle of Douglas and the Royal forces were totally dispersed at Coldingham. Archibald then returned to Tantallon to put his charters and family papers in a huge brazen beef pot which was buried in solid rock near the castle gate.(10) James then abandonned his seige of Tantallon on 4 Nov. 1528 and during his retreat he was attacked by Sir Archibald and his forces and his artillery were captured near Dirleton, but he released his prisoners writing to the Earl of Northumberland: "I wald nocht dishonour the king here sa fer as to hold his artaillie, bot convoyit the sammyn my selff quhill (until) it was furthe of danger, and sufferit the maister of artaillie to pas, and prayit him to commend my lauly service unto my soverane, and to schew his grace that I have bene trew servand and subject to the sammyn, and that I gave his grace na wyte of ocht that was done to me, bot to the evill avisit personis about his grace nocht worthy therto, and had done sic dishonour to him at this tyme thai mycht nevir amend it."(11) On this occasion the King declared that while he lived no Douglas should find a resting place in Scotland. On 13 May 1529 Archibald wrote to Wolsey that: "Sa scherply I am persewit... that I ma nocht weill remane within this realme." Sir Archibald took refuge in England and was admitted into the privy council of Henry VIII and in 1532 he received a pension of 1,000 marks. On 25 Aug. 1532 Archibald promised to serve King Henry in event of war with Scotland: "with suche his sevauntis, adherentis and frendes as he can by any meanes procure" and to recognise him as supreme lord of Scotland. Henry then increased the earl's pension to £1,000 per year until he should be restored to his Scottish estates.(12) During his stay in England he made several raids across the Border against is countrymen. In Oct. 1541 Queen Margaret died at Methven. On her deathbed she repented her treatment of Archibald and asked her confessors: "that thay shold seek on thar knees befor the kyng, and to beseche hem that he wold be good and grachous unto the Erell of Anguyshe, and dyd extremly lament and aske God marcy that she had afendet unto the sayd Erell as she hade."(13)
Sir Walter Scott in "Lady of the Lake" I, 35 states that the King also was filled with remorse: "Why is it at each turn I trace Some memory of that exiled race? Can I not mountain maiden spy, But she must bear the Douglas eye? Can I not view a Highland brand, But it must match the Douglas hand? Can I not frame a fevered dream, But still the Douglas is the theme?" In Aug. 1542 Archibald and Sir Robert Bower were defeated by the Earl of Huntly at Hadden Rig. After King James' death in Dec. 1542 Archibald returned to Scotland and on 16 Jan. 1542/3 his attainder was repealed and the Regent delivered the sceptre and baton to Archibald in token of his restoration.(14) He was then made a Privy Councillor in 1543 and remained a supporter of the English alliance, supporting the union of the crowns by the marriage of the infant Mary, Queen of Scots and future Edward VI. He was still receiving money from Henry VIII when the Regent Arran took sides with Cardinal Beaton and the French interest and Archibald went to Tantallon castle along with the English Ambassador Sadleys. King Francis sent 10,000 gold crowns and 50 pieces of artillery to his good friend the Earl of Lennox at Dunbarton who had changed sides after his marriage to Margaret Douglas unknown to the French king. With this new influx of arms and money Archibald, Lennox, Cassillis and Kilmaurs with 4,000 men captured Leith. In the autumn of 1543 Archibald summoned his friends to Douglas and they entered a mutual bond of defence which the Regent took as an act of war and took Dalkeith castle and Pinkie tower from the Douglas and George Douglas was captured and held in Edinburgh castle as security for his brother's actions and a peace was concluded between the Douglas and the government. King Henry saw this as a betrayal of his cause by Archibald and prepared for was despite his protest that he was still in Henry's service. Unfortunately these letters were intercepted and pronounced treasonable and Cardinal Beaton locked Archibald and his brother George in Blackness castle. The only reason they did not meet a traitor's fate is that Henry VIII invaded Scotland on 1 May 1544, his fleet sailing into the Forth under the Earl of Hertford and Arran needed Douglas support to drive off the enemy. Hertford was stopped at Edinburgh and proceeded back to England by way of Stirling. In June 1544 things took a curious turn, a number of the nobility signed an agreement to support the Queen Mother as Regent and Archibald was appointed Lieutenant General of the Kingdom. Archibald and George still supported the English interests as stated in the following letter from George to Sir Ralph Eure, Commander of Berwick: "I heif cawsit my broder the Erle of Anguse to delayver his commissioun off liutenentrie in afore the Guvernour and Conselle, making mensioun tht the promisses that vas made to him vas nocht kepit. Thay cowld feinde no man to exceppe the office. Thay requayrit off me qhow this contray sowld be diffendit, and I saide the Guvernour sowld diffende it, for it vas his office, and he hade bothe the proffit and the plesour, and vas ane luste yung man, and meit to be exersit in varefare, and my broder sowld be redde to serve the Queynis auchtorite, siklayk as uder nowbille men off the realme didde. The Guvernour vald nocht discharge him off his office, nocht the less I sal cawse him to use him selfe in sik ane sorte that ye sal heif no cawse to complene off our kayndnes, the King staning gud and grasuis prense to use and our freindes."(15) Henry VIII however no longer trusted the Douglases and offered 2,000 crowns for Archibald's head and 1,000 for his brother's and handed over many of the Douglas estates along the Border to his officers.(16) In 1545 Archibald fought against the English at the battle of Ancrum Moor. He had no use for the English at this point as his lands had been ravaged by them and because they had defaced the tombs of his ancestors
at Melrose Abbey. Just as the battle was to begin a heron disturbed by the troops sprung from a nearby marsh and soared over head. "Oh", said Sir Archibald, "that I had here my white goss-hawk, we should then all yoke at once". The Regent Arran complimented Sir Archibald and his brother Sir George for their distinguished conduct during the battle saying in the presence of the Army that their actions had completely removed all suspicions of their favouring the English. Archibald received from King Francis "the Cockle" of the Order of St. Michael along with 4,000 crowns to be divided with George. Henry VIII enraged at the defeat accused Archibald of ingratitude and vowed revenge. When Sir Archibald heard this he said: "What, is our brother-in-law offended because, like a good Scotsman, I have avenged upon Ralph Eure the defaced tombs of my ancestors? They were better men than he, and I ought to have done no less and will he take my life for that? Little knows King Henry the skirts of Kernetable; I can keep myself there against all his English host." Archibald and George approved a new alliance with France and vowed to harass the English to the best of their ability and Archibald was appointed one of the council to assist the Queen, the Regent and Cardinal Beaton in deciding a proper time for invading England. However the two brothers still corresponded with the Earl of Hertford and on 16 Aug. 1545 they sent the following letter: "Right woorshipfull, after most hartly commendacioun. Ye shall understand, that we have commoned togither and is determyned all in oone of unyon to serve the Kynges majeste (Henry) at thuttermost of our powers in the setting forwardes of the peax and mariage, whiche we knowe surelie standes with the pleasure of God, the Kynges majestes contentacioun, the common weale and quyetnes of bothe realmes. Therfor we thinke for our opinion, if it standes with the Kinges majesties pleasure, that his grace shulde haselie prepare his substancious armyes in this tyme of harvest, bothe at th'est and west bordres, provided to remayne a good tyme; for without long remayning there can no highe purpose be made to the Kynges majestes pleasure. Therfore looke well on that poynte, and when the Kynges armyes cummes in this realme, ye must set forward your proclamacions declaring howe that your purpose is not to hurte this realme, nor no subject that is in it that well assist to the sure perfourmyng of the peax and marriage... Further, as to this last journey of ours (the expedition of the army mustered on 28 July), it was devised by the Quene, Cardinall and this Frenche capitayne Lorge Mangummary. Huntley fortefyed this armye at his power, notwithstonding- at short- all that they devised was stopped by us, that are the Kynges freendes. Their hole intent was to have besieged the Kynges howses, unto the tyme they had gotten bargayn; but all was stopped, whereof they stoode nothing content. This capitain Lorge will not remayne on our bordres; wherefore the people thinkes it a sure argument that he is not comme into this countrey for our weales, but onelie to put forwardes the pleasure of Fraunce, and to cause us to make battel togithers."(17) This may not be as treasonous as it first appears as Buccleuch held a licence from Arran and Queen Mary to appear to be an agent for the English, but in reality an agent for Scotland.(18) It cannot be ignored that they may have still actually been in the English service as the two of them persuaded Arran to disband the army permitting Henry VIII to wreck havok throughout the country and they may have been involved in the murder of Cardinal Beaton in May 1546. Archibald and George did however take part in passing the Act of Parliament which annulled the marriage contract with the English and renounced all bonds they had entered into with the King of England.
Monument at the site of the Battle of Pinkie At the battle of Pinkie 10 Sept. 1547 he commanded the Scottish Army. The Regent Arran ordered Archibald to attack, but the earl refused on tactical grounds and Arran sent a herald and ordered him to obey or be guilty of treason. He advanced but Arran and Huntly did not give him any support as their Highlanders were too busy looting the dead.(19) The Highlanders terrified by the din of the artillery ran off the field with their booty. The English then took advantage of the situation and completely destroyed the Scots army. After this defeat the Douglas again supported England with Archibald declaring that he had never departed from his obligations to the English government "quhilk I never brak nor never intendis to brak". The English paid little attention and the earl then drove the invaders from his land, but the next year they returned and levelled Dalkeith castle and captured George's wife and son. Lord Grey however wrote to Archibald on 4 June telling him not to be disturbed by any apparent unfriendliness towards the Douglases! (20) Archibald then agreed to the betrothal of Mary, Queen of Scots to the Dauphin and took no further part in military operations. In 1554 Arran resigned as regent and Queen Mary of Guise came into power. Archibald opposed the new taxes proposed by the Queen Regent and rode into Edinburgh with 1,000 cavalry which was prohibited by edict as no baron was to have more than his household servants. For this offence the Queen issued a warrant for his arrest and he appeared at the castle gate with his army and demanded admission. "My lord", said the constable, "this is an order to which I am little used. Have you your warrant?" Angus handed the order over to the constable who replied: "But my lord I am here directed to receive you with but three or four to serve you." "Just what I told my lads" replied Archibald, "but they said they durst not and would not go home to my wife Meg without me." The constable declined to receive the prisoner in that fashion and the earl then stated that he had complied with the Queen's command and had been refused admission. On his way home Archibald remarked that: "I tell thee these Douglas lads are wise lads; they think it best at the present time to be loose and lievand (free and living)."(21)
In 1556 Archibald suffered from St. Anthony's fire (ergotism) and died at Tantallon castle in Jan. 1556/7 and was buried at Abernethy. Issue- first three children by his mistress, a daughter of Stewart of Traquair, fourth child by Margaret Tudor, Queen of Scots, last child by Margaret Maxwell. I. Elizabeth- letter of legitimation procured 2 Mar. 1526 22II. JANET- m. PATRICK RUTHVEN III. George- d. 1598/9, letter of legitimation procured 14 Mar. 1543. George was one of Rizzio's assassins, Abbot of Arbroath, and Bishop of Moray. IV. Margaret- m. July 1544, London, Earl of Lennox. Margaret was the mother of Lord Darnley.
V. James- d.s.p. before 1556 Ref:
Portrait of Margaret
(1) Fraser- II, 177-8; III, 213; Original at Douglas (2) Letters and Papers- III, No.166 (3) Fraser- IV, 75; original in British Museum (4) Letters and Papers- III, No.467,481,482 (5) Fraser- IV, 90 (6) Letters and Papers- IV, No.1111,1446 (7) Fraser- III, 222 (8) Foedera- XIV, 114,122 (9) Fraser- IV, 122; original in British Museum (10) Godscroft's Manuscript (11) Fraser- IV, 137 (12) Ibid- 139; original in British Museum (13) State Papers- Henry VIII, v.194 (14) Ibid- v.238,239,585; Acts of Parl. Scot.- II, 415 (15) Fraser- IV, 154
(16) Hamilton Papers- II, 538 (17) Fraser- IV, 160 (18) The Scotts of Buccleuch- Wm. Fraser, I, 110 (19) Godscroft's MS- quoted by Fraser, II, 278 note (20) Fraser- IV, 171 (21) Godscroft's MS- quoted by Fraser, II, 283 "History of the House of Douglas"- Vol.II, pp.64-127 "The Scottish Nation"- William Anderson, A. Fullarton & Co., Edinburgh, 1880 23II. ANDREW (WILLIAM 1, ARCHIBALD 2) There is no proof that he was the son of Archibald of Douglas but this relationship is assumed because Andrew was in possession of the lands of Hermiston in Midlothian and Livingston in West Lothian which had been granted to Archibald before 1226 from Malcolm, Earl of Fife.(1) Andrew is called brother of William Douglas in a charter from Ralph Noble to David of Graham in 1245.(2) He and William were witnesses to a charter in 1248 to the monks of Dunfermline.(3) Andrew was present at the marriage contract of his nephew Hugh Douglas with Marjorie Abernethy in 1259.(4) Issue 24I. WILLIAM II. FreskinRef: (1) Registrum Honoris de Morton- I, XXXIII, XXXIV (2) Red Book of Menteith- II, 209-11 (3) Reg. do Dunfermelyn- 97 (4) The Douglas Book- III, 2 "The Scots Peerage"- Vol.VI, pp.337-8 24I. WILLIAM (WILLIAM 1, ARCHIBALD 2, ANDREW 3) William was confirmed in the lands of Hermiston in 1277 by Alexander III.(1) He appears on the homage roll at Berwick 28 Aug. 1296.(2) Issue 25I. JAMES- m. JOAN ______ (alive in 1337), d. before 20 Apr. 1323 II. AndrewRef: (1) Reg. Honor de Morton- II, 8 (2) Cal. Doc. Scot.- II, 208,556 "The Scots Peerage"- Vol.VI, p.338 25I. JAMES (WILLIAM 1, ARCHIBALD 2, ANDREW 3, WILLIAM 4)
m. JOAN ______ (alive in 1337) d. before 20 Apr. 1323 On 2 Apr. 1315 James received from King Robert the Bruce a grant of the lands of Kincavil and Caldor Clere (East Calder) in Linlithgowshire at a rental of £12/5/10 and later in 1317 with an annual rent of ten marks payable to Reginald Crawford a servant of the King for the service of an archer in the royal army.(1) Joan was alive in 1337 when she was drawing her terce from the lands of Blackness.(2) Issue- first four children by Joan I. William- m. Elizabeth ______ (m.2. 1355 Hugh Dacre) 26II. JOHN- m. AGNES ______ (m.1. John Munfode), d. between 1346 and 1350 III. James- killed Aug. 1335 IV. Elizabeth- m. Thomas Somerville of Carnwath V. William- "the Elder"
Ref: (1) Reg. Honor de Norton- II, 11; Reg. Mag. Sig.- I, No.59 (2) Cal. Doc. Scot.- III, No.389 "The Scots Peerage"- Vol.VI, p.338-44 26II. JOHN (WILLIAM 1, ARCHIBALD 2, ANDREW 3, WILLIAM 4, JAMES 5) m. AGNES ______ (m.1. John Munfode) killed between 1346 and 1350 John is said to have defended Lochleven castle against the English. He was killed by David Barclay sometime between 1346 and 1350.
Lochleven Castle Issue-
I. James- Lord of Dalkeith, m. int. Oct. 1378 Egidia Stewart (m.1. Sir James Lindsay of Crawford, 2. after Oct. 1357 Sir Hugh of Eglinton) II. William- alive 1 June 1406 III. John- m. Mariota Chene (m.2. John Keith), d. before 26 May 1366 27IV. HENRY- m. before 19 May 1384 MARGERY STEWART (m.1. Roger Magven of that ilk, 2. Alexander Lindsay of Glenesk), d. before 1393 V. Thomas- ?m. Margaret Creswell, d. before 1 June 1406 VI. Nicholas- m. Janet Galbraith of Gartconnell, d. before 1 June 1406 VII. Ellen VIII. Margaret IX. ElizabethRef: "The Scots Peerage"- Vol.VI, p.342-4 27IV. HENRY (WILLIAM 1, ARCHIBALD 2, ANDREW 3, WILLIAM 4, JAMES 5, JOHN 6) m. before 19 May 1384 MARGERY STEWART, daughter of John of Relston, brother of Robert II, (m.1. Roger Magven of that ilk, 2. Alexander Lindsay of Glenesk) d. before 1393 On 20 Sept. 1369 Henry had a charter from David II of one third of Lugtoun.(1) He had a safe conduct 16 May 1374 to visit Canterbury.(2) On 3 Jan. 1383/4 he had a charter to certain annual rents in Peebleshire. (3) He had a precept and confirmation of the lands of Halkeiton and Esperton held by Ballentrodach kirk in 1388.(4) He was sent to England by Robert II to receive the oath of Richard II regarding the treaty with France 18 June 1389. He had three charters from the king one on 18 Mar. 1389/0 to the barony of Lugtoun, Lochleven castle and land in Kinross and the lands of Langnewton, Roxburghshire.(5) Issue 28I. WILLIAM- m. ELIZABETH LINDSAY, d. 1421 II. HenryIII. Margaret- m. Sir John Wallace of Craigie IV. Elene- m. John Fairlie of Braid
Ref: (1) Reg. Mag. Sig.- folio Vol. 168 (2) Foedera- VII, 37 (3) Reg. Mag. Sig.- fol. Vol. 167 (4) Harl. MS- No.6439 (5) Ibid- No.1741, 4-5-6 "The Scots Peerage"- Vol.VI, p.364-5
28I. WILLIAM (WILLIAM 1, ARCHIBALD 2, ANDREW 3, WILLIAM 4, JAMES 5, JOHN 6, HENRY 7) m. ELIZABETH LINDSAY d. 1421
William succeeded his father 20 Dec. 1409 and acquired the lands of Ralstoun upon the resignation of these lands by Walter Stewart his uncle in 1416.(1) These lands he later gave to his son James. He had a dispensation by Henry, Bishop of St. Andrews for his marriage with Elizabeth Lindsay of Brechin as they were in the third and fourth degrees of consanguinity.(3) William accompanied the Earls of Buchan and Wigtown to France where he was killed in the battle of Beauge or Fresnay le Comte in 1421.(2) Issue 29I. HENRY- m. ELIZABETH ERSKINE II. James- m. Jonet Fenton of Baky III. AlexanderIV. Elizabeth- m. Richard Lovel of Ballumby, Maid of Honor to Queen Joanna
Ref: (1) Exch. Rolls- IV, p.CXC (2) Wemyss Book- 47 (3) Harl. MS- No. 6438 "The Scots Peerage"- Vol.VI, p.365-6 29I. HENRY (WILLIAM 1, ARCHIBALD 2, ANDREW 3, WILLIAM 4, JAMES 5, JOHN 6, HENRY 7, WILLIAM 8) m. ELIZABETH, daughter of Robert ERSKINE Henry witnessed a charter to Robert Conynghame of Kilmaurs 30 June 1425.(1) He was one of the hostages for James I and went to England as a substitute for Norman Leslie.(2) He was released 20 June 1432 and was knighted before 24 Jan. 1440/1 when he witnessed a charter to the Earl of Mar. (3) He and Elizabeth had a a charter to the lands of Keillor, Perthshire 7 July 1464.(4) He witnessed a charter to Alexander Leslie of Balcomie 30 Jan. 1468/9.(5) Issue 30I. ROBERT- m.1. ELIZABETH BOSWELL, 2. after 1476 Isobel Sibbald, 3. before 1503 Marion Baillie, d. Flodden II. David III. ThomasRef: (1) Reg. Mag. Sig.- 28 Oct. 1425 (2) Foedera- X, 381, 509 (3) Reg. Mag. Sig.- 30 Oct. 1444 (4) Reg. Mag. Sig. (5) Ibid"The Scots Peerage"- Vol.VI, p.366-7
30I. ROBERT (WILLIAM 1, ARCHIBALD 2, ANDREW 3, WILLIAM 4, JAMES 5, JOHN 6, HENRY 7, WILLIAM 8, HENRY 9) m.1. ELIZABETH, daughter of David BOSWELL of Balmuto 2. after 1476 Isobel, daughter of John Sibbald of Balgony (m.1. George Douglas, Earl of Angus, 2. John Carmichael of Baladie, d. between 1500 and Feb. 1502/3) 3. before 1503 Marion, daughter of William Baillie of Lamington (m.1. John, Lord Lindsay of the Byres) d. 9 Sept. 1513 Flodden Robert had a charter to the lands and barony of Kinross and Lochleven castle 16 Oct. 1463.(1) On 2 July 1495 he had a charter of half the lands of Dalqueich, Kinross and the rest from John Peebles 19 June 1497. (2) He was knighted before 14 Mar. 1503/4 when he witnessed a charter.(3) Issue 31I. ROBERT- m.1. MARGARET BALFOUR, 2. Jan. 1499/0 Margaret Hay (m.2. Alexander Fraser, 3. Sir Gilbert Keith) II. Agnes- m. Thomas Hamilton of Raploch III. Margaret- m.1. 1484 Sir David Stewart of Rosyth, 2. Henry Mercer of Meiklour Ref: (1) Reg. Mag. Sig. (2) Ibid- 28 June 1498 (3) Ibid"The Scots Peerage"- Vol.VI, p.367-8 31I. ROBERT (WILLIAM 1, ARCHIBALD 2, ANDREW 3, WILLIAM 4, JAMES 5, JOHN 6, HENRY 7, WILLIAM 8, HENRY 9, ROBERT 10) m.1. MARGARET, daughter of David BALFOUR of Burleigh 2. Jan. 1499/0 Margaret Hay, daughter of William, Earl of Errol (m.1. Alexander Fraser of Philorth, 2. before 1526 Sir Gilbert Keith of Inverugie) Robert was served heir to his father 15 & 20 Oct. 1514.(1) On 4 Feb. 1519/0 he sold to Henry Balfour, rector of Loncardy the Eastertown of Tilliochy in Kinross.(2) On 15 Oct. 1517 he granted the friars of St. Andrews an annual rent of twenty marks from his lands of Keillor and on 10 June 1519 another of five marks from Bordland.(3) Issue 32I. THOMAS- m. ELIZABETH BOYD II. HenryIII. Margaret- m. before 12 Aug. 1516 Henry Stewart of Rosyth IV. Robert- m. Janet Ramsay V. Richard- macer of the Court of Session
Ref: (1) Harl. MS- No. 6435 (2) Reg. Mag. Sig. (3) Ibid- 15 May 1522
"The Scots Peerage"- Vol.VI, p.368 32I. THOMAS (WILLIAM 1, ARCHIBALD 2, ANDREW 3, WILLIAM 4, JAMES 5, JOHN 6, HENRY 7, WILLIAM 8, HENRY 9, ROBERT 10, ROBERT 11) m. ELIZABETH, daughter of Archibald BOYD of Nariston Thomas witnessed his father's charter of 15 Oct. 1517 and died before his father. Issue 33I. ROBERT- m. MARGARET ERSKINE, killed 10 Sept. 1547 II. John- parson of Newlands III. HenryIV. Margaret- m. William Melville of Raith (d.c.1547), alive May 1584 V. Marion- m. John Lindsay of Dowhill VI. Elizabeth- m. Alexander Alexander of Menstrie
Ref: "The Scots Peerage"- Vol.VI, pp.368-9 33I. ROBERT (WILLIAM 1, ARCHIBALD 2, ANDREW 3, WILLIAM 4, JAMES 5, JOHN 6, HENRY 7, WILLIAM 8, HENRY 9, ROBERT 10, ROBERT 11, ROBERT 12) m. MARGARET, daughter of John, Lord ERSKINE (mistress of James V, mother of Regent Moray, d. 5 May 1572) killed at battle of Pinkie 10 Sept. 1547 In 1536 King James seriously entertained the thought of forcing Margaret to obtain a divorce from Robert in order to make her his queen and wrote a letter to the Pope concerning this.(1) If this had occured Margaret's son by the King would probably have been legitimized and succeeded as James VI. On 20 Feb. 1539/0 Robert had a Royal charter to the lands of Fossoway in Perth.(2) On 17 Oct. 1540 he had a charter of the Lordship of Dalkeith and other lands upon the resignation of James Douglas, Earl of Morton. James V had coerced James to resign his earldom and lands in favor of Robert under threat of imprisonment in Inverness if he did not comply.(3) No reason was given in the King's letter to his treasurer on 18 Oct. notifying him of the transfer, but possibly it was because Morton was a cripple and had no sons. The real reason appeared on 20 Jan. 1541 when Robert was forced to resign the Earldom of Morton and the Lordship of Dalkeith into the King's hands under threat of death and of losing his estate of Lochleven.(4) This resignation however the Court of Session thought to be a forced one so in 1542 they reduced the charter making some compromising reflections on James V and returned the Earldom to James Douglas.(5) On 20 Jan. 1540/1 Robert had a Royal Charter to himself in liferent and to his son William in fee of the lands and barony of Kinross with the castle and loch of Lochleven, the burgh of Kinross being made a barony and the lands and baronies of Keillour, Lugtoun and Langnewton.(6) On 27 March 1546 he and his wife had a charter from John Charteris of Cuthilgurdy to the lands of Cuthilgurdy.(7) Issue 34I. WILLIAM- b. 1539/0, m.c.1565 AGNES LESLIE, d. 27 Sept. 1606 II. Robert- Earl of Buchan
III. George- m.1. after 1575 Jonet Lindsay of Dowhill, (m.1. Andrew Lundie of Balgony, 2. William Scott of Balwearie), 2. after 1593 Margaret Duris (m.1. William Scott of Abbotshall) IV. Euphemia- m. Patrick, Lord Lindsay of the Byres, d. June 1580 35V. JANET- m. JAMES COLVILLE of Carter Wemyss VI. Catherine- m. David Durie of Durie Ref: (1) Letters and Papers- X, No. 1229 (2) Reg. Mag. Sig. (3) Morton- II, 260-9, 289-90 (4) Ibid- 281-93 (5) Burnett MS; Reg. Honor. de Morton- II, 281-93; Reg. Mag. Sig. 30 May 1542 & 2 June 1564 (6) Reg. Mag. Sig. (7) Ibid-
"History of the House of Douglas"- I, 243-5, II, 104,156
"The Scotts Peerage"- VI, 369-70 34I. WILLIAM (WILLIAM 1, ARCHIBALD 2, ANDREW 3, WILLIAM 4, JAMES 5, JOHN 6, HENRY 7, WILLIAM 8, HENRY 9, ROBERT 10, ROBERT 11, ROBERT 12, ROBERT 13) b. 1539/0 m.c.1565 AGNES LESLIE, daughter of George, Earl of Rothes d. 27 Sept. 1606
William succeeded to the Lochleven estates at his father's death at the battle of Pinkie in 1547. After Queen Mary's marriage to Darnley, William was commanded on 7 Nov. 1565 to deliver Lochleven Castle to the Queen's officers with all the artillery and munitions, but because William was "extremelie sick, in perrell of his lyffe" he was allowed to keep the castle with the understanding that it may be taken over on 24 hours notice.(1) William's malady must have been short lived as he was involved in Riccio's assassination on 9 March 1566 and was formally charged for murder on 9 March 1566.(2) On 16 June 1567 he received a warrant for the detention of the Queen's person to Lochleven castle:
"Patrik Lord Lindsay of the Byris, William Lord Ruthven and William Douglas of Lochlevin topas and convoy hir Majestie to the said place of Lochlevin and the said lard to ressave hir thairin, and thair thay and every ane of thame to keip hir Majestie suirlie within the said place, and on na wyse to suffer hir pas furth of the same... as thai will ansuer to God and upon thair dewitie to the commounweill of this cuntrie."(3) Mary was accompanied by Mary Seton, Marie Courcelles and Jane Kennedy. Upon hearing that the Queen had abdicated William signed a document on 28 July 1567 stating that the abdication was concluded without his knowledge, that he had taken no part in compelling her to abdicate and that upon hearing of it he offered to escort the Queen to Stirling so she could declare her own will. The Queen declined the Laird's offer saying that: "for the present sche culd nocht be prepairit to pas thair, bot desirit the said William that sche micht remane in his place and use hir self at hir eas and quietnes as sche has done heir to fore."(4) Mary did not remain there long as Marie Courcelles had laid all the plans for an escape with the help of George Douglas and Willie Douglas the foundling. On Sunday 2 May 1568 Willie, while waiting on the family at supper, was able to throw a napkin over the castle keys and took them to Marie Courcelles who brought the Queen to the postern gate where a boat was waiting for them with an escort. William avoided suspicion in the affair due to the influence of his powerfull relative Morton. He commanded part of the Regent's army at Lanside on 12 May and was valuable in reinforcing the right wing of the force at a critical moment.(5)
Mary, Queen of Scots After Mary's escape the Laird was active in the King's party and accompanied Moray, Morton and Lethington to York when they presented their case against Mary, Queen of Scots to the English commissioners in 1568/9. After their return William was appointed to the command of St. Andrews Castle. (6) In Aug. 1570 he was appointed to assemble the nobles to "persew and assege" the castle of Longnewton held by Rutherford of Fernietoun.(7) William had a charter to Pharington in Roxburgh 23 Oct. 1574 and subscribed a bond of manrent to the Earl of Mar 3 May 1578.(8) Lochleven castle became a state prison and after his capture the Earl of Northumberland, leader of the Catholic uprising in Northern England was placed there under the keeping of the Laird who had the power
to make whatever terms he chose with the English for his release.(9) William encouraged the countess to bid up the Earl's ransom to 10,000 crowns (£2,000) and instead of sending the earl back to his wife he sold him to Sir John Foster for the same amount who took him to York where he was beheaded.(10) William was a close associate of the Earl of Morton and when he was driven from power in 1578 he sought refuge at Lochleven. On 20 Sept. 1580 the King granted to William all the lands of his deceased brother Robert Douglas, Earl of Buchan and was appointed sheriff and coroner of Banff in 1584.(11) After Morton's arrest the Laird was ordered to go beyond Cromarty Firth 30 March 1581 and to stay there under a penalty of £10,000 with James Colville of Easter Wemyss and George Douglas of Rungarvie as sureties.(12) William was not in much disfavor as the King wrote to him the following day: "Traist freind, We greit yow weill. Giff we had bene present with our counsale quhen your bill wes red We sould have insistit to have had sumqyhat of your desire aggreit unto. Alwyis seing it is thocht gude be the Lordis that ye first enter in your ward conforme to thair formar ordinance quhilk we of our self may not with ressoun alter, ye sall thairfoir satisfie thair desire... We commit Zou to God."(13) In the management of the Buchan estates William seems to have exceeded the rights of a landlord and the King wrote him the following: "Forsamekill as We as informit be oure louittis servitouris Archibald Broky in Downe and Thomas Broky his sone in the Baddis that ye, upoun the gift of the waird gevin be ws to you of the Erledome of Buchan have causit warne thame to remove frome thair rowmes and possessionis quhairin thay have remanit kyndlie and native tennentis thir mony and divers yeiris bygane committing na cryme nor offence aganis thair maisteris in tymes past nather yit to you sen your entrie to the erledome of Buchan paying alsua thair dewitie and service according to thair assedationis: Thairfoir seing the sed gift wes nocht gevin to the wrak of the saidis puir tennentis We will you that ye upoun your rycht set thame thair rowmes and possessionis for payment of thair dewitie contenit in thair auld rentall and quhilk thay payit to umquhile Robert Dowglas last Erle of Buchane and that ye remove thame nocht fra thair kyndlie possessionis and rowmes as ye will We did yow kyndnes and plesure in tymes cuming."(14) William's son Robert took part in the Raid of Ruthven on 22 Aug. 1582 and William signed the bond of the confederates on 30 Aug. for the establishment of the "trew religioune and reform of justice".(15) When King James gave the Earl of Mar the slip in June 1583 and James Stuart, Earl of Arran returned to power William was forfeited.(16) He was imprisoned in Inverness castle until 8 Dec. and after paying the huge amount of £20,000 the forfeiture was repealed on condition that he leave Britain within 30 days.(17) He went to La Rochelle where he and the other confederates plotted the re-establishment of the Protestant regime which occured in Oct. 1585. On 5 Jan. 1586/7 he had a charter of confirmation as heir of his father from Cardinal Beaton in gratitude for the defence of the Church against the Lutheran heresy to the lands of Kinnesswood and others 25 June 1544 and another by Sir Michael Donaldson, Prior of St. Serf's to the lands of Kirkness 9 Oct. 1544.(18) In 1588 William succeeded to the Earldom of Morton and on 20 June 1589 he had a charter to the Earldom and the Castle of Dalkeith. As leader of the Presbyterians he was high in the favor of the King who appointed him his lieutenant in the south of Scotland in Sept. 1594.(19) On 22 July 1594 he had a lease of the lands of Tulloes and others in Forfar which belonged to the monastery of Arbroath.(20) On 23 Jan. 1606 he had a Royal Charter to the lands of Colquhair and others in Annandale.(21)
Issue I. Robert- m. Jean Lyon (m.2. Earl of Angus, 3. before Apr. 1593 Alexander Lindsay), drowned 1584 II. James- m.1. 1587 Mary Kerr of Fernihurst, 2. 1598 Helen Scott of Abbotshall, 3. 1609 Jean Anstruther of that ilk, d. before 15 Oct.1620 III. Archibald- m. Barbara Forbes (m.1. Robert Allandyce, 2. Alexander Hay of Delgatie), d. 1649 Orkney IV. George- m. 1597 Margaret Forrester of Strathendry, d. before 9 Dec. 1609 V. Margaret- m. 1574 Sir John Wemyss of that ilk, d. before 1581 VI. Christian- m.1. 1576 Laurence, Master of Oliphant, 2. 9 Jan. 1586 Alexander, Earl of Home, d. between 1591 and 1607 VII. Mary- m. 1582 Walter, Lord Ogilvie of Deskford VIII. Euphema- m. 1586 Sir Thomas Lyon of Baldukie, Lord High Treasurer IX. Agnes- m. 24 July 1592 Archibald, Earl of Argyll, d. 3 May 1607 36X. ELIZABETH- m. before July 1590 FRANCIS HAY XI. Jean- d.s.p. Ref: (1) Reg. Privy Council- I, 390,396 (2) P.C. Reg.- I, 436 (3) Morton- I, 24 (4) Ibid- 27 (5) "Memoirs"- Melville, 202 (6) Morton- I, 53 (7) Ibid- 60 (8) P.C. Reg.- II, 691; Reg. Mag. Sig. (9) Morton- I, 75 (10) Historical Manuscripts Commission- Hatfield MSS, I part 2, p.7 (11) Morton- I, 124; P.C. Reg.- III, 312, 705 (12) Morton- I, 127 (13) Ibid(14) Ibid- 129 (15) P.C. Reg.- III, 507 (16) Morton- I, 141 (17) Reg. Privy Council- III, 613, 615, 620, 652 (18) Reg. Mag. Sig.(19) P.C. Reg.- V, 175, 179 (20) Reg. Mag. Sig.(21) Ibid"History of the House of Douglas"- II, 156-65 "The Scotts Peerage"- VI, 370 ff.
38III. WILLIAM (WILLIAM 1, ARCHIBALD 2, WILLIAM 3, WILLIAM 4, JAMES 5) b.c.1305 mistress ?MARGARET DUNBAR killed battle of Halidon Hill 19 July 1333 William was the Laird of Douglas, however, never married. His daughter Margaret being illegitimate. Issue-
39I. MARGARET- m. ALEXANDER MONTGOMERY, Laird of Eaglesham NOTES:
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