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Original Title: Tensile Strength

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TENSILE STRENGTH OF

CONCRETE

The breaking of the concrete subjected to tension is a

complex phenomenon proceeded by the occurrence of

micro-cracks in the weak areas of the concrete structure.

As it was shown before, the concrete has a lot defects in

its structure; under the action of loads stress

concentration appear around these defects which

produce micro-cracks when the concrete capacity of

taking tensile stresses is exceeded Fig. 1.8.

At the same time with the increasing of the load over the

micro-cracking limit, self-acceleration of the cracking

process takes place. This is caused by the change of the

gaps form that increases the concentration level, the

failure process suddenly taking place, self-accelerated.

The breaking appears like a failure crack perpendicular

to the load direction.

around the structure defect

The unit limit stresses resulting from the axial traction

test is called tensile strength (noted RBt Baccording to

STAS 10107/0-90 or ft according to EUROCODE 2 ) and

is the smallest of the concrete strengths, representing

only 1/101/20 of the compressive strength.

The direct determination of the tensile strength is very

rarely done because of the difficulties of the test (the test

samples are complicated, it is difficult to fix the sample

on the test machine, also it is difficult to maintain an axial

position of the load) Fig. 1.9.[9]

with the following relation:

Pr

Rt = ft= A

N/mm2

Where: Pr is the force at failure [N]

Ar - is the failure concrete area

The mean tensile strength fctm is the mean

of tensile strength in uniaxial tension.

The mean tensile strength fctm can be

determined using the relation:

fctm=0,3f ck2 / 3

r

for the determination

of the tensile strength; 1 adhesive material;

2 metallic part

The determination of this strength ( noted Rtd according to STAS

10107/0-90 and fct,sp according to [2] ) is based on the application

of Hertzs elasticity problem: if a cylinder is compressed along two

diametrically opposed generatrix, uniformly distributed tensile

stresses occur along the diameter, Fig.1.10.

2 Pr

Rtd = fct,sp=

d.l

(3.12)

Immediately under the load, a high compressive stress would be

induced and in practice, narrow strips of a packing material, such as

plywood are interposed between the cylinder and the platens.

has advantage of simplicity of the test and the

fact that the scale and form do not influence the

results. Also, the value of results are not

depending on the shape and sizes of samples.

Because of that, for testing other types of

sample can be used, Fig.3.11.

Fig. 3.11. Split test on cubes (a) and

prism fragments (b)

and for cube and prism parts A=aa, where is the

size of the cube and the length and width of

prism part.

(fctm) can be computed function the split tensile

strength with the relation [2]:

fctm =0.9 fct,sp

to bending tension

This resistance is determined using prismatic test

samples (100x100x550mm) Fig. 3.12. The test is called

three point test.

subjected to bending tension

the tensioned area the conventional bending resistance

of the concrete subjected to bending tension can be

determinate using Naviers relation:

6M r

M

Rti =fct,fl =

Wel bh 2

According to Romanian Standard the bending resistance is determined

with the following relation, admitting the hypothesis of entire

plasticizing of the tension concrete zone:

R ti f ct ,fl

where

24 M

M

3,43 2

2

7 bh

bh

P1

M

4

(fct,fl) can be determined function the tensile

strength to axial tension (fctm) with the relation

[2]:

0.7

f ct ,fl

hb

1 fl

h0

f ctm

0.7

h

fl b

h0

h0 =100 mm;

fl= 1.5, coefficient that depends on the

characteristic size.

MULTIAXIAL STRESS

The strength of materials subjected to

multiaxial stress is usually presented as a

failure surface, Fig. 1.13, [2]. In the threedimensional diagram there are important:

deviation plans and compression and

tension meridians and the interaction

curve for biaxial stress.

and interaction curve for biaxial stress

high, failure takes place by crushing, so it is a ductile

failure. An increase in lateral compression increases the

axial load that can be sustained [1].

the minimum principal stresses 2 and 3 are equal, it

can be considered that the strength on the direction of

maximum principal stress 1 has the value:

1 f c 4 2

where: fc is the compressive strength on cylinder.

f ck ,c f ck 1,0 5,0 2 / f ck

for

2 0,05 f ck

f ck ,c f ck 1,125 2,5 2 / f ck

for

2 0,05 f ck

3.6. Relation

tensile strength of concrete

Compressive strength is the most important

property, it defines the grade and it is used in

designing. In some situations, the tensile strength

is important,ex.: designing of highways, hydraulic

constructions, etc.

The relations are type:

ft k fc

recommended the values between and .

f t 0,3 f c

2/3

Is the most used relation

on cylinder, both in MPa. Relaion was given by Raphael.

Oluokun has modified the relation:

f t 0,2 f c

0, 7

relation :

f t 0,12 f c

0, 7

and ft is tensile strength.

of concrete

According to SREN1992-2006 compressive strength

is defined by the strength class which represents the

characteristic strength, (with

risck

of 5%) on cylinder (

(

)

fck ) or on cube fck, cube, determinated at 28 days

Between characteristic strengths in compression

on cylinder

ck and medium strength in compression

f cm on cylinder and medium strength in tension

f ctm

f ck

-characteristic strength in

compression on cylinder

f cm f ck 8

f ctm 0,30 f

2/3

ck

f ctk , 0,95 1,3 f ctm

f ct 0,9 f ct , sp

computed with relation:

Design strength:

cc f ck

f cd

f ctd

Where:

ct f ctk , 0, 05

cc

c

and

ct

and unfavourable effects from loading

c 1,5

c 1,2

Coefficient

transitory,

For accidental situations

cc

concrete (MPa)

Clasa de

C12/15

C16/20

C20/25

C25/30

C30/37

C35/45

C40/50

f ck

12

16

20

25

30

35

40

f ck ,cub

15

20

25

30

37

45

50

f cm

20

24

28

33

38

43

48

f ctm

1,6

1,9

2,2

2,6

2.9

3,2

3,5

f ctk , 0, 05

1,1

1,3

1,5

1,8

2,0

2,2

2,5

f ctk , 0,95

2,0

2,5

2,9

3,3

3,8

4,2

4,6

beton

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