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Leonard M. MELCESCU, Mihail V. CISTELECAN, Ovidiu CRAIU, H. Baris COSAN

phase 4 to 6 pole-changing winding, with 48 slots and 6

terminals. In order to obtain a higher fundamental winding

factor when winding is 6-pole connected, a degree of asymmetry

is accepted for the winding when 4-pole connected. The new

winding is compared with a well known two-layer winding

presented in literature. An experimental motor equipped with

the new winding was built on a 4-pole base and frame 100

(2.2/1.5 kW) and tested. At the same time, 2D FEM field-circuit

models were developed to simulate the operation of the

experimental model equipped with the newly proposed winding,

and model equipped with the well known two-layer winding.

Magnetomotive force, Pole-changing windings.

I.

INTRODUCTION

by static inverters allowing flexible and wide range

speed control, pole changing remains a cheap and

efficient option in many applications which require limited

speed control.

Like common, general purpose induction motors, polechanging induction motors must provide certain

characteristics at start and at full load operation. In

determining motors performance, one of the most important

data to know is the amplitude of the air gap flux density at

given speed, which depends on line voltage, three-phase

connection, the winding set-up (turns and space harmonic

winding factors) and the saturation level of the magnetic

circuit. Furthermore, in case of pole-changing windings,

finding a convenient fundamental winding factor that would

generate a balanced magnetic load in the machine at all

speeds (for different winding connections) is challenging.

This is why, in some pole-changing applications there is

noticeable difference between p.u. motor starting torques at

different speeds.

Also, another important aspect in designing pole-changing

motors is obtaining an air gap magneto-motive force with

reduced space harmonic content. Space harmonics that

cannot be further damped will generate additional harmonic

torques that will create torque ripple, fluctuation in the rotor

speed and additional iron losses. That is why most of two or

more pole-changing motors are equipped with two-layer

windings, which allow adjusting the coil pitch for reducing

the air gap mmf space harmonics. Conversely, two-layer

windings are more difficult to insert in the stator slots,

M. V. Cistelecan is with the Research Institute for Electrical Machines

(ICPE-ME), 45 Tudor Vladimirescu, 050881, Sect.5, Bucharest, Romania,

(mciste@yahoo.com).

L. M. Melcescu, O. Craiu are with the Electrical Machines Dept.,

Electrical Engineering Faculty, University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest,

313 Splaiul Independentei, 060042, Sect. 6, Bucharest, Romania,

(leonard@amotion.pub.ro; ocraiu@yahoo.com).

B.H. Cosan is with EGE University-Ege Vocational Training School,

Izmir, Turkey e-mail: info@aslankursun.com

slots due to the supplementary insulation placed between the

layers, if compared to single-layer windings.

II.

methods (voltage phasor diagram, summing slot voltage

phasors of one phase) irrespective of the number of layers.

The method used in this paper [2] is analytical and based on

voltage phasor diagram applied for each space harmonic.

The method allows computing the harmonic winding factors

kw, the space harmonic amplitudes and the differential

leakage coefficient d.

If the geometrical space angle of the slot k is k and slot k

contains Nck conductors of phase A, w is the total number of

turns per phase, c is the number of parallel paths, kw the

-order phase winding factor and A the space angle of the

-order space harmonic, the general equations of the winding

distribution are:

2

2cwk w

A =

N ck cos k +

N ck sin k ;

=

k{K }

k{K }

A

A

{ }

N ck sin k

1

k{K A }

arctan

.

N ck cos k

(1)

k K A

phase A was noted with KA. The sign () associated to

conductor numbers Nck denotes the current direction in the

respective slot. Taking into account that generally the

currents of the three phase machines are time delayed by

2/3 the resulting air gap mmf can be written as:

Frez ( , t ) =

3wI 2 k wd

sin( t ) +

=1

3wI 2 k wi

sin( + t )

=1

(2)

where (clock wise) CW winding factor, kwd, and (counterclock wise) CWW winding factor, kwi are:

2

2

C12 + C22 ;

k wi =

D12 + D22 ;

3

3

1

2

2

C1 = k wA cos A + k wB cos B +

+ k wC cos C ;

2

3

3

k wd =

1

2

2

C2 = k wA sin A + k wB sin B +

+ k wC sin C ;

2

3

3 (3)

D1 =

1

2

2

;

k wA cos A + k wB cos B + k wC cos C +

2

3

3

1

2

2

2

3

3

and (3) are calibrated by 2/3 factor in order to be comparable

with phase mmf winding factors. Relation (3) is written

under the assumption that phase currents remain symmetrical

even in case of an unbalanced space distribution of phase

conductors.

A remarkable indicator for three phase windings is the

differential reactance coefficient d, which synthetically

characterizes the space harmonic content of the air gap mmf.

A general computation method of d for pure waves is given

by Heller and Hamata [3] based on magnetic energy stored in

the air gap. In the most general case several some space

harmonics are un-pure waves, meaning that the CW and the

CCW components coexist. In this paper d coefficient is

defined as having two components: the first component dC is

time-independent and is calculated as in literature, while the

second dV is time-dependent and characterizes the degree of

spatial asymmetry of the winding:

2

kwd 2 kwi 2

p

k k

d =

+

+ 2 wd 2 wi cos2t ;

kwp p

d = dC + dV cos2t

(4)

both coefficients dC and dV are used, and they are important

criteria in winding design.

III. NEW WINDING ANALYSIS

In this paper a new double layer, three-phase, 4 to 6 polechanging winding, with 48 slots and 6 terminals has been

designed and is presented. As it is known, a 48-slot, threephase, 6-pole winding cannot have a strict symmetric space

distribution. In order to obtain a higher fundamental winding

factor in case of 6-pole connection, a certain asymmetry is

accepted in the 4-pole connection, which, on the other hand,

leads to a balanced air gap flux density between the two

speeds. Regardless the type of lamination used (four pole or

six pole basic motor lamination), the air gap flux density

magnitudes for the two speeds do not differ with more than

5%. The new winding is compared to the well known

Nevens two-layers winding [1] in regard to fundamental

wave, space harmonic content and differential coefficient.

Single layer winding

The analysis of the new winding is first realized for the

two fundamental waves corresponding to four- and six-pole

connections. Only afterwards space harmonics (upper

discussed.

It is well known that double-layer windings can be

designed with any coil pitch, while single-layer windings

have limited possibilities in that regard. For a 48-slot

winding the full-pitch is 12 slots for four poles, and 8 slots

for six poles. Single-layer windings can be developed (not

exclusively) with equal coils with 10 slots pitch (12 groups

of two coils each), or with equal coils with 9-slot pitch (8

groups of three coils each). The latter was chosen as it

produces better performances and requires a reduced amount

of copper due to shorter end windings. For the four-pole

winding the ratio between coil pitch and full pitch is 75%

and for six pole winding the equivalent ratio is 87.5%. Fig. 1

shows the coils arrangement of the single layer polechanging winding.

In order to establish the right connection between the coils

a positive reference sign is attached to each coil and the

procedure of summing phase voltage of individual phase is

applied. The (+) sign is attached to the coil which has the

go branch the left side branch and the return branch the

right side one, otherwise the coil has assigned sign (-). For

four-pole winding each phase must contain 8 coils divided

into two parallel paths, which must fulfill conditions for

parallel connection. For six-pole winding all the eight coils

are connected in series. The criteria used to connect the

different coils of each phase were:

(a) obtaining the maximum fundamental winding factor,

which means the larger possible phasorial sum of phase

voltage at both speeds (number of poles);

(b) the three phases must be balanced, meaning electrical

angle between the phases be as close as possible to 3 x 120o;

(c) the 4-pole machine emf for each parallel path must be

same in magnitude and phase to prevent circulation currents;

(d) the current passing through coils of one parallel path in

4-pole connection was reversed in 6-pole connection in order

to attain the pole changing.

A.

density has to be forced in the 6 poles connection in order to

have high enough starting torque. It leads to inner delta

connection for six poles, and the following connection

should be performed: Y-W6, Z-U6, X-V6 as in figure 2.

Tables 1 and 2 present results of the analysis of the singlelayer winding shown in Fig.1. The space harmonic orders

refer to the geometrical coordinate system.

The analysis of the new single-layer winding leads to the

following conclusions:

a. As far as 4-pole winding is concerned, all even space

harmonics are un-balanced excepting those of order =4k.

The fundamental 2-order wave has the CCW equal to 3.79%

of CW. The 3k order harmonics are not anymore cancelling

TABLE 1.

SINGLE LAYER 4-POLE ANALYSIS RESULTS

Space

harmonic

order

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

for four and six-pole single-layer winding

B.

kwU

kwV

kwW

kwd

kwi

0.7700

0.6422

0.1768

0.4330

0.2389

0.2500

0.1267

0.7700

0.6422

0.1768

0.4330

0.2389

0.2500

0.1267

0.7267

0.6597

0.1353

0.4330

0.3010

0.3536

0.0734

0.7553

0.0589

0.0266

0.0000

0.2576

0.1610

0.0333

0.0286

0.0431

0.1619

0.4330

0.0434

0.0431

0.1067

TABLE 2.

SINGLE LAYER 6-POLE ANALYSIS RESULTS

Space

harmonic

order

1

3

5

7

9

11

13

15

consecutive phases are 118.29o, 118.29o and 123.42o,

respectively.

kwU

kwV

kwW

kwd

kwi

0.3477

0.9295

0.1411

0.2563

0.4861

0.1045

0.1499

0.1300

0.3477

0.9295

0.1411

0.2563

0.4861

0.1045

0.1499

0.1300

0.2452

0.9435

0.1389

0.0488

0.5748

0.1389

0.2079

0.1715

0.0480

0.9339

0.0181

0.0205

0.0334

0.1099

0.1537

0.0294

0.0198

0.0112

0.1381

0.1621

0.0258

0.0101

0.0735

0.0984

between consecutive phases are: 118.16o, 118.16o and

123.68o, respectively, as shown in Fig 3. The computed

differential coefficients (4) are dC = 0.0485, dV = 0.0485,

the latter being different than zero due to unbalance.

b. As far as 6-poles winding is concerned, there are only

odd order space harmonics, the first order being a subharmonic. Yet, all the waves are un-balanced, but the

electrical 3rd order harmonic has only a 1.2% CCW

component. The computed differential coefficients (4) are

The single layer winding shown in fig. 1 has been used as

starting point for developing the double layer winding. For

that purpose, the single layer winding has been imaginarily

sectioned into two identical windings, each having half of the

total number of turns per coil. The two half-windings have

been shifted one face to the other by 9 slots and connected

together using a special rule. The reason for shifting the

partial windings with 9 slots can be observed in Fig. 3 where

4-pole and 6-pole windings have opposite directions of

rotation. The 9-slot shifting represents an average between 8

slots (the phase shift for the 4-pole connection) and 2 times

5.33 (the phase shift for the 6-pole connection). The general

rule for obtaining the double layer winding WDG2 from

single layer windings WDG1 by combining the coils of the

first single-layer winding with coils from another phase of

the second single-layer winding can be written as following:

U 2 = U1 (0) + V1 ( +9);

V2 = V1 (0) + W1 ( +9);

(5)

W2 = W1 (0) + U1 ( +9)

In Fig. 4 it is represented the winding diagram for the

double layer configuration.

Compared to the single-layer winding, the new doublelayer winding has a higher distribution factor because the

two layers of each phase winding have different spatial

arrangement (are not in phase). Consequently, the space

harmonic content is improved.

From table 3 it can be seen that reducing space harmonic

content was achieved on the cost of diminishing the

fundamental pitch factor from 0.7553 in single-layer winding

to 0.7488 (-1.4%) for 4-pole connection, and from 0.9339 to

0.8843 (-5.3%) for 6-pole connection.

TABLE 4.

COMPARISON BETWEEN THE NEW DOUBLE-LAYER WINDING AND THE BEST

POLE-CHANGING WINDING KNOWN FROM THE LITERATURE [1] REGARDING

FUNDAMENTAL WINDING FACTORS AND DIFFERENTIAL COEFFICIENT.

TABLE 3.

PERFORMANCE INDICATORS

OF THE DOUBLE LAYER WINDING SHOWN IN FIG. 4

4-poles winding

Space

CW

CCW

harmoni

waves

waves

c order

1

0.7488

0.0174

2

0.0153

0.0417

3

0.0211

0.0211

4

0.0000

0.3750

5

0.0336

0.0344

6

0.1555

0.0112

7

0.0203

0.1058

8

0.0000

0.0000

9

0.1232

0.1232

10

0.0417

0.0569

11

0.0548

0.0130

6-poles winding

Space

CCW

CW

harmonic

waves

waves

order

1

0.0178

0.0031

3

0.0084

0.8843

5

0.0444

0.0119

7

0.1617

0.0091

9

0.0114

0.0333

11

0.0066

0.0353

13

0.0696

0.1155

15

0.0064

0.0264

17

0.0542

0.0021

19

0.0091

0.0645

21

0.0197

0.0150

of symmetry, the CCW components are reduced to 2.32% (in

4-pole connection) and 0.95% (in 6-pole connection). The

calculated differential coefficients (4) are dC = 0.0279, dV =

0.0247 for 4-pole winding and dC = 0.0266, dV = 0.0118 for

6-pole winding.

Fig. 5 shows the space angles between the three phase

fundamentals.

W6

0.8887

120.7

U6

118.6

0.8882

120.7

V6

0.8887

for four and six poles double layer winding

In Fig. 6 are plotted the air gap mmf for 4-pole and for 6pole winding connections: a) fundamental (red color), b) the

resultant (blue color) and c) differential wave (green color).

Fig. 6. Computed air gap mmf for 4-pole and for 6-pole double-layer

winding. The vertical axes are calibrated in the phase reference system.

kw1CW/

kw1CCW

dC

dV

4 poles winding

Neven Srb

Actual

winding [1]

winding

0.7182/

0.7488/

0.0174

0.0239

0.0279

0.0033

0.0247

6 poles winding

Neven Srb

Actual

winding [1]

winding

0.8703/

0.8843/

0.017

0.0084

0.0389

0.0266

0.0260

0.0118

factors of proposed winding are better for both connections

(+4.2% for 4-pole and +1.6% for 6-pole). As far as the

differential coefficients are concerned, the 4-pole windings

are comparable but the newly proposed winding in 6-pole

connection is noticeably better.

IV. APPLICATION

An experimental induction motor equipped with newly

proposed double layer, three-phase, 4 to 6 pole-changing

winding was manufactured and tested at start and at full load.

The stator and rotor lamination have 48 and 36 slots,

respectively. Each phase winding is distributed in 26 stator

slots and each coil has 30 turns. The 2.2/1.5 kW motor has a

168 mm outer diameter, the inner diameter of 104 mm, and

axial length of 120 mm.

A FEM based numerical field-circuit 2D model was

developed to compare motors performance when equipped

with new winding and when known Nevens winding [1] was

used. In order to confirm the accuracy of the model,

numerical results were compared with experimental tests of

same motor.

FEM analysis of manufactured motor

The 2D electromagnetic field model used to study the

motor has the following governing equation:

A.

s

(6)

Js [0, 0, Js(x, y)] the current density in the stator slots

(initially unknown), the magnetic permeability and the

electric conductivity. The finite element model has been

coupled with stator and rotor circuits while voltage sources

have been provided, obtaining the stator current and Js in (6).

Fig 7 shows the stator circuits for 4-pole YY connection and

6-pole connection, respectively. The circuit components in

Fig. 7 are as follows:

- V1, V2 and V3 are supplying voltage of each phase;

- R_U6, R_V6, R_W6, R_X, R_Y and R_Z represent the

stator resistance of one half phase winding;

- L_U6_U4, L_V6_V4, L_W6_W4, L_U4_X, L_V4_Y

and L_W4_Z are stator end winding inductances for half

phase winding;

- B_U4_U6P, B_U4_XP, B_V4_V6P, B_V4_YP,

B_W4_W6P, B_W4_ZP represent the go-sides of stator

coils and the B_U4_U6N, B_U4_XN, B_V4_V6N,

B_V4_YN, B_W4_W6N, B_W4_ZN are the return-sides

of the stator coils.

- Q1 is a macro-circuit, a feature of Flux software

package, used to model the squirrel cage of the machine [5].

a.

a.

b.

a. YY connection 4-poles machine, b. connection 6-poles machine

plotted, it can be also seen that half of the stator slots are

coloured differently as they correspond to different coils.

The magnetic non-linearity has been taken into account using

an energetic equivalence method implemented in Flux

software package [5].

Magnetic field lines and the distribution of the magnetic

flux density have been plotted in Figs. 9.a-b for 4-pole and 6pole new winding, respectively. Same color scale from Fig.

9.c was used to plot both charts.

Running successive numerical simulations for different

slip values within the range [0, 1] allowed the determination

of the speed - torque characteristics. Fig. 10 shows these

characteristics for the motor equipped with the new winding

in comparison with the motor equipped with the known [1]

winding, for both 4-pole and 6-pole connections. It can be

seen that motor with newly proposed winding has a better

starting torque than the one with classical winding for both

connections. Also, in 4-pole connection, the motor equipped

with new winding has a smaller maximum torque than the

motor with classical winding, while in 6-pole connection the

situation is opposed.

In addition to torque characteristics, motors efficiency has

been also compared when using the two windings. Stator and

rotor Joule losses, the air-gap electromagnetic power and the

b.

c.

a. 4-poles - YY connection, b. 6-poles connection, c. flux density scale

field-circuit problem. At the same time, iron losses have been

computed from the field solution, based on magnetic flux

density distribution and specific material coefficients [5].

actual paper winding 4-poles

well known winding [1] 4-poles

actual paper winding 6-poles

well known winding [1] 6-poles

1600

1400

1200

1000

800

600

400

200

0

0.00

20.00

40.00

60.00

80.00

Fig. 8. Finite element discretization of computation domain

80

winding and motor using Nevens winding, shows little

difference, and a slight advantage for the new winding. With

a higher winding factor, the newly proposed winding has a

better power factor, slightly reduced iron and Joule losses

and thus higher efficiency.

For 6-poles motor there is a good agreement between the

numerical and experimental results. For 4-poles motor there

are some discrepancies in the power factor and no-load

current due to parallel connection in the phase winding on

one hand and due to the magnetizing characteristic of the

lamination on the other. From Fig. 9 one can see that the

yoke flux density is higher in the 4-poles motor.

4 poles

70

Efficiency [%]

60

50

40

a.

30

20

10

0

0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

80

6 poles

70

Efficiency [%]

60

50

40

b.

30

20

actual paper winding

10

0

0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

a. 4-poles YY connection, b. 6-poles connection

determine the total input power. Friction and windage losses

have been determined from experimental results. Efficiency

versus power load characteristics have been determined from

power balance [6] and are displayed in fig. 11 for motor

equipped with both windings, and for both 4- and 6-pole

connections.

The motor with new winding has an increased efficiency,

due to a higher fundamental winding factor, hence

diminished magnetic flux density, reduced iron losses and

lower magnetization current, yielding also to reduced Joule

losses in the stator.

Experimental results

The validation of numerical model has been achieved by

comparing computed results with experimental data for the

motor equipped with new winding. Data is shown in Table 5.

V. CONCLUSIONS

The paper presents a new pole-changing winding

developed on a stator structure having 4/6 poles and 48 slots.

Starting from a single layer pole-changing winding, a new

double layer winding was designed. Compared to the best

known pole-changing winding [1], the new winding produces

better performance due to increased fundamental winding

factors and diminished space harmonic content.

The new winding was analysed using FEM and tested on

an induction motor built on the base of a 3 kW/15000 rpm

motor with 100mm frame, developing 2.2 kW/1.5 kW rated

power for 4/6 poles, respectively. The new winding can be

used in general applications as the air gap flux density is very

balanced at both speeds, resulting in an almost constant

torque.

Compared to known windings, because of the higher

fundamental winding factors for both polarities, the new

winding allows for either reduced iron losses at same number

of turns per phase or diminished Joule losses at same value

of the air gap flux density.

[1]

[2]

B.

TABLE 5.

EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL RESULTS FOR THE INDUCTION MOTOR IN

THE FRAME 100 WITH RATED POWER 2.2 KW/1.5 KW, 4/6 POLES

Experimental

results

new winding

4

poles

Iron losses Pfe [W]

Starting current p.u.

Starting torque p.u.

Breakdown torque p.u.

Rated current In [A]

Rated input power Pa [W]

Stator Joule losses Pcu1 [W]

Rotor Joule losses Pcu2 [W]

Rated efficiency [%]

Rated power factor

Rated slip [%]

Rated speed [rpm]

6

poles

Numerical

results

new

winding

4

poles

6

poles

Numerical

results

Neven Srb

winding [1]

4

poles

6

poles

340

194

364

200

337

188

6.57 4.49 7.66 5.25 7.36 5.05

2.59 3.80 3.17 3.96 2.98 3.53

4.6

4.41 4.67 4.10 4.85 4.49

7.00 5.73 5.63 5.71 6.12 6.00

3042 2117 3022 2148 3186 2234

375

374

483

448

394

350

82 34.7 83.9 36.8

73.8 56.4

72.32 70.85 72.53 70.03 69.84 37.12

0.627 0.533 0.78 0.55 0.75 0.54

3.5

3.5

3.4 3.56

3.19 3.57

965 1449

964

1452

964 1447

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

VI. REFERENCES

Neven Srb: Winding technique of electrical motors, Technicka kniga,

Zagreb, 1990.

M.V. Cistelecan, H. B. Cosan, and M. Popescu: Tooth Concentrated

Fractional Windings for Low Speed Three Phase a.c. Machines,

ICEM2006, Chania, Greece, Sept. 2006

B. Heller, V. Hamata: Harmonic field effects in induction machines,

Academia Publishing House, Prague, 1977.

M.V. Cistelecan: Three phase a.c. winding for pole changeable

electrical machines in the ratio 4:6, Romanian patent RO-122795

issued 29 January 2010.

Cedrat, Flux 10 Users Guide, Vol.1-5, Meylan, 2007

T. Tudorache, L. Melcescu, "FEM Optimal Design of Energy

Efficient Induction Machines", Advances in Electrical and Computer

Engineering, vol. 9, pp. 58-64, 2009.

VII. BIOGRAPHIES

Leonard Marius Melcescu was born in Pitesti-Arges in Romania in 1970.

He graduated in 1995. and the obtained his Ph. D. in electrical engineering

from POLITECHNICA University of Bucharest, Romania, in 2006. He

is currently teaching Electrical Machines and drives at POLITECHNICA

University of Bucharest.

Mihail V. Cistelecan (M94), born in 1947 in Tg.Mures (Romania),

received the MS degree as electrical engineer from Technical University of

Cluj-Napoca, Romania, in 1969 and the Ph. D. in electrical machines and

drives from POLITECHNICA University of Bucharest, Romania, in

1990.

Ovidiu Craiu was born in 1966 in Bucharest, Romania. He graduated from

POLITECHNICA University of Bucharest, Romania, where he obtained

in 1996 a Ph.D. degree in Electrical Machines. After being involved in

human rights projects for almost 10 years he returned in 2007 to

engineering business. He is currently teaching Fundamentals of Electricity

and Electrical Machines at POLITECHNICA University of Bucharest.

H. Baris Cosan was born in Izmir, Turkey, in 1945. He graduated in 1967

the Technical Faculty of Education University of Gazi, Ankara.

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