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A New 4/6 Pole-Changing Double Layer

Winding for Three Phase Electrical Machines


Leonard M. MELCESCU, Mihail V. CISTELECAN, Ovidiu CRAIU, H. Baris COSAN

Abstract -- The paper presents a new double layer three


phase 4 to 6 pole-changing winding, with 48 slots and 6
terminals. In order to obtain a higher fundamental winding
factor when winding is 6-pole connected, a degree of asymmetry
is accepted for the winding when 4-pole connected. The new
winding is compared with a well known two-layer winding
presented in literature. An experimental motor equipped with
the new winding was built on a 4-pole base and frame 100
(2.2/1.5 kW) and tested. At the same time, 2D FEM field-circuit
models were developed to simulate the operation of the
experimental model equipped with the newly proposed winding,
and model equipped with the well known two-layer winding.

Index Terms Finite element methods, Induction Machine,


Magnetomotive force, Pole-changing windings.

I.

INTRODUCTION

N spite of increasing number of induction motors driven


by static inverters allowing flexible and wide range
speed control, pole changing remains a cheap and
efficient option in many applications which require limited
speed control.
Like common, general purpose induction motors, polechanging induction motors must provide certain
characteristics at start and at full load operation. In
determining motors performance, one of the most important
data to know is the amplitude of the air gap flux density at
given speed, which depends on line voltage, three-phase
connection, the winding set-up (turns and space harmonic
winding factors) and the saturation level of the magnetic
circuit. Furthermore, in case of pole-changing windings,
finding a convenient fundamental winding factor that would
generate a balanced magnetic load in the machine at all
speeds (for different winding connections) is challenging.
This is why, in some pole-changing applications there is
noticeable difference between p.u. motor starting torques at
different speeds.
Also, another important aspect in designing pole-changing
motors is obtaining an air gap magneto-motive force with
reduced space harmonic content. Space harmonics that
cannot be further damped will generate additional harmonic
torques that will create torque ripple, fluctuation in the rotor
speed and additional iron losses. That is why most of two or
more pole-changing motors are equipped with two-layer
windings, which allow adjusting the coil pitch for reducing
the air gap mmf space harmonics. Conversely, two-layer
windings are more difficult to insert in the stator slots,
M. V. Cistelecan is with the Research Institute for Electrical Machines
(ICPE-ME), 45 Tudor Vladimirescu, 050881, Sect.5, Bucharest, Romania,
(mciste@yahoo.com).
L. M. Melcescu, O. Craiu are with the Electrical Machines Dept.,
Electrical Engineering Faculty, University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest,
313 Splaiul Independentei, 060042, Sect. 6, Bucharest, Romania,
(leonard@amotion.pub.ro; ocraiu@yahoo.com).
B.H. Cosan is with EGE University-Ege Vocational Training School,
Izmir, Turkey e-mail: info@aslankursun.com

require additional labor and reduce the active space of the


slots due to the supplementary insulation placed between the
layers, if compared to single-layer windings.
II.

AIR GAP MMF ANALYSIS

Three phase windings can be analyzed using classical


methods (voltage phasor diagram, summing slot voltage
phasors of one phase) irrespective of the number of layers.
The method used in this paper [2] is analytical and based on
voltage phasor diagram applied for each space harmonic.
The method allows computing the harmonic winding factors
kw, the space harmonic amplitudes and the differential
leakage coefficient d.
If the geometrical space angle of the slot k is k and slot k
contains Nck conductors of phase A, w is the total number of
turns per phase, c is the number of parallel paths, kw the
-order phase winding factor and A the space angle of the
-order space harmonic, the general equations of the winding
distribution are:
2

2cwk w

A =

N ck cos k +
N ck sin k ;
=

k{K }
k{K }

A
A

{ }

N ck sin k
1
k{K A }
arctan
.

N ck cos k

(1)

k K A

The set of the armatures slots containing conductors of


phase A was noted with KA. The sign () associated to
conductor numbers Nck denotes the current direction in the
respective slot. Taking into account that generally the
currents of the three phase machines are time delayed by
2/3 the resulting air gap mmf can be written as:

Frez ( , t ) =

3wI 2 k wd
sin( t ) +
=1

3wI 2 k wi
sin( + t )
=1

(2)

where (clock wise) CW winding factor, kwd, and (counterclock wise) CWW winding factor, kwi are:
2
2
C12 + C22 ;
k wi =
D12 + D22 ;
3
3
1
2
2

C1 = k wA cos A + k wB cos B +
+ k wC cos C ;
2
3
3

k wd =

1
2
2

C2 = k wA sin A + k wB sin B +
+ k wC sin C ;
2
3
3 (3)

D1 =

1
2
2

;
k wA cos A + k wB cos B + k wC cos C +
2
3
3

1
2
2

D2 = k wA sin A + k wB sin B + k wC sin C + .


2
3
3

Fig 1. Single layer 48-slots, 4/6 pole changing winding

The amplitudes of the magnetic waves calculated with (2)


and (3) are calibrated by 2/3 factor in order to be comparable
with phase mmf winding factors. Relation (3) is written
under the assumption that phase currents remain symmetrical
even in case of an unbalanced space distribution of phase
conductors.
A remarkable indicator for three phase windings is the
differential reactance coefficient d, which synthetically
characterizes the space harmonic content of the air gap mmf.
A general computation method of d for pure waves is given
by Heller and Hamata [3] based on magnetic energy stored in
the air gap. In the most general case several some space
harmonics are un-pure waves, meaning that the CW and the
CCW components coexist. In this paper d coefficient is
defined as having two components: the first component dC is
time-independent and is calculated as in literature, while the
second dV is time-dependent and characterizes the degree of
spatial asymmetry of the winding:
2

kwd 2 kwi 2
p
k k

d =
+
+ 2 wd 2 wi cos2t ;

kwp p

d = dC + dV cos2t

(4)

Since studied windings are geometrically unbalanced,


both coefficients dC and dV are used, and they are important
criteria in winding design.
III. NEW WINDING ANALYSIS
In this paper a new double layer, three-phase, 4 to 6 polechanging winding, with 48 slots and 6 terminals has been
designed and is presented. As it is known, a 48-slot, threephase, 6-pole winding cannot have a strict symmetric space
distribution. In order to obtain a higher fundamental winding
factor in case of 6-pole connection, a certain asymmetry is
accepted in the 4-pole connection, which, on the other hand,
leads to a balanced air gap flux density between the two
speeds. Regardless the type of lamination used (four pole or
six pole basic motor lamination), the air gap flux density
magnitudes for the two speeds do not differ with more than
5%. The new winding is compared to the well known
Nevens two-layers winding [1] in regard to fundamental
wave, space harmonic content and differential coefficient.
Single layer winding
The analysis of the new winding is first realized for the
two fundamental waves corresponding to four- and six-pole
connections. Only afterwards space harmonics (upper

harmonics and fractional sub-harmonics) are analyzed and


discussed.
It is well known that double-layer windings can be
designed with any coil pitch, while single-layer windings
have limited possibilities in that regard. For a 48-slot
winding the full-pitch is 12 slots for four poles, and 8 slots
for six poles. Single-layer windings can be developed (not
exclusively) with equal coils with 10 slots pitch (12 groups
of two coils each), or with equal coils with 9-slot pitch (8
groups of three coils each). The latter was chosen as it
produces better performances and requires a reduced amount
of copper due to shorter end windings. For the four-pole
winding the ratio between coil pitch and full pitch is 75%
and for six pole winding the equivalent ratio is 87.5%. Fig. 1
shows the coils arrangement of the single layer polechanging winding.
In order to establish the right connection between the coils
a positive reference sign is attached to each coil and the
procedure of summing phase voltage of individual phase is
applied. The (+) sign is attached to the coil which has the
go branch the left side branch and the return branch the
right side one, otherwise the coil has assigned sign (-). For
four-pole winding each phase must contain 8 coils divided
into two parallel paths, which must fulfill conditions for
parallel connection. For six-pole winding all the eight coils
are connected in series. The criteria used to connect the
different coils of each phase were:
(a) obtaining the maximum fundamental winding factor,
which means the larger possible phasorial sum of phase
voltage at both speeds (number of poles);
(b) the three phases must be balanced, meaning electrical
angle between the phases be as close as possible to 3 x 120o;
(c) the 4-pole machine emf for each parallel path must be
same in magnitude and phase to prevent circulation currents;
(d) the current passing through coils of one parallel path in
4-pole connection was reversed in 6-pole connection in order
to attain the pole changing.

A.

Fig. 2. Connection diagram YY/ for 4/6 pole changing winding

For constant torque general application the air gap flux


density has to be forced in the 6 poles connection in order to
have high enough starting torque. It leads to inner delta
connection for six poles, and the following connection
should be performed: Y-W6, Z-U6, X-V6 as in figure 2.
Tables 1 and 2 present results of the analysis of the singlelayer winding shown in Fig.1. The space harmonic orders
refer to the geometrical coordinate system.
The analysis of the new single-layer winding leads to the
following conclusions:
a. As far as 4-pole winding is concerned, all even space
harmonics are un-balanced excepting those of order =4k.
The fundamental 2-order wave has the CCW equal to 3.79%
of CW. The 3k order harmonics are not anymore cancelling
TABLE 1.
SINGLE LAYER 4-POLE ANALYSIS RESULTS
Space
harmonic
order
2
4
6
8
10
12
14

Fig. 3. Space angles between phase mmf


for four and six-pole single-layer winding

B.

kwU

kwV

kwW

kwd

kwi

0.7700
0.6422
0.1768
0.4330
0.2389
0.2500
0.1267

0.7700
0.6422
0.1768
0.4330
0.2389
0.2500
0.1267

0.7267
0.6597
0.1353
0.4330
0.3010
0.3536
0.0734

0.7553
0.0589
0.0266
0.0000
0.2576
0.1610
0.0333

0.0286
0.0431
0.1619
0.4330
0.0434
0.0431
0.1067

TABLE 2.
SINGLE LAYER 6-POLE ANALYSIS RESULTS
Space
harmonic
order
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15

dC=0.0604, dV = 0.0255. The space angles between the three


consecutive phases are 118.29o, 118.29o and 123.42o,
respectively.

kwU

kwV

kwW

kwd

kwi

0.3477
0.9295
0.1411
0.2563
0.4861
0.1045
0.1499
0.1300

0.3477
0.9295
0.1411
0.2563
0.4861
0.1045
0.1499
0.1300

0.2452
0.9435
0.1389
0.0488
0.5748
0.1389
0.2079
0.1715

0.0480
0.9339
0.0181
0.0205
0.0334
0.1099
0.1537
0.0294

0.0198
0.0112
0.1381
0.1621
0.0258
0.0101
0.0735
0.0984

as in the regular balanced windings. The space angles


between consecutive phases are: 118.16o, 118.16o and
123.68o, respectively, as shown in Fig 3. The computed
differential coefficients (4) are dC = 0.0485, dV = 0.0485,
the latter being different than zero due to unbalance.
b. As far as 6-poles winding is concerned, there are only
odd order space harmonics, the first order being a subharmonic. Yet, all the waves are un-balanced, but the
electrical 3rd order harmonic has only a 1.2% CCW
component. The computed differential coefficients (4) are

Double layer winding


The single layer winding shown in fig. 1 has been used as
starting point for developing the double layer winding. For
that purpose, the single layer winding has been imaginarily
sectioned into two identical windings, each having half of the
total number of turns per coil. The two half-windings have
been shifted one face to the other by 9 slots and connected
together using a special rule. The reason for shifting the
partial windings with 9 slots can be observed in Fig. 3 where
4-pole and 6-pole windings have opposite directions of
rotation. The 9-slot shifting represents an average between 8
slots (the phase shift for the 4-pole connection) and 2 times
5.33 (the phase shift for the 6-pole connection). The general
rule for obtaining the double layer winding WDG2 from
single layer windings WDG1 by combining the coils of the
first single-layer winding with coils from another phase of
the second single-layer winding can be written as following:
U 2 = U1 (0) + V1 ( +9);
V2 = V1 (0) + W1 ( +9);

(5)

W2 = W1 (0) + U1 ( +9)
In Fig. 4 it is represented the winding diagram for the
double layer configuration.
Compared to the single-layer winding, the new doublelayer winding has a higher distribution factor because the
two layers of each phase winding have different spatial
arrangement (are not in phase). Consequently, the space
harmonic content is improved.
From table 3 it can be seen that reducing space harmonic
content was achieved on the cost of diminishing the
fundamental pitch factor from 0.7553 in single-layer winding
to 0.7488 (-1.4%) for 4-pole connection, and from 0.9339 to
0.8843 (-5.3%) for 6-pole connection.

Fig. 4. Double layer 48-slots, 4/6 pole-changing winding

TABLE 4.
COMPARISON BETWEEN THE NEW DOUBLE-LAYER WINDING AND THE BEST
POLE-CHANGING WINDING KNOWN FROM THE LITERATURE [1] REGARDING
FUNDAMENTAL WINDING FACTORS AND DIFFERENTIAL COEFFICIENT.

TABLE 3.
PERFORMANCE INDICATORS
OF THE DOUBLE LAYER WINDING SHOWN IN FIG. 4

4-poles winding
Space
CW
CCW
harmoni
waves
waves
c order
1
0.7488
0.0174
2
0.0153
0.0417
3
0.0211
0.0211
4
0.0000
0.3750
5
0.0336
0.0344
6
0.1555
0.0112
7
0.0203
0.1058
8
0.0000
0.0000
9
0.1232
0.1232
10
0.0417
0.0569
11
0.0548
0.0130

6-poles winding
Space
CCW
CW
harmonic
waves
waves
order
1
0.0178
0.0031
3
0.0084
0.8843
5
0.0444
0.0119
7
0.1617
0.0091
9
0.0114
0.0333
11
0.0066
0.0353
13
0.0696
0.1155
15
0.0064
0.0264
17
0.0542
0.0021
19
0.0091
0.0645
21
0.0197
0.0150

The winding, for its both connections, has a higher degree


of symmetry, the CCW components are reduced to 2.32% (in
4-pole connection) and 0.95% (in 6-pole connection). The
calculated differential coefficients (4) are dC = 0.0279, dV =
0.0247 for 4-pole winding and dC = 0.0266, dV = 0.0118 for
6-pole winding.
Fig. 5 shows the space angles between the three phase
fundamentals.
W6

0.8887
120.7

U6

118.6

0.8882
120.7

V6

0.8887

Fig. 5. Space angle between the phase mmf


for four and six poles double layer winding

In Fig. 6 are plotted the air gap mmf for 4-pole and for 6pole winding connections: a) fundamental (red color), b) the
resultant (blue color) and c) differential wave (green color).

Fig. 6. Computed air gap mmf for 4-pole and for 6-pole double-layer
winding. The vertical axes are calibrated in the phase reference system.

kw1CW/
kw1CCW
dC
dV

4 poles winding
Neven Srb
Actual
winding [1]
winding
0.7182/
0.7488/
0.0174
0.0239
0.0279
0.0033
0.0247

6 poles winding
Neven Srb
Actual
winding [1]
winding
0.8703/
0.8843/
0.017
0.0084
0.0389
0.0266
0.0260
0.0118

From table 4 it can be seen that the fundamental winding


factors of proposed winding are better for both connections
(+4.2% for 4-pole and +1.6% for 6-pole). As far as the
differential coefficients are concerned, the 4-pole windings
are comparable but the newly proposed winding in 6-pole
connection is noticeably better.
IV. APPLICATION
An experimental induction motor equipped with newly
proposed double layer, three-phase, 4 to 6 pole-changing
winding was manufactured and tested at start and at full load.
The stator and rotor lamination have 48 and 36 slots,
respectively. Each phase winding is distributed in 26 stator
slots and each coil has 30 turns. The 2.2/1.5 kW motor has a
168 mm outer diameter, the inner diameter of 104 mm, and
axial length of 120 mm.
A FEM based numerical field-circuit 2D model was
developed to compare motors performance when equipped
with new winding and when known Nevens winding [1] was
used. In order to confirm the accuracy of the model,
numerical results were compared with experimental tests of
same motor.
FEM analysis of manufactured motor
The 2D electromagnetic field model used to study the
motor has the following governing equation:

A.

curl [(1/ )curl A] = J j A


s

(6)

with A [0, 0, A(x, y)] the magnetic vector potential,


Js [0, 0, Js(x, y)] the current density in the stator slots
(initially unknown), the magnetic permeability and the
electric conductivity. The finite element model has been
coupled with stator and rotor circuits while voltage sources
have been provided, obtaining the stator current and Js in (6).
Fig 7 shows the stator circuits for 4-pole YY connection and
6-pole connection, respectively. The circuit components in
Fig. 7 are as follows:
- V1, V2 and V3 are supplying voltage of each phase;
- R_U6, R_V6, R_W6, R_X, R_Y and R_Z represent the
stator resistance of one half phase winding;
- L_U6_U4, L_V6_V4, L_W6_W4, L_U4_X, L_V4_Y
and L_W4_Z are stator end winding inductances for half
phase winding;
- B_U4_U6P, B_U4_XP, B_V4_V6P, B_V4_YP,
B_W4_W6P, B_W4_ZP represent the go-sides of stator
coils and the B_U4_U6N, B_U4_XN, B_V4_V6N,
B_V4_YN, B_W4_W6N, B_W4_ZN are the return-sides
of the stator coils.
- Q1 is a macro-circuit, a feature of Flux software
package, used to model the squirrel cage of the machine [5].

a.

a.

b.

Fig. 7. Circuit model coupled with the field problem:


a. YY connection 4-poles machine, b. connection 6-poles machine

In fig. 8 where finite element discretization mesh is


plotted, it can be also seen that half of the stator slots are
coloured differently as they correspond to different coils.
The magnetic non-linearity has been taken into account using
an energetic equivalence method implemented in Flux
software package [5].
Magnetic field lines and the distribution of the magnetic
flux density have been plotted in Figs. 9.a-b for 4-pole and 6pole new winding, respectively. Same color scale from Fig.
9.c was used to plot both charts.
Running successive numerical simulations for different
slip values within the range [0, 1] allowed the determination
of the speed - torque characteristics. Fig. 10 shows these
characteristics for the motor equipped with the new winding
in comparison with the motor equipped with the known [1]
winding, for both 4-pole and 6-pole connections. It can be
seen that motor with newly proposed winding has a better
starting torque than the one with classical winding for both
connections. Also, in 4-pole connection, the motor equipped
with new winding has a smaller maximum torque than the
motor with classical winding, while in 6-pole connection the
situation is opposed.
In addition to torque characteristics, motors efficiency has
been also compared when using the two windings. Stator and
rotor Joule losses, the air-gap electromagnetic power and the

b.

c.

Fig. 9 Magnetic field distribution on the computation domain:


a. 4-poles - YY connection, b. 6-poles connection, c. flux density scale

supplied power have been directly determined from the


field-circuit problem. At the same time, iron losses have been
computed from the field solution, based on magnetic flux
density distribution and specific material coefficients [5].
actual paper winding 4-poles
well known winding [1] 4-poles
actual paper winding 6-poles
well known winding [1] 6-poles

1600

Rotor Speed [rpm]

1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
0.00

20.00

40.00

60.00

80.00

Electromagnetic Torque [Nm]

Fig. 10. Comparison of speed - torque characteristics


Fig. 8. Finite element discretization of computation domain

80

Numerical results obtained for the motor using the new


winding and motor using Nevens winding, shows little
difference, and a slight advantage for the new winding. With
a higher winding factor, the newly proposed winding has a
better power factor, slightly reduced iron and Joule losses
and thus higher efficiency.
For 6-poles motor there is a good agreement between the
numerical and experimental results. For 4-poles motor there
are some discrepancies in the power factor and no-load
current due to parallel connection in the phase winding on
one hand and due to the magnetizing characteristic of the
lamination on the other. From Fig. 9 one can see that the
yoke flux density is higher in the 4-poles motor.

4 poles

70

Efficiency [%]

60
50
40

a.

30
20

actual paper winding

10
0
0.00

well known winding [1]

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

Ouput power P 2/Pn [p.u.]


80

6 poles

70

Efficiency [%]

60
50
40

b.

30
20
actual paper winding

10
0
0.00

well known winding [1]

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

Ouput power P2/Pn [p.u.]

Fig. 11. Efficiency comparison of the induction motor:


a. 4-poles YY connection, b. 6-poles connection

Iron losses have been added to supply power in order to


determine the total input power. Friction and windage losses
have been determined from experimental results. Efficiency
versus power load characteristics have been determined from
power balance [6] and are displayed in fig. 11 for motor
equipped with both windings, and for both 4- and 6-pole
connections.
The motor with new winding has an increased efficiency,
due to a higher fundamental winding factor, hence
diminished magnetic flux density, reduced iron losses and
lower magnetization current, yielding also to reduced Joule
losses in the stator.
Experimental results
The validation of numerical model has been achieved by
comparing computed results with experimental data for the
motor equipped with new winding. Data is shown in Table 5.

V. CONCLUSIONS
The paper presents a new pole-changing winding
developed on a stator structure having 4/6 poles and 48 slots.
Starting from a single layer pole-changing winding, a new
double layer winding was designed. Compared to the best
known pole-changing winding [1], the new winding produces
better performance due to increased fundamental winding
factors and diminished space harmonic content.
The new winding was analysed using FEM and tested on
an induction motor built on the base of a 3 kW/15000 rpm
motor with 100mm frame, developing 2.2 kW/1.5 kW rated
power for 4/6 poles, respectively. The new winding can be
used in general applications as the air gap flux density is very
balanced at both speeds, resulting in an almost constant
torque.
Compared to known windings, because of the higher
fundamental winding factors for both polarities, the new
winding allows for either reduced iron losses at same number
of turns per phase or diminished Joule losses at same value
of the air gap flux density.
[1]
[2]

B.

TABLE 5.
EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL RESULTS FOR THE INDUCTION MOTOR IN
THE FRAME 100 WITH RATED POWER 2.2 KW/1.5 KW, 4/6 POLES
Experimental
results
new winding
4
poles

No-load current Io [A]


Iron losses Pfe [W]
Starting current p.u.
Starting torque p.u.
Breakdown torque p.u.
Rated current In [A]
Rated input power Pa [W]
Stator Joule losses Pcu1 [W]
Rotor Joule losses Pcu2 [W]
Rated efficiency [%]
Rated power factor
Rated slip [%]
Rated speed [rpm]

6
poles

Numerical
results
new
winding
4
poles

6
poles

Numerical
results
Neven Srb
winding [1]
4
poles

6
poles

5.93 5.27 4.24 5.43 4.94 5.87


340
194
364
200
337
188
6.57 4.49 7.66 5.25 7.36 5.05
2.59 3.80 3.17 3.96 2.98 3.53
4.6
4.41 4.67 4.10 4.85 4.49
7.00 5.73 5.63 5.71 6.12 6.00
3042 2117 3022 2148 3186 2234
375
374
483
448
394
350
82 34.7 83.9 36.8
73.8 56.4
72.32 70.85 72.53 70.03 69.84 37.12
0.627 0.533 0.78 0.55 0.75 0.54
3.5
3.5
3.4 3.56
3.19 3.57
965 1449
964
1452
964 1447

[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]

VI. REFERENCES
Neven Srb: Winding technique of electrical motors, Technicka kniga,
Zagreb, 1990.
M.V. Cistelecan, H. B. Cosan, and M. Popescu: Tooth Concentrated
Fractional Windings for Low Speed Three Phase a.c. Machines,
ICEM2006, Chania, Greece, Sept. 2006
B. Heller, V. Hamata: Harmonic field effects in induction machines,
Academia Publishing House, Prague, 1977.
M.V. Cistelecan: Three phase a.c. winding for pole changeable
electrical machines in the ratio 4:6, Romanian patent RO-122795
issued 29 January 2010.
Cedrat, Flux 10 Users Guide, Vol.1-5, Meylan, 2007
T. Tudorache, L. Melcescu, "FEM Optimal Design of Energy
Efficient Induction Machines", Advances in Electrical and Computer
Engineering, vol. 9, pp. 58-64, 2009.

VII. BIOGRAPHIES
Leonard Marius Melcescu was born in Pitesti-Arges in Romania in 1970.
He graduated in 1995. and the obtained his Ph. D. in electrical engineering
from POLITECHNICA University of Bucharest, Romania, in 2006. He
is currently teaching Electrical Machines and drives at POLITECHNICA
University of Bucharest.
Mihail V. Cistelecan (M94), born in 1947 in Tg.Mures (Romania),
received the MS degree as electrical engineer from Technical University of
Cluj-Napoca, Romania, in 1969 and the Ph. D. in electrical machines and
drives from POLITECHNICA University of Bucharest, Romania, in
1990.
Ovidiu Craiu was born in 1966 in Bucharest, Romania. He graduated from
POLITECHNICA University of Bucharest, Romania, where he obtained
in 1996 a Ph.D. degree in Electrical Machines. After being involved in
human rights projects for almost 10 years he returned in 2007 to
engineering business. He is currently teaching Fundamentals of Electricity
and Electrical Machines at POLITECHNICA University of Bucharest.
H. Baris Cosan was born in Izmir, Turkey, in 1945. He graduated in 1967
the Technical Faculty of Education University of Gazi, Ankara.