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1946 8

1961

32

18 1961

1978 6

?Morris
R. Cohen

?Frederic

Bastiat
Ce
quon voit et ce quon ne voit pas

?Philip Wicksteed
The Common
Sense of Political Economy

?Ludwig von
Mises

Thorstein Veblen
Major Douglas?
Alvin Hansen

American
ScholarNew Leader

1946 3 25


17

250

250

250

250

needdemand


?
Thomas Macaulay
History of England

?John Stuart Mill

500

1 000
1 000

1 000

1.5 3 600
24%

52

50%60% 70%

6
8 9
6 4 3

GDP

1932

1776
?

1
20

4 800
?
240 4 800

99.98%

1 000

?William Felkin
History of
the Machine-Wrought Hosiery
Manufactures1867

40
50 000

19
100
Arkwright 1760
5 200
2 700
7 900

1787
27


7 900 32 44
1889 ?
David A. Wells
Recent Economic Changes

1870 1880
2
200 1870 1880
3 000 2 990

1873 Bessemer
80

1886 20

1887
2
10


1889

1932

?George

Santayana

1941 3 ?Corwin
Edwards
TNEC

1961


1970

19
Luddite

1945 9
19 32
?Eleanor
Roosevelt

1
2
3

elastic

150 100

50 50

18

1910
14
1920 25
1930

38 1973
94.1 1973 51.4
39.3

18
4

full employment

48

40
50%
45

40

30 4

40 30
40
30

40 30

40
226 30
226
33.33% 7.53

40 -
-

10
40
--

33.33%
--

10

30
40

Petrillo

WPA

10

11

?
17 18

30
25
5

30
25

30
5
25

100 50 000


50 000

100
50 000

5 5
100
5

12

5,000

4,000

4,000 2,500
1,500

1975
15%
20%

10%

?John Stuart Mill

13

1933

1929

1909
1914

60

1909 1914

1909
8 1914 7

1946

Chevrolet 1912
2,150 1942
907
3,270
1909 1913
22.5 1946 14
41
1978
1946 1978

1946
1955
1959
428 1939 1943
260 1909 1913
188
1968 1972
467

1968 1972
84 31.3
1935 1939 26.1
13.2

1946

2.50
3.50 1
1

1
1

AAA

14 X
X X

X X

X X

Guffey Act

35

X
X

X
X

ABC X
3
X
X
X

X
X

15

16

ever-normal
granary

17

2.25 1.50

purchasing-power-rather-than-need

Federalist

Papers

18

10~20

95%

5%
10%

19

40
106
106

106

2.65
40
106
70
70
90

106

106

106
2.75 110
4
106

20

12
34
56

100

10% 20%
30% 40%
50%


25%

25%

10%

20%
30%

Wagner-Taft-Hartley Act


0.1%

post hoc ergo propter


hoc

70
60
60
48
48 44

40


35 30

1968 107.73
1977 8 189.36

1967
1968
103.39 1977 8 103.36

21

20 40

20%
30%

30%
30%
55%~160%

1976
113.96
207.60
284.93

30%
30%

30%

?
Paul H. Douglas
A. C. Pigou

3 4
1%
3%

30%

1/3
30%
10%

1929 1943
15
69% 1956 1960 5
69% 1972 1976
5 66%


76%
national product

2/3
3/4

30%
20%

84%

30%
30%

4
equilibrium

22

15

1929
1943 15
5% 1956
1960
6% 1971 1975
6%


profiteer
wageer
losseer

50

10 7
4

1930 1938

6% 1
5
1971 1975
4.6

10%

23

A
A+B

A
A
B B

C
C
D

AB
CD
A
30%
B 20%
10% C
10% 15% D

20%

25%

D
25%

30%

ABC

25%
50%
100%

100% 50%

multiplier

--

? 75
120

?
1776

24

50
000

?
Karl Rodbertus 19

25 000

25 000

25 000

12


hoarding

19

20%

2.5
11

100

80

20

102.5

82

20.5

105

84

21

107.5

86

21.5

110

88

22

112.5

90

22.5

115

92

23

117.5

94

23.5

120

96

24

10

122.5

98

24.5

11

125

100

25

11

25%

20%

80

100

1976
14%1977
16%1974
75%

17

capital proper

1960

25

x=5 x+y=12 y=7

??William
Graham Sumner
Forgotten Man
1883
A X
B

X C X
AB C

X C

20 30
C X
C
X
C

26
1946
32

1946

1926 30
1946
550 160
1947
350 40
1978
4,510 490

1947 1,130

1978 8 3,570

1946 58.5 1978 9


199.3

40
20

48 41

500

Redistributive State

20 70

400

44
1976
1,870 1971

1976 25%
2.5 1979
2,500

500
5 000

83%

98%

10

1977

10 50
1976

35% 40%
43% 50% 57%
47% 56%
61%
cruzeiro 89%
99%

1977
6% 8.6% 9.1%
9.5% 14.5%
15.7% 17.5%

1977 30.8%
35.5% 53.9% 65.7%

1935

65

1975

1965

1935
3,000
1965
6,600
4.4%
1977 16,500
11.7% 1960 1977

572%
12%
1977
4.1

1978

60%
45%

5% 10%

26 4

Reason and Nature,


1931, p.x

?
Gunnar Myrdal, The Challenge of World
Poverty (New York: Pantheon Books, 1970),
pp. 400-401 and passim.
7 2

* 1946 1 2

13 1
* 1937
Dan H. Wheeler
14 1
* 1956
8 1 1452.9

6 1961 8.5

16 1

17 1
* 1938
63
25 1945
1.02
40 1949
1.40
75 1955

1.88
1
1961
2.30
1.15 1963 1.25

1967 1.40
1968 1.60 1974 2.00
1975 2.10 1976 2.30
4.87
1977
5.26
2.65

19 2
* A. C. Pigou, The
Theory of Unemployment (1933), p. 96.
? Paul H. Douglas,
The Theory of Wages (1934), p. 501.
21 2
*
Frank H. Knight, Risk, Uncertainty and

Profit (1921)

22
*
The
Failure of the New Economics, New
Rochelle, N.Y.: Arlington House, 1959

26 5
? B.
M. AndersonThe Value
of Money1917 1936
The Theory of
Money and Credit1935 1953


The Inflation Crisis, and
How to Resolve It, New Rochelle, NY,:
Arlington House, 1978

23 2
*
Principles of Political Economy; Book 3,
Chap. 14, par.2
Principles of Economics; Book VI, Chap.
XIII, sec. 10
A
Refutation of Keynes Attack on the
Doctrine that Aggregate Supply Creates

Aggregate Demand
Financing American
Prosperity
The Critics of
Keynesian Economics; New Rochelle, N.Y.:
Arlington House, 1960
23 4
* Karl
Rodbertus, Overproduction and Crises
(1850), p. 51.
24 1

* 20%

12%
George Terborgh, The Bogey of Economic
Maturity (1945)1977
16%
?
24 2
*

24 3
*

Galbraithians

24 4
* George
Santayana, The Realm of Truth (1938), p.
16.

25 1
* Charles D. Hobbs,
The Welfare Industry (Washington, D.C.:
Heritage Foundation, 1978).

?
Faustino Ballv
Essentials of Economics, Irvington-onHudson, N.Y Foundation for Economic
Education; 126

?
Percy L. Greaves
Understanding the Dollar Crisis, Belmont,
Mass.: Western Islands, 1973327
?
Bettina Bien Greaves
Free Market Economics,
Foundation for Economic Education

Human Action, Chicago:


Contemporary Books, 1949, 1966907

13

Murray N. Rothbard
Man, Economy, and State,
Mission, Kan.: Sheed, Andrews and
McMeel, 1962987

Planning for
Freedom, South Holland, I11.: Libertarian
Press, 1952
Capitalism and Freedom, Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 1962
What
Has Government Done to Our Money?,

Santa Ana, Calif,: Rampart College, 1964,


197462

The Failure of the New Economics:


An Analysis of the Keynesian Fallacies,
Arlington House, 1959

Socialism:
An Economic and Sociological Analysis,
London: Jonathan Cape, 1936, 1969

Economic Sophisms1844

The Common Sense


of Political Economy, 1911?
John Bates ClarkThe
Distribution of Wealth, 1899?
Eugen von B?hm-Bawerk
The Positive Theory of Capital,

1888?Karl Menger
Principles of Economics,
1871?W. Stanley Jevons
The Theory of Political
Economy, 1871
?
Principles of Political Economy and
Taxation, 1817?


[1] 1989 6.2
1993 2.4
40%?
(Gerald W. Scully)
What is the Optimal Size of
Government?, NCPA 188
1994 11 .
[2] ?W. Michael
Cox?Richard Alm
1992


20
1900 2 900
1991 1.16
The Churn
1992
[3] 5 000
20 000
?David R.
HendersonFun
and Games With Inflation
1996 3 18 36
[4]
Investors

Business Daily 1995 9 29


1986 1993 120
15

1993
96 000
GAO
1995 7 20
8
7.38 GAO

104

[5] 4.25
40
170
[6]
1981 3.35 1990
3.80 1992 4.25

?Richard Vedder?
Lowell Gallaway
Should the Federal
Minimum Wage Be Increased?NCPA
190 1995 2

[7] 15.5%
1995 11 14
[8] 1996 1 4
40
60%?
Kenneth P. Voytek
19591972
2.4% 19731994
0.8% 19591972
2.4 19731994
1% 1959
4%

1996 1 8

[9]
8
[10] 20
60 70
1012%80 8%90
9%1996
1 8
[11]
10
[12] 1939
56 4.4%


1939
998%
1996 3 18
35
[13] 1992 2
900 1995
1 650
1995 10 5
[14] 40%
17.5% 33%
1996 Index of
Economic Freedom?
Brian T. Johnson?

Thomas P. Sheehy, The Heritage


Foundation, 1996. 1994
34%
The Economist1995 2 9
99
[15] 1994
2.8% 1.7%-2% 4.5%
2.4% 4% 45% 2
500% 40% 11% 5%
1996 ?
?, The Heritage Foundation,
1996.
[16] 15.3%
2010