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Numerical Analysis of Prestressed Reinforced Concrete Beam Subjected to Blast Loading

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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/matdes

to blast loading

Wensu Chen , Hong Hao, Shuyang Chen

Tianjin University and Curtin University Joint Research Center of Structural Monitoring and Protection, School of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, Curtin University, Kent

Street, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 1 July 2014

Accepted 14 September 2014

Available online 2 October 2014

Keywords:

Prestressed reinforced concrete beam

Blast resistance

Dynamic response

a b s t r a c t

Prestressing technique has been widely used in civilian and military constructions. The prestressed

reinforced concrete (RC) structural components such as beams and columns usually outperform the

non-prestressed RC components because prestressing not only increases the structural stiffness and load

carrying capacity, but also has higher crack resistance than non-prestressed component. As a result, it

usually leads to light structures. The investigation of non-prestressed RC components subjected to blast

loadings has been reported in the literature. However, the study on the blast-resistant capacity of prestressed RC components is very limited. In this study, the dynamic response of a simply-supported prestressed RC beam with rectangular section under blast loadings is numerically investigated by using nite

element codes LS-DYNA. The prestress is pre-applied on the RC beam in an analytical approach. The reliability of the numerical model is calibrated with testing results available in the literature. With the calibrated model, numerical simulations on four groups of prestressed RC beams to blast loadings are

carried out to investigate the inuences of prestressing level and concreted compressive strength on

beam blast loading resistance capacity. The structural responses such as mid-span maximum deection,

residual deection, cracking, stress of rebars and shear stress of concrete near the supports are extracted

from the numerical results. The effectiveness of prestressing on blast-resistant capacity of RC beam is

demonstrated through comparing the results with the bench marking non-prestressed RC beam under

the same blast loadings.

2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Blast loadings due to terrorist bombing or accidental gas

explosion may cause signicant structural damage, casualty and

economic loss. Reinforced concrete is commonly used in the building industry. Conventional RC column, beam and panel, as major

load carrying components, are often damaged when subjected to

blast loading, which might lead to partial or total collapse of building structures. In 1968, an internal gas explosion seriously damaged the Ronan Point residential apartment building in the UK,

owing to the failure of some structural components that triggered

progressive collapse [1]. Engineering solutions for structure protection need to be developed and improved to ensure the safety

of structures. To overcome concretes natural weakness in tension

and the growth of cracks, prestressed technique is employed in

both civilian and military constructions. Prestressing concrete

Corresponding author.

E-mail

(W. Chen).

addresses:

wensu.chen@curtin.edu.au,

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2014.09.033

0261-3069/ 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

wensu.chen@hotmail.com

As a result it reduces structural member size, self-weight and construction cost. Prestressing can be achieved in three ways, i.e., pretension, bonded post-tension and unbonded post-tension by using

tendons [2]. Prestressed tendons are made of high tensile steel

cables or rods, which provide compressive stress on concrete.

The compressive stress balances the tensile stress of concrete

when subjected to external loads. Consequently, the appearance

and growth of cracks in concrete might be reduced and delayed

in the tension zone of concrete, as shown in Fig. 1. Various standards [3,4] provide guides on designing the prestressed RC beams

to resist static loads, but the effects of prestressing concrete on RC

structures blast loading resistance capacities are relatively less

studied.

The research on the non-prestressed concrete components

subjected to blast and impact loadings has attracted intensive

attentions over the years. The exural damage is usually observed

in the RC structures under the blast loadings. Fang and Wu [5]

found that the exural damage transferred to the brittle shearing

damage with increasing the loading rate, height of cross section,

concrete. Lin et al. [6] numerically investigated the response of

reinforced concrete panels under blast loadings by using LS-DYNA.

The effect of blast intensity and panel specication on the panels

blast resistance performance was studied. Magnusson and Hallgren [7] carried out the tests on the high strength reinforced concrete beams to air blast loading, and observed that the failure

modes of beams were different when subjected to static and

dynamic loads. All beams subjected to static loading failed in exure mode and some of the beams subjected to air blast loadings

failed in shear mode. The concrete beams showed an increased

load carrying capacity when subjected to blast loadings compared

to static loading. Jiang et al. [8] numerically investigated reinforced

concrete beams subjected to impact loadings by using LS-DYNA.

The elasto-plastic damage cap (EPDC) model for the concrete and

the elasto-plastic model for the reinforcement are incorporated

into the numerical model. Fang et al. [9] reported that strain rate

effect has a signicant effect on blast-resistant capacities of reinforced concrete beam. Yi et al. [10] experimentally investigated

the blast-resistant capacities of ultra-high performance concrete

and reactive powder concrete in concrete structures, which have

been proved having better blast-resistant capacity than normal

strength concrete structure.

Most of the previous studies on high-rate dynamic structural

responses of the prestressed RC components are subjected to

impact loadings. Very limited study on the blast-resistant capacity

of prestressed RC components has been found in the literature. Li

et al. [11] tested three partially-prestressed concrete (PPC) beams

by using drop hammer. The impact-resistant performances of the

PPC beams were demonstrated in the study. Ishikawa et al.

[12,13] experimentally and analytically investigated the performance of bonded and unbonded prestressed concrete beams subjected to impact loadings. It was found that the prestressed

tendon was more vulnerable to break under higher loading rate.

Iskhakov and Ribakov [14] proposed a design method for two-layered bending prestressed beams which consist of steel bered high

strength concrete in compressed zone and normal strength concrete in tensile. Cramsey and Naito [15] reported the performance

of a 30-ft partially prestressed concrete panel subjected to different

blast loadings. It was found that the panel could sustain rotation of

2.7 without failure under the highest blast load considered in the

study. Three ultra-high strength concrete panels prestressed by

using high-strength steel tendons were tested to investigate the

blast-resistant performance under blast loadings. The results demonstrated the good performances of these panels, which all survived the blast tests with only minor cracks even with

considerable deections [16]. An analytical approach of nite layered section combing with rate-sensitive model was proposed to

investigate the dynamic responses of the partially prestressed

concrete beams subjected to blast loadings [17]. Cofer et al. [18]

663

bulb-tee section subjected to explosions above and below the girder. A simple-span bridge with prestressed girder and slab was also

modeled to examine the damage when subjected to different blast

scenarios. Unfortunately, the above studies only reported limited

test data and general observations. Some important information

such as detonation weight is not revealed. Therefore they cannot

be used to quantitatively assess the effectiveness of prestressing

concrete structures on their blast load-carrying capacities.

All the above studies indicated the effectiveness of prestressing

concrete in increasing RC structures blast-load or impact-load

carrying capacities. Those studies concentrate on analyzing the

particular tested structural components and verifying the specic

numerical models. There is no systematic study in the literature

that devotes to examining the effectiveness of prestressing levels

on enhancing the blast-load carrying capacities of RC beams. In

the present paper, the dynamic response of simply-supported prestressed RC beams subjected to blast loadings is numerically investigated. The reliability of the numerical model is calibrated with

some testing results available in the literature. With the calibrated

model, numerical simulations of prestressed RC beams to blast

loadings are carried out by considering varied prestressing levels,

different concreted compressive strengths and blast intensities.

The mid-span maximum deection, residual deection, shear

stress and cracking of RC beams without prestressing or with

different levels of prestressing are extracted from numerical simulations. The numerical results of prestressed and non-prestressed

RC beams are compared to investigate the effectiveness of prestressing on blast-resistant performance of RC beams.

The numerical simulation is carried out by using commercial

software LS-DYNA 971 [19]. LS-DYNA is based on explicit numerical

methods and has been widely employed to analyze the problems

associated with large deformation structure response to high velocity impact and blast load, and high strain rate behavior of materials.

It has been proven yielding reliable numerical predictions of structural response and damage to blast loadings.

To verify the accuracy and reliability of the nite element

model, numerical model is calibrated with the experimental and

numerical results available in the literature. It should be noted that

no blasting test on prestressed RC structures with sufcient information such as charge weight, dimension, and prestressing level,

etc. can be found in the open literature. Therefore, in the present

study, testing data conducted on RC structures without prestressing is adopted to verify the numerical model. It is believed that

the numerical model calibrated is applicable to simulating blast

responses of prestressed RC beams because, as will be described

later, the simulation of the responses of the prestressed RC beam

to blast loads is performed in two steps, i.e., applying the static

prestressing in the rst step, and applying the blast loading in

the second step, and the two steps are not coupled. Prestressing

only affects the initial conditions of the RC beam when blast load

is applied.

A 1/4-scale RC frame model was tested by Baylot and Bevins

[20] to study the dynamic response of the central column of a

two-storey RC structure. A 7.1 kg C4 high explosive of hemisphere

shape (with equivalent TNT weight of 8 kg) at a standoff distance

of 1.07 m was detonated in the test. The experimental setup and

results are shown in Fig. 2.

664

Fig. 2. Tested column (L) before blast loading; (R) after blast loadings [21].

In the previous studies, Shi et al. [22] and Mutalib and Hao [23]

carried out the numerical analysis of the tested RC column and the

results were compared with the test results [20]. The cross section

of the tested exterior central column is 85 mm by 85 mm and the

height is 900 mm. As shown in Fig. 3, the longitudinal reinforcements and the cross tie reinforcements are 3.2 mm and 1.6 mm,

respectively. The material properties of concrete and steel reinforcement are given in Table 1.

A numerical model is developed in LS-DYNA in this study to

simulate the blasting test of this column. 8-nodes constant stress

solid element (SOLID_164) with 1-point quadrature integration

and 3-nodes beam element (BEAM_161) with 2 2 Gauss quadrature integration are employed to model concrete and steel reinforcement, respectively. Perfect bond between reinforcing steel

and surrounding concrete is assumed. To avoid penetration

between concrete and steel reinforcements, the penalty-based contact algorithm Contact Automatic Single Surface is dened.

Convergence test is carried out by halving the mesh size. It

shows that the simulation converged when the mesh size is

5 mm. Further decrease in the element size only has insignicant

inuence on the numerical results but increases the computing

5 mm mesh is used in the numerical model.

For boundary condition, the nodes of the head and footing are

constrained in horizontal directions, i.e., X and Y directions. The

footing is further constrained against vertical displacement, i.e., Z

direction. An axial pressure of 2.1 MPa is applied to the head of

the column before the blast loading is applied on the column surface, which is determined based on the static weight carried by the

column, and is also equivalent to applying a uniform pre-compressive stress in the column.

2.3. Material model

A number of material models available in LS-DYNA can be used

to model the behavior of concrete material such as Mat Brittle

Damage (MAT_96), Mat Johnson Holmquist Concrete (MAT_111),

and Mat Concrete Damage Rel3 (MAT_72_REL3) etc. In this study,

the material model MAT_72_REL3 is used to simulate the concrete

material. This material model considers strain-rate effect, plasticity

and damage softening after failure. The reliability of the material

model in predicting the response of reinforced concrete structure

subjected to blast loadings has been demonstrated by [22,24,25].

Fig. 3. (L) Finite element model; (R) Cross section of test column [20].

665

Table 1

Material properties of steel reinforcement and concrete [22].

Material

LS-DYNA Model

Input parameter

Magnitude

MAT_PLASTIC_KINEMATIC (MAT_24)

Mass density

Youngs modulus

Poissons ratio

Yield stress

Failure strain

7800

207 GPa

0.3

450 MPa

0.18

MAT_PLASTIC_KINEMATIC (MAT_24)

Mass density

Youngs modulus

Poissons ratio

Yield stress

Failure strain

7800

207 GPa

0.3

400 MPa

0.18

Concrete

MAT_CONCRETE_DAMAGE_REL3 (MAT_72)

Mass density

Unconned strength

Failure strain

2400

42 MPa

0.1

input parameter, which is 42 MPa in this study.

The material model named Mat Piecewise Linear Plasticity

(MAT_024) is used to model longitudinal and cross-ties and hoop

reinforcements. This material model considers isotropic and kinematic hardening plasticity. It allows the denition of arbitrary

stress versus stain curve and strain rate curve. The material properties of the reinforcements are given in Table 1.

To avoid computation overow due to large deformation of concrete, the card Mat Add Erosion is utilized to eliminate concrete

elements that do not contribute to resist blast load. In the present

study, the failure criteria are based on the unconned tensile

strength and principal strain. The unconned tensile strength of

concrete is calculated according to the formula proposed by CEB

Code [26].

" 0 #1=3

fc

b0

f t 1:58

0

conversion factor and f c is the unconned compressive strength. In

this study, the unconned compressive strength of concrete is

42 MPa and the unconned tensile strength is calculated as

3.5 MPa. The concrete element will be deleted when it either

reaches the unconned tensile stress of 3.5 MPa or the principal

strain of 0.1.

2.4. Strain rate effect

Under high-speed impacts or blast events, the inertia and

strain-rate effects become important factors for structural

response, which is different from the quasi-static scenario. The

concrete and steel are strain rate dependent materials. The

strengths of concrete and steel materials are enhanced under high

strain rate response. The strength increment is dened by the

dynamic increase factor (DIF) at given strain rate, i.e., the ratio of

dynamic-to-static strength versus strain rate. Many empirical

equations have been proposed to determine the strain rate effect

of concrete and steel based on experimental data. The strain rate

effect is considered in the concrete and steel material models by

incorporating the DIF relationships. The DIFs of concrete compressive strength and tensile strength are dened by CEB Code 1990

[26] and Malvar and Ross [27], respectively.

The compressive DIFs of the concrete are given by the following

equations [26]

CDIF

fc

f cs

e_

e_ cs

1:026a

for e_ 30 s1

CDIF

fc

1=3

ce_ for e_ > 30 s1

f cs

the static compressive strength at e_ cs ; log c = 6.156a 0.49; a = 1/

(5 + 3fcu/4) and fcu is the static cube compressive strength in

MPa.The tensile DIFs of the concrete are given by the following

equations [27]

TDIF

TDIF

ft

f ts

e_

e_ ts

ft

b

f ts

d

for e_ td 6 1 s1

e_

e_ ts

1=3

4

5

of 106 s1 160 s1; fts is the static tensile strength at

e_ ts ; log b 6d 2; d 1=1 8f 0c =f 0co ; f 0c is the static uniaxial com0

pressive strength of concrete and f co is taken as 10 MPa. The DIFs of

concrete used in this study are shown in Fig. 4 (L).

The DIF relationship for steel reinforcement dened by Malvar

[28] is utilized, as follows.

DIF

e_

a

104

a 0:074 0:040f y =414

6

7

where fy is the steel yield strength in MPa. The DIF of steel used in

this study is shown in Fig. 4 (R). It should be noted that to avoid

overestimation of the DIF of steel material at high strain rate, DIF

is taken as a constant when strain rate is larger than 200 1/s as

shown in Fig. 4.

2.5. Blast load modeling

In LS-DYNA, the function Load_Blast_Enhanced has been proven in simulating blast loads on structures and it has been used

in numerical simulations of structural responses to blast loads

[29,30]. The amplitudes of blast loadings are determined by the

scaled distance (Z) and the incident angle. The scaled distance is

dened as Z = R/W1/3, where R is the standoff distance in meters

and W is the amount of TNT equivalent in kilograms [31]. In this

study, the blast loadings with positive and negative phases can

be idealized as triangular pressure time history and applied on

the structure. For a stiff structure, the inuence by the negative

phase blast pressure is relatively small compared to that of the

positive phase. Therefore, the negative pulse is usually neglected

to save computational cost. The positive pressure time history is

modeled by a steep rise to peak pressure Pr. and then decays to

666

8

1.4

CDIF (concrete in compression)

Steel

1.3

DIF

DIF

1.2

4

1.1

3

1.0

2

1

-4

-3

10

-2

10

-1

10

10

10

10

10

0.9

-4

10

-3

10

-2

-1

10

10

10

10

10

10

-1

-1

Strain rate (S )

Strain rate (S )

Fig. 4. DIFs versus strain rate (L) Concrete; (R) steel.

7000

Pressure (kPa)

6000

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

0

0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

0.35

Time (ms)

Fig. 5. Idealized air explosion pressure time history.

ambient pressure. It can be dened by the arrival time ta, the ctitious duration t0f and the positive reected peak pressure Pr. The

ctitious duration is determined by the positive reected impulse

Ir and the positive reected peak pressure Pr [31] as

t of

2Ir

Pr

of the blast load corresponding to the eld blasting test are

6100 kPa and 1007 kPa ms, respectively [22]. The duration of positive phase (t0f) is calculated as around 0.33 ms. The idealized pressure time history is shown in Fig. 5. The blast loadings are assumed

to be uniformly distributed on the front surface of the target. It

should be noted that the assumption of uniform blast loading distribution is only valid when the charge is not too close to the object.

Fig. 6. Plastic strain contours (a) maximum deection (t = 3 ms); (b) residual

deection.

indicating the numerical model gives reliable predictions of RC column response to blast loadings.

Figs. 6 and 7 show the plastic strain and Von Mises stress distributions along the column, respectively. High plastic strain occurs

near the supports and the mid-height of the inner vertical face,

where the cracks appear and grow. The damage mode is the combination of exural and shear damage.

Fig. 8 shows that the mid-height displacement time histories of

the column. The maximum deection and residual deection at

mid height of column are around 11.6 mm and 6.9 mm,

respectively. Fig. 9 shows the numerical results agree well with

the testing results reported by Baylot and Bevins [20], as well as

the numerical results by Shi et al. [22] and Mutalib and Hao [23],

The above calibrated numerical model is used to perform a series of simulations of RC beams with different prestressing levels

subjected to blast loadings. The structural responses such as the

mid-span maximum deection, residual deection and shear stress

in concrete elements near supports are compared to examine the

effectiveness of prestressing RC beam on blast-resistant capacities.

3.1. Beam specications

The specication of a prestressed RC beam in [11] is used in this

simulation. The simply supported prestressed RC beam of 220 mm

667

nite element model is shown in Fig. 10. The diameters of longitudinal reinforcements at top and bottom sides are 8 mm and

12 mm, respectively. The hoop reinforcements of diameter 6 mm

are spaced at 100 mm along the beam. A prestressed tendon with

a diameter of 15.2 mm is utilized as shown in Fig. 11. Without losing the generality, the beam is assumed to subject to a uniformly

distributed triangular blast load of peak reected pressure

6100 kPa, positive reected impulse 3050 kPa ms and duration of

the positive phase 1.0 ms.

3.2. Method of prestressing

Fig. 7. Von Mises stress contours (a) maximum deection (t = 3 ms); (b) residual

deection.

0.012

Peak deflection=11.6mm

Deflection (m)

0.010

0.008

Residual deflection=6.9 mm

0.006

0.004

0.002

0.000

0.00

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

have been found in the literature. Ngo et al. [16] modeled the

prestress by setting initial tensile stresses in steel reinforcement

elements and initial compressive stresses in concrete elements.

This approach is straightforward in applying the prestress in RC

elements. The drawback is that the prestresses in concrete elements are not necessarily uniformly distributed along the cross

section and it is not straightforward to determine the prestress distributions. Moreover this approach neglects the deformation

induced by applying prestress to the RC member. This small initial

deformation might not be critical to beam responses when the

response mode is primarily exural. When the response mode is

governed by shear under large amplitude short duration blast loading, this initial small hogging deformation may signicantly affect

beam responses. To overcome the above problems, Bi and Hao [32]

established the relationship of the preload applied and the initial

hogging deection of RC beam through analytical method. In the

latter study, the prestress in the beam is generated by applying initial hogging deformation of RC beam. This method is adopted in the

present study. For the beam under consideration, the calculations

of the equivalent bending moment and the applications of the prestress into the beam are presented below.

Fig. 12 illustrates a RC beam with a prestressing tendon. Assuming the prestressed tendon is placed in the concrete at a certain distance below the neutral axis of the cross section, prestressing the

tendon is equivalent to applying an eccentric point load on the

beam cross section, which results in an uniform bending moment

acting on the beam, besides a compressive point load. The likely

stress block is shown in Fig. 12. The initial hogging deformation

at the mid-span of the beam caused by prestressing the tendon

can then be obtained by,

Time (s)

Present study

Baylot & Bevins (2007) measured deflection

Mutalib & Hao (2010)

Shi et al. (2008)

Deflection (m)

0.014

M F d r p As d

0.012

0.010

0.008

0.006

0.004

0.002

0.000

0.00

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

Time (s)

Fig. 9. Comparisons of deection time histories.

is the Youngs modulus of concrete; I is the moment of inertia of

cross section.

The bending moment at neutral axis (M) is given by

0.018

0.016

Ml

8EI

0.05

10

sectional area of the prestressed bar; and d is the distance between

the neutral axis and the prestressed bar.

In this study, the parameters are assumed as follows.

Length of beam (l) = 2.6 m;

Prestressed tendon diameter r = 15.2 mm; Prestressed stress:

rp = 315 MPa;

Cross sectional area of the prestressed bar:

As = pr2 = p(0.015/2)2 = 1.767 104 m2

Prestressed force: F = rp As = 315 1.767 104 = 55.7 kN;

Bending moment at neutral axis: M = F d = 55.7 0.04 =

2.23 kN m;

668

Table 2

Initial stress in concrete with respect to prestress level (Group #1).

1

1

Moment

of

Inertia:

I 12

bh 12

0:22 0:163 7:5

105 m4 ;

Therefore, the initial hogging deformation of the beam at

mid-span for the prestress of 315 MPa is calculated as

2

1:25 mm

d Ml

8EI

The calculation includes two steps. In the rst step, the initial

hogging deformation distribution along the beam is estimated with

the calculated mid-span deformation. The nodes along the beam

are dened as displacement restraints in ANSYS. The initial geometry and the initial prestress of the beam can be obtained through

the implicit analysis. The bending moment can be applied through

MPa

Initial midspan

displacement

mm

Maximum initial

principal stress

(in tension)

MPa

Maximum initial

principal stress (in

compression)

MPa

0

315

472

630

0

1.25

2.0

2.5

0

2.289

3.653

4.067

0

2.356

3.734

4.193

Beam

Prestress

No.

#11

#12

#13

#14

the initial hogging deformation. In the second step, the conguration and initial stress state of the beam resulted from the rst-step

implicit analysis are taken as the initial condition for the subsequent explicit analysis under blast loading in LS-DYNA through

its implicit to explicit option.

As shown in Fig. 13, the geometry of prestressed RC beam is created according to the above calculations. To study the inuence of

prestressing level on beam responses, a total of four beams, categorized as Group #1 in this study, with increasing prestress are considered. Table 2 lists the corresponding initial hogging

deformations and initial principal stress in tension and compression, respectively. The prestress distributions are generated by

applying the prestress in the beam in the present approach, it is

obtained by applying bending moment to induce the initial deformation of the beam. Fig. 14 shows the typical initial principal

stress contour in the beam. The maximum initial principal stress

Fig. 13. (a) Initial geometry of the original beam; (b) geometry of the RC beam after prestressing (not to scale).

669

Fig. 14. Initial principal stress contour of beam #13 after prestressing.

Table 3

Axial stress and strain in longitudinal reinforcement with respect to prestress level (Group #1).

Beam

Prestress

No.

MPa

#11

#12

#13

#14

0

315

472

630

0

18.9

30.3

38.2

0

0.0095

0.0152

0.0191

0

17.2

27.4

34.2

0

0.0086

0.0137

0.0171

under different prestresses are given in Table 2. The maximum

initial principal stress in tension of beam #14 is 4.067 MPa, which

is less than the concrete principal stress of around 4.9 MPa.

Table 3 and Fig. 16 show the axial stress and strain in the

longitudinal reinforcement bars corresponding to the different prestressing levels. As shown, increasing the prestress, both the stress

and strain in the longitudinal steel reinforcement bars in both the

compression and tension zones increase.

Table 4

Mid-span deection time history (Group #1).

Beam

Prestress

Concrete

Maximum deection

Residual deection

No.

MPa

MPa

mm

Reduction

mm

Reduction

#11

#12

#13

#14

0

315

472

630

42

42

42

42

112.0

111.6

104.0

88.9

0.4%

7.2%

20.6%

86.5

81.0

60.5

50.0

6.4%

30.1%

42.2%

Note: benchmark.

loading

With the above numerical model of prestressed RC beam, intensive numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the inuences of prestressing levels and the concrete compressive strength

on blast-resistance capacities of prestressed RC beams.

4.1. Effect of prestressing levels

Four RC beams in Group #1 are considered with different

prestressing levels. The mid-span maximum deection and residual deection are extracted from numerical simulation results to

200

Maximum deflection

Residual deflection

Deflection (mm)

160

120

80

40

0

#11

#12

#13

#14

Beam

Fig. 15. Maximum and residual deection of beam with respect to prestress level

(Group #1).

examine the exural capacity. The prestressed RC beam experiences smaller maximum and residual deections, and the response

decreases with the increased prestress level, as shown in Fig. 15.

Taking Beam #11 without prestress as the benchmark, as shown

in Table 4, when the prestress of 630 MPa is applied, the beam

#14 experiences the maximum deection of 88.9 mm, which is

20.6% less than that of the benchmark beam. The residual deection is 50 mm, which is 42.2% lower than that of the benchmark

beam. The mid-span deection time histories are shown in

Fig. 16. These results demonstrate that prestressing the RC beam

is benecial to its blast loading resistance capacity.

As shown in Fig. 17, the crack patterns of beams in Group #1 are

different at t = 1.5 ms after the blast event. The primary damage of

beam #11 without prestress is exural cracks developed at the

bottom side of the mid-span of the beam. The damage patterns

of beam #12 to beam #14 with increasing prestress change from

exural damage dominant to more prominent shear damages.

Large cracks move from the mid span towards the supports. This

is because prestressing the beam increases its exural capacity

and therefore decreases the concrete tensile damage at the midspan. However, it should be noted that prestressing would slightly

increase the diagonal shear stress in the beam because of the compressive prestressing over the cross section, therefore it results in

damage towards the supports. To demonstrate this, the stress on

the longitudinal rebars near the mid-span and the stress of hoop

rebars near the supports of beam #11 and beam #12 are extracted

and compared from the numerical results. The time histories of

stresses of longitudinal bar and hoop rebar are shown in Fig. 18.

As summarized in Table 5, the maximum stresses on the longitudinal rebars are 547.2 MPa and 487.2 MPa for the non-prestressed

and prestressed beam #12, respectively. The maximum stresses

of hoop rebars near the supports are 476.7 MPa and 511.2 MPa

670

Table 5

Maximum stresses of longitudinal bar and hoop rebar at supports (#11 and #12).

Displacement (m)

0.05

Beam

No.

0.00

-0.05

#11

#12

Prestress

MPa

Maximum stress of

longitudinal rebar

MPa

rebar near the supports

MPa

0

315

547.2

487.2

476.7

511.2

-0.10

-0.15

#11

#13

-0.20

0.00

0.02

0.04

0.06

#12

#14

0.08

0.10

Time (s)

Fig. 16. Mid-span deection time histories (Group #1).

by exural mode. However, prestressing may have adverse effect if

shear damage induced by large amplitude short duration blast load

is the dominant damage mode.

4.2. Effect of concrete compressive strength

The results indicate that prestressing in the beam might reduce

the exural damage near the mid-span but increase the shear damage near the beam supports.

When subjected to impulsive loading, most of the RC beams

experience the combined damage mode of exural and shear damage. Besides the exural damage discussed above, the RC beam also

experiences shear damage near the supports as observed in Fig. 17.

To examine the inuences of prestressing on the shear damage,

shear stress time history at a concrete element near the support

(i.e. element 38,889) as shown in Fig. 19 is extracted. As shown

in Fig. 20, increasing the prestress, the shear stress in the element

also increases. These results indicate that prestressing is benecial

three more groups of beams (i.e. Group #2, #3 and #4) having different concrete compressive strength (i.e. 50 MPa, 60 Mpa and

70 MPa) are compared with the beams of Group #1 with concrete

compressive strength of 42 MPa. Four levels of prestress (i.e. 0,

315 MPa, 472 MPa and 630 MPa) are applied for each group. All

groups of beams are subjected to the same blast loadings with peak

pressure of 6100 kPa, positive reected impulse of 3050 kPa ms

and duration of positive phase of 1.0 ms.

As shown in Figs. 21 and 22, the maximum and residual deections at mid-span decrease with the increase of concrete compressive strength. Figs. 2325 show the deection time histories of

beams. As given in Table 6, using the beam #13 as a benchmark,

the maximum deections of the beam #23, beam #33 and beam

600

600

500

500

400

400

Stress (MPa)

Stress (MPa)

Fig. 17. Crack patterns of beam #11, #12 and #14 at t = 1.5 ms.

300

200

100

0

0.00

Beam #12

Beam #11

0.01

0.02

Time (s)

0.03

300

200

100

0

0.00

Beam #12

Beam #11

0.01

0.02

Time (s)

Fig. 18. (L) Stress time histories of longitudinal rebar; (R) stress time histories of hoop rebar at supports.

0.03

671

0.05

#11

#12

#13

#14

15

Displacement (m)

20

10

0.00

-0.05

-0.10

-0.15

#21

#23

-0.20

0.00

0

0.00

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.02

0.06

0.08

0.10

Time (s)

0.08

Time (s)

0.04

#22

#24

Fig. 20. Maximum shear stress time histories at supports (Group #1).

decrease 45.4%, 50.6% and 60.0%, respectively, with the increase

of concrete compressive strength from 42 to 50, 60 and 70 MPa.

The beam #44 with prestress of 630 MPa and concrete compressive strength of 70 MPa experiences the maximum deection of

54.0 mm and residual deection of 28.0 mm while the beam #22

with prestress of 315 MPa and concrete compressive strength of

42 MPa has larger maximum deection of 111.6 mm and residual

deection of 81.0 mm. Therefore, it can be concluded that the

increase of concrete compressive strength and prestress has obvious benets to blast-resistant capacity of prestressed RC beams.

160

Maximum deflection-Group#1(fc'=42MPa)

Maximum deflection-Group#2(fc'=50MPa)

Maximum deflection-Group#3(fc'=60MPa)

Maximum deflection-Group#4(fc'=70MPa)

Deflection (mm)

140

120

100

80

60

-100

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

Prestress (MPa)

Fig. 21. Maximum deections versus prestress for different concrete strength.

120

Residual deflection-Group#2 (fc'=50MPa)

Residual deflection-Group#3 (fc'=60MPa)

Residual deflection-Group#4 (fc'=70MPa)

Deflection (mm)

100

80

60

40

-100

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

Prestress (MPa)

Fig. 22. Residual deections versus prestress for different concrete strength.

exural resistance capacity of the beam, but may reduce the shear

resistance capacity. It is well understood that when the blast loading duration is longer than the fundamental vibration period of the

beam, the beam response and damage are governed by exural

response mode, whereas they are governed by the shear response

and damage mode if the blast loading duration is substantially

shorter than the beam fundamental vibration period. To further

demonstrate the inuences of prestressing on beams exural

and shear resistance capacities, in this section, the responses of

the non-prestressed beam #11 and the prestressed beam #12

under three different levels of blast loadings are considered. The

prestressed beam #12 has prestress of 315 MPa and concrete compressive strength of 42 MPa. For comparison, the three blast loads

considered have the same impulse of 3050 kPa ms but different

amplitudes and duration. The peak pressures of the three loads

are respectively 6100 kPa, 13,000 kPa and 20,000 kPa, and the corresponding positive phase duration 1.0 ms, 0.47 ms and 0.31 ms.

The blast load parameters are given in Table 7 and the idealized triangular blast loadings are shown in Fig. 26. The simulation cases

are denoted as #11-1 to #11-3 for the unprestressed beam

subjected to the three blast loadings, and #12-1 to #12-3 for the

prestressed beam subjected to the three blast loadings.

The damage modes under the three blast loadings at

time = 4.5 ms are shown in Figs. 2729. The performance of the

beam #11-1 and the prestressed beam #12-1 under the blast load

with peak pressure 6100 kPa have been discussed in Section 4.1. As

672

Table 7

Parameters of blast loadings.

0.05

Beam

No.

Displacement (m)

0.00

Prestress

(MPa)

Case

Peak

pressure

(kPa)

Positive

reected

impulse

(kPa ms)

Duration of

positive

phase (ms)

-0.05

#11

#11-1

#11-2

#11-3

6100

13,000

20,000

3050

3050

3050

1.0

0.47

0.31

#12

315

#12-1

#12-2

#12-3

6100

13,000

20,000

3050

3050

3050

1.0

0.47

0.31

-0.10

-0.15

#31

#33

-0.20

0.00

0.02

0.04

0.06

#32

#34

0.08

0.10

Time (s)

Fig. 24. Mid-span deection time histories for Group #3.

25000

0.05

0.00

Displacement (m)

#11-1 #12-1

#11-2 #12-2

#11-3 #12-3

20000

-0.05

-0.10

#41

#43

-0.15

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

10000

5000

#42

#44

-0.20

0.00

15000

0

0.0

0.10

0.1

0.2

0.3

Time (s)

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

Time (ms)

shown in Fig. 27, both beams suffer primarily exural damage with

most of the cracks at the bottom side of the mid-span. The beam

#12-1 experiences less damage at the mid-span region than the

beam #11-1 because the prestressing reduces the exural damage

as discussed above. When the beams are subjected to the blast load

of peak pressure 13,000 kPa, the prestressed beam #12-2 experiences the combined pattern of shear and exural damage as shown

in Fig. 28. The damage moves from the mid-span towards the supports where longitudinal rebars fail. The non-prestressed beam

#11-2 has a similar failure mode with more cracks developed in

the mid-span and longitudinal rebars also failed. However, it is

fails at around 13 ms, earlier than the unprestressed beam #11-2,

which fails at 21 ms. When subjected to the largest blast load considered in this study, the prestressed beam #12-3 fails primarily by

diagonal shear failure close to the support as shown in Fig. 29. It is

observed that one longitudinal rebar and some hoop rebars fail

near the supports. The non-prestressed beam #11-3 also experiences similar shear failure with longitudinal rebar and hoop rebars

near the supports failed. The simulations reveal again that the longitudinal rebar of prestressed beam fails at around 10 ms, while

the unprestressed beam fails at 14 ms, implying the prestressed

Table 6

Mid-span deections of beams (Group #1 #4).

Group

Beam

Prestress

Concrete

Maximum Deection

No.

No.

MPa

MPa

mm

Reduction

mm

Reduction

#1

#2

#3

#4

#1

#2

#3

#4

#1

#2

#3

#4

#1

#2

#3

#4

#11

#21

#31

#41

#12

#22

#32

#42

#13

#23

#33

#43

#14

#24

#34

#44

0

0

0

0

315

315

315

315

472

472

472

472

630

630

630

630

42

50

60

70

42

50

60

70

42

50

60

70

42

50

60

70

112.0

111.9

104.5

94.6

111.6

111.5

91.3

66.9

104.0

102.0

79.6

65.3

88.9

76.6

70.0

54.0

0.1%

6.7%

15.5%

0.2%

18.2%

40.0%

1.9%

23.5%

37.3%

13.8%

21.3%

39.2%

86.5

83.6

80.5

62.4

81.0

75.8

69.5

44.6

60.5

56.8

51.4

41.6

50.0

48.1

44.4

28.0

3.4%

6.9%

27.9%

6.4%

14.2%

45.0%

45.4%

50.6%

60.0%

45.9%

50.1%

68.5%

Residual Deection

673

#11-1

#12-1

Fig. 27. Damage modes of beams #11-1 and #12-1 (at time = 4.5 ms).

#11-2

#12-2

Fig. 28. Damage modes of beams #11-2 and #12-2 (at time = 4.5 ms).

#11-3

#12-3

Fig. 29. Damage modes of beams #11-3 and #12-3 (at time = 4.5 ms).

failure mode is primarily shear failure. These observations demonstrate that prestressing is not necessarily always benecial to the

blast loading resistance capacities of RC beams. When the beam

failure mode is governed by shear failure, prestressing reduces

the beam blast loading resistance capacity. However, it always

enhances the beam exural resistance capacity.

5. Conclusions

This study presents numerical simulations of simply-supported

prestressed RC beams subjected to blast loadings by using nite

element codes LS-DYNA. Numerical results demonstrated that

prestressing RC beams increases their blast loading resistance

capacities if the failure is governed by exural responses, but

may reduce the beams blast loading resistance capacities if the

failure is governed by shear responses. Parametric studies on four

groups of prestressed RC beams have been carried out by considering different prestress, concrete compressive strength and blast

loading. It is found that the appearance and growth of exural

cracks in concrete is delayed effectively by using prestress. In

addition, the higher are the prestress and the concrete compressive

strength, the more effective is the prestressed RC beam in blastresistant capacity. However, increasing the prestress level in the

beam may increase the diagonal shear damage near the beam supports, the blast resistance performance of prestressed beam might

be disadvantaged. Therefore, proper analysis and design are

the blast loading capacities of RC beams.

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge the partial nancial support from

Australian Commonwealth Scientic and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) to carry out this research work.

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