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SCAVENGING

The process of exchanging the gases present in the cylinder after completion of
expansion with a charge of uncontaminated fresh air is termed as scavenging.
The performance of diesel engine depends to a large extent on efficiency of scavenging.
The requirements are :
1. The exhaust ports/valve should open early, in advance of the air ports for
effective removal of exhaust gases (referred as blow down period).
2. Scavenge ports should be closed after the process of gas exchange is completed
(proper scavenging period)
3. Loss of fresh air charge escaping through the exhaust ports should be minimized
(post scavenging period).
There are 3 types of scavenging methods :

1. Uniflow Scavenging : The scavenge air enters through the scavenge ports in the
lower part of the cylinder liner, the exhaust gas is expelled through the centrally
mounted exhaust valve in the cylinder cover. The scavenge ports are angled to
generating a rotational movement of the rising column of air.
The charge flows in one direction and intermixing is minimum. The efficiency is
maximum in this type of scavenging.
Stroke Bore ratio : 2.4 2.9. In modern engines 3.5 4.0
2. Loop Scavenging : Exhaust ports are placed above scavenge ports on the same
side of the liner. Air passes over the piston crown and rises to form a loop within
the cylinder, expelling gas through exhaust ports
Stroke Bore ratio : 1.75
3. Cross Scavenging : In this system the air is directed upwards, passing under
the cylinder cover and down on the opposite side, expelling gas through
exhaust ports located diametrically opposite side of the scavenge ports
Stroke Bore ratio : 2.0 2.2

UNIFLOW SCAVENGING :
Uniflow scavenging with a large centrally positioned exhaust valve is used in most
modern slow speed large diesel engines
Advantages :
1. High Stroke Bore ratio
2. More power can be developed.
3. Design of the cylinder liner is simple due to absence of exhaust ports. Cost of
liner is less.
4. Effective length of Piston stroke is considerably more.
5. Arrangement for sealing the bottom of cooling water space is simpler.
06.The increased scavenging efficiency with this type of scavenging creates
greater scope for increased economy and so all modern designs are based on
this design.
7. The reduced number of ports (no exhaust ports), and reduced size of the scavenge
ports (due to reduced air volume requirements), this reduces the problems of liner
lubrication allowing reduced oil consumption
Disadvantages :
1. Require exhaust valves, additional cost and maintenance
2. Require two or more fuel valves to be fitted per cylinder.
CROSS / LOOP SCAVENGING :
Advantages :
01 Do not require exhaust valves. Simple cylinder cover design and simpler
camshaft and camshaft drive design.
02.Only one centrally located fuel valve is sufficient.
Disadvantages :
1. Design of Cylinder liner is complicated because of exhaust ports hence liner is
expensive.
2. Greater possibility of mixing between charge air and exhaust gases. Less
Purity of charge air and high temperature.
3. Large temperature difference between small area of scavenge and exhaust
Ports resulting in high thermal stresses.
4. More chance of piston rings leakage / breaking due to uneven wear.
5. The exhaust back pressure may rise due to narrowing of the exhaust passage due
to deposits of unburnt carbon.
6. The requirement for both the exhaust and scavenge ports being fitted into the liner
makes for a more complicated design with increased liner lubrication difficulties
especially in way of the exhaust ports. Cylinder lubricating oil volume demand is
therefore higher with this design

SCAVENGE PUMPS :
In older designs, scavenge pumps used to supply air to non supercharged two stroke
engines where normal reciprocating pumps or Root blowers, driven by the engine.
The pump consists of light weight piston working in a cylinder. Each end of cylinder
has covers fitted with suction and delivery valve, with a division plate between the
suction and delivery valve groups, making two separate spaces. The suction valve space
is open to atmosphere and the delivery valve space is connected either directly or
through air trunking to the scavenge trunk.
The valve plates are made from thin steel sheet, and bend or deflect off the seat to open.
The suction and discharge vale plates are usually identical. They are bolted on their
seats with a covering guard which is used to control the opening lift of the valve.
The pump piston and piston rod are attached to crosshead which work in set of guides.
The motion of crosshead is obtained from rocking levers linked to an engine crosshead,
or from a separate crank and connecting rod. The stroke of a scavenge pump is usually
less than that of the engine in order to keep down the piston speed of scavenge pump,
which increases the pumping efficiency.
Some older designs of scavenge pump pistons were fitted with piston rings. If the piston
rings are fitted, they should be lubricated. The friction between the piston rings and
cylinder wall is considerable, due to which scavenge pumps require more power to drive
it, resulting in reducing the efficiency of the engine.
In later versions, plain pistons were used and air leakage past piston was kept to
minimum by allowing only a very small clearance between piston and cylinder wall.
The mechanical efficiency of the engine was increased as these pumps do not require
much power.

Using Under Piston space

A= blower, b = exhaust gas turbine, c = intercooler, d = piston


under side in parallel E = piston under side pump in series f = bypass
valve
The underside of the piston is utilized as an air pump in a two stroke
engine. It supplies air to the engine under normal working conditions
as well as during turbine breakdown. Under piston scavenge pumps
can be worked in series or in parallel with the turbocharger.
Air is drawn by the turbo compressor through an intake filter and
silencer. It is compressed and delivered to the air cooler. The heat
generated due to compression is removed in the cooler. Cooled and
dense air is admitted to the duct supplying air under pressure to
engine.
In series parallel system as used in MAN, a limited number of piston
underside have been arranged for charging by drawing air directly
from atmosphere while the others work in series with the
turbocharger as shown in the sketch. Both pulse system and constant
pressure system can be used in exhaust gas turbine side.