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IJSTE - International Journal of Science Technology & Engineering | Volume 2 | Issue 10 | April 2016

ISSN (online): 2349-784X

Advanced Traffic Signal Control System for


Congestion Control
C.Jerlin Ajith Davidson
Assistant Professor
Department of Electronics Communication Engineering
CCET, Oddanchatram Tamilnadu 624619

Aaron Thomas
UG Scholar
Department of Electronics Communication Engineering
CCET, Oddanchatram Tamilnadu 624619

Midhun T
UG Scholar
Department of Electronics Communication Engineering
CCET, Oddanchatram Tamilnadu 624619

Sam Philip
UG Scholar
Department of Electronics Communication Engineering
CCET, Oddanchatram Tamilnadu 624619

Vipin Thomas
UG Scholar
Department of Electronics Communication Engineering
CCET, Oddanchatram Tamilnadu 624619

Abstract
Intelligent traffic management system is a technique which is based on the queue length of vehicles in each traffic signal side.
Radio Frequency identification (RFID) tag is placed in each vehicle. RFID reader, NSK EDK-125-TTL and PIC16F877A are the
other equipments used here to avoid congestion. The vehicles are counted, detects the presence or absence of vehicles and
accordingly traffic signal light is displayed. If the stolen vehicle passes the traffic pole, RFID reader identifies and sends the
message to police control room, takes the photograph of the driver and Gate Model blocks the vehicle from passing through the
junction. When the emergency vehicle reaches the junction, green light is turned ON using Zigbee module. The main aim of this
technique is to reduce the waiting time of the vehicles.
Keywords: RFID, ZigBee, CC2500, SIM300, PIC16F877A, NSK EDK- 125-TTL, congestion control, emergency vehicle,
theft vehicle
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I.

INTRODUCTION

Increasing traffic congestion is critical problem due to slow growth in traffic policies with the current pace of growth. In the late
1990s, vehicle miles travelled increased 72% in the U.S while the number of lane miles increased only by 1%. Today, congestion
control is the need of the hour. Zigbee, RFID and GSM are the technologies used in intelligent traffic control system to provide
solutions for traffic congestion. RFID technology uses radio frequency electromagnetic energy to carry information between the
RFID tag and RFID reader. RFID systems work up to the range of 100 meters. Zigbee operates in ISM bands and and it is used
to transmit and receive the data at 9600 baud rate. GSM is a technology which uses a SIM card and used over a mobile phone
operator. The traffic light phases are synchronized to minimize the car stoppage and reduce the waiting time if the count of the
vehicles in the other side is more.
II. WORK MODULE
Intelligent traffic systems are necessary traveler information, freeway and arterial management, emergency management, and
parking management, increasingly rely on monitoring of real-time traffic network conditions [section 7.1]. Traditional
transportation management divisions such as transportation planning and pavement maintenance also need the associated traffic
data.
For instance, the Traffic Management Center (TMC) can optimize the cycle time of traffic lights based on queue lengths
[section 7.1]. Travelers can use this information to plan their activities and routes. There is a great need for advanced
surveillance capabilities to promote the rapid deployment of ITS strategies. Since the quality of traffic data influences the proper
functions of the ITS systems, the data collected must be plentiful, diverse, and accurate, which presents a serious challenge to the
traffic surveillance industry

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ZigBee Module CC2500


The CC2500 is a RF module which provides an easy way to use RF communication at 2.4GHz. It also consist of a transreceiver.
Each and every CC2500 consist of micro controller (PIC 16F877A). The microcontroller contains Unique Identification Number
(UIN),it is based on registration number of the vehicle. It consist of a feature of serial communication without any extra
hardware and extra coding so it is a transreceiver because it provides communication in both direction,but only one direction.
The microcontroller and CC2500 always communicate through serial communication.
Microcontroller (PIC 16F877A)
Microcontroller (PIC 16F877A) executes each insruction in less than 200 nano seconds. It consists of 40 pins and consist of 8K
program memory and 368 byte data memory. It is very easy to store and send UINs .
GSM Module SIM 300
In GSM Module SIM 300 a GSM modem is connected with the microcontroller which allows the computer to use the GSM
modem to communicate over the mobile network. These GSM modems are always used to provide mobile internet connectivity
which also can be used for sending and receiving SMS and MMS messages. It works on frequencies EGSM 900 MHz, DCS
1800 MHz and PCS 1900 MHz.
RFID Reader-125 kHz-TTL
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is an IT system that transmits signals without the presence of physical gadgets in wireless
communication and is categorized under automatic identification technology. Its working is very simple. The tags store the data
and information about the things to be traced. The reader reads the radio frequency and identifies the tags. The antenna transmits
the information to the reader. There are two types of RFID active and passive tags. The tags that do not utilize the power are
known as passive and the tags that rely on power is known as active.
III. WORKING METHODS
There are mainly 3 methods, they are
Automatic Traffic Signal Control

Fig. 1: Automatic traffic control system

In this operation,all vehicles have RFID tags and RFID reader is kept at the traffic pole.The unique identification number of each
vehicle is transmitted to the RFID reader. The microcontroller present in the module counts the number of vehicles in a
lane.According to the count, the duration of green light is set.The duration of the green light could be 10s,20s or 30s.
The RFID reader determines total number of vehicles passing through the junction.RFID reader works with frequency 125kHz
Emergency Vehicle Identification And Clearance System
In this operation,the emergency vehicle contains zigbee transmitter and the receiver containing micro-controller. The zigbee
module is placed at the traffic pole.The signal containing unique ID and security code are send from zigbee transmitter when the
switch is pressed.The receiver at the traffic junction compares security code with the codes in the database.The green light will
be turned on when it matches.

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Fig. 2: Emergency vehicle clearance system

When the emergency vehicle with zigbee transmitter reaches the junction,then the zigbee receiver identifies it as an emergency
vehicle and it will turn the green light ON for 30s duration.
Stolen Vehicle Detection
When the RFID tag containing stolen vehicle passes the juction,the RFID reader identifiesn it and hence the traffic signal turns to
red,the gate gets closed and the image of the driver is captured and send to police control room.Asms is also send to policeman
after it detects the prescence of a theft vehicle.

Fig. 3: Theft vehicle identification and blockage

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IV. PIN DIAGRAM IMPLEMENTATION

Fig. 4: pin diagram

Fig. 5: (a) ZigBee module CC2500. (b) Pin diagram of PIC16F877A. (c) GSM Module SIM300. (d) RFID reader125 kHzTTL.

V. RESULT AND DISCUSSION


Initially, RFID tags are placed in every vehicles. The RFID reader connected with microcontroller will detect RFID tags, this is
basic principle of Automatic Signal Control System which we have proposed. The the traffic conjection can be reduced by
controlling the traffic lights.

Fig. 6: (a) RFID reader connected with microcontroller,fig 6 (b) RFID tags placed in vehicles

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Advanced Traffic Signal Control System for Congestion Control


(IJSTE/ Volume 2 / Issue 10 / 053)

Fig. 6: (c) Emergency Vehicle Identification

The figure (c) shows Emergency Vehicle Identification and Clearance System. Zigbee transmitter and receiver are the main
components used which helps to identify the emergency vehicles and clear a way for the emergency vehicle.
The theft vehicle detection and its blockage are mainly done by using RFID reader, camera, gate closing etc. This project is
mainly aimed for the modern world.
VI. CONCLUSION
The present traffic system operate on a timing mechanism in which fixed timings of signal are allocated at each
lane.Consequently it will lead to increase waiting time and traffic congestion.This intelligent traffic control system should be
adopted to optimize the unnecessary time delay and network capacity.The accidental persons could be brought to the hospital
without any queue.Also theft vehicle can be traced and such losses can be reduced.
The longer range of RFID is complex and expensive.If GPS is fixed in the vehicle in unbreakable pattern,the exact location
can be found. The long queues of the traffic can be controlled only to a small extend. Depending on the principle of traffic
congestion formation, congestion volume is determined which can be used to evaluate the real-time status of traffic congestion
along the segment, and to predict the subcriticalstate of traffic jams at the junctions. The result is to support the signal timing
optimization of traffic light control system to avoid traffic jams before its formation.
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