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Prsentation CAO

Comparison of the transient and the harmonic balance method .


analysis and optimization of an amplifier depending on the impedances presented at the harmonic frequencies

Directed by :
Mr Michel Campovecchio

Yassine BARJE
Abdelkader HADJERI

Summary
I.

comparing the transient and the harmonic balance simulation.


1.

2.

Time domain analysis (Transient simulation).

Principle

Exemple of a simulation.

Conclusion.
Harmonic Balance.

principle.

Exemple of a simulation.

Conclusion.

II. Determining the optimum harmonic loads for a power amplifier.


1.
2.
3.

circuit analysis with blocks of impedances and ideals filters.


Synthesis and optimization of the matching circuit depending on the desired
impedances.
Comparison the results

Time domain analysis (Transient simulation)


Principle :
The Transient Simulation solves a set of integro-differential equations
that express the time dependence of the currents and voltages of the
circuit. The result of such an analysis is nonlinear with respect to time.

i
e(t)

R(i)

The Algorithm of rsolution:

Newton
Raphson

x0 F(x0) = 0
If yesEnd

Newton
Raphson

calculation of x1 F(x1) = 0
If yesEnd

xk

2n-1

Newton
Raphson

calculation of xn F(xn) = 0
If yesEnd

Limits of the transient analysis in the RF domain

Exemple of a transient simulation:

f1= 8,15 Ghz ; f2=8,25 Ghz ;


Tstep=

1
10 xf 2

=0,00121 nsec

Results :

Even if the circuit is relatively simple , it took the simulator 10 min and
3Go of data to simulate it.

The results are given in the time domain.

The simulator sweep all the response of the circuit from the transitional
state to the steady state
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II- Harmonic Balance :


Harmonic balance is a
frequency-domain analysis technique for
obtaining the steady state solution of nonlinear circuits and systems.
calculates the magnitude and phase of voltages or currents in a potentially
nonlinear circuit.

Algorithm of resolution :

Taken from Agilent's documentation.


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Exemple of a circuit analysed with a Harmonic balance


simulation :

f1= 8,15 Ghz ; f2=8,25 Ghz ;


3 harmonics per tones.

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Results :

The results are computed in the frequency domain.


No transitional state.
Comparing to the transient simulation , the HB simulation took 15 seconds and 14 Mo.
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Conclusion :

The transient simulation is very consuming of time and data in


the RF domain.
In the case of periodic RF signals , the harmonic balance is more
efficient than the transient simulation.

However, the harmonic balance simulation is limited by the number of


harmonics.

The transient simulation is necessary in the case of aperiodic signals or


if we need to see the transitional state.

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II-Analyze and optimization of a power amplifier


Context :
The two most important parameters in the conception
of a power amplifier are:
The linearity.
The efficiency.

II. Determining the optimal harmonic loads:


Circuit analysis with the ideals impedance blocks and filters

Filters

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An impedance port that present either a short circuit or open circuit depending
on the frequency..
High pass filter:

RES= OC if freq<fc else sc endif

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Results of the simulation with impedance blocks :

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synthesis and optimization of the matching circuit depending


on the desired impedances.

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Optimization of the matching circuit

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Simulation with the matching circuit and verification

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Thank you for your attention