Lecture_3 - Drag

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Lecture_3 - Drag

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MAE 154S

Fall 2015

Aircraft Drag

74

MAE 154S

Fall 2015

Skin friction drag

Results from the viscous shearing forces tangential to bodys surface

Influenced by Reynolds number and surface roughness

Laminar flow leads to lower skin friction coefficients than turbulent flow

Pressure Drag

Results from pressure distribution normal to bodys surface

Dependent on Reynolds number, projected frontal area.

Laminar flow can lead to an adverse pressure gradient that increases drag

predict.

Usually experimental wind tunnel tests are required to obtain

accurate predictions

75

Induced Drag

MAE 154S

Fall 2015

vector backward.

With respect to free stream AoA, a component of the

lift vector is in the drag direction.

Di

L

& C L2 #

!!

C Di = $$

% Ae "

Increasing Aspect ratio

Optimizing spanwise lift distribution

Disrupting tip vortices at wingtips

& C L2 #

!!

C D = C D min + $$

% Ae "

76

Drag Equations

MAE 154S

1

D = V 2 SC D

2

CD = CDP

equals weight (L = W).

1

W = L = V 2 SCL

2

2

L

C

+

Ae

2W

CL =

V 2 S

1

1

2

D = V SCD p + V 2 SCDi

2

2

Parasite Drag

Fall 2015

Induced Drag

77

MAE 154S

Total Drag

Fall 2015

Parasite Drag

Induced Drag

78

Interference Drag

MAE 154S

Fall 2015

Interference Drag:

When two objects are placed in close proximity, their

boundary layers and pressure distributions interact

with each other.

The net drag is higher than the sum of each

components drag by itself.

interference drag.

In general, high wing configuration is better than low

wing.

Low wing interference caused by airflow on top of

the wing, which is usually has a more turbulent and

thicker boundary layer.

However, low wings are better suited for retractable

landing gear.

High Wing

Mid Wing

out sharp angles whenever possible

Low Wing

D.Toohey - University of California, Los Angeles

79

Trim Drag

MAE 154S

Fall 2015

needed to balance aircraft about pitch

axis.

Drag changes mainly a result of

changes in induced drag on tail.

CG locations strongly influenced trim

drag. CG too far forward may result in

increases in trim drag.

80

MAE 154S

Fall 2015

Lancair 360

Photo by Omoo

Laminar airfoils can be used, but not always very realistic depending

on the materials and construction tolerances being used.

Wetted area should be minimized, usually by having the fuselage taper

in the back. However, useful volume of fuselage is sacrificed.

Can consider optimum fineness ratio for fuselage. However, this

usually isnt very realistic either. Most aircraft fuselages are longer to

provide sufficient moment arms for tail control surfaces.

D.Toohey - University of California, Los Angeles

81

MAE 154S

Fall 2015

Make as streamlined as possible

Retractable landing gear (added

complexity)

Shorter wings lower cross-section and

reduce parasite drag (leads to increased

induced drag)

Avoid flow separation

Wingspan: 21 ft 9 in (6.36 m)

Wing area: 196.1 sq ft (18.22 m)

Loaded weight: 20,640 lb (9,365 kg)

Aspect ratio: 2.45

Maximum speed: 1,328 mph

Rate of climb: 48,000 ft/min

Wing loading: 105 lb/sq ft (514 kg/m)

Thrust/weight: 0.54 with max. takeoff

weight (0.76 loaded)

Lift-to-drag ratio: 9.2

Photo Courtesy USAF

82

Laminar Airfoils

MAE 154S

Fall 2015

flow in order to reduce skin friction

Airfoil must be very smooth to promote laminar flow

narrow CL and AoA range, leading to a drag bucket on the drag

polar.

83

Turbulators

MAE 154S

Fall 2015

laminar flow has a tendency to separate easier than turbulent

flow.

Flow separation is usually a lot worse than skin friction drag.

flow. This thickens the boundary layer and helps delay or

prevent flow separation.

84

MAE 154S

Fall 2015

aeronautical engineer that worked for Langley

Research Center. He made 3 very significant

contributions to aircraft aerodynamics:

Transonic Area Rule

Supercritical Airfoils

Winglets

D.Toohey - University of California, Los Angeles

85

Winglets

MAE 154S

Fall 2015

the trailing vortex system.

Sidewash velocity produces an

angle of attack acting on the

winglet.

Photo by D. Nehrener

wing, inward flow on top.

Lift force acting on winglet has a

forward component, resulting in

the generation of negative drag.

Airbus A319 wingtip fence

D.Toohey - University of California, Los Angeles

86

MAE 154S

Fall 2015

surface

A disc wing such as this has a very low aspect ratio, which we know leads

to very high induced drag.

Large propellers were used to cancel the effect of the wingtip vortices by

rotating in the opposite direction. This allowed the wing to be much

smaller, which has improved maneuverability and increased structural

strength.

87

Compressibility

MAE 154S

Fall 2015

Mach number of the

aircraft at which the local

Mach number at some

point of the wing becomes

1.0

Mach numbers above the

critical mach number result

in shock waves forming on

the wing

Mach number at which the

aerodynamic drag of a

wing increases rapidly as

the Mach No. continues to

increase

Usually close to but

always greater than the

critical mach number

D.Toohey - University of California, Los Angeles

88

Drag Divergence

MAE 154S

Fall 2015

89

MAE 154S

Fall 2015

At higher speeds, shock waves form on the aircraft body and cause wave drag.

Shockwaves can be reduced if the cross-sectional area of the aircraft changes gradually

across its length, and it turns out this effect is largely independent of the aircraft shape.

One way to follow this area rule is to reduce the fuselage cross-section where the wing is

placed (Coke bottle shape).

90

D.Toohey - University of California, Los Angeles

MAE 154S

its straight fuselage design. Aircraft

performance was disappointing designed

to fly Mach 1.2 but could not exceed Mach 1.

Fall 2015

the transonic area rule.

91

MAE 154S

Fall 2015

Not all aircraft follow the Area rule by narrowing the fuselage

at the wing location. This would not make much sense for

passenger aircraft that desire large fuselage volume.

Instead, anti-shock bodies can be added to the aircraft to help

keep the changes in cross-sectional area smooth.

92

Supercritical Airfoil

MAE 154S

given lift coefficient can be

reduced if using a supercritical

airfoil.

Fall 2015

rearward location and decrease in

the strength of the shock wave

Onset of boundary layer

separation is also delayed to a

higher Mach number

Lift is lost due to reducing the

upper surface curvature, but this

is made up for by the supersonic

flow on the upper surface, and by

the large camber on the rear

portion of the airfoil

D.Toohey - University of California, Los Angeles

93

MAE 154S

Fall 2015

dependant on airspeed normal to

leading edge.

Wing sweep increases critical

mach number by reducing the

velocity component normal to

leading edge.

Vnormal

before drag divergence

occurs.

Vnormal= V cos

D.Toohey - University of California, Los Angeles

94

MAE 154S

Fall 2015

reduced such that the

component of the flow normal to

the shock is subsonic.

As long as the aircraft lies within

the cone-shaped shock, it will

see subsonic flow.

As Mach No. increases,

the shock angle increases.

sin =

1

M

At Mach 2, aircraft

sweep angle would

need to be 60

D.Toohey - University of California, Los Angeles

95

MAE 154S

Fall 2015

speeds.

Loss in maneuverability

High stalling angle

Some aircraft like the F-14 employ variable sweep wings for

different flight conditions.

96

Ground effect

MAE 154S

vortices from fully forming leading

to a reduction in induced drag

Wing in Ground effect increases

the effective angle of attack, making

the wing more effective at

producing lift.

Fall 2015

97

Drag Estimation

MAE 154S

Fall 2015

Estimate parasite drag on various aircraft components

exposed to flow.

Add them up to estimate parasite drag for entire aircraft.

#comp

C DP =

i =1

K i Qi C f i S weti

S ref

+ C DMisc + C D

L& P

Cf: skin friction coefficient

K: form factor

Q: interference factor

CD,misc: additional miscellaneous drag terms

CD,L&P: Leakage and protuberance

D.Toohey - University of California, Los Angeles

98

Drag Estimation

MAE 154S

Fall 2015

There are various empirical equations that can be used to estimate the various

drag terms

Skin friction can be estimated with

Raymer eq. 12.27

Cf =

0.455

(log10 Re)

2.58

(1+ 0.144 M 2 )

0.65

(

" t %4 +

0.6 " t %

0.28

0.18

Raymer eq. 12.30 estimates the

K = *1+

$ ' + 100$ ' - 1.34 M cos( m )

#c & ,

form factor for wings, tails,

) ( x /c ) m # c &

canards, etc.

smooth

to estimate form factor for

surfaces like fuselages

& 60

f #

!!

K = $$1 + 3 +

f

400

%

"

l

f =

d

Interference Factors are harder to estimate, but values range from 1 to 1.25 depending

on the surface.. Usually wings have a negligible interference so we can assume a

value of 1. Tail surfaces are vary from 1.03 to 1.08

99

Drag Estimation

MAE 154S

Fall 2015

the induced drag

C Dtotal = C DP + C Di

Since both wing and tail are capable of producing lift, both

surfaces can contribute to induced drag..

CL2w

2

St CL t

CD,i =

+

Awew Sw At et

term come from?

With total drag coefficient, the drag force can now be computed

1

D = V 2 S ref C D

total

2

D.Toohey - University of California, Los Angeles

100

References

MAE 154S

1.

2.

3.

Fall 2015

2nd edition, Wiley & Sons, 1995

E. Field, MAE 154S, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Department, UCLA, 2001

Raymer, D.P., Aircraft Design: A Conceptual Approach, AIAA

Education Series

101

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