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ScienceDirect

Procedia Engineering 81 (2014) 498 503

11th International Conference on Technology of Plasticity, ICTP 2014, 19-24 October 2014,

Nagoya Congress Center, Nagoya, Japan

forging

Andrzej Milenina, Tomasz Reca, Wojciech Walczykb, Maciej Pietrzyka,*

a

AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, Krakow, 30-059, Poland

b

,123,QVWLWXWHRI0HWDO)RUPLQJXO-DQD3DZD,,-3R]QD3RODQG

Abstract

The manufacturing process of large crankshafts is affected by undesirable bending of the shaft blank at the heating and heat

treatment stages, as well as at the forging step. In line elimination of the shaft blank bending is a time consuming and expensive

operation. Identification of reasons of the shaft bending and identification of possibilities of avoiding this bending is an

important theoretical and practical problem. In previous works, the Authors developed the finite element model and applied this

model to optimization of the forging process and to predict microstructure evolution. The model was extended to predict

bending of shaft and applied in the present work to simulate the influence of various parameters of forging on shaft bending.

The work is devoted to further extension of the model by including deformation of the crankshaft during heat treatment after

forging. The model estimates the contribution of the elastic-plastic deformation, including thermal expansion and dilatometric

effect due to transformations, on the deformation and bending of the shaft. This process generates also residual stresses. The

aim of the paper was to simulate phenomena occurring during heat treatment. A program based on the finite element method

was developed to solve the three-dimensional thermal and mechanical problems. Shaft material model was developed and the

elastic-plastic characteristics were implemented in the FE code. Heat exchange with the cooling medium and the dependence of

thermal properties on temperature and heat of phase transformations were accounted for in a solution of the thermal problem.

Dilatometric tests were performed to supply data for identification of the phase transformation model during cooling. The

results of calculations of bending of shaft during the process of heat treatment, as well as the distribution of residual stresses

and strains are presented in the paper. The calculations were performed for several modes of the heat treatment. Parameters

affecting bending of the shaft were identified.

2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Selection and

and peer-review

peer-review under

under responsibility

responsibility of

of the

Nagoya

University

and Toyohashi

of Technology.

Selection

Department

of Materials

ScienceUniversity

and Engineering,

Nagoya University

Keywords: Residual stresses; Phase transformation; Numerical modeling; Crankshaft

E-mail address: maciej.pietrzyk@agh.edu.pl

1877-7058 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nagoya University

doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2014.10.029

499

1. Introduction

The technology of forging of crank shafts developed at the Metal Forming Institute in Poznan, Poland (TR

method following the name of the inventor) (Rut, Walczyk (2000), Rut, Walczyk (2002)) is the subject of this

paper. This technology gives very good results when shape of the crank webs is close to an ellipse. Application of

this technology to new constructions of crankshafts, which require large juts at the side of journals of main

bearings, was considered by Walczyk et al. (2011). In that technology an unsymmetrical preupsetting of the stock

material, which involves proper flow of the material needed to obtain required shape of the crank shoulders, was

introduced. Several possible variants of this process were investigated (Walczyk et al. (2011)) by numerical

simulations and loads, as well as flow of the material, were compared. An attempt of optimization of the tool

trajectories in this process was presented by Sztangret et al. (2011). The criterion of optimality in that work was

based on the comparison of the shape of material after forging with the assigned shape of the crank throw. A

change of the parameters of deformation in the TR process is connected also with a change in microstructure and

properties of material. Prediction of the changes during the numerical optimization requires the addition of the

microstructure evolution model to the finite element code (FEM) (Milenin et al. (2012)).

The manufacturing process of large crankshafts is affected by undesirable bending of the shaft blank at the

heating and heat treatment stages, as well as at the forging step. In line elimination of the shaft blank bending is a

time consuming and expensive operation. Identification of reasons of the shaft bending and identification of

possibilities of avoiding this bending is an important theoretical and practical problem. Therefore, the aim of the

paper was to develop the FEM model of curvature of crankshaft blank during the heat treatment and to simulate

phenomena occurring during heat treatment.

2. Description forging and heat treatment technology

The crankshafts investigated in this paper have nine cranks. Due to very large length of the forging billet (about

16 meters) the forging process of cranks is performed in nine cycles. One cycle contains:

1) local heating of forging of billet, 2) transport of forging billet from the furnace to TR forging device mounted

on the press, 3) forging process of one crank, 4) transport of forging billet to the furnace.

Last stage of manufacturing of crankshaft is heat treatment. In this stage a crankshaft is heated to the relevant

temperature and heat-treated. For heavy crankshafts the heat treatment is carried out in vertical position. The

numerical model of this stage is required. The model should predict a shape of the crankshaft and initial

temperature distribution after forging process. Therefore, the first step of investigation was numerical analysis of

forging process for cranks.

3. FEM modeling of crankshaft forging process

Numerical simulations of forging of cranks were done in Forge 2008 program based on the FEM. Boundary

conditions in the furnace, in air and between forging tools and crankshaft were defined using results published by

+DGDD (2013). Detailed description of the conditions and the results of simulation of the forging process was given

in (Milenin et al. (2012)). Temperature of the crankshaft after heating was about 1250C and it was uniform in the

whole volume of the material. Temperature of the crankshaft decreased during the transport to the press and

forging process. The measured temperature after forging process was 1170C on the surface of the crank.

4. Model of phase transformations

The objective of modelling of phase transformations was to supply data for calculation of dilatometric strains

and heat of transformation. This task can be efficiently completed by a simple model based on the JMAK equation:

X

1 exp kt n

where X is the volume fraction of a new phase and k and n are the model parameters.

(1)

500

The coefficient k must vary with temperature in a way linked to the TTT diagram:

k

T T a8 .

nose

kmax exp

a7

(2)

In equations below, which complete the phase transformation model, parameters are introduced as a with

number in subscript. In equation (3) k max = a 5 /D J is the maximum value of k, T nose = A e3 + 400/D J a 6 is a

temperature position of the nose of the Gaussian function, where D J is austenite grain size. Coefficient a 7 is

proportional to the nose width at the mid height and a 8 is related to the sharpness of the curve. The following

equations describe well coefficient k respectively in pearlitic (k p ) and bainitic (k b ) transformations:

kp

a14

T ,

a16

100

DJ

(3)

kb

T .

100

(4)

WP

Wb

a9

Ae1 T

a11

a17 kb

Bs T

a19

(5)

a u103

exp 10

RT

(6)

a u103

exp 18

RT

Start temperatures for the bainitic and martensitic transformations are functions of chemical composition:

(7)

M s [ o C] a26 a27CJ

(8)

Fraction of austenite, which transforms into martensite, was calculated according to the model:

Fm

^1 exp 0.011 M

(9)

T 1 Ff Fp Fb

where F f , F p , F b fraction of ferrite, pearlite and bainite with respect to the whole volume of material.

Coefficient n in equation (1) has numbers a 4 , a 15 and a 24 for ferritic, pearlitic and bainitic transformations,

respectively. The coefficients in the model were identified using inverse analysis for the data derived from the

dilatometric tests. Results of identification are given in Table 1. The results of calculation of phase transformations

in steel 34CrNiMo6 at different cooling rates are present in Fig. 1. Validation of the model of phase

transformations was performed on the basis of experimental data presented by Nrnberger et. al. (2010) (Fig. 2).

Table 1. Coefficients in the phase transfor4mation model obtained from the inverse solution for dilatometric tests.

a4

0.5756

a 16

0.53

a5

0.4668

a 17

69.48

a6

58.65

a 18

25.5

a7

7.843

a 19

1.0

a8

1.418

a 20

722

a9

4834

a 21

0.627

a 10

0.00016

a 22

0.0414

a 11

0.0003

a 23

0.0504

a 12

0.53

a 24

0.588

a 13

0.53

a 26

589.5

a 14

0.002

a 27

874.6

a 15

0.755

501

800

steel 34CrNiMo6

temperature, oC

700

F start

P start

B start

600

A+F

B end

M start

500

400

50 15 6

80

0.15 0.04

0.3

0.02

0.6

1

A+B

A+F+B

300

200

cooling

rate, oC/s

B+M

F+B

100

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5

log(time)

34CrNiMo6 at different cooling rates: (a) 0.01 C/s.

of experimental data presented in the [7].

Heat transfer model was based on the solution of the heat conduction equation, taking into account the heat of

phase transformations:

ct U t

dt

dW

f dF f

dF

P dFp

m dFm

H trans

H btrans b H trans

dW

dW

dW

dW

(10)

trans

trans

trans

trans

fractions of ferrite, pearlite, bainite and martensite with respect to the whole volume.

Thermophysical properties of steel are given by equations: c(t) = 0.2451t + 450.57 and k(t) = -0.0135t + 38.325.

The boundary conditions included convective heat transfer at the boundaries between the surface of forging and the

environment (adopted from the database of FORGE). The initial temperature distribution and FEM grid were

transferred from the results of forging process simulation. In the developed FEM program the type of elements was

the same, which was used in the program FORGE (tetrahedral simplex elements).

F

Mechanical model was based on the theory of small elastic-plastic deformations. Detailed description of the

FEM solution was given for example by Kopernik et al. (2011, 2014). Dilatation curves, which were used for

identification of the model of phase transformations, were also used to determine the thermal deformation. This

deformation depended on the cooling rate (CR), the temperature (t) and it was calculated from the equation:

Ht

(11)

H D t , CR H D t0 , CR

The dependence of the characteristics of elastic plastic material on temperature was defined as:

E = 215307-104.91t

(12)

V p = 961.77 - 0.9138t

(13)

A simulation of unloading is a crucial problem in determining the residual stresses and strains, which cause

bending of the shaft. Modeling of unloading was realized according to the theorem of unloading. The following

algorithm was performed for each time step of the unloading:

x The distributions of stresses ^V ` and strains ^H ` before unloading are the solutions of the loading problem.

e

x Then, the specimen is loaded by an inverse force and a material is modeled as elastic. The fields of V and

e

H are obtained after this procedure.

x The actual state of a stress and a strain during the unloading stage is reached as a sum of the solutions:

^ `

^ `

502

^V

unload

` ^V ` ^V `

(14)

^H

unload

` ^H ` ^H `

(15)

7. Example of simulation

As an example, the calculation of a cooling with the temperature of the shaft ranging from 860qC to 400qC was

considered. The simulation results are shown in Figs 3-6. When analyzing the stress state, two specific areas of the

crank pin indicated with the numbers 1 and 2 in Fig. 3a were considered. At the initial stage of cooling (Fig. 3) the

phase transformation has not yet begun. Analysis of the shape of the crank throw leads to the conclusion that the

bottom part of the crank pin (zone 2 in Fig. 3) was cooled intensively (Fig. 3a). Due to thermal shrinkage

significant tensile stresses appeared in this place. Since the entire surface of the crank throw is cooled faster,

compressive stresses appear in the inner part of the crank throw and tensile stresses appear in the outer part (Fig.

3b). Total change in the shape of the crank pin is characterized by a divergence of the upper parts. Further cooling

(Fig. 4) is associated with the beginning of phase transformations that corresponds to the nonlinear change of

thermal deformation in accordance with the dilatation curve. The direction of the bending of the crank pin is

reversed and the maximum tensile stress is moved to the zone 1 (Fig. 4b).

(a)

(b)

Fig 3. Modeling of crank deformation during cooling after 4 hours (before the start of the phase transformation): (a) the temperature distribution,

(b) mean stress distribution. Scale of displacements 200:1.

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig 4. Modeling of crank deformation during cooling after 6 hours (after the start of the phase transformation, which causes a change of the

bending direction): (a) - the temperature distribution, ( b) mean stress distribution, ( c) the distribution of the ferrite and the pearlite contents.

The scale of displacements 200:1.

After completion of the intensive phase of transformation thermal deformation becomes linear again and

deformation due to nonuniform temperature distribution becomes dominant (Fig. 5a). In consequence, the lower

colder crank pin part (zone 2) is bent as shown in Fig. 5. Stress in zone 1 again changes sign and becomes

compressive (Fig. 5b). At the final stage of cooling process the temperature begins to equalize (Fig. 6a), resulting

in the unloading volume of metal that deforms plastically. This leads to a last qualitative change in the direction of

the bending of the crank pin and the appearance of residual stresses and strains, as shown in Fig. 6b.

503

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig 5. Modeling of crank deformation after 11 hours of cooling (after the intensive phase transformation, which again changes the direction of

the crank deflection): (a) the temperature distribution, (b) the distribution of mean stress, ( c) the distribution of ferrite and pearlite contents.

The scale of displacements 200:1.

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig 6. Modeling of crank deformation after 17 hours of cooling (after the phase transformation was completed and relaxation started, which

again changed the direction of the crank deflection): ( a) the temperature distribution, (b) the distribution of the mean stress, (c) the distribution

of X - displacement. The scale of displacements 200:1.

8. Conclusions

1. Mathematical model of crankshaft deformation in the conditions of heat treatment, taking into account the

elastic-plastic deformation and phase transformations, was developed.

2. It was shown in the paper that in the presence of phase transformation, cooling process is accompanied by a

three-time changing of stress sign and the direction of bending of the crankshaft. It is due to the nonlinearity of

thermal deformation during the phase transformation and unloading of metal after the temperature becomes

uniform.

Acknowledgement: Financial assistance of the NCBiR, project number PBS1/B6/3/2012, is acknowledged.

References

Rut, T., Walczyk, W., 2000. Obrbka plastyczna Metali. 11 5-8 (in Polish).

Rut, T., Walczyk, W.: Part I., 2002. Archiwum Technologii i Automatyzacji, 22, 177-186; Part II. Archiwum Technologii i Automatyzacji 22,

187-196 (in Polish).

Walczyk, W., Milenin, A., Pietrzyk, M., 2011. Computer aided design of new forging technology for crank shafts. Steel Research International

82, 187194.

Sztangret, Milenin, A., Sztangret, M., Walczyk, W., Pietrzyk, M., Kusiak, J., 2011. Computer aided design of the TR forging technology for

crank shafts sensitivity to model and process parameters. Computer Methods in Materials Science 11, 237-242.

Milenin, A., Walczyk, W., Pietrzyk, M., 2012. Numerical modeling of microstructure evolution during forging of crank shafts. Steel Research

International 83, 808816.

+DGDD%,PSOHPHQWDWLRQRIWKHKHDWEDODQFHLQWKHILQLWHHOHPHQWVROXWLRQWRWKHWHPSHUDWXUHILHOGRIWKHSODVWLFDOOy deformed material.

International Journal of Thermal Sciences 71, 172181.

Nrnberger, F., Grydin, O., Schaper, M., Bach, F. -W., Koczurkiewicz, B., Milenin, A., 2010. Microstructure transformations in tempering

steels during continuous cooling from hot forging temperatures. Steel Research International 81, 224233.

Kopernik, M., Milenin, A., Major, R., Lackner, J.M., 2011. Identification of material model of TiN using numerical simulation of

nanoindentation test. Materials Science and Technology 27, 604-616.

Kopernik, M., Milenin, A., 2014. Numerical modeling of substrate effect on determination of elastic and plastic properties of TiN nanocoating

in nanoindentation test. Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering 14, 269277.

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