III
Comparison, ratio, integral and cauchy s root tests for the convergence of positive
tenn series.
3.1
3.1 .1
INFINITE SERIES
Sequences
A function/ : N
 1R whose domain is the set N of all natural numbers and range a set of
real numbers is called a sequence of real number or simply a real sequence.
lf /1 EN, then/(n) is generally denoted b y Xm am or Un and is called the nth term ofthe
or
{un}
range.
3.2
UNIT Ill
{xn}
{!}
11
x,,
,
neN
sequence
{}
I.
{ 1}
is bounded. Here
that no element of the sequence is actually equal to zero, while one element is equal to the
upper bound Thus for this sequence, the upper bound is attained while the lower bound
is not attained.
But if we consider the sequence {x,,} = {2"1}, then
For this sequence I :Sa,,, n EN. But there no real number K such that x,, :S K for all n EN.
Therefore the given sequence is not bounded above.
Convergence of Sequences
A sequence {x,.} is said to converge to the limit)., if for every e > 0 there exists a positive
integer n0 (r,) such that
Ix,,
I < E:
for all
11
no{E:}.
If the
or
sequence
noo
oo.
{ I}
2,,
{x,,} =
is convergent.
noo
{21 }
n
nEN
Then lim Xn
n
lim = 0
= n002"
3.3
On the other band, ifwe consider the sequence {xn} = {n2 }, then Jim n2 = oo. Hence
oo
the sequence {n2} is divergent.
A sequence
which neither converges to a finite number nor diverges to oo or oo,
is called an oscillatory sequence.
For example, consider the sequence {xn} = {{ 1)"}. Here, the even elements are
all +I and so xin + I, whereas the odd elements are 1 and so
1 + 1. Hence the
1
sequence {{ I)"} oscillates finitely between  and +I.
On the other hand, if {xn} = {n( 1)"}, then the sequence oscillates infinitely
between  oo and + oo.
{xn}
xin
EXAMPLE 3.1
2n + I
.
If an =  , show that ltm On
noo
3n + 5
Solution: Let e >
3.
0. Then
3
0" 
+
3
3n + 5.}
21 I
I 21 12,,
implies
3n + 5
or
>
On .
Hence, l.tm On
n
oo
= 
<e
>
3(3n + 5)
3e
7
5
9 e 3
. .
.
Let n0 be a pos1ttve integer greater t
han 9e
7
\ I
7 I
3(3n + 5)
3.Then,
for all
>
no.
Theorem 3.1:
Every convergent
Theorem 3.2:
E,ery convergent
equence is bounded .
<e
3.4
UNIT Ill
The converse of Theorem 3.2 may not be true. There are bounded
sequences which do not converge. For example, the sequence {( 1 )"} is bounded but it
does not converge. Ln fact, it does not have a unique Limit.
Remark 3.1:
The following fundamental theorem is useful for determining whether a sequence con
verges or not.
Theorem 3.3: (Cauchy's principle of convergence). A necessary and sufficient
condition for the comcrgcncc of a equencc {x,,} i that for each 1: > 0 there ex ists a
po iti\,c integer 110 suc h that
\ .\,,,
Theorem 3.4:
Cauchy sequence.
A.
x,,
I < f.
for all
111
> /1 no.
EXAMPLE 3.2
Using Cauchy's principle of convergence, show that the sequence {x,,}, where x,, =
1 1
I .
 +  + + ' ts
not convergent
2
B =
l+
!, the
2
(3 1 )
.
But
xim Xm =
that is,

m+
+  + +>++
m+2
2m
I X2m
2m
 Xm
2m
I >2
+
2m
(m te rms) =
m
2m
I
2
Monotonic Sequence
3.S
Xn
Xn+
Xn
. Xn+1 Xn
For example,
(I')
l l 1
1,2 3 4
(ii)
{ :1}
.
. decreasmg
is a monotomc
sequence.
EXAMPLE 3.3
+  +  + ... + I! 2!
,,,
is convergent.
Solution:
We have
for all
n.
3.6
UNIT ru
Hence
{xn}
xn = + 1  +
{xn}
l!
I
2!
I
n!
<
1
I + I + +
2
1
2nl
<
I+
t'
I
2
and so
is bounded. Hence by theorem 3.6, the given sequence converges to its upper
bound, which is less than 3. In fact,
e
2.71 ... , the base of the natural logarithm.
EXAMPLE 3.4
{xn},
Xn+ =
where
Xn = (t + ) ",
is convergent.
Solution:
We have
Xn =
n n(11  1) 1
n(n  1 )(n  2) 1
1 ++
+
21
n2
3!
n3
n
n(n
 1) ... l
n!
nn
xn+
Xn
Xn
All the factors in the numerators of and Xn+i are positive. Further, each factor in the
numerator of
1 is greater than the corresponding factor in the numerator of
whereas
3.7
the denominators of Xn and Xn+i are same . Therefore, X n+i > Xn and so {xn} is monotonic
increasing. Also,
Xn
<
l
l
l + J + + . . + <
21
n!
)+
I
I
I
l
1 ++++ . . +<3
2 22 23
2nI
and so {xn} is bounded. Hence, {xn} converges to a finite positive limit whose value is less
than 3. In fact the lim Xn = e = 2.71 . ...
noo
EXAMPLE 3.5
Solutlon:
1
Su bst1tutmg
. . x =  , we get
y
lim
)100
(1 !)"
+
2n7
3n + 21
(i) is monotonic increasing, (ii) is bounded above, (Hi) is bounded below, and (iv) has
a limit.
Solution:
2(n + 1)  7 2n  5
2n  7
Xn+I =
=
'
3(n + l) + 2 3n + 5
3n + 2
Then
Xn+ I
 Xn =
2n 5 2n7
3n + 5  3n + 2 > 0
for all
n.
3.8
UNIT Ill
Hence, the sequence is monotonic increasing. The sequence is bounded above and below.
The upper and lower bounds being
and 1. Fu
er,
2 
J Xn =Em. 1=3
m
3+11
EXAMPLE 3.7
Show that
Um (n)l/n
11c.o
Solution:
l.
Thus,
11
l ) . . . h,, >
2 !
h,,2 < n
and so
( )
2
1/2
< e if
,,_
0 < h,,
11 
1/2
and only
( )
then
< (n 2 l) 1/2
<

a,, n:io
Lim ( l + h,,)
=
2
11>J+ .
e2
Ir
1.
e.
n(n  l) 2
h,,.
2
3.9
I
I n m On
11I.1man nLi"'<.
lln .
=
3.1.2
Series
00
a0+ ,denoted by
La,,, is called
an
infinite
00
La,,.
n=I
The definition of convergence or divergence of the series
oo
n=I
convergence or divergence of the sequence {S11}:,1 of partial sums.
00
L a,, be a series of real number with partial sums S n a1 a2+ + a,,. If the
n=I
sequence {S,,},,_1 converges to/, we say that the series L an converges to the sum I and
Let
oo
00
we write
n=I
In case of infinite series, the Cauchy's criteria for the convergence takes the form
m>n>
no(e),
that is,
m>
n > no(e).
3.10
UNIT Ill
or
Jim an= 0.
L an.
n=I
00
However, lim an = 0 is not a sufficient condition for the convergence of the series
n
La
n=I
I:n,
I
oo
oo
jil'
n logn
are all divergent series inspite of the fact that lim On =0. But the condition is sometimes
usefuJ. l n fact, if nlim an 0, we can at one /say that the series is not convergent.
 oo
Theorem 3.8:
Theorem 3. 9:
EXAMPLE 3.8
fl_+ + !?_+
V4 V6 Vs
Solution:
The n th
J : I ) = J )
2(n
Jim Un=
n+OO
Thus
+ ...
y 2(n + 1 )
Th erefo re,
. . +
2(1
y2
0.
Lun is divergent
EXAMPLE 3.9
3.11
Solution:
If lal
<
I, then
1a"
Sn = . 1 a

lim Sn =
no
1

1a
a"  1
aI

and
a =F 1.
so
oo.
Thus, if lal < l, then I:a111 is convergent and its sum is 1. If a= I, then
1a
n I
and so Lim Sn = oo. Hence a
 is divergent.
nlfa> 1, then Sn> 11 and so lim S,, = oo. Hence the series is divergent. Ifa= 1, the
noo
series becomes
and then
11+1+11+
S2n = 0
and
S2n1 =
1.
a2n 1
(+ve)
aI

is monotonic increasing while S 2n+t is negative and numerically increasing with n. Hence
the series oscillates between+ oo and oo.

3.12
UNIT Ill
EXAMPLE 3.10
Show by direct summation of
is convergent.
Solution:
I + .3+3.4+
t:2 2
1
Therefore,
a1
I
=In +I
II
11(11 + I)
=I 2;
1
1
=n +
I.
=  n+
= 1 0=
on
a, + 02 + ... +On
Therefore,
lim Sn
noo
I.
I.
EXERCISE 3.1
Sequences
2.
3.
4.
Show
that
lim
noo
3+,fii =2.
I < r 1.
y ll
Give an example of a monotonically increasing sequence that is (i) convergent (ii) not
convergent
If On
=  ( + "!)
I
(
I.1m On= 
l)
for all
n,
number
show
{I;;t},
that
lim On
(ii)
4, 4,5 , }.
{2,23, T
S
{23151} {2 4 }
=lub{2'}=I
3' 5 ' =glb{2' 4'}=l .
6
natural
Ans. (i)
and
set
The
liman

{n}.
and
Therefore>
5.
1 +++
cannot converge.
3n

3.2
3.13
{:}
vfn] = 0.
is
3.2. 1
Comparison Tests
=:Un and Lv,, are two series of positive terms such that Un <
v,, and L:v,, is convergent, then L:u,, is also convergent.
lf
D: lf
Un= I (finite and nonzero), then "" and Lv,, both converge or diverge
L
noo v,,
if lim
together.
EXAMPLE 3.1 1
Show that the series
if P $
1.
Solution:
Take
f:
n=I
p>
3.14
UNJT Ill
But
and so on
Hence,
and
l + =
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
++ +>+++=5 6 7 8
8 8 8 8 2
l +,
2
and so on.
Therefore, the given series is less than the series
I l I
I+ + + + . . .
2
2
2
Leaving aside the first tenn, this series is a geometric progression whose common ratio is 1.
Therefore, this series is divergent and so is the given series.
<
_!_
nP
3.15
EXAMPLE 3.12
1 + 1 + 1 4+.
t:2 2.3 3.
We note that
Solution:
EXAMPLE 3.1 3
(n + l)(n +2)
L (n2 + l)(n2 +2f
''
Solution:
Take Vn n1
=
2.
Then,
(i +) (i +)
; )
, : } ( l+,,2 ) ( I+112
=
l,
Therefore, L:,:un and L:,:vn converge or diverge together. But the series L Vn = L
converges. Therefore, Lun is convergent.
:2
3.16
UNIT Ill
EXAMPLE 3.1 4
Examine the convergence of the series
L
Solution:
[(n3 + t)i 
n].
Choose
Hence,
v11
113
113
2!
=I
n3
3 9
. ..!.__
n3
..!.__ ]
] =n2..!._ [!3 9 n3
.
2. Then
If
Lu,,
lim
and
Therefore,
Un = [3  9 ..!._  ] = 3 ,
1100 v,,
un
lim
n
113
is also convergent.
v,.
= L 2
is convergent.
EXAMPLE 3. 1 5
Examine the convergence of the series
Solution:
Take v11
r:: Then
y ll
I.1m Un
l
n
Therefore,
L:u11
un
and
=
Vn
1.trn
noo
I =I
Rn +I
 fin.1te
2
and
nonzero.
is also divergent.
Jn
diverges. Therefore,
EXAMPLE 3. 1 6
series
Jfi
00
n1 +i
I:
n=I
lim Vu,,=
Take Vn =.Then
nl
n1
is
I
I (I ) (
lim n
..fii
 112 + 
n2
3.17
,/ii
+
n! I +
2)"
l +n2
converge or diverge together. But the
L vn
L:u,, and
se
EXAMPLE 3.1 7
2P
JP
(i) +++
2q
(ii)
3q
4q
..
in
L s
n
n
Lln=(n+l )q=
l q=
l q
P
n'll +;;
flq I +
;;)
)
(
(
Vn =n'l .
Then,
verges if q
nP
Take
Therefore,
series is
I'
n.!.m
. UVn =n.!..r
L un and Lvn
diverges if q
p 1.
l q= .
l+(
n)
L Vn =L nqp con
L un converges if q
p > 1 and
3.18
UNIT ID
(ii) Here
1 . I
Un=  sin.
n
n
n I,
sin
Since lim
n
11
and then
l
.I
 I.
EXAMPLE 3.18
Lt is also convergenl
Solution:
Since
I::u,, is convergent,
$ $I
Un
"n
+
for all
as 11 + co.
'' u;,
L..J
''
The series
L..J n
EXAMPLE 3.19
Sh ow
h at
t
.
the senes
L is convergent, but L
11
+ 3 + 4+
2
+ 22
2
11
L Un = L, then
11
1s convergent.
Solution: Since 2 < 3, each term, of the given series in less than or equal to the
corresponding term of the series
which is a geometric series with common ratio and so, converges. Hence, by Comparison
2
test, the given series converges.
EXAMPLE 3.20
3.19
+
+ ...
+
, . 2 .3 2 . 3 . 4 3 . 4 . 5
is convergent.
Solution: The nth term of the given series is
2n
2
Taldng v11 =
11
v11
converge or
EXAMPLE 3.21
. I: 2,,3 + s
. the convergence or th e senes
Examme
4 5 1.
11 +
Solution:
( ) (2 + )
n' (4+ :
) n' ( :)
n3 2 +
4+
2
2+ 113 = 1 finite and nonzero
I.un=
1.1m U11
.
11oo y11 11004
l
21
+
nS
Vn
L 112 converges.
3.20
UNIT Ill
EXAMPLE 3.22
I
I
+
+
1 23 2.3.4 3.4.5+ ...
Solution:
Take vn
Therefore,
3.
11
( D ( ;)
n' 1 +
1+
Then,
u
n v,,,, = }!._m
lim
(l ) ( )
2
1 +
1
+11
EXAMPLE 3.23
I: ( #+!
Vn41).
,,;;
./n4 + I  J,;4=t
11 vn4 + I+ Jn4=l]
n4J
9=
2
Un = vw ; 1  vn4  l = n+T
n4 + J+
2
Take
2
Vn = fl2.
Then,
.
Im
,,:
_
11,,
1.
Vn = ,,:_
I
!
1
1 i
I+ + l+114
,,4
) (
= 2'
Eu,,
Ev,,
Ev,,=
3.2.2
n.
L:::U
n and
the integral
1
converges
LnP
converge or
if p > I, and
Un =  .
J(n)
Therefore,
nP
= Un = .
nP
J(x)
_!__
xP
Llln and
If p =/: I , then
J f(x)dx
j J(x)dx
I
= 1
l. Therefore, by Cauchy's
J f(x) dx J
Jf(x)dx
I
(11)
Thus
f
jf(x)dx
I and let
EXAMPLE 3.24
Solution:
3.21
xP dx
[ ]
/00 [P dx [xlp]00
I
1 1 00 =  1xP I
pI
[ 0  l] =  ( finite) .
3.22
UNIT m
00
J
Thus
I
I
J(x)dx =!x'PJ = [oo
1p
1 p

I]
oo.
lf p = I ,
then
f(x) dx =
Thus,
J
00
dx = [logxJ = oo
log I =
oo 0

00
J
I.
oo
for p =
Hence,
EXAMPLE 3.25
Lun diverges
oo
Solution:
I
n( logn'f'
Un=
Taking Un
/(x) =
x(IogxY'.
Joo
/(x)dx =
oo
oo
( logx)p+t
p
( logx) dx =
x
p+ 1
oo
J
f(x) dx =
00
Thus,
loo=
1
l_
p  1 (logxf 1
__
(p l)(log2f 1
__l _
p1
[o
(log2f 1
(fullte )
f(x) dx converges and hence, by Cauchy's integral test, the given seri es
J
2
1
f(x) dx = 1  [( logx)1P]
p
j
Thus,
00
f(x) dx
j
oc
lo
00
= oo.
.
1
Y' converges if p > 1 and diverges if p $ 1.
n ogn
(I
EXAMPLE 3.26
= p [ oo  (log2) 1P] = oo .
1
. Therefore,
= xogx
oo
We have
3.23
1
Un ==f(n).
yin
Lun
3.24
UNIT Ill
Therefore,/( x)
J
I
00
J(x) dx =
Jf(x) dx
I
J dx = [x!]
oo.
I
L
. d'1vergent .
../ii 1s
3.2.3
Let
Ratio Test
(1'1')
(If lim
n
"
Lun
is
L"n
IS. d'1vergent 'f1 I'tm
"n+I
Un
n
Un+ I
Un

lln+I
Lin

<
I.
> 1.
When Ratio test fails then we apply the following two tests:
I.
2.
Raabe's test:
Lum if nlim
oo
lln+I
1 =k then the
series converges for k > I and diverges for k < 1, but test fails for k = I.
Logarithmic test:
In
Lum if noo
lim nlog
Un+I
then the series converges fork> l and diverges fork< l, but test fails fork=
I.
EXAMPLE 3.27
..
3 25
12 . 22 32
12 .22
+
+.
l3 5 1. 3 . 5.7.9
.
u,,
12 . 22 32 . ..,,2
I 3 5 ( 4n 5)(4n 3)
.
Then,
Un+I
and
so
12 2 32 112(11+ 1) 2
l 3 5 (4n5 )(4n3) (4n I )(411 + I)
.
16;;i(4n1)(4n+l) 16112t
=
.
=
1 2
(11 + 1)2=
(n + 1)2
Un+I
l+n
( )
u,,
Further,
u,,  lim
l.1m
noou,,+ 1
,,_
16 _!_
"2
1 2
l+11
16
( )
> I
Lu,, converges.
EXAMPLE 3.28
3 6
3n
x"
u,, = 7I0 139(311
+4)
and
Un+I
3 69(3n)(3n+ 3)
 7 10
13(311+4) 3n + 7
+I
)x" .
3.26
UNlT m
Therefore,
3 +7
. = lim
lim = lim "
noo Un+ I noo 311 + 3 X noo
,,(3 +)
" .! =
3 X X
ll (3 + )
n
Therefore, by D' Alembert's ratio test, the given series converges if ! > 1 or
diverges if!
x
<I
or if x >
I. If. x =
if x <
1 and
ves no information.
EXAMPLE 3.29
Test the convergence of the series
Solution:
x6
x4
x2
x > 0
+
+
+
+
2vr 3J2 4J3 sv'4 .. '
The nth
term
;i.n2
tin= 
(n+ l)jii
and
so
Therefore,
(n+
2) v;;+T . = lim
Jim = lim
(11 + J)Jii
noo lln +I nx2 n+oo
n(t +) vn t +!)t
"
n( 1 +I
Jii
< I,
diverges if
x
have
that is, if
vn =
l'
>
I
(n+ 1)
= t(t
jii
n +)
we have
noo Vn
I.1m Un =
. x2 = x2
lln =
Taking
11
3.27
vn =
un
>
1.
EXAMPLE 3.30
2=
2P JP 4P
(ii) I +  +  +  +
2! 3! 4!
..
Solution:
Un = ,.
Un+I = (nri++I)!
x"
n.
Therefore,
and so
Un lim n x =
nJimoo lln+I = noo
+
1
_
_
O, less
than
1,
Hence, by D'Alembert's ratio test, the given series converges for all finite values of x.
(ii) We have
and so
noo Un+
1100
( 1)' =
1
l+
oo
3.28
UNIT Ill
EXAMPLE 3.31
x >0
Vn x"
n+T
Un+I =
and so
Vn+f
V(n + 1)2+]
J!l+I
l++
n2 1 n
! Jim l+ t+n2
Hence, by D'Alembert's ratio test, L:u,, converges if> is, if < l and diverges
if! 1, that is, if > 1. When l, this test gives no infonnation. But in case,
n
I
l
u,,  ./ii Jiii+1
1 2 ( l+:2) Vn Jl +nl2 .
.
I
Un
)'
n_ . 112+2+211
1m= 1m _
+ I 112+ l
n
Un+I
<
n
11
Vn
I, that
x=
=
1100
that
we note that
1m u,, = 1m l l = mte. and nonzero.
1 +
n2
R
Therefore, L:un and L:v,, converge or diverge together. But L = L diverges.
Therefore,
series diverges for 1. Hence, the given series converges ifx < 1
diver
ges if given
1.
Taking
I.
n
the
Vn
1 fi
,,_.
x=
Vn
and
EXAMPLE 3.32
(ii)
I )2
( ) 2+(I 2) 2+( 1 23) 2+ (I .2 .3 . ) 2+...
'' n2(n+
6
n!
1
n!
(iii) L n
n
3. 5.7.9
3 .5 .7
3.5
u,, =
and so
. =
I 1m
lln
n Un+I
1.
1m
n
112(11 + 1)2
'
n.I
112(n+ 1)2
11.1
Un+I =
(n+ 1)2(n+2)2
( n+l)!
(11 + 1 )11.I
= lim
(n+l)2(n+2)2 n
(I +n1 )
( )
n2 I+113
2 2
oo.
lln =
Therefore,
1234n ) 2
(3.5.7.
9 ....(2n+l)
noou
n+I
lim
lln+I =
(2n 3)2
noo (n++1)2
lim
lim
11 00
3 57 9 ( 2n+3)
(2+1 ) 2
(l+n)
11
) 2
LI
(n+ l)!
(n+l)n!
n!
2.
3.29
3.30
UNIT Ill
and so
. Un
Iun =
noo Un+ I
1.
lffi
noo
(n+ l)"
nn
(n+l) ( + l)
n
n
n
= e =
(ii)
:L (2n)
x"
I
n
x", x>O
n + I
x x2 x3
x4
(iv) I
+
+ + + 2
+
+1 5 10 n + 1
(iii) " 2
Solution:
and so
. Un 1tm
I1m=
n
noo
nx"
 (n+ 1)xn+ 1
Un+I
( )
. 11m
I
=
noo
X X
I+
Hence, by D'Alembert's ratio test, the series converges if!> I , that is, if x < 1 and
diverges if ! < 1, that is, if x > I . If x = I , the ratio test ves no information about
x
convergence. But for x = I, the series becomes ) n, which is divergent. Hence, the given
series converges for x < I and diverges for x 2:1.
(ii) We have
U n=
Therefore,
x".
(2n)!'
Un+I
x"+l
( 2n + 2)! .
noo Un+I
noo {2n)!
x t
lim
noo
(2n + 2){2n + I )
X
3.31
Un+I 
(n + 1)
(n + 1)2 + I
:x!'+I
and so
Un
1.un
I.
namoo Un+ I = noo
!
Hence, by D' Alembert's ratio test, the series converges if > I or x < l and diverges if
1
x
< 1 or
x>
Take Vn = . Then,
n
Un
lim = 1, finite and nonzero.
oo
n Vn
Un= 2 + '
n 1
Uni;I =
(n + 1)2 + 1
3.32
UNIT Ill
Therefore,
X'
L
. n2 + 2 + 2n
lim in = rm
lim
n Lln+I n n2 + I
n!Xl
x"+I
=
n2 1 +
2n2
+
I
n2 I + 112
!
X
=!
X
!
!
Therefore, the series converges if/ > l or x < l and diverges for < l or x > 1 . For x = 1 ,
the D 'Alembert's ratio test give no infonnation. But in such a ase,
I
Un = ,,2 + 1 =
n2 1 +
n2
Taking v,,
, we get
=
( _!_) .
;.
11
"
Jim
oo Vn = noo
nlim
1
I+
n2
s,
EXAMPLE 3.34
18
4 1 2 4 12 20
+
+
18 . 27 1 8 . 27 . 36 . . .
I x2 1 3 5 x4
1 3 5 7 9 . x6
(iii) l + 2 . 4 + . . 6 . 8 +
2 . 4 . 6 . 8 . 1 0 12 + . . .
2 4
Solution:
(i) Without taking notice of the first term, the nth term of the given series is
(ex + l)(2cx + l ) (ncx + l )
un  (fl
.
l ) n{J I ) '

+ 1)(2P +
3.33
Therefore,
Un+t
and so
1100
lim
...!!!!._ =
Un+t
lim
lim
11+00
<
I or
If a = p, then
...!!!!._ =
noo Un+I
ex
information. But then the series becomes
divergent if
a > P > 0.
lim
>
1 or p
>a>0
and
an
1 + 1 + 1 + ,
which is divergent. Hence, the given series converges if
ex ;:::: p
/3 > a > 0
> 0.
4 1 2 20 (Sn 4)
lS 27 36 (9n + 9)
Therefore,
Un+ l
and
4 12 20 (Sn 4)(Sn + 4)
18 27 36 (9n + 9)(9n + 18)
so
1100
.
Iim
u11
U11+1

1. .
un
1100
9n + lS
Sn+ 4
i:_
w
u
noo
and diverges i f
3.34
UNIT UI
3 5 .  (411  7) xui2
0 (4n  4) '
(4n  6)
. .
Un+I
Therefore,
16n2  8n
4n
}
_!_2 = nlim
=
oo 16n2  32n + 15 . x2 x2
(411  5)(4n  3) (411  4) x
(411  2) { 4n  4)
lim _!!!!..._ = lim
x2 > 1 . If x2
1 3 5 (4n  7)
= 2 4 6 (4n  6)(4n  4) =
= I3
=
( 7)
( )( )
1 3 5 n 4n
6
4
2 4 6 n2 4   4  n
n
n
2
6
Vn
2
for r
1.
n_..,..oo
'""Un diverges if noo
the series L._;
lim (un )
(When noo
lim (un )!
< l.
> I.
3.35
EXAMPLE 3.35
32
43
2
x
+
x2
+
x3
+...
24
12 23
Solution:
(Dec. 08)
Therefore,
I.1m u,,
noo
1
 im  im
n
n ,,
_
1.
noo
n+
1.
....00
.
(1 + nl ) x 
n1
x.
Hence, by Cauchy's root test, the given series converges if x < 1 and diverges if x > 1.
When x = l , we have
Take v,,
.n Then,
I
lim
u,, = Jim
noo v11
1100
(1 + n!)"
=e
EXAMPLE 3.36
1.
3.36
UNIT Ill
Therefore,
n
{n + l r
= lim 1 (1 + ) = e < I .
n
3
3n
noo
n
noo 3
lim = lim
n
(ii) Ignoring the first term, the nth tenn of the series is
II + ' ) n
Un = (
n + 2 :I'.
Therefore,
I+
.
l
.
n+I
.
nx = x
lam 14, = lam () x = lam = .
n+00
ntOO IJ + 2
IJtO() 1 2
+
,,
and so lim Un =
( + l) n=
11
n+2
(I + '
11
( 1 + ;)
"
n
( l + l )
n
[ ( 1 + ;) ' '
]
= e =/= 0. Since noo Un =/= 0, the series diverges for x = l . Thus the
lirn
e
EXAMPLE 3.37
L ( 1 + J.f1
Solution:
..
(i) Neglecting the first term, the nth term of the given series is
un
x"
.
(n + i r
Therefore,
(( )
nn l + r
n
= noo
lim
(ii)
u,, = ( 1 +
Therefore,
./ii
I .m u;.J. = n.!..
1 m
,..!..
.
_,,j
(l +
( l + )
Jn
)
l
..;n
.;n
= <l
;
.
EXAMPLE 3.38
Solution:
Therefore,
n
u,, = (11 + l
)'
,/nn .
) =0 <
n (l + n
3.37
1.
3.38
UNIT Ill
and so
( I l ) I < l
l +n
n=
L (n2 + I)!  n
00
n= I
oo
2 "
.
1 logn
oo
I
nP(n + I )"
Ans.
Divergent.
Ans.
Divergent.
4.
L (n + I )i  nl
Ans.
Divergent.
s.
1 + 2 +3
1 +2
+
+
)2 t 2+22 l 2 + 22 32 + . . .
+
Ans.
Divergent.
Ans.
00
n=I
v'2  l J3  I J4  l
32  I + 43  1 + 53 1 + . . .
?.
B.
t + v'2
l
3
+
+
1 + 2J3 1 + 3J4
2
1
1
+
2.3 3 .4 + ...
Ans.
Convergent.
Ans.
Divergent.
Ans.
Divergent
Ans.
Convergent
IO
11.
(n+ l )(n+2)
L.J (n2+ 1 )(n2 + 2)
L:: sm!n
Wot:
take Un
sin ! , Vn
n
Ans.
!, then lim Un
n
Vn
I, but L ! diverges.
n
3.39
Convergent.
Ans.
Divergent.
Ans.
3x+
13. L (
)!
( n+ I5)'1
14. I:
IS f
n=I
l?.
18
Ans.
(:+:2)
Ans.
Ans.
nX'
(n+ I )(n+ 2)
x2
x3
..
Ans.
Convergent for x
3 6 9 3n
. ___!'.____
L.J4 7 10 (3n + l ) 3n+2
19
L 1:2n
Ans.
Convergent.
l, divergent for x $
Ans.
+
+
+...
2 v'3 3 J4 40
Convergent.
1.
Convergent.
I.
Ans.
Convergent.
Ans.
Convergent.
Convergent.
3.40
IT Ill
L..J
11n+I
I
L:
2 (1ogn r
5 n<1>"
32
2
43 x3 +
26. x
+
x2 + 34
]2
23
27
2s.
(n +
L [(":T'  ":f
I: ( ' ::xr
3.3
It
11n+I
Ans.
Ans.
Convergent
Ans.
Convergent.
Ans.
1.
Convergent.
3.3.1
Series of Alternating Terms (lelbnltz Test)
A series in which positive and negative terms occur alternately is called an Alternating Series.
Theorem 3 . 1 0:
"
EXAMPLE 3.39
u,, =
II
Un+ t
n
00 r
1
Therefore, by Leibnitz's rule, the given series converges. In particular, the series
I
 2I + 3I  4I + . . . converges.
EXAMPLE 3.40
}":2  3 . 4 5 6  78
For the given series, we have
Solution:
Un =
Therefore, Jim Un
n+
Un  Un+ I =
(2n
0. Further,
I,
1)(2n)
(2n
1)(2n)
3.41
( )
2n2 2 
(2n + 1)(2n + 2)
8n + 2
(2n  1)(2n}(2n + 1)(2n + 1)
>0
for all n. Thus {un} is monotonically decreasing to zero. Therefore, by Leibnitz's rule,
the given series is convergent.
EXAMPLE 3.41
. .
I
I
1
( .)
.
I  +
 , where x is not a negative mteger.
x+ I x+2 x + 3
(ii)
 I
 3+5  7 + . . .
log3 log4
log 2
+
2

2 32 42
3 4 5
2
I
+
(iv)
 +
6 Tl 16  21 26 
(iii)
<
Un  Lln+I =
+n
x+ n+ 1
1
 and so nJim Un
oo
x+ n
(x+ n) (x+ n + I )
0.
>0
and so {un} is monotonically decreasing sequence. Hence, by Leibnitz's test, the given
series converges.
3.42
UNIT Ill
im  = 0.
im Un = noo
noc
2n  I
Hence, the given alternating series is convergent.
(iii) The nth tenn of the given alternating series is
Lin =
log{n + 1 )
(n + 1)2
Then,
lim
noo Un
Jog(n +
limnco
(11 + 1 )
()
> I
which shows that Un > u,,.1. Hence, by Leibnitz's test, the given series is convergent.
(iv) The nth term of the given series is
1
11
l as n + oo.
Lin
1
Sn + 1 S +  5
n
Thus the terms are monotonically decreasing and Un tends to a finite limit. Hence, by
corollary to Leibnitz's test, the given series oscillates finitely.
=
 =
+
3.43
EXAMPLE 3.42
1.
log(n + 1 )
log(n + 2) )> O.
.. .
I
!Solution: The given series is an alternating series. We observe that
( i r
(n 2)
Un =
Vn + (  l r
and
that
un
In
fact,
the
Leibnitz's
test
is
as
n
But
the
series
is
not
convergent
.
not applicable because the terms do not decrease monotonically. Further,
_
./2_+_1 ../3  1 v'4 + 1  ./5  1 +
_
+
+ oo.
c1)n
(t)n [fo  (in _
1
 (1rvn  Un  y'n + ( 1 )n _n1 n1
n1
_
Therefore,
u = (1r.;n 1
L.J n L.J n  1 L.J n  l .
_
The first series on the right converges by Leibnitz's test while the second series diverges.
erefore, l:u11, whose terms the difference of the terms of these two series,
fverges to oo.
are
I
II
I
3.44
UNIT m
3.3.2
A series Lun containing both positive and negative terms is said to be absolutely con
if L I un I is convergent.
Thus, the series which becomes convergent when all its negative terms are made posi
tive is called absolutely convergent series.
For example, the series
vergent,
.
' absoluteIy convergent because the senes
1s
+ 22 + 23 + 1s convergent.
If the series Lun converges and the series L I Un I diverges, then the series L"n
I +2
.
1s d'1vergent. Hence, the senes 1
.
Theorem 3.1 1 :
Proof:
Suppose
. I
+ 2+ 3+ 4+ 5 + 6 + . . .
 2I + 3I  41 + SI  6I +
. .
. cond1t1ona
1s
IIy convergent.
is
I Un+ l
I + I Un+2 I + + I Um I < e
m, n
for
>
no.
::::n:U is convergent.
>
11().
Remark 3.2:
I
The converse of Theorem 3.20 is not true. For example, the series
+ +

+2+3 +4+ + +
5 6
I
3.45
L I Un I 
'
.
1s d 1vergent.
Theorem 3.1 2:
EXAMPLE 3.44
x2 x3
x4
+x+++ . . ++ . . .
!
n
is absolutely convergent for all values ofx.
Show that the exponential series
2! 3 !
Solution:
I u, I I en;+:) ! I  n,;11
I I
=
and so
lim
_!!!!__
= 00
nx Un+I
> I.
EXAMPLE 3.45
Examine the logarithmic series
lution:
x  x2
 + x3
  . . . +(  )n + I xn
3
2
1
n
I ::, I l
=
+
;; nri+ I
x"
I
3.46
UNIT Ill
Therefore,
I I
Un
lim
n.oo Un+ l
and so, by extended
D' Alembert's
l l
. 1 +2 +3
test. But th e senes
When x =
1
4+
d'1verges.
( j )
1 +
+ +
When x < 1, the tenns are all negative. Removing a common negative sign, the term
becomes positive. Since
. Un = 1 < I ,
I1m
noo un+I

IX I

> l, the nth tenn does not tend to zero. For if x" = y, then
n
logn
lofl y = 11 logx  log 11 = n logx  11
Therefore, x"
n
+
oo
as n +
oo.
+ oo ,
logn
.
smce
n

+
as n
+
oo.
E>CAMPLE 3.46
cos nO
sin n6
.
Show that the senes ''
L.....t ;;; and ''
L.....t ;;;; are absolutely convergent for p > 1.
Solution:
Since,
sin nfJ
cos n8
I
.
.
converge
and smce ''
L.....t converges for p > 1, 1t follows that ''
L.....t
and ''
L.....t
nP
nP
for p > 1 .
nP
.


EXAMPLE 3.47
3.47
We have
Solution:
lim
noo
+
+
aP
+ a(a l )P(P
l 2(y + 1)
l .y
.
II
Un+ I
lim
noo
1) x2 + . . . .
(n + I ) (n + y) !
.
( a + n){ P + n) X
JXI
'
Therefore, by D' Alembert's ratio test, the hypergeometric series is absolutely convergent
if
I I
When, x
Un
 =
Un+1
I < 1.
1 , we have
( +!) ( 1 )
( ) ( )=
1
+I
n
I+
P
l + ;;
l +
l +y
(1)
n
noo Un+ I
may be.
f1 < 1 or if y $ a + p.
2 by b'mom1aI expansion.
+0
ex
1
 < 1 . Therefore, the series diverges whatever a, p, and y
1XI
EXAMPLE 3.48
m(m
1 + nu +
2!
Solution:
.
I1m
noo
We have
Un
Un+ 1
 ni1m
oo
l ) x2
.
+ . . + m(m
n
mn+ I
11 I
l
x
1 ) . . . (m  11 + I ) x" + . . .
n!
 lim

n. oo m
l
l
I.am I Un 1 n
n.oo
I I
Un+I
Ii m 
n.oo
Un
I x I.
I I
1

= X I
3.48
UNIT Ill
Therefore,
Lim I Un I
n
lim IX in 00 i f I X I > 1 .
n
Hence, the series cannot converge when !xi > 1. When x < 0, the terms are ultimately of the
same sign and hence the series is divergent if x <  1. If x > 1, the tenns are alternately
positive and negative after a certain stage and the series oscillates infinitely. Wben
x =  I , the series is
m(m  I )
n m(m  I ) (m  n  I )
+
I m +
( 1)
21
n!
Whatever m may be, the terms are of the same sign after a certain value of
m+1
(I)
tin
1111+1
=1+

+O
n.
We have
2 .
n
Hence, by Gauss's test, the series is convergent if m + I > l , that is, if m > 0 and divergent
if m < 0. If m 0, the series reduce to single term 1. If x = l , the series is
=
l +m +
m(n  I )
2!
+ +
m(m  1 ) (m  n 11!
l)+.
The terms are alternately positive and negative after a certain value of n. From above,
we have
'.!!!!__' = 1 +
Un+I
11
+0
;
( )
II
Hence, by Gauss's test, the series converges absolutely if m + 1 > I , that is, if m > 0.
EXAMPLE 3.49
(i)
in 1ix
L ( l ) 113s

x2 x3 x4 x5
x  +  + 
4
3
2
5
x3
x2
x4
(iii) x   +    +
(ii)
Vi
Solution:
v'3
../4
Un = ( 1r+'sin
n
nx
an
d so I tin
1  ' sin nx I

..!._
vn 3,
Llunl
u,, =
Taking
test,
as
we have
L v,, = L :3,
3.49
(ii) We have
X' and so
u,, n I (n
..
Un+I ;:; . _x'l+
Un+I !..._ I = !)n I ! I = I ! I
I _!!!
_
Thus
X'
+ I
lim
1100
+ 1
n)

1 +
Hence, by extended D' Alembert's ratio test, the given series converges absolutely if
II
IxI< x=
I . If
l I I I 1
l  2+3  +5 +
4
6 '
x=
) IC IS < x <
u,, =
u,, = Ji1+T
fn+T
=
+I
Un+I Jn _x"
u,, =
n I U11+I I noo t ) i I ' I = I I
< x < I. x =
 ... =
<x
and so
Therefore,
X'
;
n ;y
1 un
I.1m
l +
ti
1
Hence, by extended D' Alembert ratio test, the series converges absolutely if1
> l, that
is, if
1 , that is if  1
If
l, then the series becomes
Ix I <
xI
1  +  + .. .'
whose nth
term
is
u,, = +
x=
2:u11 converges. lf
..ti.
0 as
+
J3
oo.
J4
Also
Un
1
1
1
1 
./2
J3
J4
3.SO
UNIT llJ
or
1
I
I
.
 I + + +  + ' wh.1ch 1s d"1vergent.
./2
J3
.j4
Hence, the given series converges for  I <x :::; 1 and converges absolutely for  1 < x :::; 1.
EXAMPLE 3.50
00
{It
Solution:
( I r So
2
n(logn)
n{logn)2
We observe that
lim
noo
Un
lim
= n
oo n(log n)
and Un > un+i. n 2. Therefore, by Leibnitz's test, the given series is convergent.
To examine for absolute convergence, we have
I Un
I = n(logn)2 =J(n),
Therefore,
f(x)
say.
x(Iogx)2 '
which is positive and monotonic decreasing. Hence Cauchy's integral test is applicable.
oo
J
We have
Thus,
f(x) dx =
J dx
oo
x(logx)
2=
J
2
(logx) 2 . dx =
x
(( )
togxr 1
1
I finit
_
oo= _
(
e).
00
2
Hence, the given series converges absolutely.
log2
f: I
n2
Un
I converges.
3.51
EXERCISE 3.3
Altematfng Serles
1.
Ans.
Hint:
rease
Un
+
,,2 + I.
L...J
Hint:
l + x"
oo.
Ans.
Convergent.
Ans.
Convergent.
11
0 as
Convergent.
n +
Hence,
..
. 5
<
<
are
+..
.
3.52
UNIT Ill
( r
Jn
2= 11 ( logn
r

and
. . . ) " c  1 r+
( l1l
log{n + l )
cos 2x
 23 + 33 
 
13
cos x
cos 3x
converges absolutely.
Hint:
3.4
3.4.1
I
' I
  $ 3 and L; 3 converges.
n
11
n
cos IU:
3
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Differential Coefficients of Elementary
and Trigonometric
:
:
is
called first differential coefficient or first order derivative ofy w. r.t. x. The derivative of
i.e.
! (:)
(read as
cessively w.r.t. x then it is called nth order derivative ofy w.r.t. x and it is denoted as
The process of finding the differential coefficient of a function again and again is called
successive differentiation.