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UNIT

III

Infinite Series and


Differential Calculus
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: The intitutive concept of sequence of numbers involves
not only a set of numbers but also an order in which these numbers have been placed. Our
aim in this chapter is to study the convergence behavior of various infinite series. ln this
chapter we have discussed

Sequences and convergence of sequences.

lnfinite series and their convergence.

Comparison, ratio, integral and cauchy s root tests for the convergence of positive
tenn series.

Leibnitz test for the convergence of alternating series.

Conditional and absolute convergence of an infinite series.

3.1
3.1 .1

INFINITE SERIES
Sequences

A function/ : N

- 1R whose domain is the set N of all natural numbers and range a set of
real numbers is called a sequence of real number or simply a real sequence.
lf /1 EN, then/(n) is generally denoted b y Xm am or Un and is called the nth term ofthe

sequence {xn}, {an}

or

{un}

The set of all distinct tenns ofa sequence is called its

For example, consider the sequence

{xn} = {(-tr} = {-1, 1, -1, 1, -1. . . }.

range.

3.2

UNIT Ill

Its nth term is

{xn}

{!}
11

x,,
,

neN

(-1)" and the range is { - 1 ,1}. Similarly, for the sequence

=!.n All the elements in this sequence are distinct

the nth term is x,,

Thus, the range for this sequence is an infinite set.


A sequence {x,,} defined by x,, c, where c is a fixed real number, for all n E N, is
called a constant sequence.
A sequence {x,,} is said to be bounded above if there exists a real number K such that
x,, K for all 11 E N. The number K is c-alled an upper bound of the sequence {x,,}.
A sequence {x,,} is said to be bounded below if there exists a real number k, such that
x,, k for all n E N. The number k is called a lower bound of the sequence {x,,}.
A sequence which is bounded both above and below is called a bounded sequence.
Thus a sequence {x,,} is said to be bounded if there exist two real numberskand K such
that k x,, K for all n E N.
[f we choose M ma.x {I k I, IK]}, then {x,,} is bounded if I x,, I :SM for alJ n E N.
If there exists no real number M such that Ix,, I $ M for all /1 E N, then the sequence
{x,,} is said to be unbounded.
For example, consider the sequence ;; nEN. Since 0 < x,, :S I for all n E N, the

sequence

{}
I.

{ 1}

1 is an upper bound, while 0 is a lower bound. We note

is bounded. Here

that no element of the sequence is actually equal to zero, while one element is equal to the
upper bound Thus for this sequence, the upper bound is attained while the lower bound
is not attained.
But if we consider the sequence {x,,} = {2"-1}, then
For this sequence I :Sa,,, n EN. But there no real number K such that x,, :S K for all n EN.
Therefore the given sequence is not bounded above.
Convergence of Sequences

A sequence {x,.} is said to converge to the limit)., if for every e > 0 there exists a positive
integer n0 (r,) such that

Ix,,

I < E:

for all

11

no{E:}.

{x,,} converges to the limit),. then we write Jim x,, =A.


n-oo
A sequence {x,,} is said to be divergent if lim x,, is not finite, that is, if Jim x,, is + oo

If the

or

sequence

n-oo

-oo.

For example, consider the sequence


(finite). Hence the sequence

{ I}
2,,

{x,,} =

is convergent.

n-oo

{21 }
n

nEN

Then lim Xn
n-

lim = 0
= n-002"

Infinite Serles and Dlfferendal Calculus

3.3

On the other band, ifwe consider the sequence {xn} = {n2 }, then Jim n2 = oo. Hence
-oo
the sequence {n2} is divergent.
A sequence
which neither converges to a finite number nor diverges to oo or -oo,
is called an oscillatory sequence.
For example, consider the sequence {xn} = {{- 1)"}. Here, the even elements are
all +I and so xin -+ I, whereas the odd elements are -1 and so
1 -+ -1. Hence the
1
sequence {{ -I)"} oscillates finitely between - and +I.
On the other hand, if {xn} = {n(- 1)"}, then the sequence oscillates infinitely
between - oo and + oo.

{xn}

xin-

EXAMPLE 3.1
2n + I
.
If an = - , show that ltm On
n-oo
3n + 5
Solution: Let e >

-3.

0. Then

3
0" -

+
-3
3n + 5.}

21 I

I 21 12,,

implies

3n + 5

or

>

On -.

Hence, l.tm On
n

-oo

= -

<e

>

3(3n + 5)

3e

7
5
9 e -3

. .
.
Let n0 be a pos1ttve integer greater t
han 9e
7

\ I

7 I

3(3n + 5)

3.Then,

for all

>

no.

Theorem 3.1:

Every convergent

equcnce ha a unique limit.

Theorem 3.2:

E,ery convergent

equence is bounded .

<e

3.4

UNIT Ill

The converse of Theorem 3.2 may not be true. There are bounded
sequences which do not converge. For example, the sequence {(- 1 )"} is bounded but it
does not converge. Ln fact, it does not have a unique Limit.
Remark 3.1:

Cauchy's Principle of Convergence

The following fundamental theorem is useful for determining whether a sequence con
verges or not.
Theorem 3.3: (Cauchy's principle of convergence). A necessary and sufficient
condition for the comcrgcncc of a equencc {x,,} i that for each 1: > 0 there ex ists a
po iti\,c integer 110 suc h that
\ .\,,,
Theorem 3.4:
Cauchy sequence.

A.

x,,

I < f.

for all

111

> /1 no.

equence of real number-, 1s com crgent if and only if it i a

EXAMPLE 3.2

Using Cauchy's principle of convergence, show that the sequence {x,,}, where x,, =
1 1
I .
- + - + + ' ts
not convergent
2

Solution: Suppose, on the contrary, that {x,,} is convergent. Then taking


Cauchy's principal yields

B =

l+

!, the
2

(3 1 )
.

But

xim -Xm =
that is,

--

m+

+ -- + +->-+-+

m+2

2m

I X2m

2m

- Xm

2m

I >2

+-

2m

(m te rms) =

which is a contradiction to (3.2). Hence, the sequence is not convergent.

m
2m

I
2

Infinite Series and Dlfrerential Calculus

Monotonic Sequence

3.S

Xn
Xn+

A sequence {xn} is said to be monotonic increasing or steadily increasing ifXn+i for


all n.
A sequence {xn} is said to be monotonic decreasing or steadily decreasing if
5
for all n.
A sequence {xn} is said to be monotonic if it is either monotonic increasing or
monotonic decreasing.
A sequence {xn} is strictly increasing V xn+i > Xn for all n and strictly decreasing if
< for all n.

Xn

. Xn+1 Xn

For example,

(I')

l l 1
1,2 3 4

(ii)

{ :1}

.
. decreasmg
is a monotomc
sequence.

is a monotonic increasing sequence.

(iii) {n} is a monotonic increasing sequence.


Theorem 3.5: A monotonic equence alwa) tends to a limit (finite or infinite).
(Thus. a monotonic cqucnce i either convergent or divergent, it cannot oscillate).
Theorem 3.6: A nccc ary and ufficient condition for the convergence of a
monotonic sequence is that it is bounded.

EXAMPLE 3.3

Show that the sequence {x,,}, where


x,,

+ - + - + ... + I! 2!
,,,

is convergent.
Solution:

We have

Xn+1-X11 =(n + l )l. > O

for all

n.

3.6

UNIT ru

Hence

{xn}
xn = + -1 - +
{xn}

is monotonic increasing . Further,


l

l!

I
2!

I
n!

<

1
I + I + -+
2

-1
2n-l

<

I+

t'
-I-

2
and so
is bounded. Hence by theorem 3.6, the given sequence converges to its upper
bound, which is less than 3. In fact,
e
2.71 ... , the base of the natural logarithm.
EXAMPLE 3.4

Show that the sequence

{xn},

Xn-+ =

where

Xn = (t + ) ",

is convergent.
Solution:

We have

By Binomial theorem for a positive integer,

Xn =

n n(11 - 1) 1
n(n - 1 )(n - 2) 1
1 +-+
+
21
n2
3!
n3
n

n(n

- 1) ... l
n!

nn

Therefore, changing n to n + 1, we get

xn+

Xn

Xn

All the factors in the numerators of and Xn+i are positive. Further, each factor in the
numerator of
1 is greater than the corresponding factor in the numerator of
whereas

Infinite Series and DltJerentiaJ Calculus

3.7

the denominators of Xn and Xn+i are same . Therefore, X n+i > Xn and so {xn} is monotonic
increasing. Also,
Xn

<

l
l
l + J +- + . . +- <
21
n!

)+

I
I
I
l
1 +-+-+-+ . . +<3
2 22 23
2n-I

and so {xn} is bounded. Hence, {xn} converges to a finite positive limit whose value is less
than 3. In fact the lim Xn = e = 2.71 . ...
n-oo

EXAMPLE 3.5

Show that lim(l + x) /x = e.


x-o

Solutlon:

1
Su bst1tutmg
. . x = - , we get
y

lim

)1-00

(1 !)"
+

and so the result follows from Example 3.4.


EXAMPLE 3.6

Show that the sequence whose nth term is


Xn

2n-7
3n + 21

(i) is monotonic increasing, (ii) is bounded above, (Hi) is bounded below, and (iv) has
a limit.
Solution:

For the given sequence,


Xn

2(n + 1) - 7 2n - 5
2n - 7
Xn+I =
=
'
3(n + l) + 2 3n + 5
3n + 2

Then
Xn+ I

- Xn =

2n- 5 2n-7
3n + 5 - 3n + 2 > 0

for all

n.

3.8

UNIT Ill

Hence, the sequence is monotonic increasing. The sequence is bounded above and below.
The upper and lower bounds being

and -1. Fu

er,

2 --

J Xn =Em. ---1=3
m

3+11

EXAMPLE 3.7

Show that

Um (n)l/n

11--c.o

Solution:

Let an= (1 1)1111= I + h,,, where

l.

h11 > 0. Then,

n = ann = ( I + h,,)n= I + nh,, + -I211(11 - I) h2n + +11-I 111(11

Thus,

11

l ) . . . h,, >

2 !
h,,2 < -n-

and so

0 < h,, <

Let e > 0 be given. Then,

( )
2

1/2

< e if

Hence, It,,-+ 0 and so


lim

,,_

0 < h,,

11 -

1/2

and only

lf 110 is a positive integer greater than I +


-e <

( )

then

< (n 2 l) 1/2

<

--

a,, n--:io
Lim ( l + h,,)
=

2
11>J+ .
e2

Ir

1.

e.

n(n - l) 2
h,,.
2

lnnnJte Serles and Dltrerentl1I C1lcuJus

Theorem 3.7: (Cauchy).

3.9

If a,, i po itive for all rnlue of n. then

I
I n m On
-11I.-1man nLi-"'<.
lln .
=

pro' idcd. the latter limit cxits.


(\: hilc tu dy ing convergence of in fi nite serie . we hall observe 1ha1 this theorem of
Cauchy implies that whenever D' Alembert' ratio test i applicable. Cauchy's root test
is al o applicable to le1 the comergence of a erie of po itiv c term ).

3.1.2

Series

An expression of the form a1+ a2+


series. The term

00

a0+ ,denoted by

La,,, is called

a,, is called the nth term of the series. Further1


S,, a 1 + a2 + + a,,
=

is called the partial sum ofthe series

an

infinite

00

La,,.

n=I
The definition of convergence or divergence of the series

oo

L a,, depends on the

n=I
convergence or divergence of the sequence {S11}:,1 of partial sums.
00

L a,, be a series of real number with partial sums S n a1 a2+ + a,,. If the
n=I
sequence {S,,},,_1 converges to/, we say that the series L an converges to the sum I and
Let

oo

00

we write

L: a11 = I. If {S11}:,, diverges, then the series L a,, also diverges.


n=I

n=I

In case of infinite series, the Cauchy's criteria for the convergence takes the form

ISm - S,, I < e,

m>n>

no(e),

that is,

Ian+I + a,,+2 + + aml < e,


If e take m

m>

n > no(e).

n +I, then the last expression takes the form


lan+d <E, n > no(E)

3.10

UNIT Ill

or

Jim an= 0.

which is a necessary condition for the convergence ofthe series

L an.
n=I

00

However, lim an = 0 is not a sufficient condition for the convergence of the series
n

La
n=I

of positive tenns. For example,

I:n,
I

oo

oo

jil'

n logn

are all divergent series inspite of the fact that lim On =0. But the condition is sometimes
usefuJ. l n fact, if nlim an 0, we can at one /say that the series is not convergent.
- oo

Theorem 3.8:

A posi.tivetenn series either converges or divergesto + oo.

Convergence. divergence, or oscillation or a senc of posith c tcnm,


is not affected b} the addition or omi sion of a finite numb1..:r of its tcnns.

Theorem 3. 9:

EXAMPLE 3.8

Test the convergence of the series

fl_+ + !?_+

V4 V6 Vs
Solution:

The n th

J : I ) = J )
2(n

Jim Un=

n-+OO

Thus

+ ...
y 2(n + 1 )

term of the given series is


u, =

Th erefo re,

. . +

2(1

y2

0.

necessary condition for convergence is not satisfied. Hence

Lun is divergent

Infinite Serles and DlfTerentlal Calculus

EXAMPLE 3.9

3.11

Discuss the convergence of the geometric series


l + a + a2 + a3 +

Solution:

If lal

<

The partial sum for the given series is


.
2 + + a"-I
Sn = 1+a + a

I, then

1-a"
Sn = .- 1 -a
-

lim Sn =

n-o

1
-

1-a

since, a --+ 0 as n--+


n

a" - 1

a-I

--

and

a =F 1.

so

oo.

Thus, if lal < l, then I:a11-1 is convergent and its sum is -1-. If a= I, then
1-a

Sn= I + 1 ,+I (n terms)

n I
and so Lim Sn = oo. Hence a
- is divergent.
nlfa> 1, then Sn> 11 and so lim S,, = oo. Hence the series is divergent. Ifa= -1, the
n-oo
series becomes

and then

1-1+1+1-1+

S2n = 0

and

S2n-1 =

1.

Hence the series oscillates between 0 and I.


If a <-1, the successive terms increase in magnitude. Then,
S2n =

a2n 1
(+ve)
a-I
-

is monotonic increasing while S 2n+t is negative and numerically increasing with n. Hence
the series oscillates between+ oo and oo.
-

3.12

UNIT Ill

EXAMPLE 3.10
Show by direct summation of

terms that the series

is convergent.

Solution:

I + .3+3.4+
t:2 2
1

The nth tenn of the given series is


on

Therefore,
a1

I
=I---n +I

II

11(11 + I)

=I -2;

1
1
=---n +
I.
= - n+
-= 1- 0=
on

Then the partial sum is


Sn =

a, + 02 + ... +On

Therefore,
lim Sn

n-oo

Hence, the given series converges to

I.

I.

EXERCISE 3.1
Sequences

1. Show that the sequence {r"} converges if

2.
3.
4.

Show

that

lim
n-oo

3+,fii =2.

-I < r 1.

y ll

Give an example of a monotonically increasing sequence that is (i) convergent (ii) not
convergent

If On

= - ( + "!)
I
(

I.1m On= -

l)

for all

n,

number

show

{I-;;t},

that

lim On

(ii)

-4, 4,5 , }.
{-2,23, T
S
{-2-31-51} {2 4 }
=lub{-2'--}=-I
3' 5 ' =glb{-2' -4'}=l .
-6

HJnt: The sequence is


superior numbers are
limon
-

natural

Ans. (i)

and

set

The

liman
-

{n}.
and

of inferior numbers and

Therefore>

5.

Infinite Series and Differential Calculus

Show that the sequence {an}, where


an=

1 +-+-+

cannot converge.

3n

--

6. Using Cauchy's general principal of convergence, show that the sequence


convergent

7. Show that lim [vn+f


n--=

3.2

3.13

{:}

vfn] = 0.

is

TESTS FOR CONVERGENCE OF POSITIVE TERM SERIES

3.2. 1

Comparison Tests

The convergence or divergence behavior of ai given series is generally determined by com


paring its tenns with the tenns of another series whose convergence behavior is known.
Such comparisons are called Comparison Tests.

Comparison Test I (a):

=:Un and Lv,, are two series of positive terms such that Un <
v,, and L:v,, is convergent, then L:u,, is also convergent.
lf

Comparison Test I (b): If Lu,, and

L::V,, are two series of positive terms such that Un >

v,, and 2:v11 is divergent, then _2:1111 also diverges.


Comparison Test
(i)

D: lf

Lun and Lv,, are two series of positive terms, then

Un= I (finite and non-zero), then "" and Lv,, both converge or diverge
L

n-oo v,,

if lim

together.

EXAMPLE 3.1 1
Show that the series

if P $

1.

Solution:

Take

f:

n=I

p>

called the Harmonic Series, converges if p > I and diverges

1, first. Group the terms of the series as follows:

3.14

UNJT Ill

But

and so on
Hence,

The right hand side is a geometric progression with common ratio


Hence, by comparison test the series is convergent.
Ifp

'll'' < I, since p > 1.

l , then the series is


I+-+-+-+ ...
2
3
4

and

l +- =

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
-+-+ -+->-+-+-+-=5 6 7 8
8 8 8 8 2

l +-,
2

and so on.
Therefore, the given series is less than the series

I l I

I+- +- +- + . . .
2
2
2

Leaving aside the first tenn, this series is a geometric progression whose common ratio is 1.
Therefore, this series is divergent and so is the given series.

<

- But the series L is divergent. Hence,


IfO < p < J, then d' n, that is, _!_
nP n
n
divergent tior p < 1.
1s
Ifp = 0, then the series becomes 1 + 1 + l +
, which is divergent.

_!_
nP

Infinite Series and Dift'erendal Calculus

3.15

EXAMPLE 3.12

Test the convergence of the series

1 + 1 + 1 4+.
t-:2 2.3 3.

We note that

Solution:

But L is convergent (Harmonic Series for p =


convergent.

2). Hence, the given series is

EXAMPLE 3.1 3

Test the convergence of the series

(n + l)(n +2)
L- (n2 + l)(n2 +2f
''

Solution:

The nth term of the given series is

u- (n2 + l)(n 2+2) n

Take Vn n1
=

2.

(n + l)(n +2) ,,2 ( 1 +..!.)( 1 +) .


n2
n2

Then,

(i +) (i +)
; )
, : } ( l+,,2 ) ( I+112
=

l,

finite and non-zero.

Therefore, L:,:un and L:,:vn converge or diverge together. But the series L Vn = L
converges. Therefore, Lun is convergent.

:2

3.16

UNIT Ill

EXAMPLE 3.1 4
Examine the convergence of the series

L
Solution:

[(n3 + t)i -

n].

The nth term of the series is

u,=(n3+1)Ln=(11'(1+:,>) ' -n=n(I+:,)1-n=n[(1+ :,)'-1]


=11

[I+ )G-1) (_!_)2 - Jj =!!__ [-

Choose

Hence,

v11

113

113

2!

=I

n3

3 9

. ..!.__
n3

..!.__ ]
] =n2..!._ [!3 9 n3
.

2. Then

If

Lu,,

lim

and

Therefore,

Un = [3 - 9 ..!._ - ] = 3 ,

11-00 v,,

un

lim

n-

113

finite and non-zero.

2::>11 converge or diverge together. But L

is also convergent.

v,.

= L 2

is convergent.

EXAMPLE 3. 1 5
Examine the convergence of the series

Solution:

The nth tenn of the given series is

u,. = vn+I - ..;n =


n+I+- [v'il+t + ../ii]
11

Take v11

r:: Then
y ll
I.1m Un
l

n-

Therefore,

L:u11

un

and

-=
Vn

1.trn

n-oo

I =I
Rn +I

- fin.1te
2

and

non-zero.

Lv11 converge or diverge together. But L

is also divergent.

Jn

diverges. Therefore,

Infinite Series and DlfTerenllal Calculus

EXAMPLE 3. 1 6

Examine the convergence of the

series

Jfi

00

n1 +i

I:

n=I

Solution: The nth tenn of the series


"

lim Vu,,=

Take Vn =.Then
nl
n1

is

I
I (I ) (
lim n-

..fii
- 112 + -

n2

3.17

,/ii
+

n! I +

2)"

1 1 = I, finite and non-zero. Therefore,

l +n2
converge or diverge together. But the

L vn

6un is also convergent.

L:u,, and

ries L vn L 1l is convergent. Hence,


Ill

se

EXAMPLE 3.1 7

Examine the convergence of the series


JP

2P

JP

(i) -+-+-+
2q

(ii)

3q

4q

..

in
L s
n
n

Solution: (i) The nth tenn of the


nfJ

Lln=(n+l )q=

l q=
l q
P
n'll +;;
flq I +
;;)
)
(
(
Vn =-n'l- .

Then,

verges if q

nP

Take

Therefore,

series is

I'

n.!.m
. UVn =n.!..r
L un and Lvn

diverges if q

converge or diverge together. But

p > l and diverges, if q - p $ l. Hence,

p 1.

l q= .
l+(
n)

L Vn =L nqp con

L un converges if q

p > 1 and

3.18

UNIT ID

(ii) Here

1 . I
Un= - sin-.
n
n

-n I,
sin-

Since lim
n-

11

and then

-l
.I
- I.

it follows that sin - - - and so Un 2. We, therefore, take Vn= 2,


n 11
11
n
1
sm2
Lin
lim = Jim sin-= Jim 111=
n-oo Vn n- 11
n11
11

Therefore, I::u,, and


Hence,

I::v,, converge or diverge together. But L v,,= L :2 converges.

I::u,, is also convergent, by Comparison Test.

EXAMPLE 3.18

Lt is also convergenl

If I::u,, is a convergent series of positive terms, show that


Give an example to show that the converse need not be true.

Solution:

Since

I::u,, is convergent,

positive integer m such that 0

$ $I
Un

"n

-+

for all

as 11 -+ co.

Therefore, there exists a

n m and so u,, for all n m. Hence,

by Comparison Test, L is convergent.


However, the converse need not be true. For example, if we take

'' u;,
L..J

''
The series
L..J n

EXAMPLE 3.19

Sh ow

h at
t

.
the senes

L is convergent, but L
11

+ 3 + 4+
2
+ 22
2

11

L Un = L-, then

does not converge.

11

1s convergent.

Solution: Since 2 < 3, each term, of the given series in less than or equal to the
corresponding term of the series

which is a geometric series with common ratio and so, converges. Hence, by Comparison
2
test, the given series converges.

lnflnJte Series and Differential Calculus

EXAMPLE 3.20

Show that the series

3.19

+
+ ...
+
, .- 2- .-3 2 . 3 . 4 3 . 4 . 5

is convergent.
Solution: The nth term of the given series is

2n-

2-

u 11 2 (finite). Therefore, '"" 11 and L


. we note that 11Lim
u
-.oov11
diverge together. But L is convergent. Hence L:u11 is convergent.
n

Taldng v11 =

11

v11

converge or

EXAMPLE 3.21

. I: 2,,3 + s
. the convergence or th e senes
Examme
4 5 1.
11 +
Solution:

The nth term of the given series is


2n3 + 5
=
=
"
4,,1 + I
I

Take v" = 2. Then


n

( ) (2 + )
n' (4+ :
) n' ( :)
n3 2 +

4+

2
2+ 113 = -1 finite and non-zero
I.un-=
1.1m -U11
.
11-oo y11 11-004
l
21
+
nS

Hence, L::u11 and L::v11 converge or diverge together. But


Therefore, I:Un converges.

Vn

L 112 converges.

3.20

UNIT Ill

EXAMPLE 3.22

Test the convergence of the series


I

I
I
+
+
1 23 2.3.4 3.4.5+ ...

The nth tenn of the series is


I
=
"
n(n + I)(n + 2)

Solution:

Take vn

Therefore,

3.

11

( D ( ;)

n' 1 +

1+

Then,

u
n- v,,,, = }!._m
lim

(l ) ( )
2

1 +-

1
+11

= I, finite and non-zero.

Lun and I:v,, converge or diverge together. But the series L vn = L 3 is

convergent. Hence, the given series

Eu,, is also convergent.

EXAMPLE 3.23

Examine the convergence of the series

I: ( #+!

Vn4-1).

Solution: The nth term of the series is

,,;--;-

./n4 + I - J,;4-=t
11 vn4 + I+ Jn4-=l]
n4-J
9-=
2

Un = vw ;- 1 - vn4 - l = n+T
n4 + J+
2

Take

2
Vn = fl2.
Then,
.

Im
,,:
_

11,,

1.

Vn = ,,:_

I
!
1
1 i
I+- + l+114
,,4

) (

= 2'

finite and non-zero.

Therefore, the series


and
converge or diverge together. But the series
2
., is convergent. Hence, the given series is convergent.
n-

Eu,,

Ev,,

Ev,,=

Infinite Series and DUTerent1al Calculus

3.2.2

Cauchy's Integral Test

Let /be a non-negative monotonic decreasing function of


positive integral values of
diverge together.

n.

Then, the series

L:::U

n and

the integral

Apply Cauchy's integral test to show that the series


diverges if 0 < p I.

1
converges
LnP

Lin for all

converge or

if p > I, and

Un = - .

J(n)

Therefore,

nP

= Un = -.
nP

J(x)

_!__

xP

We observe that/is positive and monotonic decreasing for


integral test,

Llln and

If p =/: I , then

When p > L, then

J f(x)dx

j J(x)dx
I

= -1-

l. Therefore, by Cauchy's

converge or diverge together.

J f(x) dx J

Jf(x)dx
I

(11)

The nth term of the series is

As per Cauchy's integral test, we have

Thus

f
jf(x)dx

I and let

EXAMPLE 3.24
Solution:

3.21

xP dx

[ ]

/00 [P dx [xl-p]00
I

1 1 00 = - 1xP- I
p-I

[ 0 - l] = -- ( finite) .

converges and so, by Cauchy's integral test,

Lun also converges for p > l.

3.22

UNIT m

When 0 < p < I , then

00

J
Thus

I
I
J(x)dx =!x'-PJ =- -[oo
1-p
1 -p
-

J(x)dx diverges and so, by Cauchy's integral test,

I]

oo.

L:un diverges for p < I .

lf p = I ,

then

f(x) dx =

Thus,

J
00

dx = [logxJ = oo

log I =

oo 0
-

00

J
I.

oo

J(x) dx diverges in this case and so, by Cauchy's integral test,

for p =

Hence,

L Un L converges for p > l


=

EXAMPLE 3.25

Lun diverges

and diverges for p $ .


1

oo

L n (log1nY' converges ifp > I and

Apply Cauchy's integral test to show that the series


diverges if 0 < p $ 1.
n=2
For the given series, the nth term is

Solution:

I
n( logn'f'

Un=

Taking Un

f (n), one gets

/(x) =

x(IogxY'.

For x 2 and positive p, f is positive and monotonically decreasing. Hence, Cauchy's


integral test is applicable.
When p -:f; l ,

Joo

/(x)dx =

oo

oo
( logx)-p+t

p
( logx) dx =

x
-p+ 1

Infinite Serles and DUJerendal Calculus

Now if p > 1, then p - 1 is positive and so

oo
J

f(x) dx =

00

Thus,

loo=

1
l_
p - 1 (logxf- 1

__

(p- l)(log2f- 1

__l _
p-1

[o-

(log2f- 1

(fullte )

f(x) dx converges and hence, by Cauchy's integral test, the given seri es

converges for p > 1.


lf p < 1, then 1 - p is positive and so
()()

J
2

1
f(x) dx = 1 - [( logx)1-P]
-p

Hence, by Cauchy's integral test,


lfp = 1, then/(x)

j
Thus,

00

f(x) dx

j
oc

lo

f(x)dx diverges and so

00

Hence, the series ""

Lun diverges for p < 1.


dx = [log Jogx) = oo - log log2

= oo.

Lun also diverges for p = I.

.
1
Y' converges if p > 1 and diverges if p $ 1.
n ogn

(I

EXAMPLE 3.26

Examine the convergence of the series


Solution:

= p [ oo - (log2) 1-P] = oo .

1
. Therefore,
= x-ogx

oo

We have

3.23

1
Un ==f(n).
yin

Lun

3.24

UNIT Ill

Therefore,/( x)

and it is positive and monotonic decreasing. Therefore, Cauchy's

integral test is applicable. We have

J
I

Thus, the integral

00

J(x) dx =

Jf(x) dx
I

J dx = [x!]

oo.

is divergent. Hence, by Cauchy's integral test, the series

I
L
. d'1vergent .
../ii 1s

3.2.3
Let

Ratio Test

Lun be a series of positive terms. Then


(I.)

(1'1')
(If lim
n-

"
Lun

is

convergent 1'f 1.1m


n-

L"n
IS. d'1vergent 'f1 I'tm
"n+I
Un

n-

Un+ I
Un

--

lln+I
Lin

--

<

I.

> 1.

I, this test gives no information about the convergence or divergence of

When Ratio test fails then we apply the following two tests:

I.

2.

Raabe's test:

In the positive term series

Lum if nlim
-oo

lln+I

1 =k then the

series converges for k > I and diverges for k < 1, but test fails for k = I.
Logarithmic test:

In

the positive term series

Lum if n-oo
lim nlog
Un+I

then the series converges fork> l and diverges fork< l, but test fails fork=

I.

lnOnlte Serles and Dlfferendal Calculus

EXAMPLE 3.27

..

3 25

Examine the convergence of the series


1+

12 . 22 32
12 .22
+
+.
l3 5 1. 3 . 5.7.9
.

Solution: The nth term of the given series is

u,,

12 . 22 32 . ..,,2

I 3 5 ( 4n- 5)(4n- 3)
.

Then,
Un+I

and

so

12 2 32 112(11+ 1) 2
l 3 5 (4n-5 )(4n-3) (4n- I )(411 + I)
.

16-;;i(4n-1)(4n+l) 16112-t
=
.
=
1 2
(11 + 1)2=
(n + 1)2
Un+I
l+n

( )

u,,

Further,

u,, - lim
l.1m--

n-oou,,+ 1

,,_

16- _!_
"2
1 2
l+11

16
( )

Hence, by D' Alembert's ratio test, the series

> I

Lu,, converges.

EXAMPLE 3.28

Examine the convergence of the series


(May 07, 08)
Solution: Neglecting the first term, we have

3 6

3n

x"
u,, = 7I0 139(311
+4)

and

Un+I

3 69(3n)(3n+ 3)
- 7 10
13(311+4) 3n + 7

+I

)x" .

3.26

UNlT m

Therefore,

3 +7
. = lim
lim = lim "
n-oo Un+ I n-oo 311 + 3 X n-oo

,,(3 +)
" .! =
3 X X
ll (3 +- )
n

Therefore, by D' Alembert's ratio test, the given series converges if ! > 1 or
diverges if!
x

<I

or if x >

I. If. x =

1, then D' Alembert's ratio test

if x <

1 and

ves no information.

EXAMPLE 3.29
Test the convergence of the series

Solution:

x6

x4

x2

x > 0
+
+
+
+
2vr 3J2 4J3 sv'4 .. '

The nth

term

of the given series is

;i.n-2
tin= ----

(n+ l)jii

and

so

Therefore,

(n+
2) v;;-+T . = lim
Jim = lim
(11 + J)Jii
n-oo lln +I nx2 n-+oo

n(t +) vn t +!)t
"

n( 1 +I

Jii

Thus, by D' Alembert's ratio test, the given series converges if

< I,

diverges if
x
have

that is, if

vn =

l'

>

I, that is if, x2 < I, and

I
(n+ 1)

= t(t
jii
n +)

we have

n-oo Vn

I.1m Un =

. x2 = x2

ert's ratio test fails and we

> I. When = I, the D' Alem

lln =
Taking

--_1 = I , finite and non-zero.


n-oo
I+
Lim

11

lnflnJte Serles 1nd Differential Calculus

3.27

vn =

2:::Un and L vn converge or diverge together. But L


L conveges. Hence L also converges. Therefore, the given series converges for

Hence, by comparison test,

x2 1 and diverges for x2

un

>

1.

EXAMPLE 3.30

Test the convergence of the following series:


(i)

2=

2P JP 4P
(ii) I + - + - + - +
2! 3! 4!

..

(i) The nth term of the series is

Solution:

Un = ,.
Un+I = (nri++I)!
x"
n.

Therefore,

and so

Un lim n x =
nJim-oo lln+I = n-oo
+
1

_
_

O, less

than

1,

for all finite values of x.

Hence, by D'Alembert's ratio test, the given series converges for all finite values of x.

(ii) We have

u,, =-n! Un+I = (11(n ++ 1)1'l)!


rl'

and so

n-oo Un+

lim _!!.o__ = lim


I

11-00

( 1)' =
1

l+-

oo

for all values of p.

Hence, the given series converges for all values ofp.

3.28

UNIT Ill

EXAMPLE 3.31

Examine the convergence of the series


" Jnl+T
./ii x"
LSolution:

x >0

For the given series


Un

Vn x"
n+T

Un+I =

and so

Vn+f

V(n + 1)2+]

J!l+I

l+-+
n2 1 -n
! Jim -l+ t+n2
Hence, by D'Alembert's ratio test, L:u,, converges if> is, if < l and diverges
if! 1, that is, if > 1. When l, this test gives no infonnation. But in case,
n
I
l
u,, -- ./ii -Jiii+1
1 2 ( l+:2) Vn Jl +nl2 .
.
I

Un

)'

n_ . 112+2+211
1m--= 1m _
+ I 112+ l

n-

Un+I

<

n-

11

Vn

I, that

x=

-=-

11-00

that

we note that
1m -u,, = 1m l l = mte. and non-zero.
1 +
n2
R
Therefore, L:un and L:v,, converge or diverge together. But L = L diverges.
Therefore,
series diverges for 1. Hence, the given series converges ifx < 1
diver
ges if given
1.

Taking

I.

n-

the

Vn

1 fi

,,_.

x=

Vn

and

Infinite Serlet and Dlfferentlal Calculus

EXAMPLE 3.32

Test for the convergence of the series


(i)

(ii)

I )2
( ) 2+(I 2) 2+( 1 23) 2+ (I .2 .3 . ) 2+...

'' n2(n+
6
n!
1

n!
(iii) L n
n

3. 5.7.9

3 .5 .7

3.5

Solution: (i) For the given series

u,, =

and so
. -=
I 1m

lln
n- Un+I

1.

1m

n-

112(11 + 1)2
'
n.I

112(n+ 1)2
11.1

Un+I =

(n+ 1)2(n+2)2
( n+l)!

(11 + 1 )11.I
= lim
(n+l)2(n+2)2 n-

(I +-n1 )
( )
n2 I+113

2 2

oo.

Hence, the given series converges by D' Alemben's ratio test.

(ii) For the given series

lln =
Therefore,

1234n ) 2
(3.5.7.
9 ....(2n+l)

n-oou
n+I
lim

lln+I =

(2n 3)2
n-oo (n++1)2
lim

(J .2.3 .4 ..... (n+ 1) ) 2

lim

11 -00

3 57 9 ( 2n+3)

(2+-1 ) 2
(l+-n)
11

) 2

Hence, the given series converges by D'Alembert's ratio test.


(iii) The nth term of the given series is
Therefore,

n+I -- (n+ I)n+I -- (11 + 1)"+1 -- (n+ l)"

LI

(n+ l)!

(n+l)n!

n!

2.

3.29

3.30

UNIT Ill

and so
. Un
Iun -=
n-oo Un+ I

1.

lffi

n-oo

(n+ l)"
nn

(n-+-l) ( + -l)
n
n
n

= e =

2 .7, greater than l.

Hence, the given series converges by D'Alembert's ratio test.


EXAMPLE 3.33

Test for the convergence of the series


(i) x+2x2 + 3x3 + 4x4 +

(ii)

:L (2n)
x"
I

n
x", x>O
n + I
x x2 x3
x4
(iv) I
+
+ + + 2
+
+1 5 10 n + 1

(iii) " 2

Solution:

and so

(i) The given series is L nx". Therefore,


Un = n x", Un+I = (n + l )x"+I
.

. Un 1tm
I1m--=
n
n-oo

nx"
- (n+ 1)xn+ 1

Un+I

( )

. ---11m
I
=
n-oo
X X
I+

Hence, by D'Alembert's ratio test, the series converges if!> I , that is, if x < 1 and
diverges if ! < 1, that is, if x > I . If x = I , the ratio test ves no information about
x
convergence. But for x = I, the series becomes ) n, which is divergent. Hence, the given
series converges for x < I and diverges for x 2:1.

(ii) We have

U n=

Therefore,

x".
(2n)!'

Un+I

x"+l
( 2n + 2)! .

(2n + 2)(2n + I )(2n)I


lim = Jim .
n+

n-oo Un+I

n-oo {2n)!

x t

lim

n-oo

(2n + 2){2n + I )
X

lnft.nlte Sena and Differential CalcuJus

3.31

Hence, by D'Alembert's ratio test, the given series converges.


(iii) The nth term of the series is
n
X > 0.
Un = n2 +-1 :x!' 1
Therefore,

Un+I -

(n + 1)

(n + 1)2 + I

:x!'+I

and so
Un
1.un
I.
n-am-oo Un+ I = n-oo

!
Hence, by D' Alembert's ratio test, the series converges if > I or x < l and diverges if

1
x

< 1 or

x>

I. If x = I, the Ratio Test gives no inforrnion. But in that case,

Take Vn = -. Then,
n

Un
lim = 1, finite and non-zero.
-oo
n Vn

Hence, :::Un and LV' converges or diverges together. But L = L diverges.


Therefore L un also diverges. Hence, the given series converges for x < 1 and diverges
for x 1.
(iv) Neglecting the first term, the nth term of the series is
Vn

Un= 2 + '
n 1

Un-i;I =

(n + 1)2 + 1

3.32

UNIT Ill

Therefore,
X'
L
. n2 + 2 + 2n
lim in = rm
lim
n- Lln+I n n2 + I
n-!Xl
x"+I
=

n2 1 +

2n2

+
I

n2 I + 112

!
X

=!
X

!
!
Therefore, the series converges if/ > l or x < l and diverges for < l or x > 1 . For x = 1 ,
the D 'Alembert's ratio test give no infonnation. But in such a ase,
I
Un = ,,2 + 1 =
n2 1 +
n2
Taking v,,
, we get
=

( _!_) .

-;.
11

"

Jim
-oo Vn = n-oo

nlim

1
I+
n2

= I , finite and non - zero.

Hence, Lun and Lvn converge or diverge together. But L vn = L is convergent


Hence, :2.:::Un converges for
I. Thu the given series is convergent for x l and
x =

s,

diverges for x > l .

EXAMPLE 3.34

Examine the convergence for the following series of positive tenn.


(i) 1 +
(ii)

18

cx + l {cx + l){2cx + l ) (cx + l){2cx + l ){3cx + I ) . .


+
+ .
+
P + I (P + 1)(2P + 1) (P + 1 )(2P + 1)(3P + l )

4 1 2 4 12 20
+
+
18 . 27 1 8 . 27 . 36 . . .

I x2 1 3 5 x4
1 3 5 7 9 . x6
(iii) l + 2 . 4 + . . 6 . 8 +
2 . 4 . 6 . 8 . 1 0 12 + . . .
2 4
Solution:

(i) Without taking notice of the first term, the nth term of the given series is
(ex + l)(2cx + l ) (ncx + l )
un - (fl
.
l ) n{J I ) '
-

+ 1)(2P +

Infinite Series and Differential Calculus

3.33

Therefore,
Un+t

and so

11-00
lim

...!!!!._ =
Un+t

(a+ 1)(2a+ l)(na+ l)[(n + l)a+ 1)


(P+ 1)(2P+ l)(n/3+ l)((n + 1)/3+ 1)
( I +-l ) P+ -I
n n
(n + 1 )/3 + 1
(n l)a + I ( l +-I) a + -1 a
n n
11-00

lim

lim

11-+00

Hence, by D' Alembert's ratio test, the series is convergent if

<

I or
If a = p, then
...!!!!._ =
n-oo Un+I
ex
information. But then the series becomes

divergent if

a > P > 0.

lim

>

1 or p

>a>0

and

tso the ratio test gives no

an

1 + 1 + 1 + ,
which is divergent. Hence, the given series converges if
ex ;:::: p

/3 > a > 0

> 0.

(ii) The given series is

whose nth term is given by


Un =

4 1 2 20 (Sn -4)
lS 27 36 (9n + 9)

Therefore,
Un+ l

and

4 12 20 (Sn -4)(Sn + 4)
18 27 36 (9n + 9)(9n + 18)

so

11-00
.
Iim

u11

U11+1

--

1. .

un

11-00

9n + lS
Sn+ 4

i:_
w
u
n-oo

Hence, by D' Alembert's ratio test, the given series converges.

and diverges i f

3.34

UNIT UI

(iii) For the series (iii), we have


Un =

3 5 . - (411 - 7) xui-2
0 (4n - 4) '
(4n - 6)
. .

Un+I

1 3 5 (4n - 1)(4n - 5)(4n - 3 ) ?'


-.
2 4 6 (4n - 6)(4n - 4)(4n - 2) 4n

Therefore,
16n2 - 8n
4n
}
_!_2 = nlim
=
-oo 16n2 - 32n + 15 . x2 x2
(411 - 5)(4n - 3) (411 - 4) x

(411 - 2) { 4n - 4)
lim _!!!!..._ = lim

n-+oo Un+ I n-oo

Hence, by D' Alembert ratio test, the series converes if


x
= I , the test fails. But it x2 = 1 , then

x2 > 1 . If x2

1 3 5 (4n - 7)
= 2 4 6 (4n - 6)(4n - 4) =

= I3
=

> 1 or x2 < I and diverges if

( 7)
( )( )

1 3 5 n 4-n
6
4
2 4 6 n2 4 - - 4 - n
n

u -+ A (finite and non-zero). Hence, the series converges


Then _!!.
Take vn
4

n
2
6
Vn

2
for r
1.

Therefore, the series converges when x2 1 and diverges when x2 > I .


3.2.4

Cauchy's Root Test

If Lun is a series of positive terms, then

'"" Un converges if lim (un)!


(i) the series L._;
(ii)

n_..,..oo
'""Un diverges if n-oo
the series L._;
lim (un )

(When n-oo
lim (un )!

the series Lun)

< l.
> I.

1, the root test fails to give any information regarding convergence of

InflnJte Series and Differential Calculus

3.35

EXAMPLE 3.35

Examine the convergence of the series

32
43
2
-x
+
-x2
+
-x3
+...
24
12 23

Solution:

(Dec. 08)

The nth term of the given series is

Therefore,

I.1m u,,

n-oo

1
- im -- im
n
n ,,
_

1.

n-oo

n+

1.

....00
.

(1 + -nl ) x -

n1

x.

Hence, by Cauchy's root test, the given series converges if x < 1 and diverges if x > 1.
When x = l , we have

Take v,,

-.n Then,
I

lim

u,, = Jim

n-oo v11

11-00

(1 + n!)"

=e

(finite and non-zero).

But L v,, L is divergent. So Lu,, diverges for x


converges if x < 1 and diverges if x 1.
=

EXAMPLE 3.36

Examine the convergence of the following series

1.

Hence, the given series

3.36

UNIT Ill

Therefore,

n
{n + l r
= lim -1 (1 + ) = e < I .
n
3
3n
n-oo
n
n-oo 3

lim = lim

n-

Hence, by Cauchy's root test, the given series is convergent.

(ii) Ignoring the first term, the nth tenn of the series is
II + ' ) n
Un = (
n + 2 :I'.
Therefore,

I+
.
l
.
n+I
.
nx = x
lam 14, = lam (--) x = lam = -.
n-+00
n-tOO IJ + 2
IJ-tO() 1 2
+
,,

Hence, the series converges if x < I and diverges if x > I . If x = 1, then


u,

and so lim Un =

( + l) n=
11

n+2

(I + '

11

( 1 + ;)
"

n
( l + -l )
n

[ ( 1 + ;) ' '
]

= e =/= 0. Since n-oo Un =/= 0, the series diverges for x = l . Thus the
lirn

e-

given series converges for x < I and diverges for x I .


n-

EXAMPLE 3.37

Examine the convergence of the series


x x2 x3
(i) l + 2 + 2 + 4J + . (x > 0)
3
<ii>

L ( 1 + J.f1

Solution:

..

(i) Neglecting the first term, the nth term of the given series is
un

x"
.
(n + i r

Infinite Serles 1nd DlfferentJal Calculus

Therefore,

(( )

lim (un)* = tim (( x"ir) = lim


n-oo
n-oo n +
n-

nn l + -r
n

= n-oo
lim

Hence, the given series is convergent by Cauchy's root test.


For this series,

(ii)

u,, = ( 1 +
Therefore,

./ii

I .m u;.J. = n.!..
1 m
,..!..
.

_,,j

(l +

( l + -)
Jn

)
l

..;n

.;n

= <l
;
.

Hence, the given series converges by Cauchy's root test.

EXAMPLE 3.38

Test the convergence of the series

Solution:

Therefore,

For the given series,

n
u,, = (11 + l

)'

,/nn .

) =0 <

n (l + n

3.37

1.

3.38

UNIT Ill

and so

I.1m u7,1 = n-.oo


lim
n-oo

( I l ) -I < l
l +n

n=

Hence, by Cauchy's root test, the given series converges.


EXERCISE 3.2
Comparison Test

Examine the convergence of the following series:


1.

L (n2 + I)! - n
00

n= I

oo

2 "
.

1 logn
oo

I
nP(n + I )"

Ans.

Divergent.

Ans.

Divergent.

and diverges for p

4.

L (n + I )i - nl

Ans.

Divergent.

s.

1 + 2 +3
1 +2
+
+
)2 t 2+22 l 2 + 22 32 + . . .
+

Ans.

Divergent.

Ans.

Converges for p <

00

n=I

v'2 - l J3 - I J4 - l
32 - I + 43 - 1 + 53 1 + . . .

?.

'4 + Jr+ fs+ . . . + V2 (n: I )+ . . .

B.

t + v'2
l

3
+
+
1 + 2J3 1 + 3J4
2

1
1
+
2.3 3 .4 + ...

Ans.

Convergent.

Ans.

Divergent.

Ans.

Divergent

Ans.

Convergent

lnftnlle Sl'rles a.nd Differential CaJculus

IO

11.

(n+ l )(n+2)
L.J (n2+ 1 )(n2 + 2)

L:: sm!n
Wot:

take Un

sin ! , Vn
n

Ans.

D'Alembert's Ratio Test

!, then lim Un
n
Vn

I, but L ! diverges.
n

3.39

Convergent.

Ans.

Divergent.

Examine the following series for convergence


2 ! 3! 4 l
12. + 2+ 3+ 4+
4
3
2

Ans.

3x+
13. L (
)!
( n+ I5)'1
14. I:

IS f
n=I

l?.
18

Ans.

Convergent for all values of x.

(:+:2)

Ans.
Ans.

nX'

(n+ I )(n+ 2)

Convergent for x <

x2

x3

..

Ans.

Convergent for x

3 6 9 3n
. ___!'.____
L.J4 7 10 (3n + l ) 3n+2

19

L 1:2n
Ans.

Convergent.

l, divergent for x $
Ans.

+
+
+...
2 v'3 3 J4 40

Convergent.

1.

Convergent.

and divergent for x >

I.

Ans.

Convergent.

Ans.

Convergent.

Converges for x < 1 and diverges if x 1.

Ans. Converges for x

$ I and diverges if x > 1.


Ans.

Convergent.

3.40

IT Ill

Cauchy's Root Test

Examine the following series for convergence


n + I t x"
23 . '"' (
Ans. Converges for x < I and diverges if x l .
24
.
25 .

L..J

11n+I
I

L:
2 (1ogn r

5 -n-<-1>"

32
2
43 x3 +
26. x
+
x2 + 34
]2
23
27
2s.

(n +

L [(":T' - ":f

I: ( ' ::xr

3.3

It

11n+I

Ans.

Ans.

Convergent

Ans.

Convergent.

Converges for x < I and diverges if x


Ans.

Ans.

1.

Convergent.

Converges for x < I, diverges for x I .

ALTERNATING SERIES AND SERIES OF POSITIVE


AND NEGATIVE TERMS

3.3.1
Series of Alternating Terms (lelbnltz Test)
A series in which positive and negative terms occur alternately is called an Alternating Series.

Regarding convergence behavior of an alternating series, we have the following theo


rem, known as Leib11itz 's Rule.

(Leibnitz' rule). If 11,, i positive and monoto111cally decreases to


ts convergent.
the limtl zero, then the alternating seric u 1 ":J. th "

Theorem 3 . 1 0:

"

EXAMPLE 3.39

;k + ;k - k + is convergent for all positive values of k.


For the given series, the nth term is
Then u,, and lim !. 0.

Show that the series I Solution:

u,, =

II

Un+ t

n
-00 r
1

Therefore, by Leibnitz's rule, the given series converges. In particular, the series
I

- 2I + 3I - 4I + . . . converges.

Infinite Serles and Differential Calculus

EXAMPLE 3.40

Examine the convergence of the series


I

}":2 - 3 . 4 5 6 - 78
For the given series, we have

Solution:

Un =

Therefore, Jim Un
n-+

Un - Un+ I =

(2n

0. Further,

I,

1)(2n)

(2n

1)(2n)

3.41

( )

2n2 2 -

(2n + 1)(2n + 2)

8n + 2
(2n - 1)(2n}(2n + 1)(2n + 1)

>0

for all n. Thus {un} is monotonically decreasing to zero. Therefore, by Leibnitz's rule,
the given series is convergent.

EXAMPLE 3.41

Examine for convergence of the series

. .

I
I
1
( .)
.
I -- +
- , where x is not a negative mteger.
x+ I x+2 x + 3

(ii)

-- -I

- 3+5 - 7 + . . .

log3 log4
log 2
+
2
-
2 32 42
3 4 5
2
I
+
(iv)

- +
6 Tl 16 - 21 26 -

(iii)

Solution: (i) If x >

I, the tenns are alternating from the beginning. Ifx -1 (except


negative integers), the terms are ultimately altering their signs. Since, the removal of finite
number oftenns does not affect the convergence of the series, we may assume the series to

<

be alternating in this case also. The


Further,

Un - Lln+I =

-+n

nth tenn of the series is Un

x+ n+ 1

1
-- and so nJim Un
-oo
x+ n

(x+ n) (x+ n + I )

0.

>0

and so {un} is monotonically decreasing sequence. Hence, by Leibnitz's test, the given
series converges.

3.42

UNIT Ill

(ii) Clearly, {Un} is monotonic decreasing and


J

im -- = 0.
im Un = n-oo
n-oc
2n - I
Hence, the given alternating series is convergent.
(iii) The nth tenn of the given alternating series is
Lin =

log{n + 1 )
(n + 1)2

Then,
lim

n-oo Un

) (00 form) = nlim


f+\ (L'Hospital rule)
-oo 2 n + )
00
1
= nlim
= 0.
-. 2(n + 2)2
=

Jog(n +
limn-co
(11 + 1 )

To examine the monotonicity, we make use of a corollary to Mean Value Theorem,


according to which "a function is monotonic decreasing if its derivative is negative."
So, let us take
= logn
f(n)
, n > 0.
n2
Then
- 2n logn
n2
t - 2 log n O
n
if l - 2 log n < O,
=
J'(n) =
<
n4
nl

()

that is, if log n >


Thus,

that is, if n > el = 1 .65. But, n

> I

and so the condition is satisfied.

f(n + l ) >f(n + 2) for aU n l ,

which shows that Un > u,,.1. Hence, by Leibnitz's test, the given series is convergent.
(iv) The nth term of the given series is
1
11
-l as n -+ oo.
Lin
1
Sn + 1 S + - 5
n
Thus the terms are monotonically decreasing and Un tends to a finite limit. Hence, by
corollary to Leibnitz's test, the given series oscillates finitely.
=

-- -=

-+

lnOnltt Series and DUTtrtotlaJ Calculus

3.43

EXAMPLE 3.42

Examine the convergence ofthe series


I +I - -I + . . .
3
log2 log
log 4 log
Solution: For this series, the nth term is
I
Un = ---log(n + 1 ) "
Then,
tm log(n1 + l) =
n-1m Un = nl'-.oo
and.
I
1
Lin - Un+I =
I

1.

log(n + 1 )

log(n + 2) )> O.

Hence, by Leibnitz's test, the given series converges.


EXAMPLE 3.43

Examine the convergence ofthe series


l + I
l

.. .
I
!Solution: The given series is an alternating series. We observe that
(- i r
(n 2)
Un =
Vn + ( - l r
and
that
un
In
fact,
the
Leibnitz's
test
is
as
n
But
the
series
is
not
convergent
.
not applicable because the terms do not decrease monotonically. Further,

_
./2_+_1 ../3 - 1 v'4 + 1 - ./5 - 1 +
_

-+

-+ oo.

c-1)n
(-t)n [fo - (-in _
1
- (-1rvn - -Un - y'n + (- 1 )n _n-1 n-1
n-1
_

Therefore,

u = (-1r.;n -1
L.J n L.J n - 1 L.J n - l .
_

The first series on the right converges by Leibnitz's test while the second series diverges.
erefore, l:u11, whose terms the difference of the terms of these two series,
fverges to oo.

are

I
II
I

3.44

UNIT m

Absolute Convergence of a Series

3.3.2

A series Lun containing both positive and negative terms is said to be absolutely con
if L I un I is convergent.
Thus, the series which becomes convergent when all its negative terms are made posi
tive is called absolutely convergent series.
For example, the series
vergent,

1 - 2-1 + 2-12 - 23-I + . . .

.
' absoluteIy convergent because the senes
1s

+ 22 + 23 + 1s convergent.
If the series Lun converges and the series L I Un I diverges, then the series L"n
I +2

said to be condjtional convergent.


For example, the series

! --21 + -31 - -41 + -51 - -61 + .

converges by Leibrutz's test but the series


I

.
1s d'1vergent. Hence, the senes 1
.

Theorem 3.1 1 :
Proof:

Suppose

. I

+ 2+ 3+ 4+ 5 + 6 + . . .
- 2I + 3I - 41 + SI - 6I +

. .
. cond1t1ona
1s
IIy convergent.

An absolutely convergent series is itself convergent.

Llu,.I converges. Therefore, for a given e > 0, there exists a positive

integer n0 such that


Therefore,

is

I Un+ l

I + I Un+2 I + + I Um I < e

m, n

for

I Un+I + Un+2 + . . . +I I Un+I I + I Un+2 I + I Un+3 I + .

Hence, by Cauchy's principle of convergence, the series

>

no.

Uml < e for m,

::::n:U is convergent.

>

11().

Infinite Series and DlfTertndaJ Calculus

Remark 3.2:
I

The converse of Theorem 3.20 is not true. For example, the series

+ -+
-

+2+3 +4+ + +
5 6
I

3.45

is convergent by Leibnitz's test, but the series

L I Un I -

'
.
1s d 1vergent.

Theorem 3.1 2:

ln an abolutely convergent serie., the eric formed by po itive


tcnn only i con\'ergcnt and the series fonned by negative tenn only is also convergent.

EXAMPLE 3.44

x2 x3
x4
+x+-+-+ . . +-+ . . .
!
n
is absolutely convergent for all values ofx.
Show that the exponential series

2! 3 !

Solution:

For the given series, we have

I u, I I en;+:) ! I - n,;11
I I
=

and so

lim

_!!!!__

= 00

n-x Un+I

> I.

Hence, the series is absolutely convergent by extended D'Alembert's test.

EXAMPLE 3.45
Examine the logarithmic series

for absolute convergence.

lution:

x - x2
- + x3
- - . . . +( - )n + I xn
3
2
1
n

It is an alternating series for which

I ::, I l
=

+
-;; nri+ I
x"
I

3.46

UNIT Ill

Therefore,

I I

Un
lim
n-.oo Un+ l
and so, by extended

D' Alembert's

ratio test, the given series converges absolutely if

1, that is, if x I < 1.


I
l I >When
x = the series becomes 1 - + - +
1,

l l
. 1 +2 +3
test. But th e senes
When x =

1
4+

1 , the series becomes

. , which converges by Leibnitz's

d'1verges.

( j )
1 +

+ +

and is hence divergent.

When x < 1, the tenns are all negative. Removing a common negative sign, the term
becomes positive. Since
. Un = 1 < I ,
I1m
n-oo un+I
-

IX I

--

the series diverges by D' Alembert's ratio test.


When

> l, the nth tenn does not tend to zero. For if x" = y, then
n

logn
lofl y = 11 logx - log 11 = n logx - -11
Therefore, x"
n

-+

oo

as n -+

oo.

-+ oo ,

logn
.
smce
n

--

-+

as n

-+

oo.

The series, therefore, oscillates infinitely.

E>CAMPLE 3.46

cos nO
sin n6
.
Show that the senes ''
L.....t -;;;- and ''
L.....t -;;;;- are absolutely convergent for p > 1.

Solution:

Since,

sin nfJ
cos n8
I
.
.
converge
and smce ''
L.....t converges for p > 1, 1t follows that ''
L.....t
and ''
L.....t
nP
nP
for p > 1 .
nP
.

--

--

Infinite Series and DlfferentlaJ Calculus

EXAMPLE 3.47

3.47

Examine absolute convergence of the hypergeometric series


1 +

We have

Solution:

lim

n-oo

+
+
aP
+ a(a l )P(P
l 2(y + 1)
l .y
.

II
Un+ I

lim

n-oo

1) x2 + . . . .

(n + I ) (n + y) !
.
( a + n){ P + n) X

JXI

'

Therefore, by D' Alembert's ratio test, the hyper-geometric series is absolutely convergent
if

I I

> 1, that is, if I

When, x
Un

-- =

Un+1

I < 1.

1 , we have

( +!) ( 1 )
( ) ( )=
1

+I
n

I+

P
l + ;;

l +

l +y

(1)
n

Therefore, by Gauss's test, the series is convergent if l + y


divergent if l + y

When x > l , lim

n-oo Un+ I

may be.

f1 < 1 or if y $ a + p.

2 by b'mom1aI expansion.

+0

ex

p > l or ify > a + p and

1
- < 1 . Therefore, the series diverges whatever a, p, and y
1XI

EXAMPLE 3.48

Discuss convergence of the Binomial Series

m(m
1 + nu +
2!

Solution:

.
I1m

n-oo

We have

Un

Un+ 1

- ni1m

-oo

l ) x2

.
+ . . + m(m

n
m-n+ I

11 I
l
x

1 ) . . . (m - 11 + I ) x" + . . .
n!

- lim
-

n-. oo m

l
l

Hence, the series is absolutely convergent if I x I < l . Further,


1

I.am I Un 1 n
n-.oo

I I
Un+I

Ii m -

n-.oo

Un

I x I.

I I
1
-

= -X I

3.48

UNIT Ill

Therefore,

Lim I Un I

n-

lim IX in 00 i f I X I > 1 .

n-

Hence, the series cannot converge when !xi > 1. When x < 0, the terms are ultimately of the
same sign and hence the series is divergent if x < - 1. If x > 1, the tenns are alternately
positive and negative after a certain stage and the series oscillates infinitely. Wben
x = - I , the series is
m(m - I )
n m(m - I ) (m - n - I )
+
I -m +
( -1)

21

n!

Whatever m may be, the terms are of the same sign after a certain value of
m+1
(I)
tin
1111+1

=1+

--

+O

n.

We have

2 .
n

Hence, by Gauss's test, the series is convergent if m + I > l , that is, if m > 0 and divergent
if m < 0. If m 0, the series reduce to single term 1. If x = l , the series is
=

l +m +

m(n - I )
2!

+ +

m(m - 1 ) (m - n 11!

l)+.

The terms are alternately positive and negative after a certain value of n. From above,
we have

'.!!!!__' = 1 +
Un+I

11

+0

-;

( )
II

Hence, by Gauss's test, the series converges absolutely if m + 1 > I , that is, if m > 0.
EXAMPLE 3.49

Examine the following series for convergence/absolute convergence.


n

(i)

in 1ix

L (- l ) 113s
-

x2 x3 x4 x5
x - -+- -- +- -
4
3
2
5
x3
x2
x4
(iii) x - - + - - - +

(ii)

Vi

Solution:

v'3

../4

(i) The 11th term of the series is

Un = (- 1r+'sin
n

nx

an

d so I tin

1 - ' sin nx I
-

..!._

vn 3,
Llunl
u,, =

Taking

test,

as

we have

Infinite Series and DlfTerentlal Calculus

L v,, = L :3,

3.49

which converges. Therefore, by comparison

converges. Hence, the given series is absolutely convergent .

(ii) We have

X' and so

u,, n I (n
..
Un+I --;:; . _x'l+
Un+I !..._ I = !)n I ! I = I ! I
I _!!!
_

Thus

X'

+ I

lim

11-00

+ 1
n-)
-

1 +

Hence, by extended D' Alembert's ratio test, the given series converges absolutely if

II

> I , that is, if

IxI< x=
I . If

I, the series becomes

l I I I 1
l - 2+3 - +5- +
4
6 '

x=
) IC IS < x <
u,, =
u,, = Ji1+T
fn+T
=
+I

Un+I Jn _x"
u,, =
n- I U-11+I I n-oo -t ) i I -' I = I I
< x < I. x =

- 1 , then the series becomes - 1 - which is convergent by Leibnitz's test. If


I
I
I
.
- 1 + 2 + 3 + . . . , wh. h . a1vergent. Hence, the given
senes
. converges
5
(
for - 1
I and converges absolutely for - 1
I.

- ... =
<x

(iii) The nth tenn of the series is

and so

Therefore,

X'

---;
n- ;y-

1 un

I.1m

l +

ti

1
Hence, by extended D' Alembert ratio test, the series converges absolutely if1
> l, that
is, if
1 , that is if - 1
If
l, then the series becomes

Ix I <

xI

1 - -+ - --+ .. .'

whose nth

term

is

u,, = --+
x=

2:u11 converges. lf

..ti.

0 as

--+

J3

oo.

J4

Also

Un

- 1 , then the series becomes

2:: u,,+ 1 Hence, by Leibnitz's test,

1
1
1
1 -------

./2

J3

J4

3.SO

UNIT llJ

or

1
I
I
.
- I + -+- + - + ' wh.1ch 1s d"1vergent.

./2

J3

.j4

Hence, the given series converges for - I <x :::; 1 and converges absolutely for - 1 < x :::; 1.
EXAMPLE 3.50
00

{-It

for convergence and absolute convergence


Examine the series L
n=2 n(log 11)2

Solution:

The nth tenn of the given alternating series is


u,,

(- I r So
2

n(logn)

n{logn)2

We observe that
lim

n-oo

Un

lim
= n-

oo n(log n)

and Un > un+i. n 2. Therefore, by Leibnitz's test, the given series is convergent.
To examine for absolute convergence, we have

I Un

I = n(logn)2 =J(n),

Therefore,
f(x)

say.

x(Iogx)2 '

which is positive and monotonic decreasing. Hence Cauchy's integral test is applicable.

oo
J

We have

Thus,

f(x) dx =

J dx
oo

x(logx)

2=

J
2

(logx) -2 . dx =
x

(( )
togxr 1

-1

I finit
_
oo= _
(
e).

00

f(x)dx converges and so by Cauchy's integral test, the series

2
Hence, the given series converges absolutely.

log2

f: I

n2

Un

I converges.

Infinite Serles and DlfYerendal Calculm

3.51

EXERCISE 3.3
Altematfng Serles

1.

Examine the convergence of


x - x2 + x3 3 - x4 + . ..
(i) _
l + x l+x2 l+x l+x4
1
Terms dec monotonically, ti' = = 1
I
+
;;
by Leibnitz's test, the given alternating series converges.
(ii) ( - r - 1 -"-

Ans.

Hint:

rease

Un

--+

,,2 + I.

L...J

Hint:

l + x"

oo.

Ans.

Convergent.

Ans.

Convergent.

-+ (finite) and so the series oscillates finitely.

Absolute Convergence/Condltfonal Convergence

2. Show that the series


. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
. +.
(t) 2 - 2 22 3 23 - 4 .
(3n)
( .. ) ( l ) . 3
---( 3 ,, - . )
2L.J - 2
.
{iii) (-l)n+l n
and
(iv) L ,
n+t 0 1 absolutely convergent.
24

11

0 as

Convergent.
n --+
Hence,

..
. 5-

<

<

are

+..
.

3.52

UNIT Ill

3. Show that the series


(i) 2::
(ii)

(- r

Jn

2= 11 ( -logn
r
-

and

. . . ) " c - 1 r+
( l1l

log{n + l )

are conditionally convergent.


4. Show that the series

cos 2x

- 23 + 33 -
-- -
13
cos x

cos 3x

converges absolutely.
Hint:

3.4
3.4.1

I
' I
- - $ 3 and L; 3 converges.
n
11
n

cos IU:
3

DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Differential Coefficients of Elementary
and Trigonometric

Let y be a function of x then its differentiaJ coefficient

(a function of x), which we

assume that it possesses a derivative if it is further differentiated. The derivative

:
:

is

called first differential coefficient or first order derivative ofy w. r.t. x. The derivative of
i.e.

! (:)

is called second order derivative ofy W { t. X, which ';fe denote as

dee two y over dee x square]. The derivative f


derivative of y w.r.t. x, which is denoted as

(read as

:i i.e. !() is called third order

Thus if y is differentiated n times suc

cessively w.r.t. x then it is called nth order derivative ofy w.r.t. x and it is denoted as

The process of finding the differential coefficient of a function again and again is called
successive differentiation.