mass transfer

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mass transfer

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MANIPAL UNIVERSITY

END - SEMESTER EXAMINATION - MAY/JULY 2013

Time: 3 Hrs

Max.Marks: 100

Instructions to Candidates:

All full questions carry equal marks.( 5 X 20 = 100 )

Missing data, if any, may be suitably assumed.

Write specific and precise answers, usual notations shall apply.

1.A. Acetic acid is diffusing through water under steady state conditions. The total pressure of the

system is PT , Temperature T and mole fraction of acetic acid at two planes are x A1, xA2

respectively. Derive an expression to determine the flux of mass transfer of acetic acid where

across a film of (i) non diffusing water (ii) diffusing water.

1.B. The effective diffusivities for passage of hydrogen and nitrogen at 20C through a 2 mm

thickness piece of unglazed porcelain. The effective diffusivities of H2N2 at 1 standard

atmosphere is 5.3 x 106 m2/sec and Knudsen flow effective diffusivities of H2 is 1.17 x 10-5

m2/sec. Estimate the diffusional fluxes for O2-N2 mixture at a total pressure of 0.1 standard

atmosphere, 20C with mole fraction of oxygen is 0.8 and 0.2 on either side of the porcelain.

Assume that both molecular and Knudsen have influence. The diffusivity of O2 through N2 at

STP is 1.81 x 10-5 m2/sec.

2.A. 1. Derive the relationship between Murphree stage efficiency under phase E and phase R

for transfer of solute from liquid phase (R) to gas phase (E) under cocurrent mass transfer

operation process.

2. Give a brief account of penetration theory of mass transfer with its assumption.

2.B. An absorption tower operating at 20C and 1 atmosphere pressure was used to absorb SO2

from an air mixture into water. At one point in the equipment, the partial pressure of SO2 in

gas stream is 30 mm Hg and concentration of contacting liquid film was 1.2148 kgmole

SO2/m3. The individual film coefficient for liquid phase and gas phase at 20C and 1

atmosphere pressure are 6.347 kgmole/(hr.m2.(kgmole/m3)), 1.44 kgmole/(hr.m2.atm)

respectively. Equilibrium data at 20C are as given below

Partial pressure of SO2 (mm Hg)

0.5

3.2

8.5

26

59

Concentration of SO2 (kgmole/m3)

0.306

1.459

2.784

6.2151 10.909

(a). Evaluate the interfacial and equilibrium concentration in both the phases.

(b). Estimate the molar flux based on individual film coefficient and overall mass transfer

coefficient. What percentage of overall resistance lies in the gas phase and liquid

phase?

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3.A. Prove analytically that the number of theoretical plates required for an multistage counter

[(

)(

( )

3.B. A mixture of benzene vapour and air containing 5% by volume of benzene is to be fed to the

scrubber and the benzene vapour content can be scrubbed with wash oil. The flow rate of gas

mixture 950 m3/hr of benzene vapour free air is blown into the bottom of the tower. Wash oil

is used as a solvent is introduced at the top of the tower at the rate of 4737 kg/(hr.m2) with an

average molecular weight of 260. The tower packed with 2.54 cm wet-packed stoneware

raschig ring and the solvent rate to be used is 2.32 times theoretical minimum. 90% of the

incoming benzene vapour is removed. Assuming that all the conditions remain unchanged.

The absorption tower may be assumed to be operating at 26.6C , 1 atm., and Raoults law

could be hold for the system the vapour pressure of benzene at 26.6C is 100 mm Hg.

(a).How much fraction to increase in height should be to absorb 96 % of the benzene vapour?

(b).Calculate the scrubber diameter.

4.A. Derive an expression to determine the fractional ability of solute loaded on the adsorbent in

the break through zone still to adsorb solute and at break point in a fixed bed adsorber.

4.B. The equilibrium adsorption of acetone vapour on activated carbon at 30C is given by the

following data.

gm adsorbed / gm carbon

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.35

Partial pressure of Acetone (mm Hg)

0

2

12

42

92

The vapour pressure of acetone at 30C is 283 mm Hg. A 1 liter flask containing air and

acetone vapour at 1 std. atmosphere and 30C,with a relative saturation of the vapour of 35 %.

After 2 gm fresh adsorbent carbon is introduced into the flask containing the mixture and the

flask is sealed. Compute the final relative saturation of air after adsorption, percentage of

adsorption and final total pressure in the flask. Neglect the adsorption of air and the gas

mixture follows ideal gas law.

5.A. Obtain an expression to deduce the relationship between overall and individual mass transfer

coefficient for gas-liquid mass transfer and justify the relationship between phase transfer unit

5.B. Pure gas is absorbed in a laminar liquid jet ( circular pipe ). The volumetric flow rate of the

liquid was 16 cm3/sec and the diameter and the length of the jet were 2 mm and 40 mm

respectively. The rate of absorption of A at 1 atm., pressure was 0.12 cm3/sec at 303 K.

Equilibrium solubility of gas at 303K is 0.0001 gmole/cc. Estimate the diffusivity of gas. If

the diameter of the jet is reduced to 0.8 mm, under the same conditions, how would it affect

the rate of evaporations? Assume the validity of Higbies penetration theory.

6.A. 1. Write the various assumption and importance for Chilton - Colburns analogy with equation

2. Compare and contrast between packed column and plate column.

6.B. An aqueous solution containing valuable solute is colored by small amount of an impurity.

Decolourisation experiments of an aqueous solution yielded the following equilibrium

relationship Y* = 8.91 x 10-5 X 1.66. 2000 Kg of Initial solution with colour concentration of

9.6 colour units/ kg solution is to be treated with an adsorbent. (a).Calculate the percentage of

colour removed in a single stage operation using 64 kg of fresh adsorbent.(b). Calculate the

quantity of fresh adsorbent required to reduce the colour to 10% of its original value in a six

stage counter current adsorbent operation. Assuming that colour concentration in the solution

stream leaving first stage is 4.6 times the final colour of the solution.

******

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