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Analog And Digital Communication Systems

ANALOG
COMMUNICATIONS

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Analog And Digital Communication Systems


1. Amplitude Modulation & Demodulation
Aim: 1. To generate amplitude modulated wave and determine the percentage modulation.
2. To Demodulate the modulated wave using envelope detector.

Apparatus Required:
1. Amplitude Modulation and Demodulation Trainer
2. Function Generator
3. Oscilloscope
4. Connecting Wires

Circuit Diagram For modulation:

Fig 1: CIRCUIT FOR AMPLITUDE MODULATION


Circuit Diagram For Demodulation:

Fig 2: CIRCUIT FOR AM DEMODULATOR

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Analog And Digital Communication Systems

Fig 3: Carrier Generator Theory:


Theory: Modulation is defined as the process by which some characteristics of a carrier
signal is varied in accordance with a modulating signal. The base band signal is referred to as
the modulating signal and the output of the modulation process is called as the modulation
signal.
Amplitude modulation is defined as the process in which is the amplitude of the
carrier wave is varied about a means values linearly with the base band signal. The envelope
of the modulating wave has the same shape as the base band signal provided the following
two requirements are satisfied
(1). the carrier frequency fc must be much greater then the highest frequency components
fm of the message signal m (t)
i.e. fc >> fm

Dept of ECE,MITS

Analog And Digital Communication Systems


(2) The modulation index must be less than unity. if the modulation index is greater than unity,
the carrier wave becomes over modulated

Procedure:

1. Switch on the trainer and check the O/P of carrier generator on oscilloscope.
2. Connect 1 KHz with 2 Volts A.F signal at AF I/P to the modulator circuit.
3. Connect the carrier signal at carrier I/P of modulator circuit.
4. Observe the modulator output signal at AM O/P Spring by making necessary changes in
A.F. signal.
5. Vary the modulating frequency and amplitude and observe the effects on the modulated
waveform.
6. The depth of modulation can be varied using the variable knob (potentiometer) provided
at A.F. input.
7. The percentage of modulation or modulation factor can be calculated using the following
formulas.

8. Find the value of R from fm=1/(2*Pi*R*C) , C=0.1F


9. Connect the circuit diagram as shown in Fig.2.
10. Feed the AM wave to the demodulator circuit and observe the output
11. Note down frequency and amplitude of the demodulated output waveform.
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Analog And Digital Communication Systems


12.Draw the demodulated wave form., m=1
Tabular Column:
S. No

Modulator O/P
Fm

Vm

(Hz)

(V) (V)

10 k

10 k

10 k

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Vmax

Vmin
(V)

Demodulator O/P
m
Fo

V0

(Hz)

(V)

Analog And Digital Communication Systems

PRECAUTIONS:

1. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram.


2. Apply the required voltages wherever needed.
3. Do not apply stress on the components.

Result:

Dept of ECE,MITS

Analog And Digital Communication Systems


2. Frequency Modulation & Demodulation
Aim: 1. To generate frequency modulated signal and determine the modulation index and
bandwidth for various values of amplitude and frequency of modulating signal.
2. To demodulate a Frequency Modulated signal using FM detector.
Apparatus required:
1. Amplitude Modulation and Demodulation Trainer
2. Function Generator
3. Oscilloscope
4. Connecting Wires

Theory:
The process, in which the frequency of the carrier is varied in accordance with the instantaneous
amplitude of the modulating signal, is called Frequency Modulation. A disadvantage of the
AM, DSBSC and other form of amplitude-modulation communication systems is that they are
susceptible to picking up electrical noise in the transmission medium (the channel). This is
because noise changes the amplitude of the transmitted signal and the demodulators of these
systems are affected by amplitude variations.
As its name implies, frequency modulation (FM) uses a messages amplitude to vary the
frequency of a carrier instead of its amplitude. This means that the FM demodulator is designed
to look for changes in frequency instead. As such, it is less affected by amplitude variations and
so FM is less susceptible to noise. This makes FM a better communications system in this regard.
There are several methods of generating FM signals but they all basically involve an
oscillator with an electrically adjustable frequency. The oscillator uses an input voltage to affect
the frequency of its output. Typically, when the input is 0V, the oscillator outputs a signal at its
rest frequency (also commonly called the free-running or centre frequency). If the applied
voltage varies above or below 0V, the oscillators output frequency deviates above and below the
rest frequency. The amount of deviation is affected by the amplitude of the input voltage. That is,
the bigger the input voltage, the greater the deviation.

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Figure 1 below shows a simple

Analog And Digital Communication Systems


message signal (a bipolar squarewave) and an unmodulated carrier. It also shows the result of
frequency modulating the carrier with the message

There are a few things to notice about the FM signal. First, its envelopes are flat recall
that FM doesnt vary the carriers amplitude. Second, its period (and hence its frequency)
changes when the amplitude of the message changes. Third, as the message alternates above and
below 0V, the signals frequency goes above and below the carriers frequency. (Note: Its
equally possible to design an FM modulator to cause the frequency to change in the opposite
direction to the change in the messages polarity.)

Dept of ECE,MITS

Analog And Digital Communication Systems

Fig 1: Circuit Diagram for Frequency Modulator

Fig 2 : Circuit for Frequncy Demodulator


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Analog And Digital Communication Systems

PROCEDURE:
1. Switch on the FM experimental board.
2. Connect Oscilloscope to the FM O/P and observe that carrier frequency at that point without
any A.F. input.
3. Connect around 7 KHz sine wave (A.F. signal) to the input of the frequency modulator (At AF
input).
4. Now observe the frequency modulation output on the 1st channel of on CRO and adjust the
amplitude of the AF signal to get clear frequency modulated wave form.
5. Vary the modulating frequency (A.F Signal) and amplitude and observe the effects on the
modulated waveform.
6. Connect the FM o/p to the FM i/p of De-modulator
7. Vary the potentiometer provided in the demodulator section.
8. Observe the output at demodulation o/p on second channel of CRO.
9. Draw the demodulated wave form

Vc=552m

Fc=45.93Khz

Vm=2V

S.N

Fm

Tmax

Tmin

Fmax

Fmin

Fmax-

(khz)

(usec)

(usec)

(khz)

(khz)

Fmin

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BW

Demod
voltage

Analog And Digital Communication Systems

Result:

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Analog And Digital Communication Systems


3. Pulse Amplitude and Modulation

Aim: To generate the Pulse Amplitude modulated signal and demodulated signals.

Apparatus required:
1.Pulse amplitude modulation trainer.
2. Signal generator
3. CRO
4. BNC probes, connecting wires.

Theory:
PAM is the simplest form of the data modulation. The amplitude of uniformly spaced
pulses is varied in proportion to the corresponding sample values of a continuous message
m(t).
A PAM waveform consists of a sequence of list-topped pulses. The amplitude of each
pulse corresponds to the value of the message signal x(t) at the leading edge of the pulse.
The pulse amplitude modulation is the process in which the amplitude of regularity
spaced rectangular pulses vary with the instantaneous sample values of a continuous
message signal in a one-one fashion.
Pulse Modulation is used to transmit analog information. In this system continuous wave
forms are sampled at regular intervals. Information regarding the signal is transmitted only at the
sampling times together with syncing signals.
At the receiving end, the original waveforms may be reconstituted from the information
regarding the samples.
The Pulse Amplitude Modulation is the simplest form of the pulse modulation. PAM is a
pulse modulation system in which the signal is sampled at regular intervals, and each sample is
made proportional to the amplitude of the signal at the instant of sampling. The pulses are then
sent by either wire or cable are used to module division multiplexing is used.
Dept of ECE,MITS

Analog And Digital Communication Systems

PAM is of two types :


1. Double polarity PAM This is the PAM wave which consists of both
positive and negative pulses.
2. Single polarity PAM This consists of PAM wave of only either negative
or positive pulses. In this the fixed dc level added to the signal to ensure
single polarity signal.

Dept of ECE,MITS

Analog And Digital Communication Systems

Dept of ECE,MITS

Analog And Digital Communication Systems

Procedure:
1 . Switch on pulse Amplitude modulation and demodulation trainer.
2 . In clock generator section connect pin 6 of 555IC to the 33pfcapacitor terminal.
3 . Check the clock generator (RF)output signal.
4 . Connect RF output of clock generator to the RF input of modulator section.
5 . Connect a 1KHz; 2vp-p of sine wave from function generator to the AF input of
modulator section.
6 . Short the 10F terminal and 10k terminal of modulator.
7 . Connect 10k terminal to pin 1 of IC 4016.
8 . Connect the CRO to modulated output of modulator section.
9 . Adjust the 1k potentiometer to vary the amplitude of the modulated signal.
10. Adjust the AF signal frequency from 1KHZ-10KHZ to get stable output waveform.
While increases the AF signal frequency decreases the output signal pulses.
11 During demodulation, connect the

modulated output to the PAM input of

Demodulator section.
12 . Connect channel 1 of CRO to modulating signal and channel-2 to demodulated
output. Observe the two waveforms that they are 1800out of phase, since the transistor
detector operates in CE configuration.

Dept of ECE,MITS

Analog And Digital Communication Systems


Sample Readings:
RF frequency =

RF Voltage =

S. No AF input voltage
Vp-p (volts)
1
2
3

Expected Waveforms:

Result:

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RF Voltage
Vp-p (volts)

PAM output voltage


Vmax (volts)

Vmin (volts)

Analog And Digital Communication Systems

5.STUDY OF HALF-WAVE FOLDED DIPOLE ANTENNA


Aim: To understand the basic principles related to folded dipole antenna and practically measure
the following characteristics of folded dipole antenna:

1.
2.
3.
4.

The Radiation pattern (Azimuth XY-plane plot).


Antenna Beam width.
Antenna Front-to-Back ratio.
The absolute Gain using FRIIS transmission equation.

NOTE: For gain measurement of other antennas provided in this trainer set, a reference gain
measurement method is used (you will study this method in next unit) & for this a folded dipole
antenna is used as reference. Here in this unit, the gain of folded dipole antenna is measured
using absolute gain measurement method to make this antenna as reference for gain
measurement of other antenna.

Equipment Required:
1. Two nos. of folded dipole antennas of same physical shape & mounting setup.
2. Transmitting Mast with in-built stepper.
3. Receiving mast.
4. RF generator (Model: RF-6).
5. RF power meter (Model: RFM-5M).
6. 2 nos. of BNC-to-BNC cable.
7. Antenna graph utility software hardware setup.

Theory:
A folded dipole antenna is a half-wavelength (/2) dipole. Means the physical antenna is
constructed of conductive elements whose combined length is about half of a wavelength at its
intended frequency of operation. This is a simple antenna that radiates its energy out toward the
horizon (perpendicular to the antenna).
Dept of ECE,MITS

Analog And Digital Communication Systems


For gain measurement of folded-dipole, we used the absolute gain measurement method. For
this, a FRIIS transmission equation is used as given below:
PR/PT =GT*GR*

(1)

Where,
PR = Received power at receiver antenna side (in Watts),
PT = Transmitted power from transmitter antenna side (in Watts),
GR = Receiver antenna gain (unit less),
GT = Transmitter antenna gain i.e. AUT (unit less),
= Wavelength of transmitted signal = 60 cm (for 500MHz),
R = Distance between both antennas (in meter).
Then,
GT*GR

(2)

Procedure
A) Measurement of Radiation pattern:
1. Mount a folded dipole (/2) Antenna (used as AUT) on top of the transmitting mast by
using holder box connected below the base-plate of antenna and tight with M8x45mm
screw & wing nut.
2. Connect output of RF generator to folded dipole using BNC-to-BNC cable at BNC input
of bottom holder box, which contains balun internally connected between antenna &
input BNC socket.
3. Mount another folded dipole Antenna (used as receiving antenna) on top of the receiving
mast by using holder box connected below the base-plate of antenna and tight with
M8x45mm screw & wing nut.
4. Connect input of RF power meter to receiving antenna using BNC-to-BNC cable.

Dept of ECE,MITS

Analog And Digital Communication Systems


5. Keep distance of 3m (approx. 10 feet) between transmitting & receiving antennas. And
keep both antennas at line-of-sight & facing each-other by considering there sight as 00
position.
6. Switch ON both the RF power meter & the RF signal generator.
7. Adjust frequency on RF generator to 500 MHz and set amplitude knob at maximum
clock-wise position i.e. maximum amplitude of electro-magnetic wave to be transmitted.
8. Adjust transmitting antenna pointer to 00 and take reading on RF power meter (near
receiving antenna). Now rotate transmitting antenna in clockwise or anti-clockwise (use
BS5-11 on stepper driver panel for stepper direction control) with 100 angle increment

& take corresponding reading on power meter.


9. Now take another reading with angle step of 100 up to 3600 of complete rotation & notedown the corresponding readings.
After taking all readings, fill the below table.

Table 3.1 Radiation pattern observation table of Folded dipole antenna


Sr. No
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
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Angle (degrees)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
210

Observed power (dB)

Analog And Digital Communication Systems


23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.

10.

220
230
240
250
260
270
280
290
300
310
320
330
340
350

Now, plot the polar graph between angle (in degree) versus observed power meter
readings (in dBm) on your paper by drawing a polar circle of different radius from
minimum to maximum (draw min. & max. radii as per your observations on graph).
Means in your all 3600 observations, you got -56.0dBm as minimum power output &
-30.0 dBm as maximum power output, then on polar circle, take first radius as -56.0
(which in minimum) & last will be -30.0 and take radius step as suitable.

Dept of ECE,MITS

Analog And Digital Communication Systems


Fig.A.1.1 Radiation pattern of Folded dipole antenna
NOTE: You can also use Antenna Graph Utility software to plot antenna radiation pattern
either in ONLINE mode or OFFLINE mode as given below:
i) In ONLINE mode: There are two sections in ONLINE mode, one is ONLINE-AUTO & other
is ONLINE-MANUAL. In this ONLINE mode, you can directly interface hardware to antenna
PC based software and acquire signal strength at different angular position of transmitting
antenna by providing CLOCK signal from software to stepper driver panel to rotate transmitting
antenna as per selection of buttons provided on the software, please refer unit-1 & 2 for complete
hardware wiring & procedure for How to use antenna software in detail.
ii) In OFFLINE mode: Whatever the data observed as per above procedure for antenna
radiation pattern measurement directly fill in the table of antenna software & click the PLOT
button on software to plot the antenna radiation pattern.
B) Measurement of Beamwidth:
Follow the given procedure to calculate beamwidth from radiation pattern;
1. From the observed radiation pattern of folded dipole antenna, find the angle at which the
signal strength of observed RF signal is maximum.
2. Then from that level, mark -3dB level (towards the center of graph) on center line and
draw an arc from center of polar graph to -3dB level.
3. The arc will cut the graph at either side. Then from here, draw straight lines from the arc
cut-out on graph to center of graph as shown below.
4. Now measure the either side angles from center line of graph. Note down that angles &
add them, this will be the Beamwidth of antenna under test;

Hence, Beamwidth= =----------------------- Degree.


= 200 (at right side) + 250 (at left side) = 450

Dept of ECE,MITS

Analog And Digital Communication Systems

Fig.A.1.2 Measurement of Beamwidth


NOTE: Follow the same procedure as illustrated above for calculation of Antenna Beamwidth
for all Antennas Under Test (AUT) provided with the trainer set.
B) Measurement of Front-to-Back Ratio:
The front-to-back ratio is the ratio of the peak gain in the forward direction to the gain 180degrees behind the peak, while considering the linear scale. But in a dB scale, the front-to-back
ratio is just the difference between the peak gain in the forward direction (i.e. maximum gain of
main lobe) and the gain 180-degrees behind the peak. It can be calculated from the observed
Radiation pattern of the antenna under test.

Hence, Front-to-back ratio = (Pmaj - Pmin) dBm.


= (-47.8)-(-50.7) = 2.9 dBm
Where,
Pmaj = Maximum power level of main-lobe in dBm.
Pmin = Power of minor-lobe or power level at 1800 behind the main-lobe in dBm.

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Analog And Digital Communication Systems

Max. level of
Main-lobe

Main-lobe

Lobe at 1800 off


from main-lobe

Level of 1800
off lobe
(Pmin)

Fig A.1.3 Calculation of Antenna Front-to-back ratio by Antenna radiation pattern

NOTE: Follow the same procedure as illustrated above for calculation of Antenna Front-to-Back
ratio for all Antennas Under Test (AUT) provided with the trainer set.
D) Measurement of Gain:
1. In this absolute measurement of antenna gain, two identical folded dipole antennas are
required by considering the gain of each is same as provided with XPO-ANT complete
experimental set

Hence, GT = GR = G.

2. Use RF Generator (Model: RF-6) for 500MHz RF signal output & RF Power meter
(Model: RFM5M) for measurement of power level in each step.

Dept of ECE,MITS

Analog And Digital Communication Systems


3. Connect dipoles on the provided masts, one as transmitting antenna (Antenna Under
Test) & other as receiving or measuring antenna. And keep both antennas at a distance of
5 feet (or 1.5m).

Hence, R = 1.5m.
4. The value of can be calculated for f = 500MHz RF signal as;

Hence, = c / f = (3*10^8) / (5*10^8) = 0.6m.


Follow the given steps to measure the absolute gain of Folded-dipole antenna using FRIIS
equation;
1. Connect the RF power meter directly to the RF generator as shown below & do not ON
the RF generator, measure the power meter reading, this is the reference power reading of
RF generator without RF input,

RF Generator
Co-axial cable

RF power
meter

Fig. 3.3 Setup for Measurement of PT

i.e. PRef(RF0) = ---------------------- dBm.


= -70.5 dBm
Without disturbing the above setup, switch ON the RF generator and set it to 500MHz
& set the power meter reading to +2 dBm using amplitude knob of signal generator (means set it
to maximum position).
Then the transmitted power can be calculated as,
i.e. PT = [+2] [PRef(RF0)] dBm.
= [+2] [-70.5] = 72.5 dBm.
2. Now switch OFF the RF power meter & generator. And connect RF generator to
transmitting antenna (keep it at OFF mode)& connect power meter to receiving antenna.
And keep both antennas in line-of-sight & facing each-other at a distance of 1.5m
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Analog And Digital Communication Systems


(approx. 5 feet) as shown below & do not disturb the setup until the completion of
experiment.
Folded Dipole
whose gain is to be
measured
nsmitting
Receiving
mast
mast

Co-axial
cable

Folded
Dipole
Co-axial
cable

RF Gen.

RF power

Distance (R) =
meter

Fig A.1.4 Setup for Measurement of PR


3. Now switch ON the power meter (when connected with receiving antenna, as in the
above setup) & keep RF generator in OFF mode, note down the power meter reading, this
is the reference power reading when connected to receiving antenna without RF input,
i.e. PRef = ------------------------ dBm.
= -60.7 dBm.
4. At the same setup switch ON the RF generator without disturbing the frequency &
amplitude knobs, calculate the measured power (PMeas),
i.e. PMeas = ----------------------- dBm.
= -42 dBm.
Then the received power can be calculated as,
i.e. PR = [PMeas] [PRef] dBm.
= [-42.2]-[-60.7] = 18.5 dBm
5. Substitute the above measured values in above equation-2 ;

GT*GR

As, GT = GR = G, R = 1.5m and = 0.6m


Then,
G*G=G2=

( )( .

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)( . )

( . )

Analog And Digital Communication Systems


=
G

(986.0)
--------------------- (Unit-less)

Gain (Measured)

For calculation of Gain in dBi, use equation-1 as,

Gain (dBi) = 10*Log

= 10 * Log (G / 1) = 10 * Log (G) = ------------------- dBi.

Result: Hence, from the above observed readings, you can conclude that folded-dipole antenna
is a bi-directional antenna and its gain is measured by absolute Gain measurement method is
approximately as 24 dBi.

Dept of ECE,MITS

Analog And Digital Communication Systems


6.MEASUREMENT OF ANTENNA CHARACTERISTICS USING XPO-ANT ANTENNA
TRAINER
Objective: To understand the basic principles of a given antenna (here Half-Wave Simple
Dipole antenna) and practically measure the following characteristics of this antenna:
1
2
3
4

The Radiation pattern (Azimuth XY-plane plot).


Antenna Beamwidth.
Antenna Front-to-Back ratio.
The Gain using standard reference antenna.

NOTE: For gain measurement of this antenna, use folded dipole antenna as reference antenna,
the gain of which already measured at previous unit using absolute gain measurement method.
The approach is same for all the antennas.

Equipment Required:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Two nos. of folded dipole antennas of same physical shape & mounting setup.
Half-wave simple dipole antenna.
Transmitting Mast with in-built stepper.
Receiving mast.
RF generator (Model: RF-6).
RF power meter (Model: RFM-5M).
2 nos. of BNC-to-BNC cable.
Antenna graph utility software hardware setup.

Theory:
This antenna contains one half-wave element, means the length of antenna element is one-half
of wavelength & hence the name half-wave dipole. Mount this antenna as per your experiments
using provided M8x45mm screw & wing nut.
On red-masked base-plate, the element is placed or mounted on its proper location (drills).
Rotate this mounted antenna using transmitting mast assembly from 00 to 3600 to get its
Radiation pattern.

Gain measurement:
For gain measurement of this antenna, we used reference gain measurement method. In which
three antennas are required; one is a reference antenna of known gain (i.e. folded dipole in our
case), second is any type of antenna connected at receiving side, whose gain not necessarily to be
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Analog And Digital Communication Systems


known (i.e. another folded dipole, but at receiving side) and third is an antenna whose gain is to
be measured (i.e. Antenna Under Test, AUT).

Use following equation for measurement of gain using reference antenna method:
GHWSD(dBi) = GRef(folded)(dBi) + [PMeas(HWSD)(dBm)PRef(folded)(dBm)]

(1)

Where,
GHWSD = Measured Gain of AUT antenna (in dBi).
GRef(folded) = Gain of reference Folded dipole antenna
= 24 dBi (this is measured in previous unit).
PMeas(HWSD) = Power meter reading when AUT is connected at transmitting side (in dBm).
PRef(folded) = Power meter reading when reference folded dipole antenna is connected at
transmitting side (in dBm).

Procedure:
A) Measurement of Radiation pattern:
1

Mount this antenna (used as AUT) on top of the transmitting mast by using holder box
connected below the base-plate of antenna and tight with M8x45mm screw & wing nut.

Connect output of RF generator to this AUT using BNC-to-BNC cable at BNC input of
bottom holder box, which contains balun internally connected between antenna & input
BNC socket.

Mount a folded dipole Antenna (used as receiving antenna) on top of the receiving mast by
using holder box connected below the base-plate of antenna and tight with M8x45mm screw
& wing nut.

Connect input of RF power meter to receiving antenna using BNC-to-BNC cable.

Keep distance of 3m (approx. 10 feet) between transmitting & receiving antennas. And keep
both antennas at line-of-sight & facing each-other by considering there sight as 00 position.

Switch ON both the RF power meter & the RF signal generator.

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Analog And Digital Communication Systems


7

Adjust frequency on RF generator to 500 MHz and set amplitude knob at maximum clockwise position i.e. maximum amplitude of electro-magnetic wave to be transmitted.

Adjust transmitting antenna pointer to 00 and take reading on RF power meter (near receiving
antenna). Now rotate transmitting antenna in clockwise or anti-clockwise (use BS5-11 on
stepper driver panel for stepper direction control) with 100 angle increment & take
corresponding reading on power meter.

Now take another reading with angle steps of 100, up to 3600 of complete rotation & notedown the corresponding readings.

10 After taking all readings, fill the below table.

Table 6.1:Rad. pattern observation table of Half-wave simple dipole antenna

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Sr.

Angle (degrees)

No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
210
220
230
240

Observed Power
(dB)

Analog And Digital Communication Systems


26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.

250
260
270
280
290
300
310
320
330
340
350

10. Now, plot the polar graph between angle (in degree) versus observed power meter readings
(in dBm) on your paper by drawing a polar circle of different radius from minimum to
maximum (draw min. & max. radii as per your observations on graph). Means in your all
3600 observations, you got -56.0dBm as minimum power output & -30.0 dBm as maximum
power output, then on polar circle, take first radius as -56.0 (which in minimum) & last will
be -30.0 and take radius step as suitable.

Dept of ECE,MITS

Analog And Digital Communication Systems

Fig. 6.1Half-wave simple dipole antenna Radiation pattern

NOTE: You can also use Antenna Graph Utility software to plot antenna radiation pattern
either in ONLINE mode or OFFLINE mode as given below:
i) In ONLINE mode: There are two sections in ONLINE mode, one is ONLINE-AUTO & other
is ONLINE-MANUAL. In this ONLINE mode, you can directly interface hardware to antenna
PC based software and acquire signal strength at different angular position of transmitting
antenna by providing CLOCK signal from software to stepper driver panel to rotate transmitting
antenna as per selection of buttons provided on the software, please refer unit-2 for complete
hardware wiring & procedure for How to use antenna software in detail.
ii) In OFFLINE mode: Whatever the data observed as per above procedure for antenna
radiation pattern measurement directly fill in the table of antenna software & click the OK
button on software to plot the antenna radiation pattern.
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Analog And Digital Communication Systems


B) Measurement of Beamwidth:
From the observed radiation pattern of this AUT antenna, find the -3dB power level on center
line and draw an arc from center of pattern to -3dB level and then measure the either side angles.
Note down that angle as beamwidth of antenna [from fig.6.1]
Beamwidth, = 400 (at right side) + 420 (at left side) = 820.
C) Measurement of Front-to-Back Ratio:
From the observed radiation pattern of this AUT antenna, find the power level of main-lobe (i.e.
lobe having more strength) & write it as Pmaj and then find power level lobe, which is 1800
off from main lobe, write it as Pmin, then calculate Front-to-Back Ratio using the below
equation;
Front-to-Back Ratio = Pmaj Pmin (in dBm)
= (-21.9) (-35.2) = 13.3 dBm.
D) Measurement of Gain:
Use RF Generator (Model: RF-6) for 500MHz RF signal output & RF Power meter (Model:
RFM-5M) for measurement of power level in each step.
Follow the given steps to measure the gain of this antenna using folded-dipole antenna as
reference:
1. Connect folded dipole antenna on receiving side using on provided receiving mast and
connect other folded dipole antenna of known gain (use the same antenna whose gain
calculated in previous unit, as reference antenna) on transmitting mast. Keep both
antennas in line-of-sight & facing each-other at a distance of 1.5m as shown:

Co-axial
cable

Folded
Dipole of
known gain
Transmittin
g mast

Receiving
mast

RF Gen.

RF power
Distance (R) =

Dept of ECE,MITS

Folded
Dipole
Co-axial
cableTra

Analog And Digital Communication Systems

Fig. 6.2Setup for Measurement of PRef


2. Set RF generator at 500MHz RF output & connect to transmitting antenna and connect
RF power meter to receiving antenna. Do not disturb the setup & location of
devices/panels until the completion of experiment. Keep the amplitude knob of signal
generator at maximum position, so as to transfer maximum strength of RF signal through
transmitting antenna.
3. Now switch ON both RF power meter & RF generator and measure the power meter
reading, this is the power reading of reference folded dipole antenna,
i.e. PRef(folded) = ---------------------- dBm.
= -41.3 dBm
4. Without disturbing the above setup, switch OFF both the RF power meter & generator.
Now replace the reference folded dipole antenna of transmitting side with AUT antenna
facing to folded dipole antenna of receiving side as shown;

AUT antenna,
whose gain to be
Co-axial
cable

Transmittin
g mast

Receiving
mast

RF Gen.

Folded
Dipole
Co-axial
cable
RF power

Distance (R) =

Fig. 6.3Setup for Measurement of PMeas

5. Now switch ON both the RF power meter & generator. And note down the power meter
reading, this is the measured power level of AUT antenna,
i.e. PMeas(HWSD) = ---------------------- dBm.
= -24.5 dBm
6. Substitute the measured values in above equation-1;
Dept of ECE,MITS

Analog And Digital Communication Systems


= GHWSD (in dBi) = 24 (in dBi)+ [PMeas(HWSD) (in dBm) PRef(folded) (in dBm)]
= ---------------------- dBi.
= 24 + [(-24.5)-(-41.3)]
= 40.8
Result:

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Analog And Digital Communication Systems

DIGITAL
COMMUNICATIONS

Dept of ECE,MITS

Analog And Digital Communication Systems


1.TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING
Aim:To verify the operation of Time Division Multiplexing
Apparatus:
1. Time Division Multiplexing and De Multiplexing Trainer
2. CRO
3. BNC Probes& Connecting Wires

Theory:
The Sampling Theorem provides the basis for transmitting the information contained in a
band limited message signal m(t)as a sequence of samples of m(t) taken uniform Data rate that
is usually slighter higher than the nyquist rate. An important feature of the sampling process is a
conservation of time. That is, the transmission the message samples engages the communication
channel s for only a fraction of the sampling interval on a periodic basis, and in this way some
of the time interval between adjacent samples is cleared for use by other independent message
source son a time shared basis. Wethere by obtain a time division multiplexing(TDM)system,
which enables the joint utilization of a common communication channel by a plurality of
independent message sources without mutual interference among them.
The TDM system is highly sensitive to dispersion in the common channel, that is, to
variations of amplitude with frequency or lack of proportionality of phase with frequency.
Accordingly, accurate equalization of both magnitude and phase response of a channel is
satisfactory operation of the system. Unlike FDM, TDM is immune to non linearitys in the
channel as a source of cross talk. There a son for this is, the different Message signals are not
simultaneously applied to the channel. The primary advantage of TDM is that several channels of
information can be transmitted simultaneously over a single cable.

In the circuit diagram the555 timers used as a clock generator. This timers a
highly stable device for generating Accurate time delays. In this circuit this time regenerates
clock signal, which is of 100 KHz frequency (approximately). This clock signal is connected
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Analog And Digital Communication Systems


to the74163IC; it is synchronous presentable binary counter. It divides the clock signal
frequency into three parts and those are used as selection lines for multiplexer and demultiplexer. Inbuilt signal generator is provided with sine, square and triangle outputs with
variable frequency. These three signals can be used as inputs to the multiplexer. IC 4051 is an
8 to 1 Analog Multiplexer. It selects one-of-eight signal Sources as a result of unique three bit
binary code at the select inputs. Again IC 4051 is wired as one to eight de-multiplexers.
Demux input receives the data source and transmits the data signals on different channels.

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Analog And Digital Communication Systems

Multiplexed output:

Demultiplexed Output:

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Analog And Digital Communication Systems


Observations:

S. No

Signals

Square wave

Sinusoidal wave

Triangular wave

Clock signal

Result:

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Amplitude(vp-p)Volts Time period (milli


seconds)

Analog And Digital Communication Systems


2. PULSE CODE MODULATION
AIM:To study the circuit of Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation.
Block Diagram:
(a)Transmitter
Source of
continuous time
message signal

Low pass
filter

sampler

Quantizer

Encoder

PCM Signal applied to


Channel input
(b)Transmission Path
Distorted PCM
Signal produced at

Regenerative Repeater

Regenerative Repeater

Regenerated

Channel output
signal

PCM

Applied
to the
receiver

(c) Receiver

Regeneration Circuit

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Decoder

Reconstruction filter

Destination

Analog And Digital Communication Systems


CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Procedure:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Switch on PHYSITECHs Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation.


Connect the variable DC O/P to the Analog I/P of modulation section.
Connect the clock O/P of bit clock generator to the clk I/P of modulation section.
By varying the variable DC O/P observe the PCM O/P on CRO.
Connect the AF output to Analog I/P of modulation section by removing variable DC O/P.
Connect the PCM O/P to PCM I/P of demodulation section.
Observe the DAC O/P at channel 1 of CRO and observe the demodulated O/P at channel 2 of
CRO.

MODEL WAVEFORMS:
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Analog And Digital Communication Systems

Result:

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Analog And Digital Communication Systems


3. DELTA MODULATION &DEMODULATION

Aim:To study the Delta modulation process by comparing the present signal with the
Previous signal of the given modulating signal.

APPARATUS:
1. Delta Modulation trainer

2. CRO

3. Connecting wires.

Theory: DPCM discussed in the previous lectures and PCM in general require that the receiver and
transmitter be completely synchronized. Synchronization in digital systems is necessary. There are two
types of synchronization in digital systems: frame (or symbol) synchronization and bit synchronization.
Bit synchronization is required to make sure that the start and end of a bit are known so that a sequence
of bits is counted properly. Frame synchronization is required to make sure that the different bits of a
sample are known (i.e., the most significant bit and the least significant bit of a sample are properly
identified to allow for the reconstruction of the sample). One bit of frame synchronization error is
sufficient to completely destroy the reconstructed signal. Bit synchronization problems will eventually
lead to frame synchronization problems

Procedure:
1. Switch on the experimental board

2. Connect the clock signal of Bit clock generator to the bit clock input of Delta
Modulator circuit.
3.Connect modulating signal of the modulating signal generator to the modulating signal
Input of the Delta modulator.
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Analog And Digital Communication Systems


4. Observe the modulating signal on Channel 1 of CRO

5. Observe the Delta modulator output on channel 2 of CRO

6. Connect the DM o/p of modulator to the DMI/P of Demodulator circuit.


7. Connect the clock signal to the Bit clock I/P of Demodulator circuit.

8. Observe the demodulated o/p on channel 2 of CRO.

9. Connect the demodulated o/p to the filter input of demodulator circuit.

10. Observe the demodulated o/p with filter on CRO.


Observations:
S. No

Waves
Modulating signal
Clock input
Delta modulation
Delta demodulator
Filter output

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Amplitude(volts vpp)

Time period

Analog And Digital Communication Systems

Dept of ECE,MITS

Analog And Digital Communication Systems

Result:

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Analog And Digital Communication Systems


4. FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING

Aim: To study frequency shift key (FSK) Modulator and Demodulator

Apparatus:
1 . FSK Modulator-FSK Demodulator.
2 . Function Generator.

3. CRO.
4. BNC Probes.

Theory:
In this method, the binary signal u (t) is used to generate a waveform.
V FSK (t) = A Cos (Wo U) t
The pulse sign is applied when v (t) = +V and minus sign is applied when V (t) =- V. Thus
the frequency of transmitted signal is high for 1 and low for a 0. A straight forward way to
detect an FSK signal is to use a suitable filter of sharp cut-off.

PROCEDURE :
1 . Connect the output of the carrier o/p provided on kit to the input of carrier i/p1 terminal.
2 .Also connects one of the data output to the data input terminal provided on kit.
3. Connect sin wave of certain frequency to the carrier i/p2 terminal.
4. Switch ON function generator and FSK modulation and demodulation Kit.
5. Observe the FSK o/p by connecting it to CRO. Thus FSK modulation can be achieved.
6. For FSK demodulation, connect FSK o/p terminal to the FSK i/p terminal of demodulator.
7. Observe the demodulated wave at demodulated o/p terminal by connecting it to CRO.

Dept of ECE,MITS

Analog And Digital Communication Systems


Model Waveforms:

Observations:
Data input:

Waves

Amplitude V(volts)

Duration of Bits (micro


seconds)
Bit 1

Data input-1
Data input-2
Data input-3
Data input-4
Carrier input:

Waves

Amplitude(Vp-p)
(volts)

Carrier input-1
Carrier input-2

Result:

Dept of ECE,MITS

Frequency(KHz)

Bit0

Analog And Digital Communication Systems


5. QPSK Modulation &Demodulation
Aim: To study the various steps involved in generating Quadrature phase shift keyed
signal at the modulator end and recovering the binary signal from the received QPSK
signal.
APPARATUS:

1. Quadrature Phase shift keying Trainer.


2. CRO
3. Connecting Wires
Theory:
QPSK Modulation:
In digital modulation techniques a set of basic functions are chosen for a particular
modulation scheme. Generally the basis functions are orthogonal to each other. Basis functions
can be derived using procedure. Once the basis function are chosen, any vector in the signal
space can be represented as a linear combination of the basis functions. In Quadrature Phase
Shift Keying (QPSK) two sinusoids (sin and cos) are taken as basis functions for modulation.
Modulation is achieved by varying the phase of the basis functions depending on the message
symbols. In QPSK, modulation is symbol based, where one symbol contains 2 bits. The
following equation outlines QPSK modulation technique.
si(t)=2EsTcos(2fct+(2n1)4),n=1,2,3,4
When n=1, the phase shift is 45 degrees. This is called pi/4 QPSK.The constellation diagram of
QPSK will show the constellation points lying on both x and y axes. This means that the QPSK
modulated signal will have an in-phase component (I) and also a quadrature component (Q). This
is because it has only two basis functions.
A QPSK modulator can be implemented as follows. A demultiplexer (or serial to parallel
converter) is used to separate odd and even bits from the generated information bits. Each of the
odd bits (quadrature arm) and even bits (in-phase arm) are converted to NRZ format in a parallel
manner. The signal on the in-phase arm is multiplied by cosine component and the signal on the

Dept of ECE,MITS

Analog And Digital Communication Systems


quadrature arm is multiplied by sine component. QPSK modulated signal is obtained by adding
the signal from both in-phase and quadrature arm.

QPSK Modulator
QPSK Demodulation:
For QPSK demodulator, a coherent demodulator is taken as an example. In coherent
detection technique the knowledge of the carrier frequency and phase must be known to the
receiver. This can be achieved by using a PLL (phase lock loop) at the receiver. A PLL
essentially locks to the incoming carrier frequency and tracks the variations in frequency and
phase. For the following simulation, a PLL is not used but instead we simple use the output of
the PLL. For demonstration purposes we simply assume that the carrier phase recovery is done
and simply use the generated reference frequencies at the receiver (cos(t)) and (sin(t)).
In the demodulator the received signal is multiplied by a reference frequency generators
(cos(t)) and (sin(t)) on separate arms (in-phase and quadrature arms). The multiplied output
on each arm is integrated over one bit period using an integrator. A threshold detector makes a
decision on each integrated bit based on a threshold. Finally the bits on the in-phase arm (even
bits) and on the quadrature arm (odd bits) are remapped to form detected information stream.
Detector for in-phase arm is shown below. For quadrature arm the below architecture remains
same but sin(t) basis function must be used instead.

Dept of ECE,MITS

Analog And Digital Communication Systems

QPSK Demodulator In-phase arm


Procedure:

1. Connect the QPSK Modulator-Demodulator to Mains card to AC source and switch on


the trainer.
2. Check the phase difference of the Quadri Phase carries generated at the outputs of FF1
and FF2.
3. Connect the output of TP1 to ch1 of oscilloscope and synchronize the scope with ch1 and +Ve
slope trigger.
4. Observe on ch2 the phase shifted carriers at TP2,TP3 and TP4 w.r.t. the carrier at TP1 .

5. Test the odd even bit separator for static bit levels The logic levels at socket S2 and S3 will
determine the odd bit and even bit in the data bit stream.
6. Test the selection of carriers w.r.t the bit pair generation

Observe on ch1 carrier fc 1800 at

TP1.
7. Connect on ch2 the o/p of QPSK Modulator and observe the switched carrier.
8. Connect QPSK O/P to the QPSK I/P and fc 1800 carrier at Clk input of Phase detector.

9. Connect bit pair detector output on CH2.We can observe small pulses corresponding to
Each bit pair combinations ie 11,10,01,& 00 at A1,B1,C1 &D1 respectively. These pulses
Indicate No. of particular bit pair combinations for the selected 8-bit word.
10. Connect bit pair detector to data regenerator i.e A1 to A2;B1 to B2; C1 to C2&D1 to D2 and
data Clk at Clk I/P.

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Analog And Digital Communication Systems


11.The output of data regenerator is the demodulated signal.

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Analog And Digital Communication Systems

Dept of ECE,MITS

Analog And Digital Communication Systems

12.

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Analog And Digital Communication Systems

Result:

Dept of ECE,MITS

Analog And Digital Communication Systems

6. DIFFERENTIAL PHASE SHIFT KEYING

Aim: To study the various steps involved in generating differential phase shift keyed signal
at the modulator end and recovering the binary signal from the received DPSK signal.
APPARATUS :
1. Differential Phase shift keying Trainer.
2. CRO
3. Connecting Wires.
Theory:
DPSK may be viewed as the non-coherent version of PSK. It eliminates the need
for a coherent reference signal at the receiver by combining two basic operations at the
transmitter:
1. Differential encoding of the input binary wave and
2. Phase-Shift Keying hence, the name, differential phase shift keying (DPSK).
In effect to send symbol 0, we phase advance the current signal wave-form by
1800, and to send symbol 1, we leave the phase of the current signal waveform
unchanged. The receiver is equipped with a storage capability, so that it can measure the
relative phase difference between the waveforms received during two successive bit
intervals. Provided that the unknown phase contained in the received wave varies
slowly, the phase difference between wave forms received in two successive bit
intervals will be independent of .
The block diagram of a DPSK transmitter is shown in fig.1 below. It consists, in
part of a logic network and a one-bit delay element interconnected so as to convert the
binary sequence {b k} into a differentially encoded sequence {d k}. This sequence is
amplitude level encoded and then used to modulate a carrier wave of frequency fc,
thereby producing the desired DPSK signal.
PROCEDURE:
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Analog And Digital Communication Systems


1. Switch on differential Phase shift Keying trainer.

2. Connect the carrier output of carrier generator to the 13th pin of CD4051(Analog mux) of
Modulator.
3. Connect the Bit clock output to the Bit clock input at pin3 of 7474 (8-bitconverter)of
modulator.
4. Connect the data output of data generator to the input of modulator circuit.
5. Connect channel 1 of CRO to the data generator.
6. Observe the differential data output at pin 2 of7474IC on channel-1 of CRO.
7. Observe the DPSK modulated output on channel-2 of CRO.
8. During demodulation, connect the DPSK modulated output to the DPSK I/P of
Demodulator.
9. Connect the Bit clock O/P to the Bitclock I/P of Demodulator and also connect the
Carrier O/P to the carrier I/P of demodulator.
10. Observe the demodulated data O/Pat demodulator.
11. The frequency of modulation data signal should be equal to the demodulated O/P.
Observations:
Carrier voltage=5.04volts; Carrier frequency=5.618 K Hz.
Bit clock voltage=

Differential output
corresponding to

5v

; carrier frequency=5.681 K Hz

Amplitude(volts)

Duration of Bits
(micro sec)
Bit1

Data input-1
Data input-2
Data input-3
Data input-4

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Bit0

Analog And Digital Communication Systems

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Analog And Digital Communication Systems

Result:

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