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Consultancy Report: Goji

(Coste, 1906)
Plant Details
Family:

Solanaceae (Nightshade)

Genus:

Lycium L

Species:

barbarum

Cultivar:
JB4,JBX (E.U.)

Crimson star, Ningxia #1 (U.S.), Phoenix Tears, type JB1, JB2,

Common Name:

Goji Berry, Wolf Berry, Boxthorn Fruit

Origin:

China: North Central and Western

Growth Form:

Woody Perennial, Deciduous

Propagation
Method:

Most common Seed, germination 7-14 days. Cuttings and suckers


produce consistent quality trees with fruit 1-2 years before seed
grown.
Note: Seed germination selected for this production due to quantity
required. Future production should be based on cuttings to ensure
consistent quality commercially viable trees with 2 nd growth season
fruiting and consistent growth rates. (Maughan & Black, 2015, Vang
& Kong, 2010) Access to sufficient stock plants would be possible if
established in house or in conjunction with a local fruit grower.

Treatment:

Soak seed for 24hrs in dechlorinated water, wrap seeds in coffee


filter paper, dip seeds in 1:9 bleach water, and allow to dry.

Structures:

Green house with heated benches

Containers:

Seeding tray

Medium:

Perlite, Coir 1:1

Temperature:
Light:

20degC +/- 2degC


8hrs shaded

Growing on and /or Flowering


Medium:

Potting compost Coir, Sand, Deco Bark 1:1:8, avoid wood chips, as
tannins cause issues with sprouting roots

Light:

Harden to full sun, preferably 8 hrs per day, min 80% sun

Temperature:

Soil min. 10deg C

Irrigation:

As needed, allow drainage between watering to prevent damping


off

Nutrition:

Osmocote Plus Organics Veg, Tomato & Herb NPK 13.1:2.4:4, 6mth
release

Support:

Staking/trellis to support early growth.

Containers:

7.5cm/400mL & 15cm deep/2000mL

Other:

Similar growth requirements and conditions as Tomatoes.

Growth Regulation
Physical:

Prune and stake to develop shrub shape

Market Information
Wholesale:
Retail:

$600- 100x seedling


Approx. $90-10x seedling, $10.00 - 14.90- 1 cutting base

Future Trends:
Potential of Australia grown Goji plants of commercial crops are
unknown due to it being such a new market and recent introduction.
Possibilities in future crop industry developments for medicinal and
culinary purposes (Adair, 2013), but labour costs currently have too
much effect on business viability (Beaumont & Beaumont, n.d.).

Production Schedule: Goji Berry


Nursery Requirements
Nursery Facilities required

Greenhouse with Mist with heated grow bench


(potted)
Greenhouse with Mist with heated grow bench

Approx
. Area
9.6m2

Date
From
Jul 2016

29m2

Oct

Date To
Apr
2016
Nov

(tube)
Poly Tunnel

49m2

Poly Tunnel

147m2

Outdoor growing area with O/H sprinklers

245m2

2016
Aug
2016
Nov
2016
Oct
2016

2016
Oct
2016
Nov
2016
Jan
2017

Materials
Containers
Type

Grow bed media at 5cm depth

7.5cm tube: 400ml*

15cm Round deep

Number

37m2
22,000
5500

Date
Require
d
Jul
2016
Apr
2016
Apr
2016

*16,500 tube stock & 5500 potted 1st transplant.


Media
Type and Ratio

Volume
Required

Date
Require
d
1 6.5-8.6pH dechlorinated water for 24hr
5L
Jul 2016
2 1:9 Bleach water rinse
2L
Jul 2016
3 Perlite, Coir 1:1 pH5.5
1.85m3
Jul 2016
4 Bark:Compost:Sand 8:1:1 & Lime#(1) AFP 15-20% pH
20m3
Aug
6.5-8.6*##
2016
# Lime: approx. 100g/m3 to achieve approx. pH5.5 (confirm before application), *Fine
tune ratio to suit AFP of approx. 10-20%, optimal pH range of 8.2-8.6 (Beaumont &
Beaumont, n.d., Bio Tree LTD, 2016), ## Osmocote 0.5kg/1m3.
Media Ingredients

Volume
Required
1m3
1m3
10kg

Date
Required
Jul 2016
Jul 2016
Aug 2016

Perlite
Coir
2 Osmocote Plus Organics Veg, Tomato & Herb NPK
13.1:2.4:4 ** 6mth release
3 Sharp Sand Course (1.0-3.0mm)
2m3
Aug 2016
4 Compost Soil (min. 6mths mature)(1)#
2m3
Aug 2016
5 Composted Pine Bark *
16m3
Aug 2016
6 Bleach
30mL
Jul 2016
7 Lime
2kg
Aug 2016
8 Dechlorinated water
7L
# If compost too costly or quality supply unavailable replace with composted bark, *
min. few weeks matured to assist in pathogen suppression (Handreck & Black, 2010),
**Includes calcium for blossom end rot prevention (Scotts Australia, 2016).

Other Consumables
Details
1
2
3
4
5
6

8.5pH Demineralised water (24hr cutting soak)


Stakes 1m bamboo or equivalent
Stake ties
Grease pencils White (container marking of plant
variety) packs of 72
Pesticides and herbicides as needed (re: Potential
diseases & pests)
Identification tags **

Quantit
y
7L
5,500
5,500
3

Date
Required
Jul 2016
Nov 2016
Nov 2016
Aug 2016

5,000

Jan 2017

Potential diseases and pests (1)*


Problem
Goji gall mite
(Aceria kuko),
aphids and
spider mites

Identification
Extremely small, difficult to see
with naked eye. Small bead-like
galls form on leaves. They are
yellow/green on the bottom and
reddish on top. Each gall holds
large numbers of mites.

Control
Sulphur, insecticidal soap, or
horticultural oil (0.5% solution)
can be used to control. None of
these should be used when
temperatures will be above 32
C within 4 hours of spraying. A
spray application of 2%
horticultural oil, either in
Autumn (just before leaves
drop) or in the spring (just as
leaves emerge) will be most
effective.
Powdery
Fungal disease that forms white
Prune to improve air circulation
mildew
patches of powder on leaves and and minimize wet foliage.
(Sphaerotheca
stems.
Horticultural oils can help
spp.)
prevent further spreading once
present in field.
Calcium deficiency related abiotic Control by careful irrigation to
Blossom end rot
disorder resulting in a waterminimize extreme fluctuations
soaked spot on the end of fruit.
in soil moisture (particularly
during bloom and fruit sizing).
(1) (Maughan & Black, 2015, "Specialty Cropportunities: Goji Berry", 2016),*For a list of
Phytophagous organisms associated with Lycium and distribution, refer to African
Boxthorn feasibility of biological control (Adair, 2013)
Irrigation
Transplant to 7.5cm tube use brief and frequent irrigation for first few days, keeping
leaves moist, but no waterlogging. Subsequent watering: 1L per 7.5cm tube/pot and
4.5L per 15cm pot per week during hot periods (Vang & Kong, 2010), adjust for other
periods to ensure no waterlogging. Media AFP and water holding capacity closely tied to
a careful observation irrigation program (Handreck & Black, 2010).
.

Production Schedule Calendar


Jun 2016

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Sales Target
Seed
Propagation
Prick to
7.5cm pots*
Greenhouse
Pot to
15cm**

Early
6,000

Mid
5,500
From Late

Nov

Dec
5,000

To Mid
Mid - Late

Sun harden
Pest/Disease
Inspection
Stake &
Prune#
Cull
approx.10%
Saleable

5,000

*Once seedlings have developed 2nd set of leaves (Beaumont & Beaumont, n.d.).**Pot out once 150mm high. #Prune to 60cm and
stake.

Production Schedule Calendar


Jun 2016

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Sales Target
Seed
Propagation
Prick to 7.5
cm tubes*

Early
18,000

Jan 2017
15,000

Mid
16,500

Sun harden
Pest/Disease
Inspection
Prune**
Cull approx.
10%
Saleable

Late

15,000

* Once seedlings have developed 2nd set of leaves (Beaumont & Beaumont, n.d.). **Prune to approx. 30cm if needed for consistency.
Seedling growth expected approx. 5-7cm in 10 weeks, U.K. and U.S. growth rates of 61cm in first month once potted out and in
greenhouse, 2.1m in first growth season in field (Beaumont & Beaumont, n.d., Maughan & Black, 2015, Vang & Kong, 2010).

References:
Adair, R. (2013). Feasibility of biological control of African Boxthorn Lycium
ferocissimum. Bittern Victoria: Australis Biological.
Beaumont, M. & Beaumont, P. Goji, The fact, the myth and the fiction. How we grow the
berry. Beauticians Australia.
Bio Tree LTD,. (2016). ESTABLISHING GOJI BERRY PLANTATION (1st ed.). Iliensko: Bio
Tree LTD. Retrieved from http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?
q=cache:http://paulowniatrees.eu/eng/wpcontent/uploads/2014/02/Growing_GojiEN.pdf&gws_rd=cr&ei=zw01V_6gJsjB0gSziIawCw
Coste, H. (1906). Flore descriptive. Retrieved from
http://luirig.altervista.org/schedenam/fnam.php?taxon=Lycium+barbarum
Demchak, K. (2014). Goji Berry Culture. Penn State Extension. Retrieved from
http://extension.psu.edu/plants/tree-fruit/news/2014/goji-berry-culture
Goji Berries. (2016). The Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 12 May 2016, from
https://www.rhs.org.uk/advice/profile?PID=581
Handreck, K. & Black, N. (2010). Growing media for ornamental plants and turf (4th
ed.). Sydney, NSW, Australia: University of New South Wales Press.
Kearney, P. (2016). Growing Goji Berries. Liveability. Retrieved 14 May 2016, from
http://www.liveability.com.au/liveabilityguides/growing-superfoods-organicgarden-goji-berries/
Maughan, T. & Black, B. (2015). Goji in the Garden (1st ed.). Utah State University.
Retrieved from
http://extension.usu.edu/files/publications/publication/Horticulture_Fruit_201505pr.pdf
Pfaf,. (2016). Lycium barbarum Goji, Box Thorn, Matrimony vine PFAF Plant Database.
Pfaf.org; Plants For A Future. Retrieved 12 May 2016, from
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Lycium+barbarum
Potting mixes: Department of Agriculture and Food. (2015). Agric.wa.gov.au. Retrieved
3 June 2016, from https://www.agric.wa.gov.au/nursery-cutflowers/potting-mixes
Scotts Australia,. (2016). Osmocote Plus Organics Vegetable, Tomato & Herb | Scotts
Australia. Scottsaustralia.com.au. Retrieved 4 June 2016, from
https://www.scottsaustralia.com.au/osmocote/osmocote-plus-organics/osmocoteplus-organics-vegetable-tomato-herb/
Seed Harvest & Planting. (2016). GojiTrees, LLC. Retrieved 13 May 2016, from
http://www.gojitrees.com/seedharvestplanting.htm
Specialty Cropportunities: Goji Berry. (2016). Omafra.gov.on.ca. Retrieved 13 May
2016, from http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/CropOp/en/spec_fruit/berries/goji.html
Vang, K. & Kong, C. (2010). Greenbook, Growing the Goji Berry in Minnesota. Harris:
Minnesota Department of Agriculture,.