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1. Adenosine triphosphate is the energy currency of the cell, the main source of
chemical energy of cell metabolism.
2. ATP serves as a temporary energy-carrying molecule, which transfers small
amounts of energy to parts of the cell that needs energy
3. ATP can be formed during the following processes 1. Substrate-level
phosphorylation 2. Oxidative phosphorylation 3. Photophosphorylation
4. ATP consists of adenine molecule, a ribose sugar, and 3 phosphate groups
condensed together.
Significance of ATP

ATP is a universal energy carrier

Mobile energy carrier
Easily formed
Source of energy for many energy-requiring processes

Cell respiration
1. Process whereby organic compounds are oxidized within the cells to release
chemical energy that is then stored in the form of ATP
2. C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6H2O + 6CO2 + Energy
3. Substrate-level phosphorylation
4. Oxidative phosphorylation
Oxidation of glucose

Link pathway
Krebs cycle
Oxidative phosphorylation

1. Phosphorylation of 6c sugar to raise energy level
2. Splitting of 6C phosphorylated sugar into 2 glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, a 3C
3. Oxidation of 2 GALP to 2 pyruvate with the formation of ATP and reduced NAD
4. 2 ATP are utilized to energize the glucose molecule at the beginning of
5. 4 ATP are generated per glucose molecule via substrate-level phosphorylation
6. A net synthesis of 2 ATP per molecule at the end of glycolysis
7. 2 reduced NAD are generated from 2 NAD molecule
8. 2 molecules of pyruvate are produced from 1 glucose molecule
1. Aerobic respiration (complete oxidation of pyruvate, releasing a lot of energy)
2. Anaerobic respiration (Incomplete oxidation, no energy released, purpose is
to regenerate NAD)

Link pathway
1. Conversion of 1 pyruvate to 1 acetyl CoA takes place with the loss of 1 CO2
and the generation of 1 NADH and 1 H+ from 1 NAD molecule. This is
oxidative decarboxylation
2. First molecule of CO2 in respiration is produced in the link pathway
3. The reduced NAD formed will subsequently enter the electron transport chain
for the synthesis of ATP
4. The acetyl CoA produced will enter Krebs cycle for further oxidation
Krebs cycle
1. Each glucose molecule gives 2 molecules of pyruvate which in turn gives 2
molecule of acetyl CoA that enters the Krebs cycle
2. Complete oxidation of each acetyl CoA during one turn of krebs cycle
produces 2 molecules of CO2, 3 NAD, 1 reduced FAD, 1 ATP
Oxidative phosphorylation
1. Electron transport
2. Chemiosmosis
ATP generation via ATP synthase
1. ATP synthase is a multi-subunit complex with four main parts, each made up
of multiple polypeptides.
2. Proton gradient produced when (1) Inner mitochondrial membrane is intact
and impermeable to protons (2) H ions pumped into the intermembrane
space using energy released by electrons as they are passed down the ETC
(3) H ions concentration increases in the intermembrane space, creating a
proton gradient (4) Since inner membrane is impermeable to protons, H ions
is only able to move from intermembrane space back into matrix via protein
channels present on the inner mitochondrial membrane (5) As H ions flow
back into matrix, ATP synthase forms ATP by harnessing proton motive force
to phosphorylate ADP via chemiosmosis.