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# ME513 Homework 6

Problem 1
a) First the sprung mass and the front and the rear axle loads are calculated.
W_s= 16451N
W_f=9998N
W_r=7856N
Then the sprung mass center of gravity position is calculated.
a*=0.432m
b*=0.568m
h*=0.506m
Tilting moment and sum of roll stiffnesss are calculated.
K=8780Nm
We calculate the roll angle from the formula:

=
= .

b) Backwards calculation is applied and the antiroll bar stiffness is calculated from the
above formula as:
c) Steady state roll moment is calculated from the formula:

= =

Problem 2
Input

a)

b)

c)

The lateral acceleration values are just above the max assumption limit 0.3g for a short period
only, we can say that the bicycle model is valid considering this values.

d)

Tire slip angle values for both rear and front tires are in the linear assumption range 0-4
degrees. So the validity of the bicycle model correct.
Front tire slip angle is always greater than the rear one so the handling behavior of the car can
be said as UNDERSTEER.

e)

In the first question reasonable roll angle 3.5 degrees is given as example to solve. It can be
concluded that the roll angle values in our case are reasonable and good values for a standard
vehicle.

f)

MATLAB CODE
%%ME 513 HW6
%Mmn YILDIZ 2193670
%a------------------------------------------------------------clear all;
clc;
W=1820;
W_uf=67;
W_ur=76;
w_base=2.427;
h_c=0.532;
r_t=0.324;
k_f=16180;
k_r=22420;
dist_f=0.56;
dist_r=0.44;
m=0.106;
n=0.106;
W_s=(W-W_uf-W_ur)*9.81
W_f=W*9.81*dist_f
W_r=W*9.81*dist_r
a_s=(W_r-W_ur*9.81)/W_s
b_s=(W_f-W_uf*9.81)/W_s
hs=(h_c*W*9.81-r_t*(W_uf+W_ur)*9.81)/W_s
h_star=hs-((a_s*n+b_s*m)/w_base)
K_i=W_s*h_star+(W_uf*0.324+W_ur*0.324)*9.81
f1=0.235;
f2=0.310;
b=3.59;
d=0.665;
a=3.69;
Cjf=2*(b*d/a)^2*(f1/f2)^2*k_f;
Cjr=2*(b*d/a)^2*(f1/f2)^2*k_r;
Cj=Cjr+Cjf
roll=(K_i*0.5)/(Cj-W_s*h_star)*180/pi

%b-----------------------------roll2=3.5;
C_barr=(K_i*0.5)/(roll2/180*pi)+W_s*h_star-Cj;
double(C_barr)
%c-------------------------------umps=90/3.6;
r=185;
M_roll=h_star*W_s*(umps^2/r/9.81)

## %%Problem 2 ME513 HW6

%----------------------------------------------------------clc;
clear all;
m=1180;

I_z=2040;
a=1.11;
kroll=48000;
C_f=-48500;
m_s=875;
I_x=336;
b=1.48;
croll=5500;
C_r=-74550;
h_s=0.56;
U=90/3.6;
D_1=[];
for t=0:0.05:10
deldat=2*sin(pi*(t)/(5)*2);
deldat(t<0)=0;
deldat(t>5)=0;
D_1=[D_1 deldat];
end
deltar=D_1.*pi/180;
plot(0:0.05:10,D_1)
xlabel('Time (s)','fontsize',12,'fontweight','b')
ylabel('Steering angle (deg)','fontsize',12,'fontweight','b')
M=[m 0 m_s*h_s 0;0 I_z 0 0 ; m_s*h_s 0 I_x 0; 0 0 0 1];
A_i=[(C_f+C_r)/U (a*C_f-b*C_r)/U-m*U 0 0;(a*C_f-b*C_r)/U
(a^2*C_f+b^2*C_r)/U....
0 0; 0 -m_s*h_s*U -croll m_s*9.81*h_s-kroll;0 0 1 0];
B_i=[-C_f;-a*C_f;0;0];
A=inv(M)*A_i;
B=inv(M)*B_i;
C=eye(4);
D=[0;0;0;0];
sys=ss(A,B,C,D);
[x,T]=lsim(sys,deltar,0:0.05:10);
v=x(:,1);
ss=x(:,1)/U;
r=x(:,2);
figure(2)
plot(0:0.05:10,ss,'linewidth',2)
xlabel('Time (s)','fontsize',12,'fontweight','b')
ylabel('Vehicle Side Slip Angle (^o)','fontsize',12,'fontweight','b')
title('Vehicle Side Slip Angle (^o)','fontsize',12,'fontweight','b')
grid on
figure(3)
plot(0:0.05:10,r/pi*180,'linewidth',2)
xlabel('Time (s)','fontsize',12,'fontweight','b')
ylabel('Yaw Velocity (^o/s)','fontsize',12,'fontweight','b')
title('Yaw Velocity vs Time','fontsize',12,'fontweight','b')
grid on
figure(4)
lat=A*x'+B*deltar;
g=(lat(1,:)+U*r')/9.81;
plot(0:0.05:10,g,'linewidth',2)
xlabel('Time(s)','fontsize',12,'fontweight','b')
ylabel('Lateral Acceleration (g)','fontsize',12,'fontweight','b')
title('Lateral Acceleration vs Time','fontsize',12,'fontweight','b')
grid on
figure(5)

alfaf=(v+a*r)/U-deltar';
alfar=(v-b*r)/U;
plot(0:0.05:10,alfaf/pi*180,'b',0:0.05:10,alfar/pi*180,...
'r--','linewidth',2)
legend('Front','Rear','Location','NorthWest')
xlabel('Time (s)','fontsize',12,'fontweight','b')
ylabel('Tire Slip Angles (^o)','fontsize',12,'fontweight','b')
title('Tire Slip Angles vs Time','fontsize',12,'fontweight','b')
grid on
fi=x(:,4)*180/pi;
figure(6)
plot(0:0.05:10,fi,'linewidth',2)
xlabel('Time(s)','fontsize',12,'fontweight','b')
ylabel('Roll Angle (^o)','fontsize',12,'fontweight','b')
title('Roll Angle (^o) vs Time','fontsize',12,'fontweight','b')
grid on
figure(7)
lamda = cumtrapz(r)*0.01;
xdot = U*cos(lamda)-v.*sin(lamda);
ydot = v.*cos(lamda)+ U*sin(lamda);
xt = cumtrapz(xdot)*0.01;
yt = cumtrapz(ydot)*0.01;
plot(xt,yt,'b-','linewidth',2)
axis ij
xlabel('X [m]','fontsize',12,'fontweight','b')
ylabel('Y [m]','fontsize',12,'fontweight','b')
title('Steering Trajectory','fontsize',12,'fontweight','b')
grid on